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Criteria for selection of linen:

Criteria which should be kept in mind while selecting linen is as follows:

STRENGTH

The strength of material will depend on the type of fiber used. The type of weave
which is used in forming of the fabric also determines the strength of the fabric.
The artificial or synthetic fiber like polyester and acrylic are considered to have
more strength than the natural one like cotton and wool. The selvedge also
provided strength to the fabric.

COMFORT

Fabric should be absorbent when it comes in contact of the body. Cotton material
has very high absorbency compared to synthetics. The linen should have softness
and light in weight.

LAUNDERING

Linen when washed can be easy processed in less time. Synthetic material takes
less time and requires lower temperature and less number of wash cycles than
natural fabric. Cotton material develop large amount of creases and takes more
time to get ironed.

COLOUR

Colour adds appeal to the particular area but we should be keeping in mind that the
colour should not fade, should have a good life span at the same time. Coloured
fabric should be checked for dye Stability. Dark coloured fabrics show dust and
lighter marks, whereas light coloured ones show dirt and stains more prominently.
The colour chosen must also be easily available for future use or replacement.

PATTERN AND TEXTURE

Pattern should be such that it can hide marks. Mottled pattern can hide more marks
.It should also suit the theme of that area also.
SHRINKAGE

Synthetics do not shrink, whereas natural fibers shrink about 6-8 percent unless
they are treated. Wool loses its shape if not carefully laundered.

FLAME RETARDANCY

Wool is naturally flame retardant, synthetic fabric used which is fire retardant is
known as

Teklan. Flame retardant fabric can be used for drapery, upholstery, and carpets.

THERMAL INSULATION

The difference between two layers and the warmth of a fabric used in blankets is
determined by its thermal insulation properties, which is measured in units called
‘togs’. This must be checked for blankets. Curtains also help in maintaining the
temperature of a room to some extent.

Textile

The word textile is derived from the Latin term “texture” for woven fabrics. Today,
the terms refers to and includes all fabrics, made of all kinds of yarns and fibers.
‘Cloth’ is a general term used for a fabric or textile. A fibre is the basic unit from
which any fabric is made. Fibres may be classified staple or filament. Staple fibers
are short-length fibers. Filament fibers are long and often continuous for a length
of yarn.

Yarns are threads made by twisting together several staple


fibers or filament fibers. It is yarn which is used for weaving textiles. The process
of making a yarn from fibre is called spinning. The yarns running lengthwise
through a fabric are called warp yarns or ‘ends’ and the crosswise yarns in a fabric
are called weft yarns or ‘picks’. The term thread count is used to indicate the
number of wrap ends and weft picks per unit of measure of a fabric.
Definition of Yarns

Fabrics made out of different fibres are available in the market. “The term Yarn
can be defined as ‘a continuous strand made of textile filaments or materials, in
form suitable for weaving, knitting, and the other methods of fabric construction”.
The common fibres that are used for fabrics are obtained from different sources.
There are few fibres which are naturally available. Still some fibres are synthesised
by using chemicals and are known as synthetic fibres eg. Nylon polyester and
acrylic fibres. Some fibres are manufactured by using raw material from nature and
they are termed as man-made fibres. Eg: Rayon, Polynosic, azlon etc.

Classification of textile fibres based on Source


Fibres

Natural Manmade

Vegetable Animal Mineral

Eg: Cotton, Eg: Wool, Eg: Asbestos


Linen, Jute, and Silk, Mohair, Metallic
sisal Angora Regenerated
Eg: Aluminium, Silver,
Eg: Viscose rayon, Gold
acetate rayon

Synthetic

Eg: Polyester, acrylic.

Vegetable fibres or cellulosic fibres


The fibres that are derived from plants are called vegetable fibres. The basic
material of all plant life is cellulose. Cellulose is made up of elements like carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen. These cellulose fibres have certain common properties like
low resilience, high density, and good conductor of heat. They are highly absorbent
and are resistant to high temperature. Cotton flax, jute, ramie are some of the
examples of vegetable fibres.

Animal fibres

The fibres which are obtained from animals are called animal fibres. Wool and silk
are common examples of animal fibres. They are made up of protein molecules.
The basic elements in the protein molecules are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and
nitrogen. Animal fibres have high resiliency but weak when wet because they are
bad conductors of heat.

Mineral fibres

They are the inorganic materials shaped in to fibres and are mainly used in the fire
proof fabrics. Asbestos is the example of mineral fibre. Mineral fibres are fire
proof, resistant to acids and are used for industrial purposes.

