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ir

Protection of Medium and Low


Voltage DistributionSystems

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Page 111 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Table of Content
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• Network Structures

• Typical Calculation procedures

• Protection Principles and Co-ordination:

- Overcurrent Protection (relay, MCB, fuses)

- Distance Protection

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Page 112 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Urban network structure
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Building A

Building B
Building C

Building D

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Page 113 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Industrial network structures

Ring network Central substation


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Page 114 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Urban low voltage network
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open point

400 V three phases


Meshed systems – radial systems

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Page 115 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
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Typical Calculation Procedures

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Page 116 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Short-circuit current calculations

U0 = Un/√3
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Page 117 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Simple Short - Circuit Calculation
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Page 118 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
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Protection Principles and Co-ordination:

Overcurrent Protection (Relays, MCBs, fuses)

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Page 119 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Typical fuse and LC circuit breaker
tripping characteristics
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Page 120 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Selectivity of Low Voltage Fuses
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Page 121 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Selective tripping of fuses in meshed networks
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Siemens LV-Fuses:
Selectivity (only
Fuse F3 blows) is
guranteed at high
currents up to a
ratio of :
I K1
≤ 0.8
I K1 + I K 2
•Cable of same cross-section
•Same LV fuses
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Page 122 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Selectivity: Circuit Breaker → Downstream Fuse

I current dependent delayed overload trip


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s short time delayed overcurrent trip


tA safety margin
Id pick-up current of the s-release
ts melting time of the fuse
td delay time of the s-release

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Page 123 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Selectivity: Fuse → Downstream Circuit Breaker
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> 1s

Overload
range Selectivity check
in the short-circuit range by
> 70ms I2t - comparison

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Page 124 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Selectivity: Three similar infeeding transformators
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Necessary CB protection functions:


1. Inverse time Overload element a
2. Short time delayed I>>-element z

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Page 125 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Tripping Characteristic in Medium- and High-Voltage Network
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Page 126 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT-connections dependent on neutral-earthing

I> I>
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I>

I>

I> I> I>

I>

Obsolete!
Only in old Obsolete!
substations, Practised only with
no more electromechanical
recommended! protection. !

2- phase connection for 3- phase connection for 2- phase + earth connection


isolated networks earthed networks for an increased earth fault sensitivity
Now generally applied,
independent of neutral-earthing

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Page 127 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Measurement (analog) and digital calculation of earth current

L3 L1
L2
L3
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L2
E
IR

L3 L2
relay Digital relay
c.t.s c.t.s
L1 L1
L2 L2
L3 L3
Calculated:
IR = IL1 + IL2 + IL3 IR = I1 + I2 + I3
„Holmgreen“ connection

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Page 128 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
High sensitive earth fault relaying using a window-type CT
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3 · I0 = IL1 + IL2 + IL3

L3
L1 L2

IFault Ishield

Iearth

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Page 129 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Coordination of overcurrent relays: time grading
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0,1 1,3 1,3 0,1 Starting from the


furthest
downstream
0,1
located relay, the
0,9 0,9
operating time is
step by step
increased in
0,5 0,5 0,1
direction of the
infeed.
0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1

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Page 130 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Coordination of overcurrent relays: Current grading

Ιf
~
Ιf
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U {kV}
2
ZN = N {Ω}
Current grading S'K {MVA}
U {%} UN {kV}
2
ZTr = K Ω
100 SN {MVA}

fault location
Example: Ι >> for faults at HV-side

1 2
Netz
ΙK
UN = 100 kV 110 kV
SK = 5 GVA in 1 ΙK = = 26,5 kA
3 ⋅ 2,4 Ω line impedance
ZN = 2,4 Ω neglected!
SN = 20 MVA 110 kV
uK = 10% in 2 ΙK = = 2,4 kA
ZTr = 60,5 Ω 3 ⋅ 62,9 Ω

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Page 131 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Selectivity by current grading

~ ~
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Ι >>, t1 0,15 s Ι >, t3 0,1 s


Ι >, t2 0,3 s
ΙK

Ι >>

Ι>

t
t2

t1 t3

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Page 132 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Definite and inverse overcurrent relay characteristics
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t = 700 ms
t = 400 ms
t = 100 ms

