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Standard Zolai Format

Minambup Zolai malgawmzia a kibatkim theih nading

Tg. Lian Than Tuang


20 December 2018 (Thursday)
Standard Zolai Format |1

Zon Olna

Thupatna .............................................................................................................................................................. 2
(1) Standard Zolai Format .............................................................................................................................. 3
(2) Zolai vowels .............................................................................................................................................. 3
(3) Namdanglaite zatpihna (Adopted Words) ............................................................................................... 3
(4) Laimal gawmna le halna in a khiatna a kilamdang sakna ......................................................................... 4
(5) Awkaih ii khel laimalgawm pawlkhat ....................................................................................................... 5
(6) Laimal gawmzia le zatna mun dingte ....................................................................................................... 6
(7) Khat bek le A tamzaw ............................................................................................................................... 8
(8) Genna le Dotna ......................................................................................................................................... 9
(9) Sawlna le Kamkhumna ............................................................................................................................. 9
(10) A hipak suah sak kammalte ...................................................................................................................... 9
(11) A kilangh sak kammalte .......................................................................................................................... 10
(12) Kammal lomte ........................................................................................................................................ 10
(13) Kammal tomlaakna ................................................................................................................................. 10
(14) “A” le “Ki” ii laimal gawm le hal.............................................................................................................. 10
(15) “G” le “Ng”.............................................................................................................................................. 11
(16) Apostrophe ( ’ ) zatna mun ..................................................................................................................... 12
(17) ah, uhhi, a hihi. ....................................................................................................................................... 12
(18) Minpi le Minneu ..................................................................................................................................... 12
(19) Laimalgawm khat, khiatna tuamtuam a neite ........................................................................................ 13
(20) Khiatna kibang/kinai, Kammal kibanglo le a kilehbulhpihte .................................................................. 13
(21) Laimal zatzia (Grammar)......................................................................................................................... 15
(22) Sepna lak le Minna suahna ..................................................................................................................... 16
(23) Hihna tellak le Minna suahna ................................................................................................................. 16
(24) Ahun lakna .............................................................................................................................................. 17
(25) Hi leh hoihzaw ding hi ............................................................................................................................ 17
(26) Mailam ah ............................................................................................................................................... 17
LUNGDAM MAHMAH ......................................................................................................................................... 17

Zon a ol na? Ol (adj)


Ol mah. Adj pen a nung ah “na” tawh mat lehang
Noun suak hi.
A olna bang hiam?
Ol na le Olna cihte ii a khiatna kibanglo hi.
Standard Zolai Format |2

Thupatna

Zolai pen Latin phonetic siksanin kibawl a hihi. Tuhunciang khangthakte in English
phonetic siksanin laisinzaw uhhi. Tua ahihmanin Latin phonetic siksanin a kigelh Zolai a
sim uhciang Zopau awsuahin suak nawnlo hi. Tua panin Zopau awsuah ngah nading
English phonetic siksan aa hong kigelh leh Zolai malgawmzia pen khat le khat hong
kibanglosemsem kha ding hi.

Tua ahihmanin Standard Zolai Format khat kiciantakin a om zawh ding kisam pha mahmah
hi. A om zawhkei zenzen leh mailam ah Zolai malgawmzia hong buaihuai mahmah ding
hi. Banghanghiam cih leh tu bekin zongh, India lam Zomi le Myanmar lam Zomite ii laimal
gawmzia kibang zo nawnlo khin ta hi. US, UK, Canada, Australia cih bang dan English a
kilim zatna gam aa khangthak Zomite ii laimal gawmzia leh Myanmar gam lam aa
khangthak Zomite ii laimal gawmzia zongh damdamin hong kidansemsem khak ding
hoihlo hi. Tua baanah, English phonetic lah a zanglo, Latin phonetic zongh a zanglo gam
tuamtuam aa tung Zomi khangthakte ii Zolai gelhzia zongh a tuampi khat hong suak kha
thei lai ding hi. Tua ahihmanin minambup in laimal gawmzia gelhziate a luanzia khat a
kibatkim theih nadingin Zolai ah zongh Standard Format kician khat a om ding thupi
mahmah hi.

Tua bek thamlo, Zomi khangthakte aa kipan namdangte in Zolai a sin nop uh leh sinzia
olin, sinna a nuam ding, kiciantak aa lak theih, hilh theih dingin Standard Format khat Zolai
in a neih zawh ding kisam mahmah hi.
Standard Zolai Format |3

(1) Standard Zolai Format

Standard Zolai Format a hi Zolai ii paizia, a thu a la zui in malgawmzia, malhalzia, kimat sak, kihal
sak dingte i theih naak leh i gelh nop peuhpeuh a thu zui-in kimalgawm thei hi. Tua ahihmanin, Zolai pen Zopau
kammal khat sim ah bangci malgawm ding cih sin gaih tektek a kul hilo hi.
Standard Zolai Format zui tekin lai gelh hilehang, Zolai pen mikim in a malgawmzia hong kibang
thei ding hi. Mikim ii Zolai gelhzia a kibat theih nadingin Format kician khat kisam a hihi.
“Standard Zolai Format i cihin bang dan hiam?” cih a nuai ah laigual khat tawh gentehna kimu thei
hi.
(1) Ki pawl na ding in ki pawl na ding ni.
(2) Kipawlna ding in kipawlna ding ni.
(3) Kipawlna dingin kipawlna ding ni.
(4) Kipawl nadingin kipawlna ding ni.

Standard Zolai Format ah hih a tung aa laigual liteng pan no.4 na pen a dikpen a hihi.
Kipawl pen Verb hi aa, Kipawlna pen Noun a hihi.

"na" zatna mun, "na" zat nading


Noun Infinitive

Verb pan Noun suahna Verb pen Geelna, Sawmna, Deihna ah zatna

Verb + “na” = Noun Verb + Infinitive marker = nading (English ah "to")


Pai + na = Paina Pai + nading = Pai nading

Gtn.
- Ka paina ah nong pai nading kong zawn hi.

(2) Zolai vowels

Zolai ah “a”, “e”, “i”, “o”, “u” le “aw” cih vowel mal 6 om hi. Zolai ah laimal a tamzaw thamtham
pen hih vowels te pan khat teitei kihel hamtang hi. Hih vowels te tungah lai malgawm ii awsuah kinga hi. Vowels
te a mun diktak ah i zat theihkei aa leh a awsuah zongh hong kidang pah lian ding hi.
Gtn. Tan – Ten – Tin – Ton – Tawn – Tun
A diakdiakin vowels “o” le “aw” pen kikhial kha baih thei hi. Hih vowels nih i zat khialh leh a khiatna a tuampi
suak hi.
Gtn. Toi – Tawi, Khoi – Khawi, Khom – Khawm, Poi – Pawi

(3) Namdanglaite zatpihna (Adopted Words)

Zopau a hilo namdangte’ lai i zatpihna ah amau malgawm bang teekteek mahin i gawmpih, i zatpih ding mah
hoihpenpen hi. Tua a hihman in, namdangpau khat peuh i zatciang a nung a mai ah laimal behlaploh ding
thupi hi. Gtn. Computers te ci-in gelh ding hi ding aa, computerte – computerste cih bangin gelh huailo hi.
Zolai ah a tam i genciang “te” kilim zat aa, a mai aa Zolaimal tawh kimat sak ding a hihi.
Gtn. Noteng le naupangte na omkhawm un.
A hizongin tua “te/teng” cih pen namdanglai i gelhna ah i mat khakloh ding hoih hi.
Standard Zolai Format |4

(4) Laimal gawmna le halna in a khiatna a kilamdang sakna

Te/Teng, Lua, Lo, Kei, Zaw, Sem, Pen, Ciang, Khawm


Plural Noun
Te/Teng (Adj/v) pen tang khat bekin I gelh leh khiatna tuam neih hi.
Te/Teng (Plural noun) pen a mai aa Noun tawh I mat leh tua Te/Teng in a mai aa Noun pen Plural noun (khat
sangin a tamzaw) suak sak hi.

Gtn. Tua a te ziahziah kham manphate nei le uh cin, khuapi sungah noteng teng zo ding hi uh teh.
*Plural Noun pen a mai aa Noun tawh mat hamtang ding.

Adverb
Lua (v) pen tang khat bekin I gelh leh khiatna tuam neih hi.
Lua (adv) pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh I mat leh tua Lua in a mai aa Verb/Adj pen Adverb suak sak hi.

Gtn. Zu tam dawnluain lua hi.


*Adverb pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh mat hamtang ding.

Prefix
Lo (n) pen tang khat bekin I gelh leh khiatna tuam neih hi.
Lo (Prefix) pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh I mat leh tua Lo in a mai aa Verb/Adj pen a lehlam suak sak hi.

Gtn. Hih lo hoihlo hi.


*Prefix pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh mat hamtang ding.

Prefix
Kei (n) pen tang khat bekin I gelh leh khiatna tuam neih hi.
Kei (adv) pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh I mat leh tua Kei in a mai aa Verb/Adj pen a lehlam suak sak hi.

Gtn. Kei bel laukei ing.


*Prefix pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh mat hamtang ding.

Comparative
Zaw (adj) pen tang khat bekin I gelh leh khiatna tuam neih hi.
Zaw (c.adj) pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh I mat leh tua Zaw in a mai aa Verb/Adj pen uangzaw sak hi.

Gtn. Hih ciang zawlua in a hoihzaw khat va zong ni. (Gol, Golzaw)
*Comparative Adj pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh mat hamtang ding.

Comparative
Sem (v) pen tang khat bekin I gelh leh khiatna tuam neih hi.
Sem (c.adj) pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh I mat leh tua Sem in a mai aa Verb/Adj pen uangzaw sak hi.

Gtn. Na semkhawm thei ding I hihmanin lungdamsem ei. (Neu, Neusem)


*Comparative Adj pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh mat hamtang ding.

Comparative
Pen (Adj) pen tang khat bekin I gelh leh khiatna tuam neih hi.
Pen (c.adj) pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh I mat leh tua Pen in a mai aa Verb/Adj pen uangzaw sak hi.

Gtn. Tua pen hoihpen hi. (Hoih, Hoihzaw, Hoihpen, Hoihpenpen) (Hoih, Hoihsem, Hoihpen, Hoihpenpen)
*Comparative Adj pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh mat hamtang ding.

Conjunction/Time
Ciang (n) pen tang khat bekin I gelh leh khiatna tuam neih hi.
Ciang (conj) pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh I mat leh tua Ciang in a mai aa Verb/Adj pen pau kizom suak sak hi.
Ciang (time) pen hun I genna ah malkhat in gawm ding hi.
Standard Zolai Format |5

Gtn. Zingciang ciang khat tawh nong paiciang kimu ni. Tuaciang ken zongh thaiciang aa ding ciang khat hong
tawi ning.
* Conjunction/Time pen laimal mat khatin mat/gawm hamtang ding.

Verb
Khawm (n) pen tang khat bekin I gelh leh khiatna tuam neih hi.
Khawm (v) pen a mai aa Verb/Adj tawh I mat leh tua Khawm in a mai aa Verb/Adj pen a khiatna behlap hi.

Gtn. Khawmpi pai dingin Lia Khawm in mi pawlkhat khawmtuah aa paikhawm uhhi.
*Adverb pen a nung/mai aa Verb/Adj tawh mat hamtang ding.

Hihteng pen laimal gawmzia lakna hi aa, laimalte pen bang thute ah kimat sak ding, bang thute ah
kihal sak ding cih, a kimatna thu, a kihalna thu, a hang i tel khitciangin hih sungah a kilaklo laimal
khat peuhpeuh zongh diktakin kimalgawm thei ding hi.

(5) Awkaih ii khel laimalgawm pawlkhat

Lua, Lo, Kei, Zaw, Khawm, Lamdang, Thang, Thupi, Kap, Thei

Luat/Lua = Na khedaptul sangluain a sangluatciang kilawm nawnlozaw hi.

Loh/Lo = Nong pailohciang kei zongh pailo pah hing.

Keh/Kei = Kei ka paikeh, nang zongh na paikei oo.

Zawk/Zaw = Nang kong teelzawk manin mi dangte in zongh nang mah hong teelzaw pah uhhi.

Khop/Khawm = Noteng na paikhop uhciang kei zongh no tawh paikhawm nuam ing.

Lamdan/Lamdang = Lamdang na cihcih uhhang’ a kilamdanna thei zokei ing.

Than/Thang = Min thanna pen Pasian aa hi aa, amin thang tawntung tahen.

Thupit/Thupi = Na thupitna ka theihsemsemciang thupi ong sasemsem ing.

Kap/Kah = Ka kap leh ka kahna aw ngaihlua.

Thei/Theih = Thu theih nadingin thu theite dong ni.

Hihteng pen laimal gawmzia lakna hi aa, laimalte pen bang thute ah kimat sak ding, bang thute ah kihal
sak ding cih, a kimatna thu, a kihalna thu, a hang i tel khitciangin hih sungah a kilaklo laimal khat
peuhpeuh zongh diktakin kimalgawm thei ding hi.
Standard Zolai Format |6

Lai (noun) Lai malgawm = noun + verb, Laimal gawm = noun + verb

Laimal (noun) Laimal tampi malgawm theilo hi ing.

Laimalgawm (noun) Laimalgawm tampi ka malgawm theihloh om hi.

Malgawm (verb) Lai tampi sim lehang a malgawm zongh kisiam tuam hi.

Gawm (verb) Laimal gawm dan zongh thei khang ae.

(6) Laimal gawmzia le zatna mun dingte

Lua Mahmah
Giklua ahihmanin kipua zokei ei. Gik mahmah ahihmanin ka deih dan lian hi.

Lua = A tamzaw ah negative deihlohna lam ah Mahmah = A tamzaw ah positive deihna, hoihsakna
kizangzaw hi. lam ah kizangzaw hi.

Hong Ong
Nang hong paizaw ve. Kei ong paizaw ning.

Hong = Thugen pen in mi dangte a bulphuhna ah Ong = Thugen pen in a mah le a mah a kibulphuhna ah
zangh hi. zangh hi.

Hing Ing
Ong pai ding hing. Ong pai ing.

Hing = A hi ding, a hi nailote ah kizangh hi. Ing = A hita, a hi laitakte ah kizangh hi.

Hih pen a taktakin “hi ing”, “Pasal hi ing” ci aa


kigenna pan “hing” cih a tomin kilo hi aa picingtakin
lai i gelhnate ah “hi ing” mah ci-in gelh ciatciat lehang
thupit suah semsem ding hi.

Leng Lehang
Ong pai leng aive. Pai lehang aive.

Leng =Khat kia genna ah kizangh hi. Lehang = Khat sangin a tamzaw genna ah kizangh hi.

Leh Le
Nong pai leh kimu ni ei. Nulepa tawh nang le kei I paikhop leh mawtaw zangh
ni.
Leh = A hi thei, a hilo theite ah kizangh hi.
(English ah “if”) Le = khat le khat kikal gennate ah kizangh hi.
“Hong pai leh aive” cihnate ah “if” lian bel hilo hi. (English ah “and”)

I/Ei Uh

Eiteng I mawtaw tawh I paikhawm dia? Ka mawtaw tawh a paikhawm nuam uh dia? Kong
zawn uhhi. I kizawn hi.
I/Ei = Ei le ei I kigenna ah khat sangin i tamzawk leh
kizangh hi. Uh = Mi dangte a hizong, ei le ei a hizong I genna ah
khat sangin a tamzawk leh kizangh hi.
Note: “i”, “ei” cihte I zat naak leh khat sangin tamzaw
cih theihsa hi khin pah aa, “uh” cih kammal tawh Note: “I” I zat naak leh khat sangin a tamzaw cihna hi
zatkhop kul nawnlo hi. khin pah aa “uh” cih zatbeh kul nawnlo hi.
Standard Zolai Format |7

In Un
Hong pai in. Amah in an a nek laitakin ka tung uhhi. Hong pai un. Amaute in an a nek laitakun ka tung hi.

In = Khat bek tung ah genna Un = Khat sangin a tamzaw tung ah genna

An a ne pen khat bek hi aa, tua laitakin a tung pen khat An a ne pen khat sangin tamzaw aa, tua laitakin a tung
sangin a tamzaw cihna hi. pen khat bek cihna hi.

Noun/Verb + In In
Naupangte in an ne nuamta uhhi, an na pia in. Tuang in an a nek laitakin puan na sawp in.

In = A sem a bawl /a hih ding khat peuh in a gen In = Kammal kizomin zatnate ah a mai aa laimal tawh
hunciang “in” pen kituam gelh hi. kimat hi.

Se Sia
Puan se phop na siam na? Puan sia phop na siam na?

Se = Kampau ciang “se” cih bangin kiza kha thei aa, Sia = Lai-in I gelhciang “sia” mah ci in kigelh tektek
tua bangin I gelh leh paulai hi-in, laimal diktaktak hilo hi. Laipau in I pauciang zongh cihtakpina le official
hi. tawh kibangin thupit suahzaw hi.

Khaw Khua

A 79 veina Khawdo pawipi Na khua vuah a 80 veina Khuado pawipi lai, khuadam
mahmah hi.
Khaw = K ampau ciang “khaw” cih bangin kiza kha
thei aa, tua bangin I gelh leh paulai hi-in, laimal Khua = Lai-in I gelhciang “khua” mah ci in kigelh
diktaktak hilo hi. tektek hi. Laipau in I pauciang zongh cihtakpina le
official tawh kibangin thupit suahzaw hi.

Hia Hiam
Na gim hia? Na gim hiam?

Hia = Kampauciang kilim zatzaw diak aa, tua bangin I Hiam = Lai-in I gelhciang “hiam” mah ci-in gelh
gelh leh paulai hi-in, laimal diktaktak hilo hi. tangtang huai hi. Laipau in I pauciang zongh
cihtakpina le official tawh kibangin thupit suahzaw hi.

Dia Diam
Nong pai dia? Nong pai diam?

Dia = Kampauciang kilim zatzaw diak aa, tua bangin I Diam = Lai-in I gelhciang “diam” mah ci-in gelh
gelh leh paulai hi-in, laimal diktaktak hilo hi. tangtang huai hi. Laipau in I pauciang zongh
cihtakpina le official tawh kibangin thupit suahzaw hi.

A Aa
A mawtaw tawh a zin aa gamlapi pai hi. A inn aa mawtaw pen a ma aa a hihciang aa a ma
thuthu hi.
A = Noun ii mai ah a hih leh laimal halin “a” mal khat
bek zat ding a hihi. Aa = Noun ii nung ah a hih leh laimal halin “aa” mal
nih zat ding a hihi. Tua baan ah, neihsa genna ah zongh
zat ding a hihi. Tua baan ah laigual kizopna (half
sentence) ii a nung ah zongh zat ding hi.
Gtn. Amah tawh kong pai lai aa a mawtaw kisa hi.
Standard Zolai Format |8

I Ii

I mawtaw hoih hi. I mawtaw ii a mei tanglua hi. I vengte ii mawtaw mei
tawh kibang.
I = “I” mal khat bek pen Noun ii mai ah kilim zat diak
hi. ii = “ii” mal nih pen Noun ii nung ah kilim zat diak hi.

Hihteng pen laimal gawmzia lakna hi aa, laimalte pen bang thute ah kimat sak ding, bang thute ah
kihal sak ding cih, a kimatna thu, a kihalna thu, a hang i tel khitciangin hih sungah a kilaklo laimal
khat peuhpeuh zongh diktakin kimalgawm thei ding hi.

(7) Khat bek le A tamzaw

Khat bek Khat sang’ a tamzaw

- Uh

A pai *hi. A pai uhhi.

In Un

Hong pai in. Hong pai un.


(Mi dang khat tung genna.) (Mi dangte tung genna.)

Ing Ung

Ong pai ing. Ong pai ung.

Ka I

Ka pai hi. I pai hi.

Note: “I” I zat naak leh khat sangin a tamzaw cihna hi


khin pah aa “uh” cih zatbeh kul nawnlo hi.

Leng/Le ing Lehang/Le ung

Pai leng hoih ding hi. Pai lehang hoih ding hi.
A pai hi le ing maw, hoih mah diven. A pai hi le ung maw, hoih mah diven.

Ning Ni

Pai ning. Pai ni.


(Amah le amah a kigenna) (Amau le amau a kigenna)

Oo/Ve Vo/Vua

Pai oo. Pai ve. Pai vo. Pai vua, pai un. Pai ve vua.
Standard Zolai Format |9

(8) Genna le Dotna

Genna Dotna?

Ding/Di Dia?

Na sem ding hi. Na sem dia?

Hi Hiam?

Na sem hi. Na sem hiam?

In Na?

Na sem in. Na sem na?

(9) Sawlna le Kamkhumna

Sawlna Kamkhum suahzawk diakna

In Ve

Na gen in. Na gen ve.

Oo Sak Oo, Sak ve, Sak ve vua

Na gen oo. Na gen sak oo. Na gen sak ve. Na gen sak ve vua.

Vo Vua

Na gen vo. Na gen ve vua.

(10) A hipak suah sak kammalte

Dih Pak

Hong pai dih. Hong paipak. Hong paipak oo. Hong paipak dih.

Sai/Saisai Zal

Hong paisai dih. Hong paisaisai dih. Hong paipaksai Hong paizal dih. Hong paipakzal dih. Hong paizalzal
dih. Hong pai paksaisai dih. dih.

Zial Zual

Na sep sakzial oo. Na sep sakzialpak oo. Na sep sakzual oo. Na sep sakzualpak dih.
S t a n d a r d Z o l a i F o r m a t | 10

(11) A kilangh sak kammalte

Dangdang, Dengdang, Dialdual, Genggang, Geigai, Geelgaal, Gega Heihai, Heihoi, Hemham, Heha
Dualdual

Kelkol, Kelkai, Kiahkuah, Keikai, Lemlam, Lemlum, Lela, Liakluak, Melmul, Melmal, Mema, Memmam,
Keukau, Kilkel, Kekkok, Kiakua, Lillel, Lellul, Lenglong, Meumau, Milmel
Kengkang, Kekaa Lenglangh, Liangluang

Pheiphai, Pheiphoi, Phelphal Veivai, Veivoi, Viavua, Velval, Zialzual, Zipzup, Zekzawk, Zekzak
Vievei

Hih bang dan a dang a kilangh sak kammal tampi om lai hi.

(12) Kammal lomte

Zopau ah kammal pawlkhat pen a lomlomin kigenkhawm tangtang se hi. Tuate pen laimal mat gaih ding mah hoih
hi.

Gtn. Innlelo, Nulepa, Ulenau, khualetui, Kiimlepaam, Zileta, Itlengaih

(13) Kammal tomlaakna

Gtn. (gtn.) = Gentehna


Adt. (adt.) = Adangte
Cbd. (cbd.) = Cihbangdan
Ahk. (ahk.) = Ahihkeh
Akl. (akl.) =Aihkei leh/ Ahihkei leh
Tg. = Taang (Hih pen min mai aa kizangh ahihmanin Laimal Gol zat hamtang ding hi.)
Las. = Lasa, La siam, Lasak siam (Hih pen min mai aa kizangh ahihmanin Laimal Gol zat hamtang ding hi.)

- Tom laakna ah “.” dot khat koih hamtang ding kilawm hi.
- “Tg.” ah dot kikoih in “Lia” ciang tomlaakna hilo ahihmanin koih kullo hi.

(14) “A” le “Ki” ii laimal gawm le hal

A Hal/lo Ki Hal/lo

A + verb = A pai laitak hi. Hal Ki + verb = A kipai laitak hi. Hallo
A + noun = A mawtaw hoih mahmah hi. Hal Ki + noun = Ki tukpeng siam sak Hal
A + to be noun = Ani, Ahun, Amun, Amin Hallo Ki + to be noun = Kipawlna, Kinialna Hallo
A + pronoun = Amah le amau Hallo Ki + pronoun = - -
A + preposition = Atung, Anuai, Amai, Agei Hallo Ki + /preposition/ = Kisang tung sak, Hallo
Kigamla
S t a n d a r d Z o l a i F o r m a t | 11

(15) “G” le “Ng”

G Ng

Gai = Nupi khat gai hi. Ngai = Nungak khat ka ngai aa tun ka kingai uhhi.

Gah = Hanciamna thaman a gah kingah hi. Ngah = Kong laikhak na ngahciang hong zasakkik oo.
Singgah tampi ne den in.

Gam = Ka gam uh hong cidam sakin Top aw. Ngam = A sem ngam peuhpeuh nasep kipan uhhi.

Gap = A tha hoihin a tha gap hi. Ngap = Ngap pha melkei ingin, kilai ding bel ong
ngapkeng.

Gak = Inn sung ah mi tamluain kigak hi. Na khau Ngak = Na ngak lai pak oo.
hoihtak gakin.

Gawng = Na gawngsemsem cin hoihsemsem cei. Ngawng = Na ngawng aa khi hoihlua ei.

Gawm = Gawm lawh liangin lai kasin leh laimal Ngawm = -


gawm le numbers gawm ka siam tahi.

Gel/ Geel = Ei gel bel i geelnate tangtung leh Ngeel = -


nuamlua ding.

Gep = Na ci geplua kisil zel oo. Ngep = -

Giak = Pute’n zan ka giak hi. Ngiak = -

Gial = Puan gial silh aa ka vak ni, gial kia hi. Ngial = -

Gim = Meh gimnam lakah gimtakin na kasem hi. Ngim = Thau kappa in hoihtakin ngim tite aa a
khatna a ngah ding a ngim a tup a hihi.

Gol = Inn gol khat ka nei hi. Ngol = -

Golh = Golhguk nek hoihlo hi. Ka ci ka sa a golh Ngolh = Thu manglote an kingolh hi.
hi.
Gu = Gutate guza kipia hen. Khemna pen a gu Ngu = -
khauh mahmah hi.

Guh = Ka guh ka taangteng nalua hi. Nguh = -

Guk/Guuk = Ka van hong ki guuk sak laitak nai Nguk = -


guk sat hi.

Gum = Eite hong gum pen Topa Zeisu hi. Ngum = Nungak ngumngekte ka ngai hi.

Gun = Gun ah kimu ni ei. Ngun = Ngun le kham ka nei hi.

Gup = Gup hauluate kimudah hi. Ngup = -

Hihte pen Zopau Tedim awsuah siksanin lakna bek hi aa “Ng” aw a zangte aa zongh Zopau/Zolai mah
bel hiveve hi.
Pawlkhatte in Tedim awsuah ngah nuamlualiangin “Ng” awsuahna khempeuh ah “G” aw vive suaksak
uh ahihmanin, a khiatna tuampi khat a hihlam i phawkkhak ding deihna a hihi.
S t a n d a r d Z o l a i F o r m a t | 12

“G” aw a suak naak leh Tedim awsuah dikpen cihna hi pahlo aa, “Ng” aw a suak khempeuh zongh
Tedim awsuah diklo cih bang hituanlo hi. Tedim awsuah ah “G” awsuah, “Ng” awsuah a nihin kihelh
hi.

(16) Apostrophe ( ’ ) zatna mun

( ’ ) pen laimal tomlaakna ah kilim zat mahmah hi. Paulai tawh i gelhciang, pau awsuah bangin i gelhciang kilim
zat diak hi. Laigil, lai thupite ah a hih leh laimal tomlaakna-in zatloh mah hoihzaw hi.

Gtn.
- Kote in Sangpi ii mawtaw ka laploh manun noteng in nong nusia uhhi.
- Kote’n Sangpi’ mawtaw ka laploh manun note’n nong nusia uhhi.

Neihna lakna ah zongh “ii” cih mun tangin ( ’ ) kizangh thei hi. Sangpi ii mawtaw (Sangpi’ mawtaw)
Sepna lakna ah zongh “in” cih mun tangin ( ’ ) kizangh thei hi. Kote in (Kote’n), Noteng in (Note’n)

Phonetic tuamtuam zat ding pen hoih khinlozaw hi. Banghanghiam cih leh Zolai pen theih baih, sin
baih, ciapteh baih a hih ding kisam hi. Tualoin Zolai a lunglut leh a sin nuam kitawmsemsem kha ding
hi. A zangh minamdang tampi a omsam hangin a na zangh hetlo aa a khangto, a lai uh a tangzai minam
tampi na om hi.

(17) ah, uhhi, a hihi.

ah = “ah” cih laimal pen tang gelh ding mah hoihzaw hi. Inntung ah, Zogam ah, Nang kiang ah
Banghanghiam cih leh “a le h” kihel laimalgawm tampitak Zolai ah om a hihmanin “ah” tawh laimal matna
in laisimna haksa sak tuam thei hi.

uhhi. = A pai uhhi. A hi uhhi. (Hih pen “h” nih kizom ci-in matloh ding hoih asa kiom thei aa, mat lehang
sim dan nopzawin laisim hong manlangzaw sak tuam hi.)

a hihi. = Amauteng a hihi. Amah a hihi. (Hih zongh “hi” nih kizom ci-in matloh ding hoih asa kiom thei
aa, mat lehang sim dan nopzawin laisim hong manlangzaw sak tuam hi.)

(18) Minpi le Minneu

Minpi pen Lawh khat ta ah hal ding hoih hi. Gtn. Thang Suan Piang, Mang Za Cin Khai, Dim
Ngaih Huai

Minneu pen minpi sung aa teng lian bek pan a kilawh Gtn. Suan Piang, Cin Khai, Dim Ngaih
leh lawh khat ta ah hal ding hoih hi.

Minneu pen minpi sung bek pan thamlo a meizom Gtn. Piangpi, Khaitawng, Dimboih, Huaikhek
behlap a om leh a minpi sung aa tawh mat ding hoih hi.
S t a n d a r d Z o l a i F o r m a t | 13

(19) Laimalgawm khat, khiatna tuamtuam a neite

Hai = Meihai, Tuihai, Haigah, Mihai

Mei = Meitang, Vaanmei, Uimei

Zang = Zahmawhvan, mazang, kizangh thei

Hih bang dan khiatna hau laimalgawm kibangte pen “double words” tawh khenluat ding hoihlozaw hi.
Banghanghiam cih leh “double words” zatna ah zongh khiatna khat sangin a tamzaw om veve theilai
hi. Tua ahihmanin hih bang dan laimalte pen a laigual/a thu zui-in kikhen thei lai veve ahihmanin
khenloh mah hoihzaw hi. English lai leh namdang tampite ii laite ah zongh hih bang dan mahin laimal
kibang khiatna kibanglo, laimal kibanglo khiatna kibang cih dan tampi mah na om kawikawi hi.
Gtn. Fly (Hih mun ah laimal lian /capital tawh a kigelh leh noun ci-in na khen uhhi.)
Zolai ah tua bang lianin khen theih hikhinlo hi.

(20) Khiatna kibang/kinai, Kammal kibanglo le a kilehbulhpihte

Ahihhang Ala!
Synonyms Synonyms
Ahizongin, Ahihsamhang, Ahiphialzong Alai, Kala, Kalai, Aaa, Aaa Zen, Aaa guai
Antonyms Antonyms
Tua ahihmanin, Tua ahihman aa, Tua ahihciangin, Tua Immm, Hmmm, Innn, Hnnn
ahihciang aa, Tua hangin, Tua hang aa

Bang ae Ciah
Synonyms Synonyms
Ai ze, Aici ze, Bangci ae Kal, Cia
Antonyms
Pai, Pei

Citak Denciang
Synonyms Synonyms
Kuhkal, Hanciam, Hahkat Zoteh, Zociang, Danciang, Anciang, Denteh,
Antonyms Dentakteh
Zulh, Zulhtat, Thadah Antonyms
Tun, Tulaitak, Tumahmah
S t a n d a r d Z o l a i F o r m a t | 14

Dik Gen
Synonyms Synonyms
Thudik, Thunem, Thunuam, Thukhual, Lungduai, Soi, Ngen, Son
Lungsau, Picing, Cingh, Gi (Migi) Antonyms
Antonyms Dai, Paulo, Hamlo, Genlo, Ngenlo, Sonlo, Soilo
Gilo (Diklo), Sintom, Lungtom, Ngongtat, Lauhuai,
Gamhtat

Hehpihna Hivak
Synonyms Synonyms
Hehsuahna, Hehsuakna Hi-inteh, Hivaa, Hitaw, Himahvak, Himavaa,
Himataw, Himahinteh

Laigelh Mahmah
Synonyms Synonyms
Lai-at, laikui, laisuai, laikhen Mamah, Cip, Lua, Lei, naak
(Ahunzui-in kammal zat kikhel aa a mun leh a thuzui-in
kizangh kawikawi hi.)
Gtn. Computer khen, laigelh, lai-atpipa, cbd.

Mangpha Mate
Synonyms Synonyms
Mangfa Mataw, I zaw, Nacina, Nacihia
Antonyms
Mangsia

Mehthuk Mengmeng
Synonyms Synonyms
Methua, Fazan, Piadi, Bokboon Memeng, Vaseuh, Kinawh, Manlang, Saisai, Kin
Antonyms Antonyms
Mehkha Ziakai, Damdam, Duakduak, Daldal

Ngai Siang
Synonyms Synonyms
It, Hoihsa, Deih, Paakta, Zahtak, Ngaihbangsa Sieng, Thiang
Antonyms Antonyms
Hua, Siasa (Hoihsalo), Mudah, Deihlo, Paaktaklo, Nin
Zahtaklo, Ngailo, Ngaihbangsalo, Ensan

Tu Tua
Synonyms Synonyms
Khung, To Tu, Zia
Antonym Antonyms
Ding Hih
S t a n d a r d Z o l a i F o r m a t | 15

Tua ahihmanin
Tua bek thamlo Synonyms
Synonyms Tua ahihman aa, Tua ahihciangin, Tua ahihciang aa,
Tua baanah, Tua zomah Tua hangin, Tua hang aa
Antonyms
Ahihhang, Ahizongin, Ahihsamhang, Ahiphialzong

Uiphuk Vau
Synonyms Synonyms
Ukeng (Kivalaak), Ulol Taw'ng, Phin, Do, Hehssak, Galbawl, Dembawl, Sinso
sak, Langpan, El, Elbawl
Antonyms
Pawlbawl, Kilem, Kipawl, Zawn, Kithutuak, Kithukim

Zasan Zopau
Synonyms Synonyms
Kawlsing, Maza, Malta Antonyms Zoham, Zokam
Cikhum (Ham suo, Kamtam kei oo, Pau kei oo)

Hih bang dan a dang tampi om lai kha ding hi. Kammalte a kibatlohhang avekin Zopau/Zolai vive mah a
hihi.

(21) Laimal zatzia (Grammar)

Kammal khenna Gentehna Kammal pawlkhat

(Verb) Sepna lak Tuang in an ne hi. Pai, Sem, Gen, Kap, cbd.

(Adverb) Sepna tellak Tuang in an nesaisai hi. Lua, duakduak, zialzial, cbd.

(Helping Verb) Hihna lak Tuang pen pasal hi. Hi, hita, a hihi, cbd.

(Adjective) Hihna tellak Tuang pen pasal hoih hi. Gina, hangsan, thau, tom, cbd.

(Noun) Minna Tuang in laibu sim hi. Thawnpi, Mawtaw, Singkung, cbd.
Minna cihciangin min khat peuh
zongh hi thei, na khat peuh zongh
hi thei cihna hi.

(Pronoun) Minna tang Tuang in laibu sim hi. Tua ama Amah, amau, ei, kei, ko, nang, cbd.
sim pen hoih mahmah hi.

(Plural Noun) Minnate Laibuteng le a simte koi lam te, teng


tung uh ahia?

( - ) Tamna lak Laibuteng le a simte koi lam Ei, en, un, uh, i, ung, cbd.
tung uh ahia?
I mawtaw tawh na pai un.
Eiteng in bang i hih tam?
S t a n d a r d Z o l a i F o r m a t | 16

(Conjunction) Kammal zom Tuang in laibu sim hi. Tua aa leh, ciang aa, aa, in, la, ahihhang,
ahihmanin lai thei hi. Tuang in ahizong, cbd.
laibu sim ahihmanin lai thei hi.

(Preposition) Mun lak Mualdawn aa biakinn ah pai ni. tung, nuai, paam, gei, cbd.

(Time) Ahun lak Tua kipan ut nawn khang. Tua kipan, aa kipan, nawn, ciang,
laitak, lai, lai-in, cbd.

(Negative) Alehlam Umlopi genkenla, paikei ni. lo, loh, kei, ken, keng, cbd.

(Interjection) Phawnna lak Haa! thadah ta ei. Oh!, Aaa!, Kalai!, Alai!, Kamawk!,
Amawk!, Azen!, Azen aw!, Aguai!

Aguai, Tuang in sang ah lai a hanciam mahmah aa leh tua laitak amah a mute in hih pa pen sangnaupang
kician khatin ngaihsun uhhi. Ahihhang’ ken ka umkei hi.

Aguai = Phawnna lak Tuang = Minna sang = Minna ah = Mun lak

lai = Minna hanciam = Sepna lak mahmah = Sepna tellak aa leh = Kammal zom

laitak = Ahun lak amah = Minna tang mu = Sepna lak te = Minnate

hih = Minna tang pen = Hihna lak sangnaupang = Minna kician = Hihna tellak

ngaihsun = Sepna lak uh = Tamna lak Ahihhang = Kammal zom ken = Minna tang

um = Sepna lak kei = Alehlam

(22) Sepna lak le Minna suahna

Sepna lakna (v) Sepna lakna (v) pan Minna suahna (n)

Gen Genna

Tai Taina

(23) Hihna tellak le Minna suahna

Hihna tellak (adj)

Sang Sangzaw Sangzawlai Sangpen Sangpenpen

Siam Siamzaw Siamzawlai Siampen Siampenpen

Hihna tellak (adj) pan Minna suahna (n)

Sangna Sangzawkna Sangzawklaina Sangpenna Sangpenpenna

Siamna Siamzawkna Siamzawklaina Siampenna Siampenpenna


S t a n d a r d Z o l a i F o r m a t | 17

(24) Ahun lakna

Ahun ma Samlo. Sam nailo. Sam ding. Sam mah ding.


Pailo. Pai nailo. Pai ding. Pai mah ding.

Ahun sung Samta. Samsamta. Sam laitak.


Paita. Paipaita. Samsam laitak.
Pai laitak. Paipai laitak.

Ahun khit Sam khin lian. Sam khin. Sam khin tham. Sam khin thamtham.
Pai khin lian. Pai khin. Sam khin pek. Sam khin pekpek.
Pai khin tham. Pai khin thamtham.
Pai khin pek. Pai khin pekpek.

(25) Hi leh hoihzaw ding hi

1. Hi thei leh van/na (noun) khat peuhpeuh pen mal khat (malgawm khat) ta in mat gai aa gelh huai hi.
Tua hi leh laimal gawm ding le hal ding cihte ngaihsutna ciaptehna nuamtuam mahmah ding hi.
2. Lai pen standard a om nading, a luanzia, a kigelhziate format kiciantakin a om ding kisam hi.
3. Lai pen theih baih ding, tel baih ding, ciapteh baih ding hi leh tangzai baihzaw ding hi.
4. Lai pen minambup in a malgawm kibangkimtakin zatkhop ding thupi hi.
5. Pau/kammal om khempeuh kibaan sin gaih zolo ding ahihmanin, malgawmzia khat theih naak aa leh
pau/kammal khat peuhpeuh diktakin malgawm pah theih nading Standard Format khat kisam a hihi.

(26) Mailam ah

1. Grades/Levels zui-in Zolai sinna kiciantakin neih zawh huai hi.


2. Zolai tawh grammar bu, poem bu, history bu, geography bu, biography bu, articles bu cih bang dan a
tuamtuam grades/levels zui in bawl zawh huai hi.
3. Thupatna ah a kigensa om mah bangin Standard Zolai Format kiciantakin a omkei leh minambup ii supna
lianpi khat suak kha thei hi. Minambup in a zatkhop theih nadingin zumvai (kumpi, biakna, private) nasemte
aa kipan Media te le laibu bawlte in zatkhop masak huai mahmah hi. Laimal gawmzia hong kibat nading
hih panmunteng mah a thupipen a hihi.

LUNGDAM MAHMAH
Tg. Lian Than Tuang