Manmade fibres

These refer to those fibres that are not naturally present in nature and are made
artificially by man. Manmade fibres have high strength, strong when wet low
moisture absorption characteristics. Examples of manmade fibres are viscose
rayon, acetate rayon, nylon, polyester etc. Depending on raw material chosen for
making of the fibres they are classified as cellulosic fibres, protein fibres and
synthetic fibres.

Weaves:

A “weave” can be defined as the system of interlacing wrap and weft threads in
order to produce a textile fabric. The appearance and characteristics of fabrics
depend not only on the type of fibre and yarn used, but also on the type of weave.
Thread count:
The total number of warps and wefts in 1square inch of fabric. The fabric is
considered to be of good quality linen if its thread count is above 150. The
balance between warp and weft is also important. The warp should be higher and
weft should be no more than ten less. This is required for stretch recovery when
ironing task is performed on the fabric.

IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE CONDSIDERED FOR LINEN PURCHASE

1. Estimate for the purchase of linen should be accurate so that the items are not purchased in excess.
2. Accurate specifications must be provided when placing orders, especially with sizes.
3. Take samples of linen and test for amount of ‘dressing’ that falls out from the fabric when rubbed
together.
4. Also check the samples for laundering effects like shrinkage, loss of shape, colour.
5. Large orders should be marked or monogrammed by the supplier.
6. The stitching of material should be strong with firm smooth weave and strong selvedge.
7. Orders should be placed well in advance so that specifications may be met with the requirement.
8. Storage space should be checked foe quantity order.
9. A Purchase Index Card must be maintained for every linen item in stock.
10. A good rapport with the supplier is essential with regard to credit facilities.
11. Mode of transport should be checked with the supplier.\
12. In case the quality of the linen is not accurate, proper dealing of replacement of linen with no extra
payment should be the part of contract.
13. Select a supplier on the same level as your establishment preferably with a recommendation.
Hotel Bed Linen Standard Size
Bed Sheets Duet Cover Mattress Protector Flat Sheets

Inch= 66'' X 104'' Inch= 35.83" X 46.


Inch=55" X 79" Inch= 71 X 108"
45"
Feet= 5.5 X 8.66
Twin Feet= 4.5 X 6.5 Feet= 3.54 X 9.02
Feet= 2.98 X 6.17
Cm= 167.76 X
Cm=140 X 200 Cm= 180 X 275
264.16 Cm= 91 X 188

Inch= 81" X 104"


Inch=79" X 79" Inch= 53.94 X 74.01" Inch= 91 X 108"
Feet= 6.75 X 8.66
Double Feet= 6.5 X 6.5 Feet= 4.49 X 6.16 Feet= 7.54 X 9.02
Cm= 205.74 X
Cm=200 X 200 Cm= 137 X 188 Cm= 230 X 275"
264.16

Inch= 90" X 110" Inch= 83" X 83" Inch= 60.23 X 79.92" Inch= 92 X 108"
Queen Feet= 7.5 X 9.16 Feet= 6.91 X 6.91 Feet= 5.01 X 6.66 Feet= 8.75 X 9.15
Cm= 228.6 X 279.4 Cm= 210 X 210 Cm= 153 X 203 Cm= 267 X 279

Inch= 108" X 110" Inch=89" X 87" Inch= 72.04 X 79.92" Inch= 108 X 108"
King Feet= 9 X 9.16 Feet= 7.41 X 7.41 Feet= 6.00 X 6.67 Feet= 9.0 X 9.0
Cm= 274.34 X 279.4 Cm= 225 X 220 Cm= 183 X 203 Cm= 275 X 275

Inch= 180" X 200" Inch= 102" X 87" Inch= 60.23 X 79.93" Inch= 120 X 108"
Super
Feet= 15 X 16.66 Feet= 8.5 X 7.41 Feet= 5.0 X 6.6 Feet= 10.00 X 9.0
King
Cm= 457.2 X 508 Cm= 260 X 220 Cm= 153 X 203 Cm= 305 X 275
Inch= 200" X 200" Inch= 114" X 92" Inch= 78.74 X 78.74" Inch= 126 X 114"
Emperor Feet= 16.66 X 16.66 Feet= 9.5 X 7.6 Feet= 6.56 X 6.56 Feet= 10.94 X 9.51
Cm= 508 X 508 Cm=290 X 235 Cm= 200 X 200 Cm= 320 X 290

Activities of the Linen Room


There are many activities which is followed in the linen room. When all of them
are addressed carefully the linen section becomes efficient.