I> I> I>

I> I> I>

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Page 133 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Inverse time characteristics acc. To IEC 60255

100
Normal inverse:
t
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[s]
0.14
t= x Tp
0.02
⎛ I ⎞
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ −1
⎝ Ip ⎠
10 Very inverse:
DT (4 s) 13.5
t= x Tp
1
⎛ I ⎞
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1
NI ⎝ Ip ⎠

1.0 Extremely inverse:


VI 80
t= x Tp
2
⎛ I ⎞
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1
EI ⎝ Ip ⎠

0.1
1 10 100 I / Ip
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Page 134 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Normal inverse setting characteristic

t
[s]
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Normal inverse:
0.14
t= x Tp
0.02
⎛ I ⎞
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ −1
⎝ Ip ⎠

NI setting characterisic of
the relay 7SJ6 (Siemens)

I / Ip

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Page 135 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Application of different O/C characteristics

Definite time (DT)


Easy to coordinate
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Constant tripping time independent of infeed variation and fault location


Normal inverse (NI)
Relativey small change in time per unit of change of current.
Most frequenly used in utility and industrial circuits.
Especially applicable where the fault magnitude is nmainly dependent on
the system generating capacity at the time of fault.
Very inverse (VI)
Suitable if there is a substantial reduction of fault current as the fault
distance from the power source increases.
Extemely inverse (EI)
Suitable for protection of distribution feeders with peak currents on
switching in (refrigerators, pumps, water heaters and so on).
Particular suitable for grading with fuses.

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Page 136 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Fault current dependent on the fault location

ZS ZL
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Infeed 0,4Ω 0,1 Ω/km 11kV


250MVA,
11 kV ~ 0.4 Ω/km 250MVA

Equivalent circuit
100%

0.1 Ω/km (cable)

fault
current Current grading
0.4 Ω/km (OH-Line) depends on the SIR ratio!

1km
fault location

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Page 137 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Time grading: definite and inverse time characteristics

A B C D
ZS
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~ X X X
51 51 51
IF

fault location
t
tg

tg

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Page 138 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Time grading of normal inverse time characteristics

Grading requirement:

t g12 = t g 23 = 200 − 400 ms tg12


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tg23

0.14 ⋅ Tp ,n 0.14 ⋅ Tp ,n +1 ⎡⎛
200 − 400 ms ⎜ Isc ⎟ ⎞
0.02

⇒ = 200 − 400 ms + ⇒ Tp,n = Tp,n +1 + ⋅ ⎢⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥
⎢⎝ I p ⎠ ⎥
0.02 0.02
⎛ Isc ⎞ ⎛ Isc ⎞ 0.14
⎣ ⎦
⎜ ⎟ −1 ⎜ ⎟ −1
⎜I ⎟ ⎜I ⎟
⎝ p⎠ ⎝ p⎠

Conventional grading principle: Isc = maximum SC-current in the network

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Page 139 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Disk emulation: Simulatin of the induction disc

Disk
position
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∆t
Trip

3 Ip

2 Ip 0,4 Ip
With
Without
Disc emulation
Reset
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1
t [s]

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Page 140 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Combined use of inverse and definit time characteristics
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The back-up tripping time can be reduced by


Combining inverse and definite time characteristics

ms
gain of
tripping
time

A B

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Page 141 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Overcurrent protection co-ordination
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Page 142 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Two definite overcurrent relays in series
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Page 143 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Protection scheme acceleration
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Page 144 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Definite overcurrent protection in cable ring
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Page 145 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Protection in closed cable ring
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Page 146 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Cable ring with advanced protection
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Page 147 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Co-ordination of distance protection at infeeding cables
and overcurrent protection at downstream feeder cables
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Page 148 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Advanced overcurrent protection
Reverse interlocking principle

1
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Direction of power flow


51 blocking bus feeder protection blockins the
2 t0 = 50ms the fast 50ms-stage at the
t= xx ms infeeding relay via blocking
bus and is only tripping its own CB
2

Infeeding relay trips within 50ms,


as blocking bus is not activated
51 51 51
+ + +
Pick-up Pick-up. Pick-up.
M
1

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Page 149 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Directional comparison + reverse interlocking

Fault between station B – C


A B C D
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I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1


I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2
I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3
I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4