1. COLLECTION

This part deals with collecting soiled linen from different areas like pantry with the
help of linen chute, canvas bags, linen trolleys, and carts. This is an important
activity especially when laundry is on contract. Guest linen or laundry is also
collected from respective guest rooms followed by billing and marking.

2. SORTING AND COUNTING

Sorting is carried out to make the laundry process easy and simple. Linen is sorted
according to the size, texture, stains and colour. Linen is counted in order to make
a record so that issuing to departments may be accurate and it is possible to tally
the exchange of linen between the linen room and the laundry and a basis for
billing requirements.

3. PACKAGING

Linen articles are packed in linen sacks to prevent any kind of damage. Those linen
articles who needs extra attention like heavily soiled or stain, requires mending
process can be segregated indifferent colour coded sacks.

4. CHECKING AND INSPECTION

Checking the quantity to ensure that the amount of fresh linen issued in the
exchange tallies with the amount of soiled linen articles received. Inspection of the
quality wash i.e. stains and dirt removed, no damages, no loss of shape or colour,
no blue streaks or patch from the optical brightener, properly ironed.
5. DESPATCH

This is mostly applicable to hotels which have off –premises laundry .The time for
dispatches usually fixed so that fresh linen can also be received on time and it does
not hamper servicing of rooms or linen which is required in restaurants ,spa etc.

6. STORAGE

The linen article which is watched and inspected needs to stored properly if it is
not be used immediately or becomes the part of circulation. It needs to store in dry
conditions where humidity level is not high and at a very hygienic place, so that
the linen article does not carry any foul or musty smell.

7. DISTRIBUTION

The linen which is laundered is distributed to different areas of need at a stipulated


time ,for the smooth functioning of operations.

8. MONOGRAMMING

Linen which belongs to the hotel needs to be monogrammed so that it is not


misplaced and extra caution is given to maintain the linen.

9. REPAIRS AND ALTERS

The maintenance of the linen requires constant repairs and alteration according to
the requirement which is offered by the linen room.

10. STOCKTAKING AND RECORD

Many records are entered on a day to day basis for the exchange of linen between
the linen room, laundry and floors/departments. Purchase records are essential and
records of condemned linen and makeovers are usually maintained. Periodical
stocking is carried outland the annual stocktaking is recorded in the stock register,
thereby providing the value of linen as assets.

11. SECURITY:

It is important that the access to the linen is restricted so as to prevent misuse and
pilferage. Also linen is prone to fire breakouts so precautionary measures are taken
to prevent this and the linen room is strictly a non-smoking area,
Sample layout of a linen Sample layout of a linen
room in a 100-room hotel room in a large hotel

LINEN ROOM EQUIPMENT AND AREA REQUIREMENT


• Linen Supervisor’s desk
• Shelves for storage of linen
• Cupboard
• Hanging area
• Store room
• Drop counter for exchange of linen
• Linen Trolley
• Soiled Linen Hamper
• Telephone and computer
• Washbasin
• Drying Rack
• Iron and Iron Board
• Carrying baskets
• Work tables (Table top in contrast to white)
• Areas for receiving fresh linen

Linen control

Linen Control this is carried out in four phases:


 Routine checking of linen for appearance and hygiene standards.
 Quantity control of the daily flow of linen stock/linen exchange procedure
 Stocktaking or physical inventory of linen
 Proper documentation of line through the master linen inventory control
sheet.

Routine checking of linen for appearance & hygiene standards.


o The executive housekeeper must emphasize the inspection of fresh and
soiled linen not only by linen room staff along with other staff handling
linen.
o Stringent checking should be carried out by the linen room staff.
o In an OPL, the function of inspecting linen may be carried out by the
laundry staff.
o If the laundry is contracted out, the onus falls on the linen room staff.
o Spot checking of linen should be carried out by supervisor in areas.
o If the inspection of all articles is carried out thoroughly, a high standard of
linen quality is maintained and the chance of a guest finding a torn or stained
article in minimal.
Quantity control of the daily flow of linen stock/linen exchange procedure
 It is the quantity control of linen sent from the floors & departments to the
linen room for the dispatch to the laundry.
 To maintain an initial record of par stock of linen in each department, on
each floor an indent is to be made by floor supervisor & the department in
charge.
 The original copy of the indent is given to the linen room while the duplicate
remains on the floor or with the concerned department.
 If the extra linen items issued to the floor or department is returned,
signature of linen room supervisor is obtained on the duplicate copy.
Control of linen in the linen room is carried out as following
o The daily supervision of the work done by the linen room attendants.
o Using linen room entry book: the linen room entry book contains daily.
Records of the soiled linen brought to the linen room from various floors and
department as well as the amount of soiled linen sent to the laundry.
o There is no duplicate records and is used as a reference
o It is signed and maintained by the linen room supervisor and helps in
tracking the day to day movement of linen.
o It is a cross checking for the amount received against dispatched to the
laundry.

Stocktaking/Physical Inventory
 Stocktaking of linen is a physical verification, by counting, of the stocks of
all linen items at all points in the cycle
 It is carried out at periodic intervals or at the time of ‘closing of books’ for
evaluation purposes.
 Accurate recording of entries to evaluate the overages & shortages
 It is conducted after 3 months & is known as ‘quarterly inventory’
 While counting, all the items-including discards-are segregated & grouped.
 Items in circulation and items kept in store are counted up separately and
the totals are added together
 The discard are stamped ‘condemned’ and set aside.
 Now the counted total should tally the last inventory figure plus the issued
items received after that.
 The inventory should be conducted in presence of housekeeper where the
stocktaking for uniforms, room linen & restaurant linen being done on
separate days.

Proper Documentation of Linen


o The master inventory control sheet helps the executive housekeeper to
analyze the result of physical inventory.
o Linen loss can be accurately be calculated by subtracting the counted total
for each linen article from the expected quantity.
o Linen loss is the difference from the total obtained during the previous
inventory.
o If the difference between the actual and the expected is high, then further
investigation is required.
o The physical does not reveals, why these losses have occurred.
o The executive housekeeper should make sure that the par levels are brought
back to the level originally established for each linen item.
o The par number for each item are recorded.
o Thus this gives a clear picture of linen discarded, the linen lost, the amount
that needs to be ordered and the amount that has been ordered.
o The F&B table linen is also handled as the room linen.

Purchase of Linen

Purchase of linen is usually done by the purchase department and the requirement
is made by the housekeeping department. There are mainly three areas which
should be looked properly.

1. QUANTITY
2. QUALITY
3. SIZE

1. QUANTITY: The quantity of linen would depend on many factors as follows:


 Size of the hotel or property
 Standard the hotel wants to maintain for the guest
 Occupancy percentage of the hotel
 In-house or contracted laundry facility
 Number of staff employed.
 Storage space

Generally every hotel should keep three set of linen to complete one cycle of
operations.
Linen is a type of non-recycled inventory and is measured with two references:-

a) PAR-It refers to standard quantity or number of each inventoried item that must
be on hand to support daily, routine housekeeping operations. The inventory levels
for recycled items are measured in terms of a par number.

b) PAR NUMBER-It is a multiple of the standard quantity of a particular inventory


item that must be on hand to support day to day housekeeping functions.

QUALITY
The purchase of the linen should have value for money and the best quality linen
should to made available within the given budget and following factors to looked
into:

 Selection of correct or good quality fabric.


 Thread count of the yarn.

Thread count: The total number of warps and wefts in 1square inch of fabric. The
fabric is considered to be of good quality linen if its thread count is above 150. The
balance between warp and weft is also important. The warp should be higher and
weft should be no more than ten less. This is required for stretch recovery when
ironing task is performed on the fabric.

IMPORTANT POINTS TO BE CONDSIDERED FOR LINEN PURCHASE

1. Estimate for the purchase of linen should be accurate so that the items are not
purchased in excess.
2. Accurate specifications must be provided when placing orders, especially with
sizes.
3. Take samples of linen and test for amount of ‘dressing’ that falls out from the
fabric when rubbed together.
4. Also check the samples for laundering effects like shrinkage, loss of shape,
colour.
5. Large orders should be marked or monogrammed by the supplier.
6. The stitching of material should be strong with firm smooth weave and strong
selvedge.
7. Orders should be placed well in advance so that specifications may be met with
the requirement.
8. Storage space should be checked foe quantity order.
9. A Purchase Index Card must be maintained for every linen item in stock.
10. A good rapport with the supplier is essential with regard to credit facilities.
11. Mode of transport should be checked with the supplier.\
12. In case the quality of the linen is not accurate, proper dealing of replacement of
linen with no extra payment should be the part of contract.
13. Select a supplier on the same level as your establishment preferably with a
recommendation.
Stocktaking Procedures and Records
1. Stocktaking is the physical inventory of the linen.
2. Taking of inventory for each article is carried out at periodic intervals or at the
time of ‘closing of books’.
3. Exact entry for inventory is recorded so that the overages and shortages can be
determined from the difference between the physical count of balances and the
balances appearing in the account inventory ledger.
4. Physical counting is done in three months
5. The discards are stamped ‘condemned’ and kept separately.
6. Now the counted total inventory must be conducted in the presence of
housekeeper.
7. Stocktaking for uniforms, restaurant linen can be done on a separate days.
Linen Control Procedures & Records

Control of linen is an important task to manage the operations, it basically falls into
three areas of activities:-
1) Hygienic standards and appearance of linen
2) Daily routine exchange of linen between floors and departments linen room and
laundry.
3) Purchase details, inventories and stock taking records\

CHECKLIST TO REDUCE LINEN DAMAGE


1. Dropping large bundles of linen down the chute causes damage by abrasion
against the sides of chute.
2. Knifes and pointed tools should not be whipped with table cloth or waiter’s cloth
it can damage the cloth fiber
3. Careful handling of linen is required when stripping out from the bed.
4. All the dusters should be coded properly for specific area use; adequate dusters
should be given to the staff for cleaning.
5. Hotel should provide tissues and shoe shine pads in the guest rooms.
6. Control the use of excessive bleach in the laundry process as it weakens the
fabric, check and supervise the laundry is on-premises.
7. Insufficient stock and poor rotation of linen shortens the life span of the linen
article as it does not have rest period.
8. Adequate inspection should be given to torn articles which should be mended
immediately.
9. Stained articles should be treated immediately.
10. Care must be taken on reserve stock to ensure that it does not develop marked
folds or is attacked by pests.
11. Frequent inspection of laundry baskets bins and trolleys, chutes as well as
storage spaces to detect protruding nails or sharp edges/splinters.
12. Sufficient care of damp area for linen causes mildew (black spots on cloth) thus
causing eventual tear and spoilage of linen.

Recycling of Discarded Linen


Discarded or condemned linen are items that are no longer useful in their present
condition due to some irreversible damage such as a permanent stain or simply
wear and tear.
‘Cutting Down’ refers to the using of any discarded material for some other
purpose examples:-
 Bed sheets can be used as dust sheets, double bed sheet to single bed sheet,
pillow cover.
 Simplest way is to discard into rags and dusters with marking of condemned
linen so that the purpose of the linen is clear.
 Bath towels or bath sheets can be cut down into small toweling dusters.
 Large discard sheets can be cut down for use as crib sheets, aprons etc.
 Discarded linen is sold to hotel staff at reasonable prices.
 Donate to charities.
All discards should be recorded properly for different references like inventory
control.

RULES FOR LINEN PURCHASE

1. Check for the amount of ‘dressing’ that falls out from the fabric when rubbed
together.
2. Look for a firm smooth weave and strong selvedge.
3. Machining should be strong (10 to 15 stitches per inch).
4. Obtain samples and test for laundering effects. i.e. shrinkage, loss of shape,
colour
5. Buy in bulk to avail of discount.
6. Stagger the supply to overcome/avoid storage problems.
7. Large orders should be marked or monogrammed by the supplier.
8. Select a supplier on the same level as your organization, preferably with a
recommendation.
9. A Purchase Index Card must be maintained for every linen item in stock.
10. Accurate specifications must be provided when placing orders, particularly
with reference to size.
11. Orders should be placed well in advance, so that the specifications may be met
with.
12. A good rapport with the supplier is essential especially with regard to credit
facilities.

PURCHASE INDEX CARD


ITEM………………………………………………………………………………
…..
DESCRIPTION……………………………………………………………………
….
SUPPLIER’S
NAME………………………………………………………………….
ADDRESS…………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………..TEL. NO.
…………………….
REMARKS………………………………………………………………………\
Date
Rcvd
Amount
Rcvd
Unit
Cost
Date
Issued
Amount
Issued
Date
Cond-emned
Amount
Cond-emned
STOCK
Sign.

The purpose of a Purchase Index card is to:


1. Indicate purchases between current and previous stocktaking.
2. Provide a record of condemned articles.
3. Act as a ready reference for ordering, also indicating the level of Reserve Stock.
4. Provide a means of judging the life span of linen articles.
It is possible to maintain this record in the computer for convenience.

Stocktaking Procedures & Records


1. Stocktaking is the physical inventory of the linen.
2. Taking of inventory for each article is carried out at periodic intervals or at
the time of ‘closing of books’.
3. Exact entry for inventory is recorded so that the overages and shortages can
be determined from the difference between the physical count of balances
and the balances appearing in the account inventory ledger.
4. Physical counting is done in three months.
5. The discards are stamped ‘condemned’ and kept separately.
6. Now the counted total inventory must be conducted in the presence of
housekeeper.
7. Stocktaking for uniforms, restaurant linen can be done on a separate days.

.
Laundry