R 1.1 R 1.2 R 2.1 R 2.2 R 3.1 R 3.2

R1.1 forward, blocked by R1.2


I>,t R4 R1.2 reverse, is blocking R1.1
R5 I>,t R2.1 forward, is blocking BB-protection and trips
R2.2 forward, trips
I>,t R6 R3.1 reverse, is blocking R3.2
Undelayed tripping for R3.2 forward, blocked by R3.1
busbar faults (t3 ca. 50ms) R4 no action
and cable faults using only R5 no action
R6 no action
one relay per feeder!!
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Page 150 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Directional comparison + reverse interlocking
Fault at outgoing feeder
A B C D
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I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1


I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2
I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3
I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4

R 1.1 R 1.2 R 2.1 R 2.2 R 3.1 R 3.2

R1.1 forward, blocked by R1.2


I>,t R4 R1.2 reverse, is blocking R1.1
R2.1 reverse, is blocking R2.2
R5 I>,t
R2.2 forward, blocked by R2.1
I>,t R6 R3.1 reverse, is blocking R3.2
R3.2 forward, blocked by R3.1
R4 no action
R5 no action
R6 is blocking BB-protection and trips

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Page 151 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Directional comparison + reverse interlocking

Fault at busbar B
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A B C D

I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1 I>,t1


I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2 I>,t2
I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3 I>,t3
I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4 I>,t4

R 1.1 R 1.2 R 2.1 R 2.2 R 3.1 R 3.2

R1.1 forward, blocked by R1.2


I>,t R4 R1.2 reverse, is blocking R1.1 and trips BB-protection
R2.1 reverse, is blocking R2.2 and trips BB-protection
R5 I>,t
R2.2 forward, is blocked by R2.1
I>,t R6 R3.1 reverse, is blocking R3.2
R3.2 forward, blocked by R3.1
R4 no action
R5 no action
R6 no action

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Page 152 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
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Protection Principles and Co-ordination:

- Distance Protection

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Page 153 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Basic principle of distance protection

Undelayed trip in first zone


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breaker failure

Trip in second (back-up) zone


delayed with second zone time
e.g. in case of breaker failure
etc.

Graphical
representations:

Tripping zones in the impedance plane grading chart

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Page 154 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Zone 1 - Setting guidelines
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X
Line characteristic

X1 Recommendation for Zone 1 settings:


X1 ≈ 80...90% of line reactance
R1 ≈ 100% of arc resistance
R1E≈ 100% of arc resistance
R1
R1E t1 = 0 ms
R

If the measured impedance is within the set characteristic


and the set time has expired, a TRIP command is issued

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Page 155 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Distance protection: Zone characteristics

for

• Distance zones
wa

X
rds

Line
– Inclined with line angle ϕ
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Z5

Z4 – Angle α prevents overreach of


Z2 Z1 on faults with fault
Z1B resistance that are fed from
α
Z1 both line ends
rev
ers
e

Load ϕ Load

R • Fault detection (7SA6)


forw
– no fault detection polygon: the
ard
s largest zone determines the
fault detection characteristic
Z3
– simple setting of load
encroachment area with
rev

Rmin and ϕLoad


ers
e

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Page 156 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Comparison of zone characteristics: MHO versus polygonal
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Page 157 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Grading of the zones - radial network

Z3
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Z2

A Z1 B C D

ZT
D D D Ι>>
Ι>t
∆Ι

Z1 = 0.85 ZA-B

Z2 = 0.85 (ZA-B + 0.85 ZB-C)


Z3 = 0.85 [ ZA-B + ZB-C + 0.85 ZC-D ]

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Page 158 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Grading of the zones - infeed at both ends

grading time
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(s)
0.6

0.3

Ring with grading towards opposite line end

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Page 159 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
1st Zone Settings

Normal Situation No relay in the next station


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A B A B C

Z1.zone= 0.85 x ZA,B Z2.zone = 0.85 x (ZA,B + ZB,C)

Spur line Transformer

A B A B
Z1.zone = 1.20 x ZA,B Z1.zone=Z2.zone=Z3zone Z1.Zone = 0.85 x Ztransf. Z1.zone=Z2.zone=Z3.zone

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Page 160 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
2nd Zone Settings
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A C
Z2.zone = 0.90 x ( ZA,B + 0.85 x min {ZB…} )

2nd zone impedance grading acc. to the


D shortest 1st zone setting and the next
busbar ( ZB,D < ZB,C < ZB,F ), hereby spur
lines are neglected (ZB,E).

E Z2.zone = 0.90 x ( ZA,B + 0,85 x ZB,D )

B F

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Page 161 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
2nd Zone Settings in Case of Short and Long Lines in Series
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Example

long line short cable line

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Page 162 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
2nd Zone Settings in Case of Short and Long Lines in Series

Protection strategy 1 Alternative:


Protection relay R2 at
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the terminal B can be


R1 R2 graded with 2nd zone
A B C
in reverse direction.
Z2.zone = 0.85 x ( ZAB + 0.85 x ZAC ) < 1.00 ZAB
Comment: absolutely selective grading schedule, but short-circuit
faults on the last part of long line will be tripped in the 3rd zone.

Protection strategy 2

A B C

Z2.zone = 1.2 x ZAB


Comment: fast 1st zone and 2nd zone will trip all short-circuit faults on
the long line, but no selective tripping in the 2nd and higher zones.

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Page 163 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
3rd Zone Settings
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A E

C F

B D G

Z3.zone = 0.85 x ( ZA,B + 0.85 ( ZB,C + 0.85 x ZC,E ) )


ZB,C + 0.85 x ZC,E < ZB,D + 0.85 x ZD,G

Grading according to the shortest 2nd zone of the outgoing lines at


the next station . Fault at station C will not be cleared with 3rd zone!
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Page 164 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
3rd Zone Settings
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Page 165 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Infeed Cable with Distance Protection
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Page 166 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Impedance Plan with Relay Zone Reach
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Page 167 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
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Coordination of Relays, Fuses and


LV-Circuit breakers
Case Study

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Page 168 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Inverse time Relay Setting Parameters
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I>

Phase Fault : Ip Tp
I> T> *)
I >> T >> T>
I >>> T >>>

I >>
T >>
Earth Fault : I Ep TEp
I E> T E> *) I >>>
I E>> T E>>

T >>>
*) characteristic

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Page 169 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Definite Time Relay SettingCharacteristics

time [s]
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I>

T>

I >>

T >>

current [A]

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Page 170 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Relay inverse Time Characteristics acc. to IEC and BS142

time [s]
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Ip
Tp normal inverse

Typ very inverse

extremly inverse

I>

T>

current [A]

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Page 171 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
LV Circuit Breaker Setting Parameters
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Phase Fault : Ir tc
Id td Ir
Ii ti tc

Id
td
Earth Fault : Ig tg
Ii
I2t=const.
ti

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Page 172 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Protection Area - „Motor“
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thermal
Motor curve
I rated

I start Short-circuit current


bandwidth

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Page 173 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Protection Area - „Transformer“
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thermal
Curve

SC limit
secondary

In
Rush SC limit
primary

time limit of
Protection below

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Page 174 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Example: Network 20/6/0.4 kV
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Page 175 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Data base for short circuit calculation
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Page 176 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Short circuit calculation results
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Page 177 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Summary of results - maximum 3-phase short circuit
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Page 178 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Summary of results - minimum 2-phase short circuit
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Page 179 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT data and protection devices
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Page 180 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Protection Coordination – Motor feeder
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Requirements:

Ip ~ 110 % * In,motor

tmot[Istart,motor] < tcurve

Istart,motor < I>> < Isc,min

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Page 181 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Protection Coordination (1)– Transformer feeder 20/0,4kV
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Check settings !!!

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Page 182 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Protection Coordination (2)– Transformer feeder 20/0,4kV
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Requirements HV side:

I> ~ I>>sec.side
T> = T>>sec side + 1 time step

I>> > Isc,max of sec. side


I>> < Isc,min of prim side

Requirements LV side:

Ip ~ 1.1 * In,tr

I>> ~ 3 – 4 * In,tr
I>> < Isc,min

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Page 183 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Protection Coordination (3)– Transformer feeder 20/0,4kV
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Page 184 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Protection Coordination (4)– Transformer feeder 20/0,4kV
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Page 185 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Protection Coordination –Transformer 20/6kV
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Page 186 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Check Protection Coordination – Motor & Transformer
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Page 187 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI