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ITU SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION M

THE DEFINITIVE VISUAL GUIDE


TO THE WORLD'S WILDLIFE
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012

http://archive.org/details/animalOOdavi
ANIMAL
.
Oft

v .••••» **
__. .

**'•"
am Editors-in-Chief
David Burnie & Don E. Wilson
1/ i\ik in, Ni v> Y( irk. Sydney, Delhi,
Paris, Mi nii h, andJohannesbi rg

DORLING KlNDERSLEY, LONDON StNEWYORK


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Published in the United States by DK Publishing, Inc


375 Hudson Street. New York, New York 10014
First American edition, 2001
First paperback edition, 2005
2 4 6 8 10 9-531
Copyright © 2001, 2005 Dorling Kindersley Limited

under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions.


All rights reserved
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or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited.

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Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Animal.
p. cm.
ISBN 0-7894-7764-5 (alk. paper)
ISBN 0-7566-1634-4 (paperback)
1. Zoology. I. DK Publishing, Inc
QL45.2 A56 2001
590-dc21
2001028346
Color reproduction by Colourscan. Singapore
Printed and bound in Hong Kong, China by L.Rcx Printing Ltd

see our complete catalog at


www.dk.com
1
Editors-in-chief David Burnie & Don E. Wilson

Main Consultants
MAMMALS BIRDS REPTILES AMPHIBIANS
Dr Juliet Clutton-Brock Dr Francois Vuilleumier Chris Mattison Professor Tim Halliday
& & & &
Dr Don E. Wilson Carla Dove Ronald Cromkii Ronald Crombie

FISH NVERTEBRATES
Professor Richard Rosenblatt Dr George C. McGavin. Dr Richard Barnes. Dr Frances Dipper
& &
Carole Baldwin Dr Stephen D. Cairns, Timothy Coffer, Dr Kristian Fauchald. Dr M.G. Harasewych,
Dr Stanley Weitzman Gary F. Hevel, Dr W. Duane Hope, Dr Brian F. Klnsley. Dr David L. Pawson, Dr Klaus Ruetzler

Contributors and Consultants


Dr Richard Barnes Dr Richard Cloutier Dr Anthony Gill Dr Douglas Long Prof. Christopher Perrins Dr David D. Stone

Dr Paul Bates Malcolm C. Coulter Dr Joshua Ginsberg Dt Manuel Marin Dr Ted Pictsch Dr Mark I

Dr Simon K. Bearder Dominic M. Couzens Dr Colin Groves Chris Mattison Dr Tony Prater Dr Da\id H. Thomas

Deborah Behler Dr Timothy M. Crowe Dr Jurgen H. Hafler Dr George C. McGavin Dr Galen B. Rathbun Dr Dominic Tollii

John Behler Dr Kim Dennis-Bryan Prol Tim Halliday DrJeremy McNeil Dr [an Redmond Dr Jane Wheeler

Keith Betton Dr Christopher Dickman Gavin Hanke Dr Rodrigo A. Medellin Drjami s 1) Rising Dr Ben Wilson

Dr Michael dc L Brooke Joseph A. DiCostanzo Dr Robert S. Hoffman Dr Fridtjof Melilum Robert H Robins Dr David B

Dr Charles R. Brown Dr Philip Donoghue Dr Cindy Hull Chris Morgan JelT Sailer l)i Hans Winkler

Dr Donald Bruning Dr Nigel Dunstone Dr Barry J. Hutchins Rkk Morris Dr Si i >tt A. Schaeffcr Dr Ke\in Zippel

George H Bin, Dr S. Keith Eltringham Dr Paul A. Johnsgard Dr Bryan G Nelson Dr Karl Schuchmann

Dr Kent E. Carpenter Prof. Brock Fenton Dr .Angela Kepler Dr Gary L. Nuechterlein Prof John D Skinner

Norma G. Chapman Joseph Forshaw Dr Jiro Kikkawa Jemima Parry-Jones Dr Andre* Smith

Ben Clemens Susan D Gardieff Leader-Williams Malcolm Pearch Dr Ronald L. Smith


CONTENTS
PlUFACt RODENTS 144
Aroui uiis book 10
The Animal Squirrel-like rodents 146

Kingdom Mouselike rodents


Cavylike rodents
150
157

CETACEANS
Introduction 12 Baleen whales
160
162
Toothed whales 166
WHAT ARE ANIMALS? 14
CARNIVORES 178
EVOLUTION 16
Dogs and relatives 180
CLASSIFICATION 18
Bears 188
ANIMAL GROUPS 20
Raccoons and relatives 194
ANATOMY 24
Mustelids 196
BEHAVIOR 26
Civets and relatives 204
LIFE CYCLES 28
Hyenas and aardwolf 206
ANIMALS IN DANGER 30
Cats 208
CONSERVATION 32
mammals 84 SEALS AND SEALIONS 216
ELEPHANTS 220
MAMMALS 86 AARDVARKL 222
Habitats 34 EGG-LAYING MAMMALS 90 HYRAXES 222
MARSUPIALS 91 DUGONG AN D MAN ATE ES 223
WORLD HABITATS 36 INSECTIVORES 102 HOOFED MAMMALS 224
GRASSLAND 38 BATS 108 Horses and relatives 226
DESERT 42 FLYING LEMURS 114 Rhinoceroses 228
TROPICAL FOREST 46 ELEPHANT-SHREWS 114 Tapirs 231
TEMPERATE FOREST 50 TREE SHREWS 115 Pigs 232
CONIFEROUS FOREST 54 PRIMATES 116 Hippopotamuses . ... 234
MOUNTAINS 58 Prosimians 118 Camels and relatives 236
POLAR REGIONS 62 Monkeys 122 Deer 238
FRESHWATER 66 Apes . 132 Pronghorn 241
OCEANS 70 ANTEATERS AND RELATIVES 138 Giraffe and okapi 242
COASTS AND CORAL REEFS 74 PANGOLINS 140 Cattle and relatives 244
RABBITS. HARES. AND PIKAS 141 i MAM MALS IN DANGER 257

'

I
TROGONS 326
AND RELATIVES
KINGFISHERS 327 FISHES 458
WOODPECKERS AND TOUCANS 332
PASSERINES 336 FISHES 460
BIRDS IN DANGER 361 JAWLESS FISHES 464
CARTILAGINOUS FISHES 465
sharks 466
skates and rays 475

BIRDS 258 REPTILES 362 BONY FISHES 478


Fleshy-finned fishes 480
BIRDS 260 REPTILES 364 Primitive ray-finned fishes 481
OSTRICH 264 TORTOISES AND TURTLES Bony-tongued fishes 482
RHEAS 264 TUATARAS Tarpons and eels 483
CASSOWARIES AND EMUS 265 SNAKES Herrings and relatives 486
KIWIS 265 Boas, pythons, and relatives Catfishes and relatives 488
TINAMOUS 265 colubrids Salmon and relatives 493
PENGUINS 266 Elapids 391 Dragonfishes and relatives 500
LOONS 268 Vipers 394 Lanternfishes and relatives 501
GREBES 268 blind and thread snakes 399 Cod and anglereishls 502
ALBATROSSES AND PETRELS 270 LIZARDS 400 Spiny-rayed fishes 505
PELICANS AND RELATIVES 272 Iguanas and relatives 402 FISHES IN DANGER _ 521

HERONS AND RELATIVES 277 Geckos and snake-lizards 409


FLAMINGOS 280 Skinks and relatives 412
WATERFOWL 282 Anguimorph lizards 418
BIRDS OF PREY 286 AMPHISBAENIANS 423
GAMEB1RDS 295 CROCODILES AND ALLIGATORS 424
CRANES AND RELATIVES 298 REPTILES IN DANGER 427
WADERS. GULLS. AND AUKS 307
PIGEONS 309
SAN DG ROUSE 310 AMPHIBIANS 428 INVERTEBRATES 524
PARROTS 311
SPONGES 528
CUCKOOS AND TURACOS 315 AMPHIBIANS 430
CNIDARIANS 529
OWLS 316 NEWTS AND SALAMANDERS 432
FLATWORMS 533
NIGHTJARS AND FROGMOUTHS 371 CAECILIANS 439
SEGMENTED WORMS 534
HUMMINGBIRDS AND SWIFTS 373 FROGS AND TOADS 440
MOUSEB1RDS
ROUNDWORMS 535
376 AMPHIBIANS IN DANGER 457
MINOR PHYLA 536
MOLLUSKS 538
ARTHROPODS 546
Insects 548
Centipedes and millipedes 578
Crustaceans 579
Sea-spiders 585
Horseshoe crabs 585
ARACHxms 586
ECHINODERMS 594
T^ERTEBRATE CHORDATES 596
'ERTEBRATES IN DANGER S07
PREFACE
This book is \ < elebrai k >n of the ri< hness of the the patient help of experts in the field. The result is an out-
animal kingdom, produced at a critical moment in its standing collection of photographs that we believe to be
history. Compiled by an international team of over 7(1 unparalleled in a book of this kind.

zoologists, biologists, and naturalists, it forms a complete

survey of the animal world, from familiar species that are


The species profiles themselves include a range of new

encountered almost every day. to extreme rarities that


additions to the catalog of the world's animal life. Among
them are newly recognized kinds of monkeys, a third species
only a lew scientists have ever seen and fewer still have
of elephant, and some of the world's most elusive whales. At
had the chance to study. It includes not only vertebrates,
the other end of the size spectrum, new thinking is reflected in
but also a broad selection of invertebrate life creatures
the coverage of invertebrates, where classification and species
that form the immense hut often overlooked majority of totals draw on the
latest research in this rapidly moving field.
animal species on earth. In addition,some long-accepted aspects of behavior are
brought up to date as new studies reveal that, even with well-
Altogether, oxer 2. (Hill species are profiled in Animal. Nearly known animals, our knowledge is often far from complete.
all arc illustrated with either a color photograph or artwork.
These images represent the combined work of hundreds of Animal follows today's general consensus on how different
wildlife photographers and professional zoologists, and they animal groups should be classified, but it also points out places

show not only the animals themselves, but also key aspects where opinions differ, or where often as a result of cladistic
of their biology and ecology. Because of the difficulties of analysis - views have recently changed. Throughout the book,
locating and photographing some species in the wild, a color-coded panels give a summary of the classification levels
number of the photographs show specimens in captivity, but for each group of animals, making it easy to see how they fit

the majority are of animals living in their native habitat. The into the broad sweep of the animal world. The book is

pictures include award-winning portraits taken by some of the organized with mammals at the start, and invertebrates at the

world's leading nature photographers, as well as rare images end. and. within each group, the sequence of animals follows
that have been tracked down after months of research, with the order generally adopted by experts working in each field.
At a time when animal life faces a great variety of threats, television, the loss of smaller and less appealing animals
the remorseless decline in species numbers forms a sobering rarely elicits the same concern. Yet many biologists believe

backdrop to modern life. Statistics suggest that, timing the that the current steep decline in the earth's biodiversity

production of this book, as many as 5,000 animal spec ies m.t\ triggered mainly by habitat change, but also by pollution and
have disappeared. The vast bulk of these will have been small unsustainable exploitation is one of the greatest threats that
invertebrates, unnoticed even by experts, but some more affects our planet today. When species disappear, ecological

visible casualties also feature on the list. Among them was the links become disrupted, and the checks and balances that

last wild Spix's macaw, which vanished in December 2000, operate in nature risk being stretched until the) finally break.
after a decade as the last free-ranging member of its kind. If this happens, the result is ecological instability a situation

that can have grave implications for animal and plant life, and
It is a poignant fact that, in this book's lifetime, some other therefore for human welfare as well. In the distant past, life

animals it features are likely to share the same fate. At the end has climbed back from even greater crises, although the
of each section of this book, lists summarize species that are proi ess has taken immense lengths of time. But there is no
the most likely victims - animals that are currently classed as precedent for a sustained assault on biodiversity triggered by
critically endangered by the International Union for the a single species - one that now dominates life on earth.

Conservation of Nature IUCN . These include a host of well-

known species, such as the tiger, the black rhinoceros, and the Unlike previous generations, we live in an age in which there
orangutan, as well as a collection of amphibians, fishes, is growing recognition of this danger, and of the potentially
insects, and other invertebrates, whose general status is often fragile state of the living world. Wildlife tan no longer be taken
poorly known. Some, like the Spi.x"s macaw, may be preserved for granted, and the wish to conserve rather than exploit it is

in captivity. Others are likely to vanish forever. something that unites people across the globe and has given
rise to a number of high-profile conservation organizations.

While most people would mourn the loss of animals such as Knowledge and awareness are essential first steps: this book
tigers, bears, and rhinoceroses, which have become very aims to provide both in a way that conveys the variety, beauty,

familiar to most of us through zoos and nature programs on and richness of animal life as a whole.

David Burnie & Don E. Wilson


Editors-in-Chief
ABOUT THIS BOOK

ABOUT THIS BOOK The Animal


Animal organized into three main sections: a general
is Kingdom
INTRJ 1< ).\ to animals and their lives; a section on
)i)i .'( 1 This section of Animal is divided into
the world's HABITATS; and the main part of the book, six chapters: mammals, birds, reptiles,
amphibians, fishes, and invertebrates.
THE Animal KINGDOM, which is dedicated to the
Each chapter begins with an intro-
description of animal groups and species. At the end of
duction to the animal group. Lower-
the book, a detailed glossary defines all zoological and ranked groups such as orders and
technical terms used, while a full index lists all the groups families are then introduced, followed
and species featured, by both scientific name and English by profiles of the species classified
common name, including alternative common names. within them. The invertebrates are
organized slightly differently (see right),
while passerine birds are profiled at
family level, with only representative
Introduction species shown. A list of critically

Animal begins with an overview cycles, evolution, behavior, and endangered species ends each chapter.
of all aspects of animal life. This conservation. In addition, there
includes an account of what an is a comprehensive presentation
animal is - and how it differs of the classification scheme that
Habitat symbols Rivers, streams, and all flowing

from other living things. It also underpins the species profiles in water
Symbols in profiles are listed as shown
examines animal anatomy, life The Animal Kingdom. below, not in order of main occurrence. 1L Mangrove swamps, above or below
the watertine
^rT Temperate forest, including
woodland
has Coastal areas, including beaches
and cliifs. areas just above high
^W Coniferous forest, including tide, in the intertidal zone, and
woodland in shallow, offshore waters

fiL Tropical forest and rainforest Seas and oceans


m*. Mountains, highlands, scree slopes Coral reefs and waters immediately
-T. Desert and semidesert
around them

jkj*. Open habitats including


Polar regions, including tundra and
grassland, moor, heath, savanna,
fields, scrub JOL Urban areas, including buildings,

WSS Wetlands and all still bodies of


parks, and gardens
water, including lakes, ponds, Liilil Parasitic: living on or inside
pools, marshes, bogs, and swamps another animal

Data field SEX Fishes only


Whether the species has separate males
Summary information is given at the start
Measurements are and females Male/Femalt . i> a
of each profile. for adult
Hermaphrodite, or a Sequential hermaphrodite.
males of the species and may be a
Habitats range, single-figure average, or
typical
maximum, OCCURRENCE Invertebrates oni)
depending on available records. + indicates Number of species in the family, or
This section looks at the world's life, and the types of animals an estimate based on available data.
class,

phylum; their distribution and the micro-


main animal habitats. Coverage found there. The pages that habitats they can be found in.
of each habitat is divided into immediately follow describe how
LENGTH all groups, except Invertebrates'
MAMMALS: head and body BIRDS: tip of bill
Status [all groups
two parts. The first (illustrated those animals have adapted their to tip of tail. REPTILES: length of carapace Animal urn* the IUCN see p. 31 and other
below) describes die habitat itself, anatomy and beha\iour to suit for tortoises and turtles; head and body, threat categories, as follows:

including climate and plant including tail, for all other species, fishes &
its the conditions in their habitat.
amphibians: head and body, including tail. EXTINCT IN THE WILD IL c N Known only
to survive in captivity or as a naturalized
description of more specific dotted lines identify distinct
TAIL Mammals only) Length.
habitat sub-type zones within habitat population well outside its natural range.

WEIGHT Mammals. Birds, and Fishes CRITICALLY ENDANGERED II I N Facing an


only, Body weight. extremely high risk of extinction in the wild
in the immediate future.
SOCIAL UNIT Mammals only ENDANGERED R N ( Fai tag a VCT) high risk
Whether a species lives mainly alone
of extinction in the wild in the near future.
Individual ), in a Group, in a Pair, or varies
vulnerable it. ( N Facing a high risk
between these units .Variable).
of extinction in the wild in the medium-
Plumage (Birds oni) term future.
Whether sexes are alike or differ. LOWER risk it t \ Dependent on
conservation measures in order not Go
Migration Birds only)
qualify for one of the above threat
Whether a bird is a Migrant, Partial migrant,
categories; or close to qualit
\onmigrant, or Xomndic.
\-ulnerable; or of least concern.
BREEDING Reptiles and Fishes onrj COMMON non-U cn fairh widely
Whether the species is Mnparous, Oviparous, distributed and found at rchuv.K high
(parous. densities throughout the I

HABIT Reptiles and Amphibians i nh LOCALLY COMMON non-U ( \ found at

relatively high densities within a restricted


Whether the species is partly or entirely
Terrestrial, Aquatic, Burrouing. or Arboreal. area or areas.

BREEDING SEASON Amphibians only For fuller details see the IUCN web site

'ap showing global photographi [ho n prtsi niatwt feature on I


The time of year in which breeding occurs. www.hi< n

distribution of habitat
— 1

ABOUT THIS BOOK


< Major groups
Each of the 6 majoi animal groups is introduced with an
overview of
INVERTEBRAI 1. ANIMALS
its de/u ics. These pages
(
key aspects of evolution, lift cycle, and behavior. that in ordei to provide representative

< Phyla, classes, .1 whole, this

and orders book focuses on profiling thi


taxonom , order,
Within each main,
and famil) rathei than individual
lower-ranked groups such as
orders art described m separate i I'll- introducdon to an order or class,
1

introductions. These identify supported by a description of one or


the animalsfound in the group.
family illustrated b) represi
km characteristics, and i

explain mam of the terms used illustrated bv species thai repi


in the species profiles.
distinct groups or types withii
< i nstac cans . a description of a phylum
illirstr.il

that phylum (used for minor ph\ I

< Lower-ranked croi ps


In main chapters, animal groups are divided
into smaller groups, such as families.

An introditi turn to each of these smaller


sections describes common anatomical
features. Relevant aspects of reproduction
and behavior are also introduced.

taxonomii ranks above die group are


^^^.
Classification key named upper pan ol the table,
in the
In each animalgroup introduction, a while the number of lower rank- thai
V Species profiles
color-coded panel shows the position in it contains are shown below it. In some Over 2,000 u ild animals an profiled
the animal kingdom of the group being introductions, an extra Classification in TheAMMAL KWGDOi
desi nln d The group is identified bv a Note is included, to list subgroups or profile contains a text summary and.
white outline and an arrow The idciuih areas of debate.
in must cases, a color illustration and
a distribution map.
SCIENTIFIC NAME Data field
The species scientific ' Core information is provided in summary
name appears in a form at the start of each species ,-rttn. It,
colored band at the categories vary between groups
start of each entry _

Felis yagouaroundi
Common name
r
common name "lasruarundi
°
appears below the '

P ^tK~i '•""-5

scientific nan
alternative common \rs
"names given in the ~
^*«\\v
text profile below W
Location 5 USA to South
Location .— -
Social unit Individual

Scaurs Lower risk


Color maps indicate
the world distribution
for each ./
3l^ ta
further details given u
the caption below
Mm< mustelid than felid in overall
oportions, with a pointed snout,
'
long both, .mil shortish lc«s. the
Habitat symbols jaguarundi has several color forms
These define the ol Luipatterned fur, from blat k
•'- in which m, link in forests to pair' gray-brown
the animal is found 01 red in dry shrubland. I his cal
(see left for key).
hums In day, often
on the ground,
Additional
information may
in habitats ranging from semiarid Fi m RE BOXES
Profiles men
also be given in the scrub in rainforest and swamp. It*.
features on anatomy
text profile below 'main pre) are birds, rodents, rabbits,
matron
reptiles, and invertebrates 'blue box/, behavior

Text profile /
'i (green box)
Each entry has a
description of the
most characteristic Feature
and noteworthy profiles t>
features of the species S/>,,i, s oj particular

double pu
Illustrations _ I la s,
_

consist o) a
Most entnes include
a color photograph vith fen tu 1

or artwork of the boxes, a spectacular


he animals close-up pt
IK normally and. in sum, cases,
adult males
an actum sequence.
Animals form the largest of the natural

world's five kingdoms. Although they


evolved after other living things, they are
now the dominant form of life on earth.
Among the attributes that have made them
so successful are the abilities to adapt their
behaviour and to move. In addition to the
features that set animals apart, this section
looks at their evolution, their often
complex responses to the world around
them, and the way biologists classify them.
It also examines the manv threats thev lace.
WHAT ARE ANIMALS?

WHAT ARE ANIMALS? reproduce. Insects, on the other hand, are easy
prey for many animals, and their small size
means that their bodies are not as ener?\ -efficient
as those of large animals. But. since thev can
WITH ALMOS1 TWO million SPECIES identified to date, and even more breed rapidly when conditions are favorable,
than that awaiting discovery, animals are the most varied living things on their numbers can increase at a prodigious rate.

the planet. For over a billion years, they have adapted to the changing
world around them, developing a vast array of different lifestyles in VERTEBRATES AND
the struggle to survive. At one extreme, animals include fast-moving INVERTEBRATES
predators, such as sharks, big cats, and birds of prey: at the other, there Almost all the world's largest
are the inconspicuous sorters and sifters of the animal world's leftovers. and most familiar animals
are vertebrates - animals
living unseen in the soil or on the deep seabed. Together, they make up
that have backbones. They
the animal kingdom - a vast collection of living things that are linked include the fastest animals

by a shared biology and that occupy a dominant place in life on earth. on land, in water, and in
the air, and also the world's
most intelligent species, one
CHARACTERISTICS THE SCALE OF ANIMAL LIFE of which - Homo sapiens - is
quite outstanding in this
OF ANIMALS The world's largest lhing animals, baleen whales, latter respect.
INATRTEBRATE
Animals are usually easy to distinguish from other can be up to 82ft ;25mi long and weigh 132 tons. Vertebrates are all related to
MAJORITY
forms of life because most of them can move. At the other end of the spectrum are microscopic each other, sharing a common Vertebrates make up
However, while this rule works for most animals organisms - rotifers and tardigrades only ancestry that stretches back less than 3 percent of
that live on land, it does not apply to some that 0.05mm long; - and submicroscopic flies and millions of years. However, the worlds animals.
live in w ater. Here, many animals spend their beetles (about 0.2mm long These animals are so
. despite leading the animal The remaining 97
adult lives in one place, and some have trailing tiny that their weight is negligible. Even so. thev kingdom in so many fields, percent are
arms or tentacles that make them look very much possess all the body sy stems needed for survival. vertebrates make up a tiny invertebrates.

like plants. A more reliable way of identifying Different body sizes allow animals to live in minority of the animal species
animals is by their basic biological features: their different ways. Whales have few natural predators; known today. The vast majority of species are
bodies are composed of many cells, and they have and the same is true of elephants, the largest land invertebrates - animals without backbones.
nerves and muscles diat enable them to respond animals. Their massive bodies are highly energy- Unlike vertebrates, invertebrates often have very
to the world around them. Most important of all. efficient because they process food on such a large little in common with each other, apart from their
they get the energy they need by taking in food. scale. However, they take a long time to a backbone. The giant squid, the largest
Animals are highly complex, and remarkably reach maturity, and thus are slow to but
responsive, compared with other forms of life.

Even the simplest animals react quickly to changes


around them, shrinking aw av from potential
danger or reaching out for food. Animals with
well-developed nervous systems can go much
further: they can learn from experience - an
ability that is unique to the animal world. MINIATURE ANIMALS
.Microscopic tardigrades (also
STATIC LIFE
called uater bears) move abou.
Sea squirts are
on tiny legs. Their behavior is
typical "sessile"
as complex as that of tndmab
animals: they spend
thousands of times their size.
their adult lives

fixed to a solid
surface. The young,
which resemble
tadpoles, can move
freely, enabling sea

squirts to spread.

>**
KINGDOMS OF LIFE PLANTS FUNGI PROTISTS MONERANS
Biologists classify all living things into
Animals are multicellular Plants are multicellular Most fungi are Prorists are single-celled Monerans. or bacteria,
overall groups, called kingdoms. The organisms that obtain organisms that grow by multicellular. The*, organisms that typically are the simplest fully
members of each kingdom are alike in energy by ingesting food. harnessing the energy in collect energy from lKr in water, or in independent lhing
fundamental ways, such as in the nature .-Ml animals are capable Light. Thmugh a process orgaruc matter, which permanently moist things. Their cefls are
of their cells or in the way they obtain of moving at some
least called photosynthesis, they do not ingest but habitats. Their cells are prokaryobc. meaning

energy In the most widely used system of pans of themselves, and they use this energy to break down externally larger and more complex they lack organelles - the
many can move from build up organic matter using rnicTOseopic than those of bacteria. specialized structures
classification there are fi\-e kingdoms, of
place to place. from simple materials, threads that spread Some prorists beha\e like more complex celk use
which the animal kingdom is the largest. creating most of the food throughout their food. plants, collecting energy for carrying out different
In recent years, a new classification on which animals rerv. Many fungi are too small from sunlight; others, tasks. Bacteria gather
system has been proposed. In this, to be seen, but some known as protozoa, are energy from various
there are three "superkingdoms ": form large ^^^^^ more like animals, sources, including

Archaebactcria. the Eubacteria. and


Eukarvota. The first and second reflect
chemical and physical differences within
^
fruiting

^^
^^H A acquiring
energy bv
ingesting food.
organic and

bacteria. The third contains the living: PARAMECIUM


TERRESTRIAL flBM
things that, unlike bacteria. Iwe complex
cells: prorists, fungi, plants, and animals.
WHAT ARE ANIMALS;

SUPPORT SYSTEMS in warm conditions, but they slow down if the separate animals. < ailed polyps, that capture food,
Many invertebrates mch temperature drops. The) ( an absorb some heal l>\ digest it, or reproduce. They dangle beneath a
as leeches have no hard basking in sunshine, but if the temperature falls giant gas-filled polyp thai acts as the colony's float.

body parts; to keep theii below about 50"F (10°C) their muscles work so
shape they rely on the slowly thai they End difficult to move. Birds and
FUEL FOR LIFE
it

pressure q) their hudy fluid: mammals, on the other hand, are barely affected
Simple chordates, which by this kind of temperature change. Their internal Animals obtain their energy from organic matter,
unhide lancelets, have
heat and good insulation enable them to remain or food. They break food up by digesting it, and
a strengthening rod or
active even when temperatures fall below freezing then they absorb the substances that are released.
notochord that runs along
These substances are carried into the animal's
the length of their ho/lies.
cells, where they arc ombim-d with oxvgen to
VertebraU r, which are
mure advanced chordates,
INDIVIDUALS AND release energy. This process - called cellular
c

-
are the only animals COLONIES respiration is like a highly controlled form
of burning, with food acting as the fuel.
thai 'lave internal

skeletons made
Physically, vertebrates function as separate units, The majority of animals are either herbivores,

of bone.
even though they may live together in families or which eat plants, or carnivores, which eat other
larger groups. In the invertebrate world it is not animals. Carnivores include predators, which hunt
unusual for animals to be permanently linked and kill and
which feed in or on
prey, parasites,
together,forming clusters called colonies. Colonies the living bodies of other animals. There are also
often look and behave like single animals. Most omnivores, which eat both animal and plant food,
it is very much an exception. Most invertebrates are static, but some - particularly ones that live and scavengers, which feed on dead matter - from
are tiny, and many live in inaccessible habitats, in the sea - can move about. decaying leaves and corpses to fur and even bones.
which explains why they are still poorly known All animals, regardless of lifestyle, ultimately
compared with vertebrates. provide food for other animals. All are connected
by food chains, which pass food - and its energy -
from one species to another. However, individual
WARM- AND COLD- food chains are rarely more than five or six links

BLOODED ANIMALS long. because up to 90 percent of an


This is

animal's energy cannot be passed on: it is used


Most animals are cold-blooded (or ectothermic), up in making the animal's own body work.
which means that their body temperature is
determined by that of their surroundings.
CARNIVORE 3
Birds and mammals are warm-blooded (or
The food chain ends with a "top
endothermic), which means that they generate
predator" - in this rase an osprey When
their own heat and maintain a constant internal LIVING TOGETHER it dies, the energy in its body is used by
temperature regardless of the conditions outside. This branching coral is covered with a living "skin " that scavengers, such as insects and bacteria.
This difference in body temperature has some connects its individual animals, or polyps. The polyps are in
far-reaching effects on the way animals live; this is constant contact with each oilier but otherwise lead separate lives.

because animal bodies work best when they are Each has a set of stinging tentacles and catches its own food.
warm. Cold-blooded animals, such as reptiles, CARNIVORE 2
amphibians, and insects, operate very effectively Colonial species include some of the world's The perch lives almost exclusively <

most remarkable invertebrates. Pyrosomes, for other animals. A perch feeding on dragonfly
HEAT CONTROL
example, form colonies shaped like test tubes nymphs is a second-level carnivore, receiving food
A ba\hng butterfly that has already been through two other animals.
that are large enough for a diver to enter. But. in
soaks up the sunshine.
ecological terms, the most important colonial
By basking, or by
hiding in the shade.
animals are reef-building corals, which create
butterflies and other complex structures that provide havens for a
cold-blooded animals range of other animals. In reef-building corals, CARNIVORE 1

can adjust their themembers of each colony are usually identical. Dragonfly nymphs are typit al (irst-level carnivores,
Usui- mixture Of speed and stealth to hunt small
But in some colonial species, the members have
,i

body temperature.
prey. Tadpoles .ur a good rood source
Even so, they have different shapes designed for different tasks. For
and often feature in their diet.
difficulty coping with example, the Portuguese man o'war - an oceanic
extreme temperatures, drifter that has a high!) potent sting - looks like
:,, i., /..'
> s/i, , i. .

a jell) lish but consists < il

HERBIVORE
During their early lives, tadpoles use their jaws to reed
on water plants B\ digesting the plant food, and
therefore turning it into animal tissue, die, change
plan! l< od into a form that i ai n i ires i .Hi use,

At

rK PLANT
IK synthesizing sunlight, plant
theenergj that drives most ol life on earth
In this food i li.im. waterweed is the Erst link,

rW
i I
thai i .m then I* passed on

FOOD CHAIN
INSULATION / his is a '!.
vote habitat
In sub em .iindiliuns. sujieib nisiiliilinii keeps
:>d through the chain, bean
tlie body temperature these young mpt ret ymism mis anotha Tht
of <

chain me
penguins at an almost constant I til I W '
animal that has no nature
mimals body is uliimuuh |

I huh hot lit soil.


EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION nunc

ranges, 01 bv
isolated groups,
bv physical barriers, sue h
> hanges
whi

in
h are kept apart either
.is seas and mountain
behavior. If these groups
remain separate for long enough, they evolve
LIKE ALL LIVING THINGS, animals undergo changes as each new their own i harai teristii adaptations and become
generation succeeds the one before. These changes are usually so si i dilli can no longer interbreed.
rent that the)
Speciation is difficult In observe because it
slight that they are very difficult to see, but oxer thousands or millions
occurs SO slowly, bul evidence of it is not hard to
of years they can completely alter the way animals look and also the find. Manv animals from butterflies to freshwater

w.i\ they behave. This process of change is called evolution. It allows fish show distinct regional differences. In time.
these Iih al forms or subspe< ies can become
animals to exploit new opportunities and to adapt to changes that take spe< ies in theii <>w n right.

place in the world around them. Evolution works by modifying existing


characteristics, usually through a series of extremely small mutations. EXTINCTION
The result of this is that every animal is a living store of evolutionary Extinction is a natural feature ni~ evolution
history one that helps show how different species are related. bo ause for some spec ies to succeed, others must
fail. Since life began, about 99 percent of the
earth's spec ies have- disappeared and. on at least
This weeding-out process called natural selection. live occasions, huge numbers have died out in a
ANIMAL ADAPTATION Natural selection operates
is

all the time, invisibly relatively short time. The most recent of these
Evolution is made possible by the variations thai si rceniini all come about
the subtle variations that mass extinctions, about 65 million years ago.
exist within animals, and it occurs because animals when animals reproduce. Lor example, for main swept away the dinosaurs and many other forms
compete with each other for limited rcsourc es. animals, camouflage is a valuable aid to survival. ol file. However, despite such catastrophes, the
Mil h as spare and food. In this competition, some Natural selection ensures that any improvements in total number of living
iharai teristii s prove to be mine useful than others, an animal's camouflage a slight change in color, spe< ies has. until
and their owners are more likely to thrive, and lo pattern, or behavior - are passed on to the next recently, followed
generation, increasing its chances of survival and a generally

BLENDING IN therefore chances of producing young.


its upward trend.

Most owls ham brou n plumage,


Adaptations such as camouflage last only as Today, the extinction
which helps them to hide m tret s.
long as they are useful: if an animal's lifestyle rate is increasing
'
i snou i owl, from the m changes, the path that evolution follows i hanges rapidly as a result of
This has happened many times with human
treeless

while
Arctic tundra,
- an adaptation thai
is mamlj
•• too.
some lineages have evolved the power of
birds:

flight in natural
interference

increast i its chances of ti .


Only to lose it when they lake up life on land. ec osystems.
catchingfood and „'v»?v i
4'
J^'/tt
raisingyoung. ,..„*. .

SPECIES AND SPECIATION


A species is am
group of animals that has the VANISHING SPECIES
potential to interbreed and that, under normal Tlie golden liiad.Jrnm the highlands «/ Central America, is oru

circumstances, does not breed with any other oj ilu feu. species whosi apparent extinction has been closely
.. .
- group. Speciation is the evolutionary process that monitored. Il normally breeds in /ores/floor pools, but sina
brings about new species. It usually occurs whin the early 1990s the species has vanished without trace.

an existing species becomes split up into two or


TAWNY OUI,
Primates, tropical birds, and many amphibians
SNOWY OWL
are particularly threatened. For the foreseeable
produce the most young. Animals with less useful future, this dec line is set to continue because
features face more difficulties and find it harder to evolution generates new species far more slowly
breed. The least successful animals arc therefore than the current rate of extinction.
gradually weeded out, while those with "winning"
characteristics become widespread.

A HISTORY OF LIFE
CONVERGENCE
<.,n/ie'l\t\ ill. lilt fllllll's llt\lnr\ llllil f'llliiih i III! I ill li I I'jll />]
GERMAN FORM JAPANESE FORM Unrelated animals often develop very noticeable
urn/in lihwi, ill i /«;//»! \. mill a\ bursts of volcanic at li.ilx. SPECIATION similarities, rbr example, sharks and dolphins
nilliMiiin hctntrn ttmlint-nh. <» alterations m climate. Main The Apollo butterfly is a highly variable species. Manyforms arc fundamentally very different, bin both have
a! then periods have ended in worldwide mass extinctions, are restricted la specifu parts o) the northern hemisphere. Sunt streamlined bodies with an upright dorsal En
both mi land and in the sea. Fbi eat h period tit si ribed below, the Apollo often lues on mountains, its djflerenlforms tend to a shape thai gives them speed and stability
the date Junta indicates tht period's end. remain apart. In tunc, theseforms < ould a oloe into m underwater while moles and marsupial moles

PRECAMBRIAN CAMBRIAN ORDOVICIAN SILURIAN DEVONIAN CARBONIFEROUS


I his \ .i ;t i igii tunc ian Period During this period, life was Mill Silurian tunes In Devonian times, jawed and jawlcss Bah During this period, which is

sum hes from when the continents was marked l>\ an extraordinary confined to the sea. Animals saw the diversified rapidly, which is wrn the period also caOed die "Coal Age,"
formed to when animal
first explosion of animal lit*- in the included the earliest crusts evolution ol is known as the "Aqi <>i Fishi a.*
1
Man) fish a warm global i Innate
hard body parts first appeared in the ambrian animals in< and some ol the earliest jawlcss the fiist fish lived in freshwater, where warm conditions encouraged the growth **t
I
-
tl i mi .
. ..
fish. TrilobJtes [arthropods with a with iaw> ami and falling watei levels encouraged the forests on swamp) ground
ilu bi ginning oi Pn i
imbi h ids. These were among three-l ibedbod i>l giant sea evolution oJ primitive lungs. As a result. home in amphibians and
about 3.8 billion years ago The date iht first rcatun to have hard, as win- long-shelled nantubids si 01 [nuns amphibians evolved, becoming the first IK iny insects, im hiding
[in ihc fu si mimal i
li ss i ertain: i
arts. IK predatory mollusks with sui Icer- relatives vertebrates to li\< on lam) < )n land, insects dnigonllics with wingspans
leil lew ill the i
ilo the ( Iambi ian ol today's became widespread, and tht fust true of up to 23 in 60cm

i
isions "i animal life, Period, the Ordovician ended in a -it .ii hnjds I he Ebresta began to form. The Devonian ended In the sea, ammonoids
,i m| burrows and i phyla, dial i
xisl today had mass extra don, probabt) • ausi d lira land plants with the third mass extinction, which killed mollusks related to today's
ti billion years old). been established 1>\ < limaiit i hanges. appeared. up to 70 percent oi animal species. nautiluses . were oonarnon.

1 EARS AGO (MILLIONS): 54 417 354

PALAEOZOIC ERA
EVOLUTION

share a range of adaptations for life underground. MIXED BLESSING


Amphisbaenians and caecilians also look very ••at ticks and other parasites that Ike on the

similar, although the former are reptiles and skin of large animals, but they also feed on bloodfrom

the latter are highly unusual amphibians. Su< li wounds - a habit that is less helpful to their hosts.

similarities .ire the result ol convergent evolution, a


process in which natural selection tomes up are oxpeckers and large mammals,
with the same set of adaptations to a and corals and microscopic algae
particular wa) of life, reshaping Many partnerships are loose ones but.
a^ with pollinating insects and plan)
some are so highly evolved that

El RASIAN MOLE
r the two partners
without each other. B\
a commensal partnership
( ann< it survive

*»2 MARSl'PIAL MOLE


such as that between n
and their host li-li see p.J14
is one in which one sp
SIMILAR SHAPES
Apartfrom their different! an moles and but the other neither gains noi loses.

marsupial moles an alikt in many caj However, they are not Partnerships may appear to be mutually
at alldosel) related; their similarities art a result of convergence. beneficial, but each partner is driven purely
b) self-interest. If one partner can tip the

body pans or whole animals until the) outward!) balani e in its favor, natural selection will

look the same. Convergence is responsible for a lead it to do so. The ultimate outcome is

whole series of striking similarities in the animal parasitism, in which one animal, the parasite, lives
kingdom. It can make die task of tracing evolutii in on or inside another, entirel) at the host's expense. of the most important effects an be seen on i

extremely difficult, which is why the details ol remote islands, such as Australia and Madagascar,
animal classification often change. which have been isolated from the rest of the
BIOGEOGRAPHY world for millions of years. Until humans arrived,
The present-day distribution of animals is the their land-based animals lived in total seclusion,
ANIMAL PARTNERSHIPS combined result of many factors. Among them unaffected by competitors from outside. The
Over millions of years, animals have evolved are continental drift and volcanic activity, which result is a whole range of indigenous species.
complex partnerships with each other and with i i instantly reshape the surface of the earth. By such as kangaroos and lemurs, which are found
other forms of life. In one common form of splitting up groups of animals, and creating nowhere outside their native homes.
partnership, called mutualism or symbiosis, both completely new habitats, these geologic processes Animals are separated when continents drift

species benefit from the arrangement. Examples have had a profound impact on animal life. One apart, and they are brought together when thev
collide. The distribution of animals is evidence
ol such events long after they occur. For example.
ARTIFICIAL SELECTION Australasia and Southeast Asia became close
The variations that natural selection works on are often difficult to see, neighbors long ago. but their wildlife remains
One herring, for example, looks very much like another, while si
entirely different: it is divided by "Wallace's line."
in a flock are almost impossible to tell apart. This is because n an boundary diat
invisible indicates where the
selection operates on a huge range of features among many continents came together.
individuals in a species. However, when animals are bred in
controlled conditions, their hidden variations are \

bring out. Animal breeders rigorously concentrate


reproduction of particular features, such as a spec ilic

size or color, and by selecting only those animals


with the desired features they can exaggerate those
features with remarkable speed. This process, called
artificial selection, is responsible- for all the world's
domesticated animals and all cultivated plants.

W
PERMIAN TR1ASSIC
FAMILY LIKENESS
I All domesticated dogs
from
selection,

established in a
tlie

CHIHl AHl'A
gray wolf. Through
individual breed
nay
<

Jitirt time.

GRAY WOLF
nrtifi

JURASSIC CRETACEOUS
.
(
BRAZILIAN TAPIR DISTRJBLTIOS

MM

Isia;
IYSIAN IVPIR DIsrRtBlTION

SPLIT BY CONTINENTAL DRIFT

another three lue


South America. Thi\ indicates that these
two landmasses were once joined.
m
; Southeast
Central

TERTIARY
and
iff
VIM VI s| C\

Qt ARTERN ARY
1 UMK

RrpuU-N Ix-t .urn ilu During ih in> period, know Mamma] 'litis (irriod

dominant Luul on d their >uld irw Irwin before tins period began,
.imm.il> rcptflci dominated life

The continents lormnt earth. They included (lying position .»> the dominant Eoi ix-riod Uit 1 1
1

iidmass pterosaurs, swimming hi* . 1 Iu-% int lu*)' 1 plant- tnd animals tli.n nahled
Thr period riulrcl with tor in- nn li as no and tin . i nth id thr\ m.unituU in c\t>hr rapid]

i
Moll ,ni(l u hthyosaurs, and the indmuch M. imm.il*
pmli.ibK from ( limatr first true dmosaui
change and volt .tint ni.iiiini.il

i)l over 7") but with reptiles in the uJarrji poUmaring insei is. Birds oonrinem
1 prn mi cif Luul spa ies .is*endani tin j n me ihe
i and tnt i 90 pnrrni <>nl\ .i minor ,

248 205 142 65 1.8 PMSIN1


Ml so/ H( 1 K\ 1 \ NOZOM i K\
CLASSIFICATION

CLASSIFICATION These additional

simply
levels do not mean
basic classification system docs not work: they
reflect the fact that classification levels are
that the

labels rather than things that actuatt] exist in the


At LEAST million DIFFERENT kinds of animals have been
1.5 natural world. The only category that really
identified by and more are added to the list every year. The
scientists, exists is the species, and even at this level an
animal can be very difficult to pin down.
total number of animals in existence may be as high as 30 million, and. I raditionally. species are defined as groups of
consequently, the task of locating and identifying all the world's fauna living things that share a set of characteristics and
might never be complete. To make sense of this bewildering diversity, that are able to interbreed in the wild. However,
deciding whether a group fits this definition is
biologists use formal classification systems, in which all the past and sometimes difficult, and various researchers mav
present life on the planet is named and organized into groups (known come to different conclusions. As a result, many
ot today's scientists prefer to determine species b)
as taxa). Each type of animal is assigned a unique species name and
examining genetic data, which provides a more
placed in the group containing the species to which its evolutionary detailed record of the similarities and differences
development suggests it is most closely related. between animals. This approach has resulted in the
"discovery" of new species among animals thai
are already known - the forest elephant see p.22 1

PRINCIPLES OF hierarchy. Identifying the groups is a key pan of is one. Howev er, genetic data do not solv e all
the classification process, and often involves classification puzzlesbecause researchers still
CLASSIFICATION complicated research to tease apart the confusing have to decide if two animals' genes are similar
Modern scientific classification dates back to the clues that evolution leaves behind. enough to warrant their being classed as one species.
eighteenth century to the work of Kari Linnaeus, a
Swedish botanist and explorer. Linnaeus de\ised
a system in which all organisms are identified by
CLASSIFICATION LEVELS GATHERING EVIDENCE
two-part fbinomial) scientific names, which are The diagram below shows a classification Nearly all of today's animal groups were identified
written in Latin. The first part of the name hierarchy for the tiger. However, for many other before genetic analysis became available. The
indicates the genus to which the animal belongs: animals - for example, insects or snakes - the groups were established on the basis of anatomical
the second part denotes its species. This system hierarchy would look different in that it would evidence both in living species and in those
remains in use today. At first si^ht. these names have one or more extra lev els. This is because preserved as fossils. Anatomical studies can be
may seem cumbersome, but they have two animals do not always fit neady into die categories very useful in tracing the path of evolution because
immense advantages: unlike common names, that scientists devise. Intermediate levels, such as they often show how certain body parts - such as
they can be understood by scientists all over the superclasses or suborders, have to be created to limbs, jaws, or teeth - have been modified,
world, and they act like signposts, showing accommodate certain groups. sometimes drastically, for different uses.
exactly where a species fits into the living world.
In si ientific classification, the species is the basic KINGDOM
unit. Species are organized into groups, called A kingdom is an overall division The kingdom Animalia contains multicellular
paB
genera, which in turn are organized into families. containing organisms that work in organisms thai obtain energy by eatingfood. -—
-tf^ fffi
This grouping process continues working upward fundamentally similar ways. Most have nerves and muscles, and are mobile. iBMH^BH^
through orders, classes, phyla, and. finally, into
kingdoms, which are the largest groups of all and
YLUM CHORDATA f,
the highest level in the hierarchy.
phylum is a major subdivision of The phylum Chordata contains animals
Each group in the hierarchy has a common akkingdom, and it contains one or with a strengthening rod or notochord running the
ancestor, which becomes increasingly remote more classes and iheir subgroups. length their bodies, for all or part
of of their lives.
from a species with each higher level of the

MAMMALIA
A classa major subdivision of a
is The class Mammalia contains chordaUs that are
phylum, and it contains one or warm-blooded, hare hair, and suckle their young.

more orders and their subgroups. The majority of them give birth to live young.

ORDER CARMVORA
An order
a class,
is a major subdivision of
and it contains one or more
families and their subgroups.
The order Camivora contains mammals
teeth specializedfor biting

them, including the tiger, live


and shearing.
that

Many
primarily on meat.
have
of
m
TV
FAMILY FELIDAE
^ A family is a subdivision of an The family Felidae contains carnivores with

>4^ order, and it contains one or short skulls and well-developed claws. In most

more genera and their subgroups. cases, the claws are retractable.

GENUS PAXTHERA
A genus is a subdivision of a family, The genus Panthera contains large cats that

and it contains one or more species :uli-cd lanm with elastic ligaments,

TIGER CLASSIFICATION and their subgroups. i nlike other cats, they can roar as well as purr.
In this book, panels such as the one above are used to identify
the position of animal groups in the taxonomic hierarchy. The
larger panel on the right defines the various taxonomic ranks, SPECIES PAKTHERA TIGRIS
starting with the kingdom (the highest rank) at the top and A species is a group of similar The tiger is the only member of the genus
ending with the species. Taking the tiger as an example, it also individuals that are able to Panthera that has a striped coat when adult.
shows how a particular animals physical characteristics are interbreed in the wild. There are several varieties, or subspecies.

used to determine its place in the classification scheme.


CLASSIFICATION

NEW DISCOVERIES
Two centuries after scientific classification began, zoologists believe
that relatively few terrestrial vertebrates remain completely unknown
CARTILAGINOUS FISH
to science. Marine life is less well known, so it is quite likely that
Although ih, : look supafo iallj
main types of fishes have yet to be found the Indonesian coelacanth
tr.li, >. i artilaginous fishes are different in
(see p. 480), an example of a recent find. But in
discovered in 1997. is
i .table of these
coming decades, the vast majorirj of "new" animals will be invertebrates.
differences is their skeleton, which is
According to some estimates, less than one in 20 invertebrate species
u,,i,l, oj rubber) i

have so far been identified and named.


insteadof bone.

They ah
SAMPLING FOREST LIFE reproductive organs
a sum, \

Survey i
of some habitats
particularly tropicalforest *
and the shallow seabed
BONY FISH
I i, lii, u nlagmous fishes, bonyfishi
frequently turn up new species A NEW FORM OF LIFE ,

a/ invertebrates. The vast l,'/i occasionally, a completely


single flap covering their gills, a gas-filled swim bladder, ^B
an hmh and a made of bone. These key features show
skeleton
majority of thest new kind of animal mines In light.
that cartilaginous and bony fishes are not close reltiu,
easy to identify becaust it
This one is a loriciferan - a type
is deal that they belong of marine invertebrate first seen in
In groups that are already 1983. Its iimijiii features warranted single, separate order of mammals - Pinnepedia -
known and well documented. ih, i nation of a phylum of it' on n. but a detailed study of their anatomy suggests that
pinnepeds may actually consist of two or perhaps
mammals that have evi >1\ ed
three separate lines of
The limbs of four-legged vertebrates, or bodies, adaptations to a highly active life in independently from different kinds of carnivores.
tetrapods, are an excellent example of this kind of water. Judged b\ thesetwo characteristics alone, If this is true, the pinnepeds are an artificial
evolutionary modification. The basic limb pattern, these two fishwould appear to make up a single grouping, rather than one that actually indicates
dating back over 300 million years, is built around group of animals. However, when they are the path of evolution, and they could therefore
three main sets of bones: a single bone at the point examined in more detail, these similarities be divided into separate clades.
where the limb meets the body, two bones farther turn out to be only skin-deep: the many As today's scientists apply cladistics to the animal
away, and five sets of smaller bones at the limb's underlying differences between them show that world, many well-known and long-established
outermost point. As tetrapods spread to various cartilaginous and bony fishes belong to separate groups are being shown to have been built on shaky
habitats - on land, in water, and in air - the limbs branches of the evolutionary tree. foundations. Reexamination of animal groups is

of the different groups became specialized in shape A specialist would be unlikely to confuse these part of a constant process in classification science
and size, and in the way they worked. However, two kinds of fish but, with animals that are already in the same way that reinterpretation of past
since evolution always modifies what already related, convergence can make relationships events is constandy applied to human history. This
exists - rather than starting from scratch - the extremely difficult to unravel. One example of reassessment helps produce an ever more precise
underlying pattern of bones was preserved in all this can be seen with walruses, seals, and sea lions. picture ofhow animals are related, and how the
the different groups. For classification specialists. These animals are traditionally classified in a animal kingdom came to look as it does today.
this one of many pieces of evidence showing
is

that all tetrapods evolved from a shared ancestor.


In classification, tetrapods are said to form a CLADISTICS
natural group, or clade. A clade is made up of an Pioneered in the 1 950s. cladistics is a classification and humans, and relatively few with tarsiers. So. it
ancestral species and all its descendants. Together, technique that involves comparing large numbers is reasonable to deduce that gibbons are among the

they form a complete and sell-contained branch of characteristics to see how closely different species human being's close relatives, while tarsiers are not
from the evolutionary tree of life. are related. The resulting data are used to
produce When cladistic analysis first became widely used it

a cladogram - a diagram that shows branch points generated heated debate because it divides many of
in evolution, together with the sets of nested the traditionally recognized groups and it combines
groups, or clades. that the branch points create. some that traditional classification keeps apart. For
Cladistics is concerned with new. or derived, example, birds and dinosaurs probably form a
features rather than with primitive ones, so the clade so. eladisticallv. a bird is simplv a feathered
cladogram does not indicate when different groups dinosaur that flies. Today, cladistics is generally
evolved. Instead, it shows the most likely order in seen as a very useful means of tracing evolution.
which derived features arose, and the number of
PRIMATE CLADOGRAM
these features that different groups share. In the
This diagram sht lades containing all the
cladogram below, gibbons are shown to have
"advanced" (non-prosimian) primates. Fm comparison, the
many derived features in common with great apes
groups used in conventional classification aie shown at the
DOLPHIN FLIPPER
! h elude contains all the species, living or extinct, thai
III, 1,1 1 s)um a set of derivedfeatures
ARMS AND FLIPPERS s thest art listed on each clade's baseline.
.-I hitman arm and a dolphin's flipper look very different in "I
Each cladt also shares all the /, ,: .

life, but they bulb contain tin sum, arrangement of hones. the eludes ;cil/un which it is nested.

This similarity is strong t vidian that chimpanzees


humans) and dolphins evolved /mm a common am,

CLADES
The clade concept has had a major impa< i
on
the science ol classification see panel, right),
because it helps to eul through some of the
confusing i lues thai evolution leaves behind. I he
greatest source of this ( onfusion is > onvergeni e
a process thai makes unrelated spe< ies develop in
Hj|it.irhini
particular w.ns to suit similai ways of lifi

p.lfi). Cartilaginous and bom fishes are a tvpii aJ


example of this: both have fnis and streamlined
ANIMAL GROUPS

ANIMAL GROUPS
The FOLLOWING FOUR PAGES summarize the
classification scheme used in this book. The animal Anteaters and relatives
Xenarihra
world is divided here into vertebrates and invertebrates,
although vertebrates actually form part of just one Pangolins
phylum while invertebrates account for all the rest of order Pholidota SPECIES

animal life. Like all classification schemes, based


this is

on current thinking, which is liable to change. Here, Rabbits, hares, and pikas
order Lasjomorpha
groups are '"nested" to show how they are related;
informal groups, having no distinct biological identity, Rodents
are bounded by dotted lines. Some of the species srder Rodentia FAMILIES '
SPECIES 1.702

totals, particularly for invertebrates, arebased on Squirreluke ROD1.N is


suborder Sduromorpha FAMIUES SPECIES
estimates; these figures are the subject of much debate.

Mouselike rodents
VERTEBRATES suborder Mvomorpha FAMILIES 5 SPECIES l,13i

Cavylike rodents
Mammals suborder Cavii >morpha FAMIUES 1 SPECIES 188
|

class Mammalia Grevy's zebra


...
Mammals are vertebrates belonging mammalogists feel that they are so Cetaclans
to thephylum Chordata. Biologists differ diverse that they should be classified in
order Cetacea FAMILIES 1 SPECIES 83
on how main orders make up the class as many as seven different orders. There
Mammalia. In this book, mammals are is also disagreement about seals and sea Baleen whales
classified into 21 orders. Marsupials are lions: many mammalogists think that suborder Mvviuiti FAMIUES 4 SPECIES 12
traditionally classed as a single order - they are simply aquatic carnivores rather
putting them on an equal footing with than animals deserving their traditional
egg-laying mammals - but some place in an order of their own. Toothed whales
suborder Odontoceti FAMIUES 9 SPECIES 71

Egg-laying mammals
order Monotremata FAMILIES 2 SPECIES 5

Carnivores
Marsupials order Carnivora families 7 species 249
order Marsupialia FAMIUES 22 SPECIES 292
Docs AND RELATIVES
family Canidae species 36
I.NSECTIVORES Bears
order Insectivora FAMILIES 6 species 365 family I rsidae species 8

R \( ( OONS AND RELA1 EVES


Bats family Procyonidai species 20
order Chiroptera FAMIUES 1 species 977 Ml sJKI.IDS
family Musielidae species *j7

Flying lemurs Civets and relatives


order Dermoptera FAMILIES
family \i\erridae species 7i>
1 SPECIES _'

Hyenas and aardwoli


family Hvaenidae species 4
Elephant-shrews
order Macroscelidea FAMIUES 1 SPECIES 1
Cats
family Felidae species 38

Tree shrews
order Scandentia FAMILIES 1 SPECIES 19
Seals and sea lions
order Pinnipedia
Primates
order Primates species 356
Elephan I s
Prosimians
suborder Strepsirhini

"

Monkeys VND APES Aardyark


suborder Haplorbini order Tubulidentata

Monkeys
FAMILIES ) species 242 Hyraxes
Hyracoidea families 1

API s

FAMIUES J SPECIES 21
DUGONG AND MANATE1 S
order Sirenia FAMILIES 2
1 5 9

ANIMAL GROUPS

Hoofed mammals Gri bi s

order Podicipediformes famiues SPECIES 22


OIJ1J-I"01.D Hi II H 1 I) M \MM \l.s
1

order Perissodactvla families 3 SPECIES 19

HoKsl.s AND RELATIVES .ALBATROSSES AND PETRELS


family Equidae species 1 1
order Procellariiformes famiues 4 SPECIES 108

Rhinoceroses
family Rhui'H rotidae species
t 5
Peek vns and relatives
Tapirs order Pelecaniformes famiues 6 SPECIES 65
family [apiridae species 4

Herons and reiahyes


order Ciconiiformes famiues 6 SPECIES
Even-toed hoofed mammals 1 1

order Artiodactyla famiues 10 SPECIES 225

Pk;s Flamingos
">
family Suidat- species 14 order Phoenicopteriibrmes famiues 1 SPECIES

I'l ( ( ARIES
family Tayassuidae species t
\\ Ml KM AM
Hippopotamuses
order Anserifbrmes families _'
SPECIES 1 I'l
family Hippopotamidae species _'

Camels and relatives


FAMILY C.illll lltl.ll species Birds of prey
Deer order Falconiformes families 5 SPECIES ill 7

family Cervidae species 4-5

Musk deer
family Moschidae species
GaMEBIRDS
order Galliformcs famiues 6 SPECIES 281
Chevroi UNS
family Tragulidae species 4

Pronghorn Cranes and relatives


family Antilocapridae species
order Gruiformes famiues 12 SPECIES 204
Giraffe AND okapi
family ( .iraiUdae species 2

Cattle and relatives Waders, gulls, and auks


family Bovidae species 1441 order Charadriiformes famiues 18 species 343

Pk,f;i ins
order Columbiformes famiues 1 SPECIES 309

Sanix.roise
Birds order PterocUdiformes families 1 SPECIES 1

class Aves NORTHERN ORIOLE


In the classification scheme that is used schemes combine the large flightless Parrots
in this book, birds are separated into birds, or ratites, into a single order, while order Psittaciformes famiues 2 species 353
29 orders. One of these orders - the others combine flamingos with herons
perching birds, or Passeriformes is vast, ir relatives. At a more detailed
and contains as many species as all the level, there is t onsiderable disagreement
( :i i Kims wii uracos
other orders combined. In contrast, about how many families of passerine order Cuculilbrmes famiues :i SPECIES 1 1 ll 1

several orders of birds contain just a single birds there are. Some ornitholi igi
family, consisting of less than 10 species. • 60 or fewer, while others pul
( )\M s
In bird i lassificarion. some alternative at more than 80.
order Strigiformes famiues _'
species 205

Ostrich
order Struthioniformcs famiues 1 SPECIES 1 Nightjars and frogmouths
order ( rmea families 5 SPECIES IIH

Rheas
order Rheiformes FAMIUES 1 SPECIES 2 Hi MMINl. BIRDS \ND SWIFTS
order Vpodiformes famiues i SPECIES 124

Cassowaries ,\nd emus


order Casuariifbrmes FAMILIES 2 SPECIES 1
Mousi
order Coliiformes famiues 1 SPECIES

Kiwis
Trogons
order Apterygiformes FAMIUES 1 SPECIES
order Lrog formes famiues 1 SPECIES

Tlnamous KJNGFISHI RS wii Rl I Ml\ I


s
order Tinamiformes FAMILIES SPECIES 1
1
order Coraciiformes famiues Hi SPECIES I'M

Penguins Will llll'l l Kl RS \N1) nil l \\s


order Sphenisciformcs FAMIUES 1 SPECIES 1

OROER I'l FAMILIES 6 SPfCES

Loons PaSSI RINl S


SPECIES ORDER 1' iam. SPICHS
order Gaviiformcs FAMIUES .

1
"l
ANIMAL GROUPS

Reptiles Fishes
class Reptilia African striped skink Despite superficial similarities fishes arc American paddlefish
only an informal collection of relatively
Snakes, lizards, and amphisbaenians. man) features, their evolutionary hisiorv
which make up the largest reptile order. is As a result, many biologists
ver) varied
diverse animals. Of the four classes ashes make up the largest class about %
in which li\ing fish species are generalh percent of species The major subclass
Squamata. account for over 95 percent of belie\e that theyform an informal group
classified, two are jaw less - a characteristic of this group ray-finned fishes contains
living reptile species. While reptili -
rather than a natural group or clade.
shared by the earliest vertebrates from so many orders and families that it is

oxer 500 million years ago Today bony. divided here only to superorder leveL
Tortoises and turtles
Chelonia Jawless fish
H.u.rlxH
TUATARAS
order Rhyncocephalia families 1

Lampreys
class Cephalaspidomorphi
SQL'AMATES
Squamata SPECIES c. .'''"<

Snakes
suborder Serpentes SPECIES .
._'.'
Cartilaginous fish
class Chondrichthves ORDERS 14 FAMIUES SPECIES C.810
BiH\ PYTHONS, AND RELATIVES
SUPERFAMILY Htllopilidia FAMIUES
Sh UUCS AND RAYS
subclass Elasmobranchi
COLUBRIDS \ND RELATIVES
SUPERFAMILY Caenophidia Sharks 1
ORDERS 9 FAMIUES 33 SPECIES -

COLUBRIDS
family Colubridae species 1.858
Burrowing asps Skates and rays
family Alractaspidae SPECIES ORDERS 4 FAMIUES 14 SPECIES C.450

VlPERS
family Viperidae

Elapids
Ghtmaeras
family Elapkhe 1
subclass Holocephali ORDERS 1 FAMIUES 3 SPECIES 30

Blind \nd thread SNAKE!


SUPERFAMILY

BONY FISHES
class Osteichthyes orders 46 families 437 species c. 23.500

Lizards Fleshy-finned fishes


suborder Lai rrtilia FAMILIES i
(
SPECIES C. 4.500
subclass orders FAMIUES S
!

Sarcopterygii 3 4 SPECIES

[GUANAS WD RELATR ES
SUPERFAMILY IgUiUUa FAMIUES | SPECIES 1,412 Ray-ftoned fishes
GEC k< >^ AND SN \KL LIZARDS >ubclass Acunopterygn
SUPERFAMILY Citkkota FAMIUES 4 SPECIES 1,054
Primitive ray-finned fishes
Skinks \ND KEI \U\ ES ORDERS 4 FAMIUES 5 SPECIES 43
SUPERFAMILY S, UK OITtOrpha FAMIUES SPECIES 1.890

ANGUIMORPH LIZARDS
BONY-TONGUED FISHES I
superfamily An suimorpha FAMIUES SPECIES 1 73
SUPERORDER Osieoglossit'ormCS FAMIUES 5 SPECIES 215

Amphisbaenians Tarpons and eels


suborder An;) :
SUPERORDER Elopomorpha ORDERS 4 FAMILIES J- SPECIES 1

Herrings and relatives


|
superorder C lupeomorpha orders 1 FAMIUES 4 SPECKS 363
Crocodhjans
order (_ rocodilia SPECIES _>
: Catfishes and relatives 1
superorder O-iariophysi orders 4 FAMIUES t>J SPECIES C. 6.000 1

Salmon and relatives


Amphibians superorder Proiacamhoptcrygii orders 1 FAMIUES 14 SPECIES 316

class Amphibia Pacific giant salamander


Dragonfishes \m> relatives
b 'ads make up the largest order and salamanders most closely resemble SUPERORDER Sieiiopiervgli ORDERS 1 FAMIUES 4 SPECIES C-250

of amphibians, and show the widest range ancestral amphibians; caecilians arc an
of adaptations for terrestrial life. Newts aberrant and relatively little known group.
Lanternfishes \ND relatives
superorder ScoI f pomorpha orders J FAMIUES 1 6 SPECIES
Frogs and ioads
order Anura SPECIES c.4,380
Cod and anclerfishes
superorder Paratamhopicrveii orders 8 FAMIUES 46 SPECKS .1.260 1

Newts \m> salamanders


C.audata SPECIES C.470
Spiny-rayed fishes
|
suMuwiiat Acanthopterygii orders IS FAMIUES 259 SPECIES C. 13300 1
C : \K UJANS
Gymnophiona
1 1

ANIMAL GROUPS

INVERTEBRATES Arthropods
phylum Arthropoda SPIDER-HUNTING WASP 1
^\
Sponges Arthropods form the largest phylum also 1 >m. -in- two othi i giant grofaps
in the animal kingdom. Insects make up i mi i. u i aus and araehnids which dwarf
phylum Porifera classes 4 ORDERS If! FAMILIES 80 SPECIES 1 10,000
ili- biggest subgroup, bui the phylum man) phyla in thi invertebrate world.

Cnidarians Mandibulates
subphylum Mandibulala CLASSES 1) ORDERS .""j
FAMILIES C 1 660 SPECIES C . 1 million
phylum Cnidaria classes 4 ORDERS 27 FAMILIES 236 SPECIES 8,000 9,000
Hl.XAI'ODS
uperclass Hexapoda CLASSES \ ORDERS 12 FAMILIES 980 species 1 , 1 million

Flat wo rms [NSEl IS


CLASS lll.i 1 l.i ORDERS 2*1 FAMIUES 949 SPECIES i.l nillllOr
phylum Platyhelrninthes classes 4 orders 35 families 360 species c 17,500
BRISTLI I Mis Parasitic lice
order Archaeognathi SPECIES 1 150 order Phthirapti i
SPECIES C.6,000

Roundworms SlLVERFISH
ORDER 1 )r, nun .1 SPECIES 1 170
Bugs
order Hcmiptcra SPECIES c.82,000

phylum Nematoda classes 4 ORDERS 20 FAMILIES 185 SPECIES 00 Mayflies Thrips


ORDER Ephl Hi' n i| m 1
SPECIES . 2,500 order 1 hssajioptera SPECIES 1.5.000

Damsel.fi.ii-s and dragonflies DOBSONFUES \ND MIII.RII IIS

Segmented worms order

CRII Kl
I )donata

Is \mi i.k \ss


SPECIES

Tl Rs
1 .5,500 order

Snakefi
Mi-y-.a

ies
p lcra SPECIES r SI Ml

phylum Annelida classes 3 ORDERS 31 FAMILIES I 10 species .12, order Orthoptcra SPECIES 1
0,000 ORDER kn|-l(iulM.|.n 1 1 SPECIES

Stoneflies ANTLIONS, L\CEWl.\t s, AND RELATIVES


order Plecoptera SPECIES . 2,000 order Ni uroptera SPECIES c.4,000

MOLLUSKS Rock crawlers


order lirvUoblattodr. 25
Beetles
order ilcoptcra SPECIES
SPECIES I u . 170,000
PHYLUM MolhlM.t CLASSES 8 ORDERS i"> FAMILIES 2 '.J SPECIES i ]IHHH)(J
Stick and leaf insects STREPSII'II k vNS
order Phasmatodea SPECIES . .' 51 II
oroer Sim [..ijii. 1., SPECIES ' 560

Earwigs Si ORPIONI LIES


Minor phyla order 1 X rmaptcra SPECIES 1 |,900 oroer Met opti 1.1 SPECIES (.550

Mantids 1 1 1 \s

Invertebrates are classified in about 30 ROTIFER ORDER M.mn-li 1 SPECIES 1 2,000 ORDER Siphlni.ipKT.I SPECIES C.2,000

phyla, which vary greatly in size. In this minor phyla also appears on pp.536 7 Cockroaches Flies
hunk, major phyla are treated separately Most of these minor phyla contain marine order Blattodea SPECIES C.4,000 ORDER 1 ll|in i,i SPECIES . 122,000
(see above and below . but a selection of animals or ones thai live in damp habitats.
Termites Cadoisflies
ORDER IsoplCra SPECIES C. 2,750 OROER llli In ptl in SPSCltS
I»K \l HII ll'i H)N W.vii R i;i \rs
Web-spinners Mi )1 Ms sND BUTTERFLIES
phylum Brachiopoda species c.350 phylum Tardigrada species c.600
order Embioptcra SPECIES C.300 ORDER LCpil 1' '1 >'' SP^KS 1
|

Arrow \yi irms Ribbon worms Angel insects Bees, wasps, wis. AM) SAW II II s
phylum Chaetognatha species c.90 PHYLUM \( liuilr.i species c. 1,200 order Zoraptcra SPECIES 1
II order Hymenoptera SPECIES c.198,000

(
Comb jellies Velvet worms BaRKI.KI SND I'"' Kl.lt!

phylum Ctcnophora species c.100 phylum Onychophora species c.70 ORDER PSOI Optl in SPECIES . l.'lllll

BKYt )ZOANS Spoonworms


phylum Bryozoa species c.4,300 phylum Echiuia SPECIES c.150
Sl'RIV.I MIS
Hemichordates Horseshoe worms 1 :lass Collembola ORDERS 1 FAMIUES 18 SPECIES . '. "

phylum Hemichordata species c.85 phylum Phorona species o.20

PEANUT WORMS 10 OTHER MINOR INVERTEBRATE 'Ron rans


1
phylum Sipuncula species c.350 :lass Protura ORDERS FAMILIES SPECIES (Hill
GROl PS Mil REPRESENTED IN
I t

Rotifers 1 His BOOK


J
PHYLUM Kolili'ia SPECIES C. 1.800 )IPLURANS
:lass Diplura ORDERS 1 FAMILIES '1 SPECIES 1.800

Echinoderms VlYRIAPODS
uperclass Myri ipoda CLASSES 1 ORDERS Hi FAMILIES 144 species c. 3,700
i

J
1

phylum Echinodermata classes i> orders 36 families 1-ti species, fi.iinii

:ri si vceans
1
UPERCLASS CLASSES' ORDERS 17 FAMILIES >|l SPECIES 1. 40.000
Invertebrate chordates
(

Invertclirati c hord.ttrs .irr animals thai UNll.AII .

share some i haracteristii s with vertebrates [unicates an immobile, and thi )


oft n Chelicerates
but l.ii k a l>< >ii\ skeleton. The) are have baglike bodies as adults; lam elcts SUBPHYLUM Chdil CLASSES i ORDERS I 1 FAMIUES 480 SPECIES c.76,500
divided into two subphyla the tunicates are mobile and beai strong resemblances
lad
\l Ml
(the majority ol species and the lancelets. to vertebrates, despiti theii ol I

CLASS \l.l. Itlllll.l OROERS !


(AMILIES ( ll SPECIES :.75,500 1
Tl Ml \ll.s
subphylum I Iroi hordata Si \ -i'

CLASSES 3 ORDERS FAMILIES l"> SPECIES . 2,100 CLASS Pyi ORDERS FAMIUIS SPECIES c. 1,000 1

i.w 111 rs HORSI sin 11 CR.MIS


Mill. slum. It.
\
subphylum Ccphalochordala CLASS 1 ORDERS PAMUB 1 SPECIES

I ORDERS I FAMILIES 2 \
ANATOMY

ANATOMY characteristic feature of arthropods


ol invertebrates that includes insects, crustaceans.
and arachnids. These cases, or exoskeletons. cover
a huge group

the entire body and include structures as strong


ALL BU I 1 Hi. VERY SIMPLEST ANIMALS are made up of various pans. Their as a crab's pincers or as delicate as a butterfly's
smallest fully functional parts are cells, which are shaped in different ways antennae. Unlike shells, body cases cannot grow.
so periodically they have to be shed and replaced.
according to the tasks that they carry out. Groups of similar cells are
Internal skeletons endoskeletons . usually
organized into tissues, and tissues are grouped together to form organs. made of bone, provide support from within. Found
Organs themselves are linked to form organ systems, which earn' out only in vertebrates, they have rwo big advantages:
all
they are light for their size - important for land
the processes essential for survival.The design of these systems varies animals that have to move quickly - and thev can
widely between one type of animal and another, and also between grow. In this kind of skeleton, some bones meet
aniniah that live in different ways, but the work thev do is the same. at flexible joints. Other
bones, particularly those
in the skull, lock together

BODY SYSTEMS system the pans that form the outer covering -
for extra strength.

SHELL
Animals have up to a dozen separate body protect the body from physical damage and. in
A snail's shell grows at
systems. In many species, the muscular and terrestrial animals, from the threat of drying out.
its lip. getting progressive!)
skeletal systems make up a large proportion of Two key systems enable animals to obtain energy
larger uith its owner.
the body's total weight, while the integumentary from food. The digestive system breaks food down
Some species can seal the
so that it can be absorbed: and the respiratorv
genital shell with an operculum
chamber
s\stem delivers oxygen to the body's cells so that or "door."
EXOSKELETON
food substances can be "burned" and their A crab s body case covers all the

chemical energy released. The respiratory system surfaces of its body, including its

alsoremoves carbon dioxide - a potentially toxic ike an insect's exoskelelon.

waste product formed during the production it is reinforced with calcium.

of energy. In many animals, including all

vertebrates, oxygen and carbon dioxide are


SIMPLE INVERTEBRATE BODY SYSTEMS carried by blood in the circulatory system.
Simple invertebrates, such asflatworms. do not have respirator)-
Carbon dioxide is usually exhaled: other kinds of
organs or a circulator) system. The digestive system often has dissolved waste are removed, before they have a
just one opening, the mouth, and the reproductive system is
chance to build up. by a separate excretory system.
typically made up of both male andfemale organs.
Animals use two different systems to coordinate
their bodies, and to react to their surroundings.
intestines form part of stomach .

tubular du±-
The nervous
system deals with
anydiing that needs a fast response,
processing information gathered by
sense organs. In all animals, it triggers built-in
or instinctive behavior, but in some. especiaUv
---- -- vertebrates, it also stores information, allowing

animals to adapt their behavior according to


their past experience. The endocrine svstem works
m ci injunction with the nervous svstem. releasing
ARTHROPOD BODY SYSTEMS
hormones, or chemical messengers, that help the SYMMETRY
nervous svstem coordinate long-term processes. Some animals" bodies are circular, without
The tubular digestive system is open at both ends. The blood Finally, the reproductive system carries out the a head or tail. This type of anatomy called
flows partly through vessels and partly through bod) spaces.
most important producing young. Unlike
task: radial symmetry, can be seen in sea anemones
Oxygen is supplied via gills or via minute /yi
other body systems, it often functions only during and other cnidarians. and also in ctenophores
aim ays called tracheae. =
ison, and then only in mature animals. or comb jellies. The v ast majority of animals

large brain - show bilateral symmetry, which means they can


kidneys remove waste £ be divided into halves. The halves are not always
SKELETONS AND SUPPORT equal: male fiddler crabs, for example, have very

Animals need lo keep the shape of their bodies unequal claws, and flatfish have different sides.

stable. Many invertebrates achieve this without tiull I A


RVDLAL SYMMETRY
any haid body parts at all. Instead, thev relv on the
A sea anemone can be
pressure of internal fluids to keep their bodies firm
divided into two equal
in the same way This
thai air stabilizes a tire.
halves on any axis. It
system, called a hydrostatic skeleton, works well on
has a central mouth
a small scale. But in larger animals, particularly and body uiOt
canity,
land ones, thi* ivpr ol skeleton is often not strong feeding tentacles
enough to support the body's weight Animals arranged in a ring.

have developed two quite different solutions to


this problem: external shells and body cases: and
VERTEBRATE BODY SYSTEMS internal skeletons, typically made of bone.
The nervous system is highly developed, and the brain is
BILATERAL
Shells are made up of one or two parts, and SYMMETRY
topically larger than in invertebrates. The circulatory system i\
thev grow in step with their owner. They can be Frogs and toads havejust
closed, and blood is pumped under high pressure by the heart.
seen in marine animals called brachiopod- or one axis of symmetry:
lampshells. but thev are most highly developed in Externally, the two
KEY TO SYS1 EMS
bivalve mollusks. which can grow shells over 3 ft •
halves look identical;
CIRC I 1.ATORY EXCRETORY
m across. Bod) cases are more complex than
H_ DIGESTIVE
RESPIRATORY
NERVOUS
REPRODICTIVF
1

shells: they consist of a large number of separate


internally,

lie to
some organs
the left or the right.

plates that meet at flexible joints. They are a


MUSCLES AND MOVEMENT RESPIRATION
Muscles work by contracting. This means they can For small and thin animals, obtaining
pull but not push. In most cases, they are arranged oxygen is a simple matter because it seeps
in pairs or groups that pull in opposing directions: from outside. At the
into their bodies
when one muscle or muscle group contracts, its same time, carbon dioxide escapes in
partner is brought back to its normal resting shape. the other direction. For larger animals,
Muscles make animals move in different ways. respiration is more complex. In relative
In animals without limbs, such as earthworms and terms, they have a much greater '

jellyfish, they work to change the body's shape. In volume than surface area, so there
earthworms, opposing muscles alternately shorten is less room for gases to move in
and lengthen the animal's segments so that it an < and out. To breathe, they rely on
creep through soil. In limbed animals, one set of respiratory organs structures that jj

muscles pulls the limb down or back, while the elfec lively pack a large surface area
other lifts it up or forward. into a small amount of space.

relaxed bellfills circulai muscles watet expelled In aquatic animals. '_;ills are the most
wilh water. contract, from bell common respiratory organs. Typical
gills consist of thin, flat, or feathery
surfaces that bring blood into close
contact with the water outside.
However, most gills do not work
in air because - out of water -
their surfaces collapse and stick

MOVING WITHOUT LIMBS together. Land animals therefore

Jellyfish sunn In rhythmically contracting the bell -shaped part have hollow respiratory organs
of their boelr. This expels water 1mm the hell, which pushes the that carry air deep inside their
jellyfish forward. Jellyfish make little headway against the bodies. In insects, these organs arc-

current: they sunn mainly In keep at the right level in the wain: tubes, called tracheae, which divide
into extremely fine filaments that reach
inns/It's contract In
individual cells. In land-dwelling vertebrates,
propelfrogforward
the organs are lungs - air-filled chambers throws light onto a "screen," or retina. In
surrounded by a network of blood vessels. arthropods, the eye has up to 25,000 separate
Muscles make the lungs expand or contrai i. compartments, each with its own lens system;

JUMPING sucking air in or blowing it out. these compound eyes create a mosaic-like image
When a frog leaps, its legs ad as levers, and are espei i.ilk good at detecting movement.
Mammals are the only animals with prominent
propelling

to cushion
il

its
into the air. Its

body from the impact when


front legs fold up
it lands.
NERVES AND SENSES earflaps. Vertebrates' ears are alua\s on ihe head.
Nerve cells, or neurons, are the animal world's but in some animals they are positioned elsewhere.
In addition to making animals move, muscles equivalent of wiring. Neurons conduct brief Most grasshoppers and crickets have ears on
serve other purposes. They lone loud through bursts of electricity, known as impulses, which their abdomen or legs. Organs that detect taste
the digestive system (peristalsis) and pump blood carry information from sense organs or make and smell can also be in a variety of positions.
around the circulatory system. Unlike most other muscles contract. Corals and other simple animals Like ears, they can be used in ommunii ation, i

muscles, the heart muscle has a built-in rhythm that have a network of nerves scattered throughout as well as for avoiding danger and finding food.
keeps it contracting throughout an animal's life. their bodies. But in most animals, the nervous Main animals have senses that are more ai Uti
system converges on the brain. than those ol human beings, and some can sense
Some animal senses, such as touch, operate things that humans cannot. For example, most
BODY COVERINGS through nerve endings scattered all over the fish can sense pressure waves in water, and many
Animal cells are easily damaged. To protect body. A similar sense, which works internally, tells can detect weak ele< tin fields. Some snakes ( an
them from injury and disease, animals have body animals about their posture. The most important "see" warmth, enabling them to attack warm-
coverings, most of which consist largely of non- senses - vision, smell, and hen ing work blooded prey in total darkness.
living matter. Mammalian skin is covered by dead through organs that form some of the
cells, while insect body i ases are most elaborate stun tines In the body.
covered by hard proteins and Vision is essentia] f'oi mam animals,
waterproof wax. In many cases, and eyes show a wide variety of
these protective layers are designs. At their simplest for
themselves protected: mammals example in snails they do
often have a coat of fur. while little more than distinguish

mail) oilier animals have S( ales. between light and dark,


Some of these extra coverings In main animals,
have developed additional uses. particularly arthn >| >ods
Suit feathers and fur help to and vertebrates, they
retain body heat, while extra- loi ns light onto large
Strong leathers are used in (light. I »i s cil nerve
( lolors or patterns a( t as ( ells, building up a
camouflage or help animals detailed imagi ol

re< ognize theii own kind. tin sin roundings. In


vertebrates, these eyes
h.i\ a single lens, \\ hii h
BODY BARRIERS i

li'nd feathers, butterfly uales, ami


mammal fut an modi "I nonli ing BINOCULAR VISION
substances that an produced b) living Jumping !pidi

cells. Feathers andfui an replaced


during tin a owner's lifetime, but tin m bint

butterfly Kales are not. along a lump.


BEHAVIOR

BEHAVIOR ANIMAL INTELLIGENCE


Intelligence is the ability to make decisions based
on and understanding. This ability is rare
insight
Ax animal's BEHAVIOR encompasses all the things that it does as in the animal world and difficult to identify and
measure. For example, some herons use bait to
well as the way that it does them. Behavior ranges from simple actions,
catch fish. They look as il they understand their
such as eating or keeping clean, to highly elaborate activities, such as actions, but their behavior is instinctive - it

hunting in a pack, courting a mate, or building a nest. In some animals, involves no insight at all. Chimpanzees, however,
will probe for insects with twiys that they shape
behavior is almost entirely predictable; in others it develops with to increase their effectiveness. To shape the twig,
experience, so the more that an animal does something the more skilled the) must first form a mental picture of how-
it will work - a process that humans also use.
it becomes. As with all aspects of animal biology, behavior is the
They also have a complex vocabulary of sounds
product of evolution, which means that it gradually changes as time goes that allows them to exchange information.

by. These changes enable species to react in the most effective way to
the opportunities and dangers that they encounter in daily life.

can change. As animals repeat certain tasks,


INSTINCT AND LEARNING such as making a nest, their performance often
In simple animals, behavior is "hardwired" improves. This is particularly important for some
governed by inherited instincts - which means animals - such as male weaverbirds - that use
that it consists of fixed sequences of actions their nest-building skills to attract a male.
prompted by triggers. For example, day-old birds Apart from octopuses and their relatives, most
instinctively beg for food when their parents invertebrates have narrow limits when it comes
appear at the nest. At this stage, they are usually to learning. For vertebrates, on the other hand,
blind: then behavior is triggered by noise and learned behavior is often extremely important. THE SIGNS OF INTELLIGENCE
movement rather than by the sight of food itself Frogs and toads quickly learn to avoid animals Chimpan yest an sol i problems, and they are able to learn
Instinctive behavior max seem basic, but it can thai t.iste unpleasant, while mammals acquire a sign language to communicate with humans. They can
produce quite remarkable results. The structures wide range of skills From their parents, including i, ,u n symbolsfor objects and actions, and they occasionally

that animals build - from nests to dams - are the how to hunt. Among primates, individuals very combine the symbols in ways that resemble spoken phrases.

results of inborn behavioral impulses. When occasionallv "invent" new behavior, which
then is

beavers set out to make a dam, they do so without copied by their neighbors. This copying process
any knowledge of engineering principles. Yet the produces culture patterns of behavior that are
structure the) make is shaped to withstand water handed on down the generations. Culture is
COMMUNICATION
pressure as if it had been scientifically designed. something that humans, as a species, have For most animals, keeping in touch with their
Beavers do not have to think how to build, just developed to a unique degree. own kind is essential to their survival. Animals
as spiders do not need to figure out how to weave communicate with each other for a range of
wrljs. Even so. the results of instinctive behavior reasons, including finding food, attracting a mate,
and bringing up their voting. Different methods
of communication have their own advantages and
drawbacks. Both language - which includes facial
expressions and physical displays works well at
close quarters but is ineffective at a distance and in
habitats where dense vegetation gets in the way. In
such cases, communication bv sound is much more
practical. Whales call to each other over immense
distances, while some small animals produce
remarkably loud sounds for their size. Treefrogs.
ci(adas. and mole crickets, for example, can often
LEARNING TO FEED
be heard ,tl a distance of over mile 2km Each 1 .

Eurasian qystercatchers learn


species uses its own distinctive "call sign," and
hoik i" feed In u atching
thai parents. Somt birds many behave like ventriloquists, pitching their calls
in a way that throws predators off their track.
hammer at sin II \
to break

them, whilt others stab at .Animals that are capable of producing light also
the shells ' hingt i to fon i
use identifying call signs. These can consist of

them to open, Once a bird specific sequences of flashes or in many deep-sea


has Inn mil om technique, fish - illuminated body patterns. But. like body
it uses 1 1 for life. language and sound, this form of communication
works onlv when the signaler is active!) signaling
Scent communication is quite different because

NIGHT LIGHT
INSTINCTIVE WEAVING Femaleglou worms
Spiders often build lughh use light to signal then

comph « webs, but they to tin mull >.

iilu ays product them to ei InJi //] overhead.

one parti ulai a\ sign. Asa Signaling ,-, ilh light can be

result, il is often possible to dangerous because it can

identif) a spidei from its web attract predators m


alone. I hi* garden spider addition to potential

will ii^i its web fin just one males. If aglou -a arm
day; thru it u ill eat it beftm vnger, she quickly

tailing on ii replacement. "switches off " her light.


BEHAVIOR

the members are all closely related. Examples


of -u< h extended families include wolf packs
BEHAVIORAL CYCLES
and kookaburra "clans." where the young Some kind- of behavior, including self-defense,
remain with their parent- instead of setting ( an be provoked any time. Others are cyclical,
at
up independently. This kind of group-living : keep animals in step with
bv cues that
caches its extreme in social insects, such as around them. One of the most important
mites and ants, which cannot survive alone. eve les i- tin- alternation between night and day.

( Jthers include the rise and fall of the tide and

the annual sequence of changing seasons.


DEFENSE AND ATTACK Cyclii al behaviors arc all instinctive. They may
Both predatory and prey animals use specialized Ik- stimulated by external changes, by built-in
behavior to help them survive. For example, while "biologic al < lot ks." or by a combination of the
many prey animals simply try to two. Birds, for example, often gather to roost late

JOINING THE CHORUS escape, others keep perfecdy in tin- day, a form of cyclical behavior thai
By howling, wolves advertise their ownership of a hunting still, reiving on camouflage , is triggered by falling light levels as the sun
territory to any other wolves that may be in the area I to protei i them. A wide nears the horizon. On a much longer
often howl at night, after they have made a successful kill. -pec iis. hem lime scale, ground squirrels show an
moths to lizards, ua annual cvrle in body weight, getting
the signal lingers long after the animal that made it to make themselves heavier before they enter hibernation.
has moved on. Animal scents are specific, allowing appear dangen tus 1 >v However, ground squirrels maintain
animals to lay trails and to advertise their presenc e their cycle even if kept in conditions
RESPONDING
to potential mates. Some male insects are able to
TO THREAT of constant temperature and day
respond to individual molecules of airborne scent, length,which shows that the rhythm
11 hen threatened, pufferfish
allowing them to track down females far upwind. enlarge themselves by gulf v is controlled biologically. Biological

water. Once distended, they can


i lot k- often involve hormones, but the
way they work is
LIVING IN GROUPS barely move, but their spines make

Some animals spend all their lives alone and never


them practically impossible to attack.
U-JHv not yet fully
understood.
encounter another member of their species. But. exaggerating their size or by revealing colored
formany, getting together is an important pan of spots thai look like eves. Sometimes such threat-
Animal groups vary in size as well as in how
life. are real: for example, the brilliant colors of
long they last: mavflies, for example, form mating p. >isi in-arrow frogs indicate diat they contain some
swarms that last just a few hours, while migrating of the animal kingdom's most potent poisons.
Predatory animals use one of two techniques to
GROUP
FORMATION catch prey: they either wait for it to come their w ay
By forming a V tor
or they track down. "Sit-and-wait" predator- are
it

i can reduce ifien amouflaged, and some actively entice dieir


i

the amount of energy vii thus within range. In angler li-h. for example,

needed to migrate by the snout ha- a long, luminous protuberance.


flying in the leading called a lure,which the fish dangle appetizinglv in
birds' slipstream. They front of their mouths: anything swimming close to FEEDING TIME
take turns leading. inspect this lute i- -napped up whole, for active Fuidler crabs emerge from their burrows to pick over the
hunting, nature put- a premium on speed and keen nutrient-rich sediment for small particles offood. They
senses, whi< h 1- wh) animal- such a- cheetah-. cannot feed underwater, so theirfeeding behavior is

peregrine falcons, and blue marlins are among governed by the daily rise aiuifall of the tide.

the fastest in the world. Some active predators


operate in groups. Bv working
together, grav wolves, African wild
ind lion- 1 an tackle pre)
mill h larger than themselves.

PACK HUN ISO I

.-1 pack of African wild dogs pulls down a


wildebeest that they have run to exhaustion
Once their victim is dead, the dogs will

share out the remains and take


SAFETY IN NUMBERS some back to any pups that hat
In open habitats, such as grassland, where predators tend to been left behind
befast and hiding places scarce, prey mammals typically live nl their den.

in targe groups. This group of zebras has further increased


its security b\ grazing mar a herd of wildebeest.

birds often assemble for several weeks. Man) other


animals, including fish and grazing mammals,
form groups that arc maintained for life.

Groups of animals may seem to Im- easy targets


for predators, but the opposite i- usually true.
Predators find it difficult to single out individuals
from a group, so living together gives animals a
bettei chance ol survival. Groups an also more
difficult to catch bv surprise because there i- always
more than one animal alert foi signs ol danger.
In most animal groups, the members l« li

do not m cssai ilv share the sarin


-ingle species but <

parents. However, in the mosl Dght-knil groups,


LIFE CYCLES

LIFE CYCLES widespread throughout the animal world, which


demonstrates its long-term value. Even species
dial are capable of reproducing without sex
periodically include a sexual phase in their life
An animal's life cycle consists of all the stages between the cycle, thereby getting the best ol both worlds.
beginning of one generation and the beginning of the next. In some
species - especially insects and other small invertebrates the entire ANIMAL SEXES
cycle is completed within a few weeks: in much larger animals it often All animals that reproduc c sexual!) with a partner

how long of the opposite sex show dimorphism


takes many years. Regardless of it takes to complete, an that is.
the males and females arc- anatomic ally different
animal'slife cycle always involves steps: a period of growth and two main and behave in different ways. In some species, the

development, followed by reproduction. Some animals reproduce once differences are not obvious, but in others they are
quite distinct Dimorphism exists because- the- sexes
and then die: for them, reproduction marks the end of life as well as the developed different roles in reproduction and
have-
completion of the life cycle. For many reproduction continues throughout need different body forms to earn them out.
adulthood, giving animals more than one chance to produce young. However, not all sexually repnjducing animals
Some earthworms and
are of opposite sexes.
example an- hermaphrodite
terrestrial snails, tin
a variety of ways. Hydras, for example, produce (they have both male and female sex organs
REPRODUCTION small buds that grow into complete new animals.
.

1 In- abilitv in reproduce is the cornerstone of life while sea anemones literally tear themselves in two.
because n allows living things to multiply, exploit Some animals produce eggs that develop without
new opportunities around them, and evolve. fertilization - a process called parthenogenesis.
Animals reproduce in one of two ways: #
.•;•'•
•"
This is common in aphids and other sap-
asexually without sex or sexually sucking insects, but it is rare in vertebrates
In asexual reproduction, a hiptail lizards are one of the lew
single parent partitions off pan of examples:. Asexual reproduction is

form a new animal. The


itself to niativeiv quick and simple, but it has
partitioning process can happen in one important disadvantage: since
onl\ one parent is involved, the
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION'
offspring are either genetic allv
As a female common frog lays her eggs, her
identical to that parent or
mate sprays them with sperm toferttiizt them
very similar to it. As a result,
Each tadpole will be genetically unique.
parent and offspring are DIMORPHIC PARTNERS
cquallv vulnerable to threats In some animals, sex differences are extreme. Here, a wingless
such as disease: if one animal female vapourer moth (seen on the right i ha* attracted
dies, the rest will often follow suit. male. After mating, thefemale will crawl away to lay her eggs.
Sexual reproduction gets around this problem
bee ause the involvement of two parents leads to This simplifies sexual reproduction because any
Each one
offspring that are genetically varied. adult of a species is potentially a suitable mate for
has a unique combination of characteristics, and another. A further variation is that some species
as the fittest survive, the species slowl) evolves. have separate sexes but individuals can change sex
However, the disadvantage of sexual during adult life. Parrotlish. for example, often live
reproduction is thai it is much more complicated: in schools dominated In a single male. If the male
the parents must be of the correct spec ies and sex. dies, a female changes sex and takes his place.

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION and most cases they must cooperate to breed.


in

In addition, only the female actuallv produces


/ •
tea anemont
does by tearing
is in tin final stag

itself in half.
I
qj

The
reproducing,

result will be young, so some reproductive potential is lost.


COURTSHIP
two individual* that ban t xm tiy tin same genetic makeup. Despite these difficulties, sexual reproduction is Before an animal cm mate-, it has to find a partner.
This is eas) enough for species that live in groups,
but for those that Eve alone it poses problems.
LIFESPANS BODY SIZE
Solitary animals locate potential mates bv sending
In general, animal lifespans are directly related to out signals, such as sounds or airborne scents.
adult body size: the larger an animal is. the longer Ea< h spec ies has its own "call sign," ensuring that
it is likely to live, although there are exceptions to such individuals find others of their own kind.
this rule. One important factor affecting lifespan is
( )ne e the sexes are in contact, one partner
metabolic rate - the rate which an animal uses at male- has to overcome the other's
usually the-
energy to make its bodv work. "Cold-blooded"
|

wariness and demonstrate his suitability as a male.


animals, such as amphibians and reptiles, have a
I his process is known as courtship. Ii often takes
relatively low metabolic rate and tend to be long-
the form of ritualized behavior that displays the
In cd. while "warm-blooded" animals, such as birds
male's physical fitness or his ownership ( il a good
and mammals, have a high metabolic rate and tend common toad (cold-blooded): provision of food. If the female is sufficiently
to be- relatively short-lived. This is especially true of 35years impressed, she will accept him as her male.
small spec ies because a low body mass means that
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS While- some form lifelong partnerships.
species
heat escapes quickly from the body and has to be
constantly replaced by lbod. Environmental factors, housefly (at 77'F/i many go ways alter mating. In the
their separate-

such as temperature and humidity, also have an


effect Houseflies, for example, often die within six
'
^T ii
1
housefly (at
!
59 F/
8 weeks
latter case, the males tvpie allv mate with several

females but take no part in raising the- voung.


weeks in warm max survive for many
conditions but FACTORS DETERMINING LIFESPAN More- rarely, tiling work in the opposite wav. with
months if it is and some microscopic animals
cool, Three of the majorfactors influencing an animal's lifespan one- female mating with several males. Where this

survive for decades if they remain in a dormant are illustrated above. The life expectancy of each animal happens for example in phalaropes see p.306
state. In general, animals rarely live for long after is represented by a colored bar. indicating the degree to the female is more brightly colored than the male

their reproductive life has come to an end. which a factor can affect its lifespan. and often takes the lead in courtship. In general,
these females take little or no pan in rearing; voting.
LIFE CYCLES

STARTING LIFE LIVING TOGETHER


Most animals except for the ones thai use Many animals associate with their own kind bul
asexual reproduction Stan life as a single continue to lead independent lives. However.
fertilized egg i ell. II the egg has been fertilized euscK spe< ies. sui h as termites, ants, and
ial

externally, it will already, be outside the mother's bees, form permanent groups or colonies in
bi "l\. perhaps drifting in tin sea or glued to
which just one member the queen produces
all the colony's young. As a result, the colony's
seabed plants or sand. 11 the egg has be n
members are closely related and in many ways
fertilized internally, it will either be laid, to hatch
behave like a single organism. The greal success
afterward, oi il will be retained inside the mothei
ol the system is apparent in the fact thai these
while u begins to develop into a young animal.
insects are anions the most numerous on earth.
The degree development that takes place at
ol

COURTSHIP RITUAL am one stage varies from one type of animal to


,-1 male Jrigalehird inflates his throat pouch to attract the
another. Oviparous spa ies, such as birds, lay their

attention '// a female. Bud* have good color vision, which LIVE BIRTH
explains whj males often havt striking plumage. Animals thai give birth have
relatively few offspring,

FERTILIZATION hut they often show a


high level of parental
Marking the start of a new life, fertilizatii in irs female seal
when a male sperm and female egg cell fuse. In will look after her cub
animals, it takes place in one of two ways: either Jor man)
outside or inside the female's body. QUEEN TERMITE
External fertilization used by many animals is
Hidden deep inside a teimit, nest, it hen do is attended by
that either live permanently in water or return to her workers, a queen tervdh lax up to 30,000 eggs a day.

it to breed. In the simplest version of this process


- In In i complete dependence on the uorkers for food, she
seen in static invertebrates such as corals - vast represents the ultimate form of reproductive specialization.

numbers of and female sex cells are


the male
shed into the water, where they mingle so that
fertilization can occur. A more advanced version of metamorphosis. It allows animals to live in
this, seen in animals that can move around, such different ways - and often in different habitats
as frogs, involves two partners pairing up. Although during their young and adult lives.
they appear to mate, fertilization nevertheless takes fertilized eggs before fetal development begins. In Although metamorphosis is most common in
place in water rather than inside the female's body. birds, development is often deferred for several invertebrates, it does occur in amphibians and
External fertilization does not work on land more days until the clutch is complete; it begins some fish. .Animals that undergo the metamorphic
because sex cells soon dry out and die when as soon as the parent starts to incubate the eggs. process spend die early part of dieir lives as larvae.
exposed to air. Most terrestrial animals therefore Ovoviviparous species, which include many In the sea. larvae often drift near the surface as
use internal fertilization. In general, this involves reptiles and sharks, incubate their eggs internally, part of the plankton, and because they are carried
the male injecting sperm into the female. However, "giving birth" at the moment when the eggs are far and wide they play an important role in helping

some terrestrial animals, such as salamanders and about to hatch. Viviparous species - which include their species to spread.
newts, do not copulate. Instead, the male deposits virtually mammals, as well as some reptiles,
all In the insect world,
a package of sperm (a spermatophore near the i
amphibians, and lish - give birth to live young. metamorphosis occurs
female; she then collects it with her reproductive in two ways. Incomplete

organ so that internal fertilization ran take place. metamorphi >sis. show n
METAMORPHOSIS by grasshi >ppers and
.\J1 animals change shape as they grow and bugs, involves a series
develop. In some the changes are gradual and of gradual changes
relatively minor, but in Others they thai are made as the

far-reaching that the animal is compli ti h yi lung inset t, oi ny mph.


transformed. This transformation is called matures. ( < unplete
metamorphosis shown
bv butterflies, beetles,
and tlies involves mi hi
drastii i hanges, whi< h
i
ii
i ui dm ing a resting

Stage, I ailed pupation,


when the l)"<lv is broken
INTERNAL down and rearranged. zoi i ivkv \

FERTILIZATION
Like all insects, flat-footed
Vllt I 1 I UUi
in pah up m that

the female- eggs

boms.
Mating takes
r**»
EXTERNAL FERTILIZATION
i lis into

do lln\ by 'ii. changing phases of


m a natural flock that I ROM 1 \HV t III Vl)t I I

limni-i

tin ii breeding behavior.


'ii Ian a.
ANIMALS IN DANGER

ANIMALS IN DANGER HUNTING. FISHING. AND


COLLECTING
Unlike many of the world's resources, animals
UNTIL a CENTURY AGO, the earth still contained large areas of wilderness can reproduce. This means that - in theory -
where animals had litde or no contact with human beings. Since then, the useful species can be harvested without their
ever running out. However, many species have
human population has grown rapidly, use of energy and raw materials has been exploited to excess, with the result that a
escalated with it, and there are now very few parts of the planet that are considerable number of them are now in serious

truly beyond human reach. Natural habitats are disappearing, and earth's danger while others have died out altogether.
The list of casualties of hunting includes the
biodiversity - the sum total of all living species - is in rapid decline. This African blue buck, which died out in about 1800.
is potentially dangerous for human beings because it makes the world a and the N< >rth American passenger pigeon - once
the most numerous bird in the world - which
less stable place and wipes out resources that may one day be needed. For
became extinct in 1914. These animals were
animals, the results can be disastrous. The worst affected species have now killed primarily for food, but animals are now
reached the point where, ironically, they rely on human help to survive.

findenough to eat. Fragmented habitats are also


HABITAT CHANGE exposed to more intrusion and disturbance from
Humans first started to alter habitats when they humans and domestic animals, making it much
discovered fire, but it was with the start of farming harder for wild animals to feed and breed.
about 10.0110 years ago. that habitat destruction
became rapid. Agriculture has been the main
driving force behind deforestation, which swept
POLLUTION
the Northern Hemisphere in previous centuries Pollution occurs when chemicals or other agents
and continues in the Tropics today. It has also infiltrate and disrupt natural ecosystems. Sometimes
been responsible for the destruction of some of pollution has a natural origin, but in most cases it

the world's major natural grasslands in addition is the result of human activity It can affect animals AWAITING EXPORT
to marshes and other freshwater wetlands. physically - for example, by entangling them in Packed in tiny wire cages, these parakeets are destined to supply
In recent years, mangrove forests have been waste or clogging them with oil - but its chemical the pet-bird trade. The trade is driven by money from dealers
destroyed to make way for shrimp farms, while effects inside the body or in an animal's environment overseas. However, in the birds' native countries, collecting birds

coral reefs have been "mined"" for building are often more serious, in addition to being may sometimes be the only way of earning a living.

materials. Both of these activities have a far- harder to identify and predict.
reaching effect on marine animals because they The most problematic chemical pollutants are
remove the nursery areas that many species use synthetic-organic carbon-containing substanc e&
to breed. Coasts and rivers are affected by dam- such as solvents, pesticides, and herbicides.
building: the silt that normally accumulates in a Hundreds of thousands of these chemic ats
river's delta, helping to protect the shoreline, is now exist, and new kinds are produced every J
trapped behind the dam. This results in the year. Because of their chemical structure,
erosion of the shoreline in addition to allowing they are often absorbed by living tissue,
where they cause the most damage. Som<
FROM PRAIRIE
of these substances are toxic to all life,
TO FARMLAND
North America's forests
forms, but others are more selective.
and prairies underwent an
They are passed on when predators

explosive burst
their prey, so they accumulate in
of habitat
change with the arrival of
species at the top of food chains,

European settlers. Both were


as whales, polar bears, and birds
originally home to a wide prey. The low breeding success of
variety of animals, such as
some predators - beluga whales
bears and bison, which were in theGulf of St L.av\Tence. for

hunted and then displaced example - is thought to be a direi

as agriculture expanded. result of this kind of pollution.


Much of theforest has grown Animals are also affected by
back, but the prairies are pollution,which occurs mainly
now almost entirely devoted when fuels are burned, causin:
to grain farming: the original poisonous gases to be released
grassland habitat lias largely into the atmosphere. This creates
LRUS HELD disappeared. localized problems such as acid
rain, which has a highly dama
saltwater to flow into freshwater habitats. Fast- effect on freshwater fish. On a
growing cities have created further pressure on much broader sc.de. it is also
the natural habitats that remain. responsible for global wanning
I he pattern that the process of habitat change an environmental change that
takes is i iften as important as its scale. For example, could ultimately affect almost
if large areas of a habitat are preserved in their ever) animal species on earth.
original slate, then the habitat can often function as
it did previously, albeit on a reduced scale. But
WARNING SIGN
il same amount of habitat is fragmented
the
Fish art particularly tensitwe ><• chem
dh up into smaller isolated pieces the effect
ided pollutants and to changes that reduce
on animals is much more severe. Hiis is because water's oxygen content. Mass fish di
main species, particularly predators at the top of are often the first sign that a stretch of
food chains, need extensive territories if they are to water has been seriously polluted.
ANIMALS IN DANGER

meet SHRINKING ICE


often hunted to less pressing needs.
Polar bean use winter sea ice as a
Elephants are in demand for their tusks, and
platform for catching teals. With
rhinoceroses are killed for their horns. Tigers are
global warming, the Arcti
hunted for their fur and body parts, which fetch
•minishing. making it more
increasingly inflated prices as the number of
difficult for polar bean to stock up on
surviving animals falls. At sea, fish have become
food during this crucial tin
victim to the kind of excessive exploitation on< e
reserved for animals on land: plummeting stocks
of once-common species, such as the Atlantic
cod. are a warning sign that many commercial!)
important fish are experiencing major difficulties.
A range of animals are collected for the pet
trade. Apes and tropical parrots .in- particular!)
at risK. Si ime are trapped as adults, but man) air
taken when they are young. Deprived of parental
care, the) often fail to survive

INTRODUCED SPECIES than those that have occurred in die past, and complicate matter-.
Even before Christopher Columbus first traveled evolution does not work at such speed. Extra animals cannot net

K?
essaril)

to the Americas, explorers and colonists had warmth - in itself - will not necessarily be the breed even if they find a
introduced animals to new parts of the worid. The problem: in many cases, the difficultv will >mi i i suitable habitat and a
process increased rapidly during the sixteenth and In mi changing vegetation zones on land, and partner. This is because
seventeenth centuries, and the result - hundreds of i
hanging water levels and current patterns at sea. mam species breed in EXTINCT IN THE WILD:
which the PRZEWALSKl'S HORSE
years later - is that the wildlife of some isolated There are already some signs that animals are groups in

regions has been overwhelmed by a host of over- feeling the effects. Studies have shown that some presence of numerous
assertive intruders, from rats and cats to sheep, mountain animals are shifting to higher altitudes, others is essential to
deer, and goats. Some of these introduced species and some birds are beginning their breeding trigger reproductive
cause problems by preying on local wildlife. Others cycle earlier in spring. In the sea. coral bleaching behavior such as
harm native animals indirectly by competing with see pp.74 and 529 is widely believed to be linked courtship and
them for territory or food. to climate change. These changes are happening nestbuilding. The
In Australia, introduced species have disrupted now: whatever agreements are reached to tackle passenger pigeon was CRITICALLY ENDANGERED:
the ecology of an entire continent. Kangaroos climate change, the problems are bound to a classic example of a BLACK RHINOCEROS
still thrive, but mam small marsupials now live multiply in die decades to come. communal breeder,
in a tiny fraction of their original range, in nesting in colonies that
marginal habitats that introduced species find extended for main
difficult to reach. Similar problems affect New ANIMALS ON THE BRINK square miles. Ev en when
In the 2000 IUCX Red List of Threatened several thousand
Species (see below), over 5,400 species of animal remained, the species had ENDANGERED: QUEEN"
are reported to face a high risk of extinction in already stepped over the ALEXANDRA'S BIRDWING
the near future. In almost every case, the threat threshold into oblivion.
is the result of human activities. The number of
threatened species represents less than a tenth
THREAT CATEGORIES
The IUC\ Red List of
of one percent of all the animals that have been
Threatened Species places
identified to date, but IUCN recognizes that the
animals in one of eight categories
figure is seriously underestimated. This is bet ause
according to the degree of risk
many of the world's animals are poorly known,
they face: the most threatened
UNWELCOME ARRIVALS which makes it very difficult to assess changes as the tiger and the VTTNERABLE: WANDERING
Rabbits were introduced to Australia in the mid-nineteenth in their population size. For birds and mammals. black rhinoceros) are "critically ALBATROSS
century for food and their fur. They quickly spread inland, the statistics are more reliable, and they make endangered;" the next category
displacing native animals and destroying vegetation. In dry disturbing reading: nearly one in four mammals (including the orangutan and
areas, soil erosion set in, permanently changing the landscape. are included in the 80 species being
list, with 1
Queen Alexandra's birdwing) are
critically endangered. For birds, the total is one 'endangered," and so on. Details

Zealand and Madagascar. On much smaller in eight, of which 82 species are at critical risk.
1
of the categories - which are also

oceanic islands the situation can be even more Near!) 6.000 species of plant are also listed a used in this book - can be found
severe: their native birds are often wiped out figure of crucial importance to the animal- that on page 1 0.
by cats and- tenacious newcomers that are
rats depend on them for survival. ,

extremely difficult to eradicate. In this age of Being "on the brink''


rapid travel and expanding tourism, die threat means different things for THE RED LIST
from introduced species increases unabated. different species. Some, The Red List of Threatened Species
is published bv the iiuernatiim.il

particularly invertebrate-, Union Conservation of Nature and Natural Resoun es 11 ( \


for the

an reproduce rapidlv when The IUCN, founded in 1948 In the United Nations, carries out a range of
CLIMATE CHANGE i

conditions are good, whu h


activities aimed at it- work 1- the
safeguarding the natural world. Part of

The regular compilation of the Red


which draws togethei information
Li-t.
earth's climate complex thai hanges
is so i gives them the potential ti i

provided b) over 10,000 scientists from all over the world; this li-t has
are not easv to explain and even more difficult to make a fast iiimeli.u k. But
become a global directory to the state of living duns- on our planet.
predict However, over recent decades one trend man) spei ies are -low
Ihe ui rent Red List -how- thai threatened spei ies are often grouped
i

has become clear: the planet'- surfai e is quite breeders and take a long
in particular pan- <il the world. Today's "hot spots" in< hide East Africa,
rapidly warming up. This is almost ertainl) the i time tn recover if their
Southeast Asia, and the Amerit an ropii -. me >! the reasons for this i-
1 (

result of increasing carbon dioxide levels caused numbers fall. Albatrosses are
that these regions have a much greater diversity ol spe< ies than i

by burning fossil fuels. a IV] ih al example: they take


American Tropk example, are
farther north or south: the -. foi parti( ulariy
Animals an- well equipped to deal with gradual up to seven years to bei ome rich in IhhI -pei ies. In re< ent years, these areas have seen rapid habn.it
m climate because the) are able to adapt mature, they la) just one change particularlv deforestation which has come about paru) because
and evolve. Bui die hanges expei ted during the
< egg, and the) often breed an expanding human population need- more land on whi
coming century an- Likely to be nun h raster mlv in alternate yeai -. 1"

I
CONSERVATION

CONSERVATION However, most conservationists believe


breeding
survival rates.
is not a longterm route to improving
There are two reasons for this: first,
that captive

it requires a huge commitment of time, money,


The NEGATIVE IMPACT thai HUMAN BEINGS have on wildlife grows day and space: and. second, if the reason for a species'

by day. but does the impact of conservation. Across the world,


so. too, decline is habitat loss then captive breeding will not
help because there will be now here for the animals
organizations large and small are engaged in a concerted effort to preserve to live when they arc released into the wild.
nature in its original state or to ensure that it is used in a sustainable way.
It is a huge task, and one that raises some difficult practical questions. CONTROLLING INCOMERS
Which is the best way of safeguarding species? How do you go about
In isolated parts of the world, introduced - or

saving an animal that is on the verge of extinction? And, if resources are "alien" species ( an make life extremely difficult

for native animals, not just by preying on them but


some animals more "important" than others? Experts do not
limited, are
bv i ompeting with them for food and territory.
always agree on the answers, but there is no doubt that conservation is
an urgent priority if today's threatened species are to survive.

condor, when onl\ about 24 birds were left in the


HABITAT PROTECTION w ild. During the 980s. a breeding program1

By far the most effective wav of safeguarding was initiated. As the wild population continued
animals is to protect their natural habitats. An to clei. line, all the remaining birds were caught
animal's habitat provides everything necessary a drastic measure that caused considerable
for its survival, and in its natural state it can controversy at the time. Two decades later, the
continue to do this indefinitely as food and intervention seems to have been vindicated: the
energy is passed from one species to another. totalpopulation has reached about 1 70. and about
This is the thinking behind the establishment 40 of these birds have been released into the wild. EXCLUDING INTRUDERS
of national parks and wildlife reserves. Even Even better results have been achieved with the In Western Australia, this electric fence protects the Peron
small parks can be effective particularly when Hawaiian goose, or nene, and the Arabian oryx. Peninsula from introduced mammals, such as cats. The entire

they protect breeding grounds - but, as a general With new developments in genetic engineering, peninsula - covering 390 square miles 1 1.000 square km) -
rule, the larger the area that is protected, the there even the possibility that recently extinct
is is to become an "alien-free" haven for endangered marsupials.
greater the number of species that benefit and species could be "brought back to lite.
the more likelv it is that the habitat will become Cats, foxes, and rats head the list of these

genuinely sell-sustaining. Canada's Wood Buffalo READY FOR RELEASE troublesome incomers, although plant-eating
National Park - which straddles northern Alberta Raised in captivity, Urn California condor may one mammals can also cause immense damage. In
day help to swell the population in the wild.
and the Northwest Territories - is the world's some of the worst affected regions, such as
largest, with an area of 17.300 square miles
However, m comparison with lifi in
Australia and New Zealand, conservation
aptii it), life in the wild can
1 1 807 square km
North America's . It protects
i

programs are now underway to reduce


difficult
largest surviving buffalo herds, and its remote the threat to indigenous animals.
and even
location insures thai human intrusion and In an island that is as vast as Australia,
hazardous.
disturbance are kept to a minimum. eradicating feral cats and foxes is not
a feasible goal. However, in some parts of
the country, large areas have been fenced off to
1

protect bandicoots, bilbies. and other vulnerable


marsupials from immigrant predators. In these
-
giant enclosures, alien species are either trapped
f
I mk TJft""***

ANIMAL APPEAL
One problem with animal conservation is
that human reactions to individual species
..— i
.^^b'.-.^i differ. Some endangered species arouse

immense and sympathy, while others


interest

WATERSIDE VANTAGE POINT elicit A good


indifference or even distaste.
example of the former is the giant panda,
Specially constructed blinds allou \
isilon to watch buds in a
which has become an international svTnbol
wetland reserve. After centuries of drainagefor agriculture,
an vitally important mwn for nature conservation. The latter includes
to .. etland specu r.

thousands of animals, such as beedes and


other insects, that are generally dismissed
In more accessible parts of the world, national
as "creepy crawiies." To be effective,
parks and reserves can suffer as a result of their
conservation must protect all animals in
own popularity as well as from the pressure for a habitat, from the so-called "charismatic
f
resoun Galapagos Islands, for example,
es. In the megafauna" - big animals with star
ionservationists are engaged in an often diffi< ult appeal - to invertebrates that few
to ialani the needs of w ildlife against
1 i
people see and even fewer can name.
the demands of an expanding human population
and increasing numbers of visitors.
POLES APART
The giant panda and the European

CAPTIVE BREEDING long-horn beetle are at opposite ends of


the spectrum of public interest and
\\ Inn an animal species is in immediate danger concern. 1 1 hile thepanda attracts
ol extinction, captive breeding can be a highly funds and media attention, the beetle
effective wa\ of bringing it back from the brink. and its like rarely arouse comment.
In 1982. this was the situation with the California
i

CONSERVATION

or controlled by poison bait. The poisons used are


substances taken from native plants: these are ideal
because they affect only the alien species, leaving
native ones unharmed. Killing for conservation
is a difficult and divisive issue, particularlv when
the victims are cats that have run wild. However,
there no doubt - as far as Australian marsupials
is

are concerned - that it is highly effective.


Introduced species are even more of a problem
on offshore islands, where they can devastate land
animals and colonies of nesting birds. Manv of the
world's most remote islands, such as Kerguelen in
the Southern Indian Ocean, have been overrun by
rats, which arrived aboard ships several centuries
ago. Rats can be extremely difficult to control. On
Kerguelen. eradication programs have failed,
although they have succeeded on several islands off
the coast of New Zealand where rats have been
removed to create havens for tuataras - one of the
world's most endangered reptiles. The small size
of these islands makes them ideal ""arks'" because
they are relatively easy to keep mammal-free.

LEGAL PROTECTION 1960s to about 2,000 today, and tigers, which TOURIST ATTRACTION
After centuries of indiscriminate exploitation. are reduced to a total population of about 7,000. 1 1 itched by a group of tourists, a cheetah relaxes in the evening
endangered animals are now protected by a Both these animals are killed for their bodv parts, sunshine. Its tameness is unusual and is a sign that tourism's
host of international agreements and national which fetch extremely high prices in Asia. intrusion into its habitat is affecting its natural behavior.
laws. One of the most important of these is
the Convention on International Trade in
divided. The African elephant
Endangered Species, or CITES (see panel, right .
COMMERCIAL different conservation bodies are at
is a case in point:
odds about
Other agreements protect specific habitats, such as
wetlands or - as with the .Antarctic Treaty - entire
EXPLOITATION the exploitation of ivory. One side believes that
the legal, albeit controlled, sale of ivory is bound
continents. Some international bodies promote Few people would condone the sale of rhinoceros tohave a damaging effect on elephant numbers
conservation as a way of managing wildlife horn or tiger bones, but some conservationists do fand inevitably help to sustain poaching). The
resources. For example, the International Whaling believe that - where possible - wild animals should other believes that, if it is carefully regulated,
Commission, which was set up in 1 946. originallv be made They take the view
to "pay their way." the sale of ivory could actually safeguard the
supervised the "sustainable harvesting" of whales. that animals are best conserved if they generate species by generating money to protect it.
When it became clear that numbers of most great income, for this provides an incentive to protert At present, no one knows for certain whether
whales were plummeting, whaling limits were them. Then- are two main ways in which this can commerce has a real and useful place in wildlife
gradually tightened until, in 1986. a complete happen: wildlife tourism can be encouraged, conservation. If it does, one thing is certain: the
ban on commercial whaling was introduced. with some of the revenue it generates being used income generated by wild animals will have to
Such legal protection is an essentia] part of for conservation work; or the animals them benefit local people, for their cooperation is
wildlife conservation. In the case of whales, for can be managed as a resource. ial to making conservation work.
example, has almost certainly saved some
it Wildlife tourism is a booming business,
species from extinction. However, its effect although it has undeniable drawbacks, such
is sometimes undermined by loopholes or illegal as habitat disturbance. On the use of animals CITES
activity. Two notorious examples of the latter are The Convention on
as a resource, however, wildlife International Trade in
the poaching of black rhinoceroses, whose Endangered Species CITES was instituted to
experts are more sharply
numbers have collapsed from control the movement of live wild animals, animal
about 100.000 in the early products, and wild plants across international
borders. Signed in 1973 by 81 countries, it

came into force in 1975 and today has over 120


signatories. CITES completely prohibits trade
in over 400 species, including many turtles and
birds, and requires special permits for trade in
others. It ha.s been successful in some areas but,
despite increasing vigilance at ports and airports.
smuggling is still a problem.

BANNED GOODS
All the items shoun
m this photograph are
made of turtle shell -

an animal product
that cannot be exported

under CUES
nizulathin

national
it illegal to

oi(7j animals or objects


listed hi ( lll-s
1

i
m

4
on
The Earth is the only place in the universe

known to support life. Like all other living


things, animals occupy a zone between the
lower part of the Earth's atmosphere and
the lloors of its oceans. Although animal
life is warm, wet conditions of
richest in the

the Tropics, some animals have adapted to


life in the hostile conditions found in arid
deserts, high mountains, and the polar ice-

caps. Wherever they live, animals interact


with each other, with other living things,
and with their nonliving surroundings
to produce complex, constantly changing
environments known as habitats. This
section looks at the habitats of the world
and the animals that live in them.
WORLD HABITATS

WORLD HABITATS
HABITATS OF THE WORLD
This map shows the distribution of major habitats
world,
The
and also cities with populations
habitat distribution shown here is
across the

of 1 million or more.
uould
the pattern that

man-made changes, resultingfrom urbanization and


Seen from space, the MOST STRIKING FEATURE of the earth is its exist if

the spread agriculture, had not occurred.


of
sheer physical variety. Not only is there dry land and open sea, but
there are also mountains, plains, rivers, coastal shelves, and deep oceanic
trenches. The earth also varies in its climate: in some parts of the world, GRASSLAND

weeks or months pass by under almost cloudless skies, while in others, DESERT

the ground is scoured by icy winds or soaked by intense tropical storms. TROPICAL FOREST
Differences like these create a complex jigsaw puzzle of varied habitats,
TEMPERATE FOREST
enabling the earth to support a rich diversity of animal life. Some species
CONIFEROUS FOREST
are highly adaptable and can survive in a wide range of conditions, but
MOl-
MOUNTAINS
the vast majority are found in one kind of habitat and nowhere else.
POLAR REGION

RIVERS AND WETLAND


WHAT ARE HABITATS?
CORAL REEF
In its narrowest sense, a habitat is the environment

in which something lives. For some animals, a URBAN AREA


habitat might be as restricted as a temporary pool
in a desert or as small as a piece of decaying wood
In a broader sense - the one used in this book -
On and at sea, temperature changes
coasts
a habitat can mean a characteristic grouping of are usually more gradual than they are inland.
lhing things, together with the setting in which However; warmth - or lack of it - still determines
they are found. In ecology, a habitat defined in where some habitats are found. For example, reef-
thi^ way is known as a biome. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE building corals do not thrive at temperatures of less
Habitats contain both living and nonliving These two habitats - in Argentina (left) and Chile (right/ - than about 68'T 2' C m most reefs are found in
i
. ,

matter. In some - for example, true desert - are at the same latitude, but they have very different climates, the Tropics. However; on the west coast of Africa
living things are thinly scattered, so the nonliving and therefore very different plant and animal life. The contrast and the Americas, reefs are rare because, although
part of the environment is dominant. In others, is created by the Andes, a mountain barrier that blocks rain- the climate is warm, cold currents pass close to the
such as forest and coral reefs, living things are so bearing winds. Chile is on the windward side of the Andes. shore. Mangrove swamps present a similar pattern:
abundant diat diey fill all die available space and in the Southern Hemisphere they reach as far as
create habitats for each other. In these habitats, rain-bearing winds. On the windward side of the South Australia: in the Northern Hemisphere
huge numbers of species exist side by side, mountains, heavy rainfall often creates lush forests they extend only just out of the Tropics.
forming extraordinarily complex webs of life. teeming with all kinds of animal
But in the life.

"rainshadow," to the lee of the mountains, low


rainfall can produce desert or scrub, where only
BIODIVERSITY
FACTORS THAT drought-tolerant animals can survive. From the earliest days of scientific exploration,

SHAPE HABITATS Temperature is another climatic factor that has naturalists noticed great variations in biodiversity,
an important effect both on land and in the sea. or species richness. In the far north and south,
Geology plays a part in shaping habitats, but by For example, in the far north, coniferous forest species totals are low compared with the numbers
far the most important factor is climate. As a result, eventually peters out in the face of biting winter found near the Equator. Arctic tundra, for
differences in climate -which sometimes occur frosts. This northern treeline. which runs like a example, is inhabited by just a few hundred species
over remarkably small distances - can have a huge ragged ring around the Arctic, marks the outer of insect, while in tropical forests the total is
effect on plant and animal life. A classic example range of crossbills, wood wasps, and many other probably at least a million. A similar picture -
of this occurs where mountain ranges intercept animals that depend on conifers for survival. albeit on a smaller scale is true for mammals
and birds. However, high-latitude habitats make
up for their lack of biodiversity by having some
CHEMICAL CYCLES phenomenally large species populations. The seas
In all habitats, living things take part in eyries around Antarctica, for example, harbor perhaps
that shutde chemical elements between lhing 40 million crabeater seals - the most numerous
and nonliving About 25 elements are
matter.
large wild mammals on earth.
essential to life and, of these, just four make up
The reasons for such variation in biodiversity
the bulk of li\ing things. These are hydrogen,
are still not fully understood, although climate
oxygen, nitrogen, and - the key element -
almost certainly plays a pan. However, in an age
carbon. In the nonliving worid, carbon can be
found in the atmosphere a gas), in water (in
fas
dissolved form), andground Tin rocks and
in the
fossil fuels,. Plants absorb carbon dioxide from

the atmosphere, and most other forms of life


give off carbon dioxide when they break down
carbon-containing substances to release energy.
Carbon is also released by burning fossil fuels.

THE CARBON CYCLE


This diagram shows some of the main pathways in the TROPICAL TREASURY
carbon cycle. The time taken for each part of the cycle
plantand animal The hummingbirdfamily vividly demonstrates the high level
to be completed varies greatly. Carbon may stay in remains broken down dead be found in the tropics. Only a
enter soil in of species diversity that is to

living things for only a few days, but it can remain by microorganisms remains handful of hummingbird species live at high latitudes - and
locked up underground for thousands ofyears. most of these are migrants - but on the Equator, the number
of species rises to over 150.
WORLD HABITATS

to form scattered "refugia" - islands of forest


surrounded by grassland. Even today, these areas of
forest still contain a wider variety of birds than the
relatively new forest that has grown back. Ice ages
also affect sea levels, by locking up water as ice.
When sea levels fall, land habitats expand; when
they rise, the land Is drowned again and plants
and animals are forced to retreat.
Since the last ice age ended, natural
changes have not been the only ones that
have affected the world's habitats. On a
local and global scale, human activity
t>iu..,r
has had an increasing impact and, as a
result, the pattern we now see is pardy
man-made. This is especially true of
forests, which have been cut back to
make space for agriculture, but it is also
some grasslands, wetlands, and
true of
even deserts. In some remote regions -
particularly in the far north - the original
pattern still remains, but in populated regions
1, it has been transformed, creating a world where
wild animals can have difficulty finding a home.

LEVELS OF LIFE
Even in the most remote places on earth,
animals very rarely live entirely on their own.

Instead, they interact with other individuals and


in which main animal species are endangered, develops inside figs; and coundess bees that depend other species. Taken together, these interactions
create a range of different ecological levels, from
biodiversity - and ways of maintaining it - has on particular flowers. Not all plant-dependent
local populations,communities, and ecosystems
become an important topic. Tropical forests and animals are insects, however. The robber crab -
- to the whole biosphere - the sum total of all the
coral reefs are especially rich in species, which is the largest and heaviest terrestrial crustacean
places where living things can be found. Because
\\li\ so much attention is currently focused on feeds predominantly on rotting coconuts, which
microorganisms are so widespread, the biosphere
preserving them and their animal life. it scavenges along the shore (see below). As a result,
extends high into the atmosphere, and probably
it is found only where coconuts grow. Mammals several miles underground.
can be just as particular. The giant panda - one of
ANIMAL DISTRIBUTIONS the most famous examples - depends on about two INDIVIDUAL
A glance at the map on this page shows that dozen species of bamboo, which arc found only at An individual animal is

various types of habitat are spread across large midaltitudes in the mountains of central China. normally an independent
expanses of the world. However, with a few- unit that finds its own
exceptions, most of their animals are not. Instead,
each species has a characteristic distribution, which
CHANGING HABITATS (a food. It often
a set home
lives>

range.
within

comes about partly through its evolutionary history In nature, habitats change all the time. Forest
'see p. 7), and partly as a result of its way of li!i\
1 and grassland catch fire, rivers burst their banks, POPULATION
In many cases, an animal's lifestyle shapes its ,iiid stoi ins battel oral reefs and coasts. Such
I
.-1 population is a group

distribution in unexpectedly subtle- ways. For unpredictable occurrences are facts of life, and of individuals that

example, in the Amcrii as, the blown pelic an is animals along with other living things - have belong to the same
found along the western coast, except for the
all evolved ways of surviving diem. Habitats can also species, live in one

far north and south: in the cast, it does not reach < hange in much more profound ways, over much area, and interbreed.

south of the Caribbean. The reason for this is longer periods of time. Here the driving force is

that, unlike its relatives, the brown pelican feeds usually climate change, a natural process that is
COMMUNITY
by diving for and needs clear water to spot its
fish, triggered by a host of factors, including continental .-I connnunih is a

prey. The Caribbean is lear, but farther >m ii the


< ^< drill. < )n several occasions in the distant past - collection of populations.
Although they h,
Amazon pours vast amounts of mud-laden water most recently about 12,000 years ago - the polar
to different species, they
into the sea. For the peli< an, this muddy watei is a ice caps have expanded, destroying existing
depend on each other
barrier that cannot b<- 1 tossed. habitats and evi< ting their animals. On each
Im survival.
Man) animals' distributions are linked to those in ( asiou. when the e has eventually melted,
ic

of particular plants. Extreme plants have moved ba< k into the empty
ECOSYSTEM
examples include the yucca jtitt&fe^. l.uidsi ape. .mil mini. lis have followed
. suit.
, bi ecos) stem is modi up
moth, wliic h depends The world's i Inn. ites are interrelated, whi< h
of a community and its
on \in ca plants; means that c h.inges in one an a ( an have
physical surroundings.
the fig wasp. long-term effe< is all ovei the globe. Foi
Characteristic ecosystem
which example, during the last i< e age, the
types are bw
climate in the Tropii s bo ame drier,
biomes (or habiia
and the Amazon rainforest slu.mk

BIOSPHERE
COCONUT-EATERS The biosphere consists
Grasping a fallen unarm/, tivo robber of all the ecosystem on
i robs tussle ovei Iheii fa\
>< earth, and therefore all the

The robber crab is one of man i >/" I it from the earth's


whose distribution is determined bj the i rust in tin abnosphen
pn tenet oj a singlt plant in this that living things inhabit.

ease, the coconut palm.


GRASSLAND

GRASSLAND
IN PARTS OF THE WORLD where it is too
dry for trees to grow, yet moist enough
to prevent the land from becoming ^
desert, grasses are the dominant plants.
Grasses are unusual in that their stem
grow from a point near the ground.
This means that unlike most other
plants, which grow from their tips,
grasses are unharmed by grazing.
In fact, grazing animals help grasses
maintain their dominance by
stunting the growth of competing
plants. This creates a vast, open habitat
in which there is plenty of plant food -

for those that can digest it - but little


shelter from the elements.

TEMPERATE GRASSLAND
Before the advent of farming, grassland covered
large parts of the temperate world, notably
in the Northern Hemisphere. These vast
grasslands - which include the prairies
of North America and die steppes of
Europe and central Asia - are nearly all
in the centerof large landmasses. far away
from coasts and their moisture-laden winds.
Summers are often warm, but winters can
be long and cold, with biting winds.
An unusual feature of this kind of habitat is that
most of the plant matter is hidden below ground -
the exact opposite of die situation elsewhere on
land. This is because grass plants direct much more
energy into growing roots than into producing
lea's es, and their roots form a continuous mat. w hich
protects the surface of the
ground by holding the soil in
place. If grasslandis burned

or affected by drought, it can


soon recover because the
grass can draw on its buried
eserves in order to start
growing again. The root mat
the largest areas of makes a useful source of
temperate grassland are found food for insects and other
in .\orth America, South small animals. It is also a
America, eastern Europe, and
good medium for burrowers
central and eastern Asia.
because it is easy to dig
through and. unlike loose soil, rarely caves in.
Above ground, the food supply is closely tied to the
seasons. In temperate grassland, most of the year's
water usually comes in the form of spring rain or
melting snow. This creates a flush of growth in
spring and early summer, when most grazing
animals breed. By late summer, the grass is brown
and dry. although for a while during autumn grass
SOME BIRDS, -itch OS
seeds make a valuable harvest Winter is a difficult
this burrowing owl. lay
time for all grassland animals, but particularly for their eggs in underground
grazers because they often have to survive on low- burrows because there are

grade food that is hidden under snow. no trees to provide nest-hole.


GRASSLAND

SAVANNA
Savanna is tropi< al or subtropical grassland that
contains s< attered shrubs and trees. The grasslands ol
east Africa are a familiar example, with their diverse
wildlife and distinctive vegetation panic ulaiK the
flat-topped a< a< ia trees .
( lompared with temperate
grassland, savanna is ver) variable: in some savanna
habitats, trees .in- few and Far between; in others, the)
form scattered merging thickets, into open woodland.
AERIAL SCAVENGERS. ices have a major impact
I

such as this ,. kih backed on the savanna's animal life.


vulture, exploit tht savanna's
I his is ho ause the) produce
strong thermals,
a wide variet) ol food,
uninterrupted
views, and
including wood, leaves,
abunddnct flowers, and seeds: and
of wildlife. they also create shelter and
breeding sites for animals
ground. The
that live oil the SAVANNA IS FOUND lll/imh

balance between trees and in Central and South Amenta,


grass is a delicate one that tropii [frit a, anthem Asia, 11/ .

issometimes changed by the and northern lustralia. .

animals themselves. For example, elephants destroy


trees by pushing them over so that they can reach
their leaves. However, elephants also help trees
reproduce because they ingest the trees' seeds, which
are then passed in their dung - an ideal medium for
jromoting seed growth. Browsing mammals often
keep trees in check by nibbling saplings before they
have had a chance to become established. Fire
THE GIRAFFE'S also hilps hold back trees, and its effect is most
r
ttraordinarj reach is apparent in places where trees grow close together.
responsiblefot tin umbrella- Unlike temperate grassland habitats, savanna
likt shapt o) many African is usually warm all year round. There is often a
grassland tret r.

ong fin season, when most trees lose their leaves,


followed by a wet, or "rainy," season, which produces
.i rapid burst of growth that turns
the landscape
green. During this wet season, plant-eating animals
rarel) have to contend with .1 shortage of food; in
the dry season, the threat of starvation is never far
away, and man) animals trawl long distances to
find water and food.

FLIGHTLESS CONSERVATION
birds, such as tht
At one- time, natural grassland
covered about two-
ttrich, thri) t in sat anna,
fifthsof the earth's laud surface. With the spread of
hen running is an effii ft'i i

vansofescafi
agriculture, much of this was adapted for growing
crops or raising livestock, and now there are onl)
small remnants of grassland containing its original
vegetation and wildlife. However, farming has also
created grassland: the hill pastures of Europe and New
/(•aland, for example, are the result of deforestation
that occurred several centuries ago. ( )ld pasture
can be a ri< h resource foi wildlife; modem
pastuic has a much
11.11 rower range
ol plants and.
consequendy, less
varied animal life.

CHANGING
HARVESTS
In the spaa a/ less than

percent oj North
TERMITES I
brairit
can) plant matin grassland /;«> been
md, helping ed to farmland.
tn in al, vital nutrient
LIFE IN GRASSLAND

LIFE IN GRASSLAND
Despite centuries of human disturbance, grassland
supports some of the largest concentrations of animal
life on earth. Survival in grassland habitats is far fi

easy,however: aside from the lack of shelter and t

plant diversity, there are hazards such as drough


and fire to contend with. Added to this is the
ever-present risk of attack by some of the
world's fastest and most powerful predato-

HERDING
Life in open grassland is often dangerous
because there are few places to hide. To
increase their chances of survival, many
large plant-eaters live in herds. This makes it

more difficult for predators to attack


because, while most herd members are
eating, some on the lookout for danger.
are
Today's largest herds are found on .Africa's
plains. Here, migrating wildebeest can form
herds over a quarter of a million strong and
25 miles 40km) long, although even these
herds are small compared with some that
existed in the past. During the nineteenth
century, springbok herds in southern Africa
sometimes contained more than 10 million
animals. In North America, bison herds
MOVEMENT
probably reached similar sizes before hunting In grassland and savanna, there is a premium
brought the species to the edge of extinction. on speed. It is no accident that the world's sprinting, even if
Life in herds does have its problems, one fastest land animals, such as the cheetah to be four times f

of which is the risk that an and the pronghorn. arc found in this habitat.
animal might wander off
and become lost. Most
Natural selection favors predators that are
last enough to catch food and prey animals
LIVING UNDERGROUND
herding species have scent that are fast enough to escape. Some grassland animals find safety not by
glands on their hooves so Most of the last runners are mammals, running away but in retreating into burrows
that if an animal becomes however grassland also has nature's fastest- below ground. There they can stay out of
isolated it can follow the running birds, including ostriches, rheas, reach of most predators and find some
scent tracks to rejoin the and emus - giant species that have lost the protection from the worst of the elements.
herd. Another problem is ability to fly. These birds can reach speeds Subterranean animals include a wide variety
giving birth. To prevent of up to 44mph 70kph . More importantly, of species, ranging from mammals to insects.
their young from being the) are able to maintain such speeds forup Some animals, particularly snakes, do not
trampled or attacked, to 30 minutes - long enough to outrun most excavate their own burrows; instead they
many grazers give A nl their enemies unless a predator launches adopt existing ones. The largest burrows.
birth in cover, and MM an attack from a very close range. made by African aardvarks, are big enough
rejoin the herd a Despite the man) last runners, grassland to accommodate a person, and are a serious
few weeks later. life often appears tranquil. This is because
Some, however, running is extremely energy-intensive, and
MAKING A HOME
BELOW GROCND
are born in the animals run only when the) absoluteh have
A black- tailed prairie
open and have to be to. Prey animals have invisible "security
dog collects grass to
able to keep up with thresholds'" that van, according to the threat line a nesting chamber.
the herd when they they lace, for example, gazelles often let The coloirp, or town,

are just a few hours old lions approach to within about 630ft 200m consists of tunnels up
deep.
because they are instinctively aware that
lions that are visible at this distance are

|f* unlikely to be stalking prey. A solitary

K-. cheetah, on the other hand, will

FLIGHTLESS BIRDS
Standing guard over its chicks, a greater rhea
Hatches for danger. Like otherflightless birds
that live in grassland, it uses its height and
to spot potential predators at a

distance so that it has time to run for safety. PRAIRIE-DOG BCRROWS


LIFE IN GRASSLAND

MIGRATING WILDEBEEST
In Tanzania > Serengeti National Park,
FIRE
wildebeest migrate in a cyclical path to
Fires, ivr/iiiied by lightning arc a natural feature
of grassland life, clearing away dead growth
take advantage offresh plant growth
at different times of the year. They
and allowing fresh grass to sprout. In the long
run. fires help grassland wildlife, but while they
spend the wet season in open grassland,
are burning they can be lethal. As the (lame
and the dry season in wooded savanna.
Iront advances, most animals react by running
or living for safety, often abandoning their
usual caution in an urgent bid to escape.
Some animals, such as bustards and storks,
have learned to make the most of this frenzied
exodus from the flames. They gather lose <

to fires and snap up and other small


inset ts FEEDING BY THE FLAMES
animals as they scurry away: and once the .-1 white stork searches for small animals feeing before an
fire has moved on, they pick over the charred advancing fire. Soaring high over the plains, the stork has
ground lor casualties. been attracted to the scene by the fire's smoke.

INSECT-EATER
ard to vehicles; the most extensive are
The giant antealer uses its powerful
: by prairie dogs and other rodents.
clous to break open termite mounds
Before farming became widespread in North and reach the insects inside.

erica's prairies, some prairie-dog burrow-


systems KAcred a thousand square miles
and housed millions of animals.
jjf Termites are also accomplished builders,
constructing giant, elaborate, subterranean
nests that extend highabove ground level.
house large, cooperative
..These nests
communities that can contain over 30 million
inhabitants. Along with ants, they make up
a very large part of the habitat's animal life
COLLECTING DUNG
and provide food for the large insect-eaters.
Dung beetles make use

of the large amount

FEEDING of dung produced by


grazing mammals.

Although grass rich in nutrients and easy They gather the dung
is to
into balls, which they
find, it is difficult to digest. Many mammals,
then roll away and bury
including humans, cannot break it down at
below ground where it

all because it contains large amounts of is used as foodfor the


cellulose- a carbohydrate that most animals beetle's grubs.

cannot digest. Grazing mammals, however,


have special microorganisms in the gut that example, the small dik dik antelope feeds
break down cellulose so that the body is able on shoots and fruit and rarely touches grass,
to use it. Some nonmammai species also use while the much larger eland will eat almost
microbes to digest plant material. In tropical anything from fruit and seeds to roots
savanna, for example, termites rely on them scraped up from the ground.
In break down dead leaves and wood. Scavengers, whit h also play an important
The animals that are most efficient at using part in the habitat's ecology, include birds
cellulose are ruminant mammals antelopes, as well as i oyotes, jackals, and hyenas. Most
buffaloes, and git, dies, for example whit h airborne s< avengers are vultures, but there
helps to explain why these animals dominate are several spet ies ol stork, one of which, the
grasslands. The ruminant's complex stomach in. ii. (bou. rivals the Andean condor for the
,u is like a fermentation tank, working to title of the largest living animal in the world.
extrat i the maximum amount of nutrients
from lood. The animal assists in the process
esophagus rumen
b\ regurgitating its lood and (hewing it a
setoud time, making it even easier to break
down. Nonruminant plant-eaters, sut h as
zebras, have less effit ienl digestive systems
and must therefore eat mote to sun ive.

pure grassland, plant-eaters ompete


In i

for the same lood. although eat h m.i\ have


a preferent e foi a different type ol grass.
In savanna, the present e ol trees and
shrubs makes foi a widei range ol lood.
REACHING FOR FOOD DIGESTING GRASS
mini mi!, ,,,,.>.
and browsing mammals have minimized
I lllll, In/,. . !!;,
The larg, wth, tAe
I lii i 111, an i that although
competition further b) evolving specifit w.i\s
i

bacteria and pi
at the shoulder, it can l>> ol feeding 1 Ins means that a remarkable 'hat turn
much higha lhar, th numbet ol spet ies t an live side l>\ side. Foi 'its that can then he absorbed.
DESERT

DESERT
Deserts are places of extremes.
Besides being dry. they experience SANDGROISE
intense sunshine and a greater daily 7U tht
problem of
temperature range than any other land supplying watei to

habitat. Rain - when it comes - typically nestling! by trem

in their breast feathers.


falls in downpours,
brief but torrential
it

while strong winds pick up sand and


grit, carrying it almost horizontally
through the air. Although no two
deserts are identical, true desert is

usually defined as having less than Gin


(15cm) of a year. Semidesert
rainfall
has more - up to 16in (40cm a
rainfall
year - which typically falls during a
\. K
THE SCIMITAR-HORNED
relatively short spring or wet season oryx, like other nondrinkers,

ean get all the water it needs


followed by months of drought. from its food.

TRUE DESERT
Most of found in
the world's true desert is
I
two belts, one straddling each of the Tropic
Here, zones of high atmospheric pressure
persist for months at a time, preventing low-
pressure air from bringing in rain. Desert al
THE GOLDEN JACKAL
forms where mountains block rain-bearing
is able to Hie nocturnalh.
winds, and where cold coastal currents chill the
lows it to avoid
air so that it carries very little moisture inland.
In true desert, the amount of rain is so meager daytime heat.
and so unpredictable that very few plants can
survive. The ones that do - such as cacti
and other succulents - are highly effective at
i. *
collecting and conserving what little water nature
provides: they have large networks of shallow roots
which drain the surrounding "round so thoroughly THE THORNY DEM L '

that, often, nothing else can grow near by. protective spines in addition

For animals, this arid to the good camouflage


that other slow-moving
environment creates some
ground dwellers often
interesting effects. With
depend on
SO few plants, there
very little soil,

severely limits
which
is

3
invertebrate life.

Most small animals,


TRl E DESERT OCCtttS at Mich as insects.
nudlatttudes in the Xorihern are found either on
and Southern Hemispheres. the plants themselves DESERT
and it ean have less than 2in
or in the debris that SNAKES, such
' rain a year.
accumulates immediately as the horned viper,

beneath them. Larger animals, such as reptiles will pursue their prey
into their burrows.
and rodents, venture away from these pockets of
greenery, but even they have to be careful to avoid
the worst of the daytime heat.
Lack of vegetation means that most of the ground
is exposed. Bare ground absorbs warmth very quickly

when the sun rises, and reradiates it once die sun


has set. The dry air accentuates this effect, allowing
daytime surface temperatures to soar to over 158°F
THE WESTERN
(70°C). As a result, most animals li\ ing in true desert SPADEFOOTTOAD
are active after dark. During the day they hide away. of the desert amphibians that
leaving little sign of themselves except for their tracks. tf) underground.
DEsERT

SEMIDESERT
Comparedwith true desert, semidesert is more
videspread, and it is also much more biologically
iroductive. It is found in ever) continent,
including
some regions far outside the Tropics.
The modest but nevertheless reliable rainfall
DESERT BATS play that semidesert receives has a dramatic effect on the
a
zilal ecological role landscape and the types of animal that it can
because the)' feed support. Plants often grow in profusion, creating
on insects and tangled thickets of
pollinate flowers.
vegetation that provide
plenty of cover. There are
woody species, which store
most of their water in
underground roots, and
fleshy succulents, which
store it above ground in their

SEMIDESERT BIRDS, stems and leaves. Most of


!Uc/l

as the roadrunner. often nest these desert species are well


among spiny plants to protect protected from plant-eaters -
their young from predators. cacti, for example, have
extremely sharp spines, while
spurges exude a poisonous milk)- sap when they
are damaged - but, for animals that can overcome
these defenses, they are an important source of
food. Semidesert also has plants known as desert
ephemerals. which spring up rapidly after rain.
flower, set seed, and then die. This short life
cycle
produces extra fresh food for animals, and adds to
the stock of seeds scattered over the desert floor.
While some semideserts are warm or hot
throughout the year, others are surprisingly cold
in winter. In the deserts of central
Asia, and in
the northern parts of America's Great Basin -
the
desert region between the Rocky Mountains
and
the coastal ranges further west - temperatures
can
fallto --22T (-30°C In these areas, animals need
protection against winter cold as well as against
summer heat: small animals, such as insects, usually
THE MEERKAT become dormant in winter, and many burrowing
tried diet mammals hibernate until the spring
and cooperative foraging
technique help it to

Then food is scarce.

CONSERVATION
Compared with many other habitats in the world,
desert has experienced relatively little human
interference. Oil extraction can create
environmental
problems in desert, but a more serious difficult)
is
caused by the exploitation of the habitat by
livestock.
Goats .md other browsing animals can stunt or kill
shrubs and other plants; when these plants die.
tin-
sparse soil is often eroded, making
THE LOCUSTS migrator) it difficult for

vegetation to recover. The result is desertification,


in adaptation to a or
id ol desert into areas where
habitat whatfood supplier it did not
previously exist These newly treated deserts
are erratic and unpredictable. are of "W.
little value to wildlife.

VMM AI. IMPACT I


Because of their
exceptional climbing
shits, goats hair a
major impact on desert
shrubs. In areas where
large numbers of goats
art raised,
VR vs IT LAS hunt mainly
is often
'hem to
badly affected.
'id their prey after dark.
LIFE IN DESERT

that contain up to of seeds. But

LIFE IN DESERT for predators, and


11 lb ,5kg
animals that browse
for
on shrubs, creating such larders is not
possible. Their food is difficult to collect and
I.\ a HABITAT WHERE MOIS1 URE [S SCARCE, obtaining and conserving to transport, and even if it could be hoarded

water are every animal's top priorities. Desert animals practice a tight it would be unlikely to remain usable for more

"water economy." which means collecting water wherever they can, and than just a few da\ s. The answer is to store
food inside the body. The classic example
minimizing water loss wherever possible. However, being economical with of this is the camel, which stores surplus
water is not in itself enough to guarantee survival: desert species have had food, in the form of fat, in its hump. Several

to evolve various other adaptations to enable them to cope with a wide other species, such as the Gila monster and
fat-tailed dunnart. store food in their tails.
range of temperatures and the ever-present threat of food shortage. As a
result, these animals are able to live in some of the driest places on earth.
COPING WITH
For drinkers and nondrinkers
HEAT AND COLD
CONSERVING WATER has to be eked out to make
alike,
sure that
water
it lasts. In desert, the temperature rarely stay-
Most deserts have a scattering of oases, Compared with animals from other habitats, stead\ for more than a few hours, and it
where animals gather to drink. Some desert species lose very little moisture in can reach extremes of both heat and cold
species need to drink daily, which restricts their urine and droppings, and only a small very quickly. Humans lose excess heat by
roam from an oasis.
the distance they can amount is and in
released from their skin swearing but at very high temperatures this
Others can sunive on the resents stored in their breath. Desert species are also good at cooling system can use as much as 35 fl. oz
their bodies for days or even weeks. A withstanding dehydration. The dromedary. 1 liter of water an hour - far more than

remarkable feature of desert life is that some or one-humped camel, can lose nearly i >ne- any desert animal could afford.
animals can manage without drinking at all. half of its body water and survive. For Desert animals tackle the heat problem in
Instead, they get all their water from their humans, losing just one-fifth can be fatal. two ways: by reducing the heat they absorb,
food. Some from the moisture
extract it and by increasing the heat they give out.
some of the
contained in food, but most use the food
manufacture metabolic water, which is
to
STORING FOOD Light-colored skin or fur reflects
sun's rays,minimizing heat absorption; but a
created by chemical reactions when the To enable them to cope with erratic food much more effective method - used by
energy in food is released. Seed-eating supplies, many animals keep their own food many desert animals - is to avoid the most
rodents are expert at this: although their reserves. Some do this by hiding food away. intense heat by being nocturnal, spending
food looks dry. they are able to metabolize The North American kangaroo rat. for die day sheltering underground. Burrows
all the water they need. example, constructs underground granaries do not have to be very deep to make a
difference: while the desert surface may
moisture in metabolic water released by RAPID REFILL
be too hot to touch, the ground just a couple
food (10%) digesting food (90%) After going without water for several days, a camel can drink
of inches below it will be relatively cool.
^allons (50 liters/ in just a feu minutes. It also

metabolizes waterfrom surplus food, laid down as fat in its


Getting rid of excess heat is more difficult,

hump. Ih salt tolerance is high, which is useful in a habitat particularly when an animal's body
temperature is dangerously high. Lizards

urine moisture m moisture lostfrom skin


(23% droppu^ and in breath (73%)

WATER BALANCE
1 WATER OCT

This diagram illustrates how a kangaroo rat survives entirely

on the water in its food. The water taken in has to balance the
water lost to prccenl the animalJrom becoming dehydrated.

WATER-STORING FROG
The Australian water-holdingfiog stores water in ils bladder
and beneath ils skin. To prevent this waterfrom drying out. tl

frog then seals itself in a semipermeable cocoon underground.


LIFE IN DESERT

c COLD DESERTS hibernate, while birds often fly to warmer as dvi . these animals immediately set about
30
This graph shows Mammals keep warm finding mates because they have to complete
25 climates. by growing
the average annual
20 thick fur, or by taking shelter underground. their life cycles before the pools dry up again.
I i
temperature on the
III western edge of
5 tin Gobi Desert. EXPLOSIVE BREEDING MOVEMENT
Rom November

in
through to March, Deserl animals often have highly variable Desert sand makes life difficult for animals

_)5 temperatures fall bleeding seasons. Instead ol reproducing at on the move. Large animals sink into it, while-
below fid
a fixed time of year, many produce young small ones struggle to climb up and down
when there is the best < han< e of finding
MOVING ON SAND
food. Female kangaroos,
example, give for Flaps of skm between the web-footed
birth very regularly when food is plentiful, gecko 's toes make for snowshoelike feel
but when lood is scarce they stop breeding that allou il to run acros duiit

altogether. This flexible system is an efficient


way of using resources because it prevents ATTACK FROM BELOW
parents from having to tend hungry Guided b) vibrations overhead, this

desert go/den mole has emergedfrom


youngsters when they are hungry themselves.
its burrow to ambush a gecko.
Some desert species earn irregular breeding
to extremes. A number of desert species
paradoxically live or breed in water and, for
those species, reproducing is a highly
unpredictable and time-sensitive
enterprise. Such animals include
burrowing frogs and toads, in addition to
freshwater shrimp that live in temporary
pools. For months or even years, they are
an invisible part of the desert ecosystem.
with the amphibians hidden underground,
CHANGING COAT
are followed by
and the shrimp present only as eggs in dried-
In the deserts oj central . I •.in. freezing n •inters

soaring temperatures in spring. The Bactrian camel copes by


up ground. But immediately after a heavy
growing a thick con/ that /all\ off as toon as the spring warm- storm, the frogs and toads dig their way to slopes of shifting grains. To combat the
up begins. This camel is about halfway through this process. the surface, and the shrimp eggs hatch. Once problem, some animals, such as golden and
marsupial moles, move through the sand
and snakes arc often described as "cold- rather than above it. Others, such as camels
blooded," but this actually means that their and geckos, have extra-large feet, which help
body temperature rises and falls with that of to spread their body weight over the surface of
Although they thrive in
their surroundings. the sand and so increase stability. Sidewinding
warm habitats and can survive with a bod) snakes have a different solution: they throw
temperature of up to 1°F (44°C), they 1 1 themselves forward in a succession of
often have to sit out the hottest part of the sideways jumps, leaving a characteristic
day in shade. Some desert birds cool down pattern of J-shaped tracks. In addition to
by panting, which involves fluttering the flap saving energy, this method helps minimize
of skin over their throats. Desert kangaroos contact with hot ground.
and wallabies lick their front legs, covering Some and lizards have learned to
insects
them with saliva. As the saliva evaporates, tolerate hot ground by alternating the feet
LIFE IN BRIEF
the animal's blood cools down. Trapped in a tapidly shrinking desert pool, these adult tadpole
that are in contact with the ground at any
In high-latitude desert regions, such as shrimp Inn i tilth " /en- dms In lire, but the eggs they leave one time. Having long legs also helps since
the Gobi Desert of central Asia and the Inland i mi sin . ire in a dried-out state for severalyears - long they hold the animal's body away from the
Great Basin Desert of North America, winter enough to last until tht m xt hem i
storm, u hen tht i u ill hatch. sand's surface, where the heat is fiercest.
can be extremely cold. Animals have various
ways of coping with Most
this. reptiles
NOMADIC ANIMALS
Where food and watei supply is patchy some
animals adopt a wandering lifestyle. This
is i ommon in desert habitats, espe< ially

limals that can fly. Desert locusts are


famous For their huge nomadii swarms,
,ukI some desert birds, parti ularl) seed-
I ik imadii Hoc ks, I Fnlike

n< imai Ii animals do no) follow


fixed routes the weathei i iften di< tates

their course and the) breed erratically


wherevei they Bnd a good food supply

WILD BUDGERIGARS
NOCTURNAL ACTIVITY Australia's nomadii buds include tin budgerigar, the cock/.

Desert jerboas arc typical oj the small rodents thai Budgerigars can breed when jw
andfeed mainly on oin month old; and. sun c patents | an mis, several /aimln
habitats. The) art entire!) nocturnal, seeds.

Jerboas can trace! ova 6 miles 1


10km) in theis search fin food,
in quick succession, /links em build in prodigious number
hopping on then long bat I legs and balant ing i ith tht a tails
TROPICAL FOREST

TROPICAL
FOREST
Forests have flourished in the FOREST EAGLES have
- broad wings that enable them
Tropics for longer than the} have
to glide through the canopy in
existed anywhere else on earth, their search for prey.

which helps explain why the


animal species that live there
outnumber those of all other
land habitats combined.
Most large tropical forest animals
have been identified and classified,
but the invertebrate life is so diverse that
the task of cataloging it will never be SLOTHS spend most of their £
complete. There are two main types of i pendedfrom branches 9
in the forest cannj n
which is
tropical forest: rainforest, camouflage to avoid attack. z
closest to the Equator: and seasonal or
monsoon forest, which grows toward the
edges of the tropical belt.

TROPICAL RAINFOREST
Near the Equator, the climate is

year round, creatine ideal conditions for plant growth.


warm and moist all
Hi]
TROPICAL RAINFOREST
harbors a greater variety

of treefrogs than any


As a result, trees and other forest plants grow almost other habitat.
incessantly in an endless competition for light. Some
plants put all their resources into growing towering
trunks, while others are adapted for survival in partial
shade. As a result of these different growth patterns,
the forest is divided into clearly defined layer-., each
with its own characteristic animal species.
The highest layer, at about 245ft (75m). consists of
giant, isolated trees called emergents. These provide
nest sites for predatory birds and feeding platforms
for monkeys. Beneath this level is the canopy, where
copious light, combined with
some protection provided by HOWLER MONKEYS
the emergents, results in a of South .America's rainfore

continuous layer of branches are among thefeic prtmatt


that sunlit
and lush foliage up to 65ft
on leaves.
20m deep. This layer feeds
or harbors most of the
forest's animal life. Below the

TROPICAL RAINFOREST canopy is the understory - a


is found near the Equator, more open layer made up of
LEAFCLTTER ANTS
where annual rainfall exceeds shade-tolerant trees. On the
are found at all It
8'Aft (2.5m) and is evenly
forest floor, leaf litter is food rainforest, from the ground
spread throughout the year.
for some very small animals to the highest treetops.

as well as support for plants and saplings that grow


where through from above.
sufficient light filters
This zonal pattern is characteristic of lowland
rainforest the most common rainforest type .

At higher altitudes, the trees are lower and the


layers are more compressed - an effect that is
exacerbated as altitude increases until eventually
the trees form elfin forests little more than head
high. Soil is also a vital factor in shaping
r the forest.
, T1
w
.

TAPIRS, and other hoofei


Insome parts of the 1 topics, such as the RlO mammals, gatherfallen
Negro region of South America, infertile sand results fruit from the tropical
in the growth of stunted trees with leathery leaves. forestfloor.
TROPICA! FOREST

SEASONAL (MONSOON) FOREST


Unlike rainforest, where the limate is very stable, i

seasonal foresl grows where rainfall is concentrated


into wet, or rainy, season, which is called a
.1

monsoon. Up to 8 2.5m of rain can fall in just


ii

three months as much as some tropical rainforests


receive throughout tin- whole year. As a result.
seasonal forest is not as tall as tropical rainforest

t HORNBILLS
their long bill to collect
Use and. typically, the canopy
farther toward the ground.
is more open and extends

Immediately after the


monsoon, seasonal forest
I
is lush and green; but in
feed in tin stun, :cm.
the long dry season that
follows, many of the trees
shed their leaves, and the
fierce sunlight is able to rea< h
through the bare SEASONAL FORESTS grou
branches to tin forest nte of the Equator.

floor. Some seasonal forest Tin dry season lasts longer


the further the region is from
trees are unusual in that they
the Equator.
FOR STICK flower and fruit after they
insects and have lost their leaves. Where this happens, birds,
\ highly insects, and mammals congregate in large numbers
developed camouflage
to iced. In the
rainy season, the forest's animals are
is the kn
well hidden by the foliage; once the leaves have
fallen, they become much easier to find.
Despite the yearly cycle of deluge and
drought, the animal life of seasonal forest is

>me of the most numerous and varied in the


>rld. In southern Asia, which has the largest

area of this type of forest, the habitat supports


elephants, monkeys, leopards, and tigers. In .Asia's
-
seasonal forests there are some spectacular birds,
including; giant hornbills, and some of the world's
largest snakes. In Africa, seasonal forests abound
with browsing antelopes, while in Central America.
they are inhabited by pumas, coatis, and white-
tailed deer. Most of these animals breed during
the
atlas moth isfound wet scason when they can take advantage of the
,

ikiIforest, as are abundant supply of fresh leaves.


many of tin worlds other
large, winged insects.

M CONSERVATION
M
)eloi estation is currently threatening
f^P I
wildlife
in forests throughout the Tropics.
Nearly half
of the world's original tropical rainforest cover
has been destroyed during the last 40 years, and
large areas of seasonal forest have been cleared
either for lumber or for use as farmland.
International efforts are being made to preserve
FOREST CATS make up forests - in Costa Rica, for example,
almost 30
more than half »f the
percent of the countr) Ins been designated
as national
- The park but in many countries throughout the Tropics,

1
tiger is the largest and one forest clearance
of the most endangered. is continuing at
a rapid rate

asm FORMER FOREST


Tropicalforest clearance
mb follows the pattern set

- Ill nihil plllt-

ill the world, but it-

impact cm plant- and


SS\K1 s
animal- .

on ludi species that hunt on

many tpeda nt take.

I v* •:"
LIFE IN TROPICAL FOREST

LIFE IN TROPICAL vocal sack


w
FOREST
SOME TROPICAL FOREST ANIMALS spend on the ground. all their time
For most, however, daily around among trees. The
life involves getting
canopy holds most of the forest's food, so an animal that is good at
moxing around in the treetops has the greatest chance of thriving. Some
animals are so well adapted to life in the trees - breeding as well as
feeding there that the}' very rarely have to visit the forest floor. PRIVATE CALL
1 1 ith its zocal sack inflated, a male treefrog calls to deter
rival males and to attract potential mates. Female frogs react

MOVING IN TREES but many of the more primitive primates, only to the call of their own species; and the louder and
such as bushbabies, move about after dark, longer a male calls, the more likely females are to respond.

Small animals need relatively few special identifying their pathways pardy by smell.
adaptations for moving about in trees. Ants. Gibbons are also different: they travel see for more than a few yards, while tree
for example, are so light that it makes little underneath the branches by swinging hand- trunks get in the way on the ground. As a
difference to them whether they are traveling over-hand in a breathtakingly acrobatic result, many forest animals rely on sound
up and down trees or across the forest floor. manner. This unusual but highly effective and scent, rather than visual signals, to
But for larger animals, such as apes, monkeys, form of movement is called brachiation. claim territories and attract partners.
and other primates, climbing is a dangerous Tropical forest harbors a huge variety Some of the loudest animals in the world
occupation: if they lose their grip - as of flying animals - birds, bats, and fixing live in tropical forest. They include howler
occasionally happens - they risk a fatal fall. insects — thatswoop or hover among the monkeys, bellbirds. parroLs. cicadas, and an
Most primates climb by running or treetops. However, during the course of enormous variety of treefrogs. Like mammals
leaping along the tops of branches, often evolution, many unrelated animals, including and birds, each species of treefrog has its own
using familiar routes that act like highways mammals, and even snakes, have
frogs, characteristic call: some produce a short
through the trees. developed winglike flaps of skin that enable metallic "tink."" others generate a sustained
Monkeys follow these them to glide. Some of these gliders can trilling that sounds like machinery.
routes mainly by sight. travel over 330ft 100m; from tree to tree Signaling with sound can be dangerous
and. remarkably, many of them are most because it can attract predators as well
PREHENSILE TAILS
active after dark. as potential mates. Treefrogs and cicadas
Climbing sna/;es - such
minimize the problem by pitching their calls
as this oneroid tree boa -
use their tails to clamp COMMUNICATION so that the source
Other animals, including many mammals
is very difficult to locate.

themselves to branches.
The front of the snake's i any kind of forest, animals face problems and flying; insects, avoid the problem by using
body folds up. ready to keeping in touch. In the canopy, scent to stay in touch. One great advantage
straighten out a
leaves and branches of scent is that it lingers: for example, in
anything that ca
/ make it difficult to marking its territory, a jaguar or okapi leaves
within reach.
a signal that will last for several days.
\

KEEPING OUT OF DANGER


Tropical forest abounds with camouflaged
animals as well as species that mimic others.
Animals that use camouflage - chiefly insects
and spiders, but also snakes, lizards, frogs,
and toads - resemble a huge variety of
inanimate objects, from bark, thorns, and
bird droppings to branches and fallen leaves.
Many animals use camouflage to avoid being
(spotted and eaten, but some predators also
it to enable them to ambush their prey.
Mimicry, which one species "pretends"
in

be another, is a subdcr means of avoiding


attack. It involves a relatively harmless species
Revolving to look like one that is dangerous,
id it is most common in invertebrates. Some
ODpical forest spiders, for example, closely
resemble stinging ants and even move like

them as well. Matters are complicated where


rtoHng abuul in trees,
several species come to look alike. Some
mi Imp t» '

groups of unrelated butterflies, which contain


Ids midcan easily

on the ground.
poisons that are distasteful to birds, imitate
lliiw»t,'
each other: thus they have evoked the insect
equivalent of a shared warning trademark.
LIFE IN TROPICAL FOREST

DOUBLE PROTECTION Compared with flowers and fruit, tropical


Smith American thorn bugs not Animals
loirst leaves are difficult to digest.
Only look like thorns but feel lik that feed on these leaves generally pick them
them. The thornlike extension
while they are still young - before protective
m the thorax both disguises
toxins have had a chance to build up inside
them and make* tk
difficult to swallow.
them. Insects are the most prolific leaf-
eaters, but some of the forest's larger animals
also rely on this difficult diet. They include
several kinds of monkeys and sloths, and the
hoatzin - a highly unusual bird from South
America. The hoatzin processes its food much
as a grazing mammal does; after eating, it
is often so heavy that it can bareh fly.

Tropical forest predators range from some


of the world's smallest insects to the largesl
cats. In an environment that provides
'
V, lots of cover, most of them stalk their
prey rather than running it down.
Army and driver ants are the most
remarkable exceptions: they hunt in
"packs" over 50,000 strong, overpowering
and eating anything that cannot escape.

Warning signals are most developed in


REPRODUCTION
extremely toxic animals. For example, unlike For animals thatlive in trees, breeding can

other frogs, tiny poison-arrow frogs hop sometimes involve unusual adaptations. Some
nonchalantly about the forest floor, relying treefrogs come down to the forest floor to
on their extraordinarily vivid colors to warn lay their eggs, but many lay them high up in
PROTECTIVE NEST
other animals that they are not merely the canopy, either in water-filled tree-holes
These African treefrogs have grouped together to make a giant
unpalatable but highly dangerous to eat. or in the pools of water that gather in plants. foam nest hanging from a branch. The nests exterior hardens
Some frog species are more creative, laying to protect the eggs and to keep the interior foam moist. 1 1 lieu

their eggs in nests of foam


keep their eggs
FEEDING that the tadpoles hatch, they break out and drop into water below.
moist until the tadpoles are ready to hatch.
Near the Equator, trees grow, flower, and set Many tropical birds start in the safety of
seed all year round, generating a nonstop tree-holes, but climbing
life

mammals rarely build


ANT FOLLOWERS
In Central and South American forests, a single
supply of food. Many forest animals - nests,and many of their young start life in the
column of marauding army ants attracts up to
including bats, birds, and insects - live almost open. Young monkeys often cling to their
30 difFerent kinds of bird, all swooping down to
exclusively on the abundant nectar and fruit. mothers' chests, keeping a tight grip as the catch the tiny animals that burst out of the leaf
Some of these animals help trees spread parent runs along branches or leaps through litter to escape the ants. Some birds flutter ahead
their pollen and seeds. The quetzal, for the air. For young murine (mouselike) of the ant column; others dart among the ants
example, swallows fruit whole, and then opossums, which live in the American tropics, themselves. Some are Full-time ant Followers,
while others Follow the throng only For as long as
regurgitates the pits onto the forest floor early life is even more precarious because
the ants are marching through their territories.
where they can germinate. their mothers do not have well-developed
A Few small animals, including wasps and rove
pouches. Consequently, until their feet have
army on the ground.
beetles, travel with the
developed the ability to cling, these tiny Although this sounds dangerous, these animals
marsupials hang from their mothers' teats by mimic the ants very closely - an adaptation that
their mouths, their legs dangling in the air. prevents them From being attacked while gaining
them protection and Free Food. Army ants also
attract lizards and Frogs, as well as parasitic flies
that lay their eggs on the fleeing animals.

NECTAR FEEDERS
.1 hut laps upflowei nectar. Flowers

pollinated by bats and birds hare to he


mhos! ij iln i are not io h< damaged
by then visitors. Birds me attracted to
AERIAL ATTACK
certain flowers mainly by then bright
colors, hats by then pungent Kent
The blue-crowned motmot,
n pail time ant fill

RODENT OPPORTUNISTS distantly related to kingfishers.

Agoutis and other miall, ground- I Ac them, it snoops down on

dwelling mammals often follou Iln its pity, mines it hack to a


progress of parrots and monkeys perch, and hits it again si

through tin ti<e\ gathering the pieces o) a launch before eating it.

food that accidentally jail to the ground.


TEMPERATE FOREST

1
TEMPERATE
FOREST
Temperate iori.m grows MOTHS lay their eggs on
in regions that
lanes, buds, or bark. Their
have a wide range of climates. In some. caterpillars an often the

winters are cold and summers are cool: in most numerous leaf-eaters

in the /
others, the winter ,V^'
is relatively mild, and
the summer heat rivals that in the Tropics.
Where winters are cold, temperate forest
trees are usually deciduous, shedding
their leaves in winter and growing a
new set in spring; in warmer regions, TREECREEPERS/

m
;/'

trunks in search
many keep their leaves all year.
trees
tree

small insects hidden


of
in

Although temperate forest does not have bark en .

as many animal species as tropical forest


they are still among the richest wildlife
habitats on land.

DECIDUOUS FOREST
In the depths of winter, deciduous forest can seem
SQUIRRELS <f>cnd the
gaunt and empty, and largely devoid of animaJ life.
autumn colleetingfood.
But a- the days lengthen in spring, and buds begin
which they then store
to burst, the habitat
becomes alive with birdsong away for use in the winter.
and animals on the move. This transformation is
triggered by a sudden abundance of plant food -
one that nourishes large numbers of plant-eating
insec t- as well as the animals that feed on them.
Many of these forest animals arepermanent residents,
but they also include migratory birds that flv in from
distant parts of the world. .tf*^
Compared with tropical forest, temperate deciduous
forest has relatively few tree species: the maximum
number - found in some of the forests of eastern
Xorth America - is several hundred, while tropical
*'V
forest might contain several thousand. Nevertheless,
DEER feed on lean
temperate forest trees are
summer; in winter, they often

^"Sy^i powerhouses of life. Large


oak trees, for example, can
strip bark from shrubs and
young understor,
produce over a quarter of
a million leaves a year .> s
enough to sustain the
army of weevils, txall

wasps, and moth


caterpillars that feed
rapidly in spring and H--
Xorthern Hemisphere; most
early summer while the
temperateforest in the Southern
leaf crop
wild BOAR dig up the
is at its freshest
Hemisphere is evergreen. leaf litter with their snouts,
and most nutritious.
feeding on anim,.
Like tropical forest, deciduous forest has a clear.
and roots.
vertically layered structure, but there are some
important differences. The trees are rareh, more than
lOOfi 30m tall, and the canop) layer is usually deep
but open, allowing light to reach the understor)
and encourage plant growth. Fallen leaves rot
slowly in cool conditions, so deciduous forest has
an unusually deep layer of leaf litter that insects.
woodlice. and millipedes use as food and cover. As a
in THi moist andHions
result, while main small animals live in the
cracks theforestfloor, lungless
of
and crevices in bark, the place that is richest salamanders can absorb
in invertebrate life is not the trees but the ground. ox>gen through their skin.
TEMPERATE FOREST

EVERGREEN FOREST
Inwarm parts of the temperate world, many
broadleaved trees arc evergreen. Unlike trees
of deciduous forest, which grow in spring and
l RINGTAIL summer, evergreens grow in winter and sprint;.
possum has a when temperatures
:
are low but not cold, and when
tail, which /nips it
water readil) available. Described by botanists as
is
i limh along high bram hi i

sclerophyllous (meaning hard-leaved) forest, this


to reach /loucis and fruit.
habitat is found in several widely scattered regions
of the world, including
parts of California and
western South America, s *&z.
the Mediterranean region
in Europe, and large areas
of eastern and southwestern
Australia. In some of these
places, the forest is low-
growing, but in Australia, TEMPERATE EVERGREEN
w here eucalyptus is the forest is found in regions

HOOPOES swoop down dominant species, it includes with a Medilerianean-iypi


from tin canopy to catch the climate: mild, damp winters
tallest broadleaved trees
"i the ground. and warm, dry summers.
in the world.
Since temperate evergreen trees usually have open
crowns, the vertical layers are usually less
pronounced than they are in forests in cooler
regions, and plenty of light is able to reach
the
forest floor. As a result, these forests are rich
in
ground-based wildlife, and warmth-loving animals -
such as lizards and butterflies, which are usually
associated with higher levels - can often be seen
KOALAS sunbathing on the floor. The open structure also
Ihk the h),
III si
makes it easy for birds, such as kookaburras and
canopy, but also walk
other forest kingfishers, rollers, and hoopoes,
across the ground to reach to swoop
olated clumps qj tret i
down on animals moving around on the ground.
The air in evergreen forest often smells pleasantly
aromatic because most of the leaves are filled with
pungent oils. These oils help stop the leaves from
drying out, and they also protect them from animals.
They are a highly effective deterrent, for relatively
few animals - except for specialists such as the
koala
include these leaves in their diet.
WHITE'S TREEFROG has
exceptionally thick flan,
i huh minimizes moisture
loss mid enables it to cope CONSERVATION
with the dry conditions Deciduous forest once covered huge swathes
of the
» in evergreen fan «/ Northern Hemisphere. Now. after centuries
of
clearance for agriculture, only small pockets
of the
original forest remain. In general, the
forest cover is
no longer declining, and in some countries
it is
actuallyon the increase. However, evergreen forest
continues to be threatened both by logging and
by
clearance for industrial and residential
development
GRASSHOPPERS ^ In Australia, conservationists
have been engaged in a
protracted struggle to safeguard areas
and othei inst '..
such of untouched

foodfor forest from the
mdmammals that logging industrj
fitll On tin ground. and from farming.

SALINIZATION
These Australian
eucalyptuses /aire been
hilled by stilini-atwn

rising sail levels in the

ground. Salini^ation is

caused by forest clearance,

which changes the water


SI N M KIM, F

balance of the ground.


md Minh< alien has! m the
Snlmi-ed land \

varm sunlight that bathes


Jor agriculture.
floor.
* LIFE IN TEMPERATE FOREST

LIFE IN TEMPERATE TREE GALLS


Common in broadleaved forest, galls are growths

FOREST whose development


other organisms. Galls often look
is triggered In insects

buttons on leaves and twigs. The) act as both


and
like berries or

home and larder, or nursery, allowing their


THE FACTOR THAI >m AFFECTS LIFE in temperate forest is the variable
.\l< occupants to feed unseen. In broadleaved forest,
most galls are produced by tiny wasps and flies.
food supply. At all levels - from the treetops to the forest floor the life
Each species of insect affects a particular tree,
cycles of forest animals li\*ing in temperate forest move in step with the and each produces galls of a characteristic shape.
seasons so that they produce their young when food is easiest to find. making them easy to identify

Life is relatively easy in spring and summer, but in winter, when the OAK GALLS
food supply is at its lowest, special adaptations are needed for survival. Oak marble galls are produced by
Andricus kollari. a wasp belonging
to the family Cynipidae. The wasp 's

FEEDING larvae develop inside the

galls. They then

As .1 deciduous temperate forest -


habitat, chew an exit hole

through the outer


the kind of forest found across much of the
surface to
Northern Hemisphere have one very
emerge as adults.
useful feature in common. The trees that
grow in them, such as oaks and beeches,
wasp larvae
produce leaves that are designed to last for
just cme growing season. As a result, these

leaves are usually thin and easy to eat. which WINTER GRANARY
is why vast numbers of insects feast on them In western North America,
acorn woodpeckers store Food
as soon as they begin to appear in spring. storage, or "caching." is practiced
acorns in trees, cramming
This sudden explosion of insect life 1 >y many forest birds and mammals. Jays
them into holes that they have
attracts an army of highly specialized avian >ury acorns in the ground, while acorn
previously drilled in the bark.
predators. In Europe, northern Asia, and These storage trees are called
w ( m xlpeckers store them in trees. Squirrels
North America, dozens of warbler species granaries. A single granary may hold bury seeds of all kinds,and red foxes bury
migrate north as the buds open. These birds 'DO acorns and be stocked by anything that is even remotely edible, from
have extremely acute eyesight, enabling up to a dozen woodpeckers working and half-eaten remains to food wrappers and
them to scour leaves for the tiniest grubs nesting together. The woodpeckers will alsi
discarded shoes. Some animals locate their
store acorns in fence posts and telephone poles.
and caterpillars, which they then pick up reserves by scent, but most can pinpoint
with their tweezerlike bills. Other birds, them by memory alone, finding and digging
including treecreepers, woodpeckers, and By midsummer, and
leaves stop growing, up their food even when it is covered by snow.
nuthatches, concentrate on the bark, seeking animal feeding behavior changes. Most Seed-caching has an important impact
out and pecking at the tiny animals hidden temperate trees are pollinated by wind, and on forest ecology; .Although animals that bury
among the crevices. do not need to produce enticing nectar-rich seeds have good memories, some of what they
flowers. However, they do produce large crops hide is always forgotten about. This means
FOREST-FLOOR FORAGERS
of nuts and other seeds, which are extremely that provided the seeds are not discovered
Watching Is, adult wild boars mot m the leaf

litterforfood. Wild boars feed on acorns and other nuts, and important foods for animals because, unlike by rodents or other animals, they remain
they also use their spadelike snouts to dig up roots, fungi, and leaves, they can be stored away and used effectively planted and ready to germinate,
! in soil or among fallen when other food is scarce. helping the forest's trees to reproduce.
NIGHT FUGHT
fed
HIBERNATION ( nlike most squirrels, . \orth American ,

flying squirrels feed at night. The


In autumn, many insect-eating birds migrate
<,',
flaps betu em tlirir legs
to warmer climates, leaving the forest's
illtlbli tin in In "lldt lm o; n 165ft
remaining animals to lace the winter cold.
iOm). I It, i steei , ith Iheii front

Animals that store food can remain active legs, and ust theii hug, , it

throughout this difficult time of year, but aft I\ in the dark.

others use a very different survival strategy:


they hibernate, living on the fat reserves they too often: activit) uses up their
have up during the summer months.
built bodily food reserves, and it therefore
How long and how deeply an animal puts them at risk of running out before
hibernates depends on where it lives. In the winter is truly over.
the forests of northwest Europe, hedgehogs Man) insects also hibernate, often hidden
may hibernate for up to six months, under bark: but. in some species, the adults

whereas farther south their winter sleep is die out. leaving behind tough, overwintering
much shorter. In eastern North America, eggs that will hatch in spring.
woodchucks - or groundhogs - typically
hibernate from October to February:
their wanderings early in the year are a
MOVEMENT b\ i'Iiihuiil! hi'-rh-pitchec

pulses of sound. These^


traditional sign that spring is not far off. While monkeys and gibbons are the most signalsbounce back from ^
Some hibernating animals, such as the impressive climbers in tropical forest, squirrels nearby objects in the same way
common dormouse, hardly ever interrupt are the experts in temperate forest. Unlike as those sent out by a bat's sonar system.
their winter break, even if they are picked many climbing mammals, they can run head-
first down tree trunks, as well as up them, by
LIVING IN LEAF LITTER
hooking their long, curved hind claws into
bark. Squirrels have excellent eyesight, and The leaf litter in temperate forest is one of
the) instinctively scuttle to the back of a tree the world's richest animal microhabitats.
if they spot a potential predator - a simple This deep layer of decomposing matter
behavior that makes them difficult to catch. harbors vertebrates, including mammals and
Temperate forests are inhabited by gliding salamanders, but its principal
rodents, and also - in Australasia - by gliding inhabitants are invertebrates that
marsupials. But for precise maneuvering feed on on fungi
leaf fragments,
among trees, owls and birds of prey are and on each other.
bacteria, or
unrivaled. Unlike their relatives in open Some of these animals - such as
habitats, most of these aerial hunters have centipedes and woodlice - are large
relatively short, broad wings that enable them enough to be easily seen, but
to twist and turn effectively. A prime example many others are microscopic.
of this adaptation to woodland life is the
HUNTER IN THE LEAVES
Eurasian sparrowhawk: rather than soaring
Lithobud i
entipt ii, i shown here)
and then swooping, it speeds among trees and
|

aliened bodies thai allou


SLEEPING THROUGH THE COLD
along hedgerows - sometimes only a few feet them to crawl under leaves and
Common dormice ust leaves and moss to makt well-insulated
its among bramble* and other plants. Here, part oj
above ground - ambushing small birds in fallen logs in addition to on

lb, n, rf has been temporarily removed to reveal the hibernating mid-air and carrying them away in its talons. the ground surface. Geophilid

animal, jasl asleep with its tail wrapped tightly around its body. Temperate forest provides ground-dwelling centipedes lm permanently
underground, and therefore
animals with lots of cover. As a result, small
have narrow, almost '
up. However, many hibernators behave in mammals, such as voles and shrews, abound
wormlike bodies.
a different way. II the weather turns warm, on the forest floor. To avoid being seen as they
they briefly rouse themselves: bats, for move about, these animals often use runways Animals that live
example, take to the air for feeding flights, partly covered by grass or fallen leaves. Voles deep in leaf litter
while hedgehogs often move out of one use combination of vision, smell, and touch
.1 exist in total darkness,
hibernation nesl and into another. But forest to find their way along these runs, but shrews, so most of them rely on their sense of
lulu i
nators have to be careful not to do this which have very poor eyesight, navigate partly touch to find food. This is especially true
of predators: centipedes lot ate their prey with
long antennae, while tinv pseudoscorpions
INSECT ENGRAVERS .
use the sensor) hairs that cover their pincers.
Female bark beetles tunnel through the sapwood ^j -^tl^KEA Like true scorpions, pseudoscorpions are
Ix'iieath living bark, laving eggs at intervals along :^fl venomous; but the) are so small that they
the u.ii The h, itched larvae eat their wa\ out ^fWt
.ti right angles to the original tunnel, creating <^H pose oo threat to am thing much biggei than
distiin tive "eallei ies" that ran be seen when ^H IHBBP^^k^^k themselves. Ehis is fortunate because in just a

dead bark kills awav. The side-tunnels cud ^^H &C^M T ./^ Jf?i«j;V'S lew square yards of leaf litter then numbers
in exit holes. Ii, ,iii ulu< h the dcveloncd ^^^H ^^H J AnM^uya^ '
( f
.c
3hH9HC can run into millions.
Mies .111111. .ii ^H^H v-V wHib . ?1^B Dead leaves are a useful si reen, hiding
in deciduous loicsi. Ii.uk beetles i an lie t^^^^M I BARK GALLERIES
leaf-littei dwellers from other animals
highly destructive because thev often ^M i»X -<*'^^P Ih, adult bark!-.
inlet t trees with fungi. < >ne spe< ies ^B t
w has a cylindrn nl body and
foraging on the forest Qoor. However, u is not
the elm bark beetle spieads I )uu h ^^^H ^H a uiiind fronted thorax hiding most
totall) set inc. Some temperate forest birds.
elm disease. ,i fungus that has wiped out ^^^B ^B of tin In ad. The gallery patterns partit ularl) thrushes, pi< k up leaves and toss
•'litis in p.u i ,.l 1 .hi ope and North America. VHHP ^^^^^^ vary from one species to another. them aside, snapping up leaf-littei animals
.is tht \ tn in rush awa) from the light.
CONIFEROUS FOREST

CONIFEROUS
FOREST
C< HNHFERS ARE THE WORLD'S
toughest trees. Their small, needle-
THE ANIMAL LIFE
shaped leaves can withstand extreme cold coniferous forest provides

and are impenious to strong sunshine birds of prey, such as the

goshawk, with a year-round


and wind, and their relatively narrow. food supply.

upright habit enables them to grow-


closely together to form dense, sheltered
forest. As a result, conifers thrive where
lew broadleaved trees can survive,
such as the far north and in mountain
ranges. They also flourish in places that TREE TRUNKS
growing larvae of horntails
have very hea\y rainfall. In such areas and other wood u
they form temperate rainforest, home protection from the worst

of the winter cold.


to some of the largest trees in the world.

BOREAL FOREST
Named after Boreas, the ancient Greek god of the
north wind, boreal forest, or taiga, is the largest
continuous expanse of forest on earth. It covers about
6 million square miles 15 million square km and
stretches in an almost unbroken belt across the far

north, often reaching deep into the Arctic. In some


places, the belt is over 1.000 miles 1.600km wide.
Across the boreal forest belt as a whole, winter
temperatures routinely drop below -13°F - 25 C .

but in some of the coldest regions, such as northeast


Siberia, temperatures can fall below - 49'T - 45 C .

Summers in boreal forest are brief but can be warm. THE BROWN BEAR Can
climb but finds most
Compared with the types of forest that occur at trees, it

of its food on the ground.


lower latitudes, boreal forest has only a handful of
nee species and therefore provides only a limited
variety of food for herbivores. Plant diversity is

both by the
also restricted
amount of light that can
reach the forest floor
and by the high acidin
of pine needles.
Even in summer, the
interior of the forest is
GRAY \\OL\"ES hunt in

packs, a strategy that enables


often dark, with a thick layer
them to kill animals larger
BOREAL FOREST of dead needles carpeting than tliemseives. This is
icross much of the floor. Fungi thrive particularly important during
thefar north. There is no
in these conditions, winter, when food is scarce.
equivalent habitat in the
but the only forest-
Southern Hemisphere.
floor plants that live
here are the ones that can tolerate low light
levels and acidic soil conditions.
Apart from few animals can digest
insects,

conifer leaves or so most plant-eaters


wood,
concentrate on seeds, buds, and bark, or on
berries from low-growing shrubs. \\ hat this habitat
lacks in variety, however, it more than makes up
for in quantity, especially since there is relatively
FOR MOOSE and other
litde competition for food. This isone of the hoofed mammals, boreal
reasons why many boreal forest animals, from birds forest offers protection from

to bears, have far more extensive ranges than the cold winds and blizzard

species that live in warmer parts oi the world. conditions of winter.


'

CONIFEROUS FOREST

Wk TEMPERATE RAINFOREST
The win Id's largest areas of rainforest are found
in the Tropics, but rainforest also exists in parts of
the temperate world. grows where west-fai ing
It

THE GOLDEN- mountains intercept moist air blowing in from


CROWNED KINGLET IS the sea and. unlike boreal forest, it experiences
one of mart) ••mull insect- relatively mild temperatures all yeai round.
eaten that feed and nt st high
Compared with boreal forest, temperate rainforest
aboi i tin "round.
is a rare habitat, o< curring in a few widely separated
,ue. is. Iii the Southern
Hemisphere, is found in it

the South Island of .New


Zealand, and in parts of
mini n ( Ihile. In both of
esc places, most rainforest
if
trees are broadleaved species,
but in America's Pacific
Northwest where the TEMPERATE
owls, mch us this great
largest temperate rainforest RAINFOREST IS Imtitil On
horned on at night, west-facing musts.
in the world can be found -
I. // ,, hen
hunting the muni miall Inn. i rain lulls throughout
the trees are almost entirely
mammals and birds that much nl tin Mm
livt in temperaU rainforest.
conifers. Some are nearly
250ft (over 75m) high, and mote than 500 years old.
This kind of coniferous forest looks unlike any
other. On the ground and in the understory. even
sin hue draped with ferns or waterlogged moss.
is

Densely packed trunks, some over 9 3 It (3m) across, i

rise up to the canopy high overhead, where the sk\

is always laden with rain.


Temperate rainforest supports many animals that
are found in coniferous forest .ill over the world, but
it has some additional features that set it apart: the
mild, damp which make it a haven lot-
conditions,
:

.£& \M THE AMERICAN


slugs and salamanders, and the immense amount of
alien lumber, which creates opportunities for inse< is
porcupine a is flou and
that feed on dead wood. In its natural state, the
a. i
hi ard tret climber, but it
forest teems with mammals, as well as with owls and
ntanagi i to re/u/i tin tin-tops

to mt limh and bark.


other birds that need large, old trees as nest sites.
Unfortunately, these trees are in great demand by
'

Hi the lumber industry and,


temperate rainforest is
as a result,
increasingly rare.
untouched

CONSERVATION
( )f .ill the world's fbrestSj boreal forest has been least
altered by human
activity. However, this is changing
.is demand softwood and paper pulp inereascs.
for

the fisher belies its Rainforest, on the other hand, lias been subjected
muni in that it rarely lo immense change. In North America, much of the

catches fish. It is ont tin Pacific coast rainforest has been cut down, leaving
of

feu animals that includi i


nub small renin. mis of original, "old-growth" forest,
pon n/'im \ among its prey. separated by
planted forest.
( )f the in.m\
remnants that
have been
threatened b\
logging, some
THE STOATS slim body
have been saved
enabh i it to pursui minimis
lulu tin n burnt
........ a- s.*,«.
.............
.....; INDISCRIMINATE
v
*..»'.
i hum i o] i
u ape.
FELLING
'iing

II tin trues

in largt an
I slugs n, temperaU ing tin

'1 Z)

that /in
pet n

i on
i

"tin
and romi
animal inhabitants
i out.
^
LIFE IN CONIFEROUS FOREST

LIFE IN CONIFEROUS
FOREST
For animals and TREES ALIKE, life in boreal forest is dominated by the
need to survive long and extremely cold winters. Animals that remain
active in winter, such as wolves, need a constant supply of food simply
to avoid freezing. Conifers are difficult to exploit for food, which means
that animals that rely on them have developed some highly specialized
physical and behavioral characteristics.

tree trunks to reach the grubs inside.


FEEDING
Sawflies also face a threat from the
Compared with many broadleaved trees, ichneumon wasp, which drills through the
conifers arc well protected against attack. In wood with long ovipositor to lay its
its

addition to tough leaves, many have oily eggs on the sawfly larvae. It is thought
resins that make both their leaves and their that the wasp locates the larvae by
wood difficult to digest. Furthermore, if the
EXTRACTING
sapwood is injured, this resin oozes out and
SEEDS
traps insects and spiders as effectively as glue.
A crossbill's bill
Despite these defenses, some animals overlaps at it* tips,

manage to live entirely on coniferous trees. making it an ideal


Among the most successful are sawfly larvae. tool for extracting cone

hort periods,
These grubs bore deep inside the trunks, I •

crossbill nestlings can


leaving cylindrical tunnels in the wood. They
sunn, temperatures as
do not eat the wood itself; instead, they feed 31°F t-35°C
lou as
on a fungus that grows on the walls of the
tunnels they have built. Female sawflies earn smell. When the eggs
small amounts of this fungus with them when hatch, the ichneumon grubs
they emerge as adults, and they infect new eat their host larvae alive.
trees when the\ la\ thtir eggs. Hit. kind of Some animals, such as
symbiotic partnership is vital to sawflies, but the capercaillieand North
it is not entirely unique: in other habitats, American porcupine, eat large quantities of
particularly in the Tropics, ants and termites conifer needles, but moth caterpillars are the
also "cultivate" fungi as food. leading leaf-eaters: as always in coniferous
Although wood-boring grubs are safe forest, the number of species involved is
from most predators, they are not entirely small, but the damage they inflict can be
immune from attack. Coniferous forest is vast. This is especially true of species such as
the habitat of some of the world's largest the g\psy moth, which has been accidentally
woodpeckers, which hammer their way into introduced to many parts of the world.

- '
; MOTH ATTACK
_^^ ~-
i_
." Although the g)pi FINDING WINTER FOOD BROWSING DEER
,' itself does no dam .

Deer have a major impact on coniferous forest by eating young


caterpillar! Conifers do not have true flowers, but they
tree shoots and bark. Where deer arc numerous, such browsing
on conifers as well as on a nevertheless produce seeds. For birds and can kill small saplings tinset). Howrcer. this creates open glades,
range of deciduous trees.
small mammals, this seed crop is a valuable which are useful to other animals because they let in light,

winter fuel. However, accessing conifer seeds allowing fruit-forming plants - a goodfood source - to grow.
DRILLING THROUGH WOOD is not easy: they develop inside woody cones,
Bracing with ihfett, a female
itself
and the cones stay tightly closed until the Compared with seeds, bark is a low-quality
ichneumon wasp bores into a branch
seeds inside arc mature. food, but in winter it is some species'
\ital to
to lay eggs on a sawfly grub.
Coniferous animals have developed
forest survival. Deer strip away from the base
it

a variety <>l ways of removing these seeds of young saplings, while bank voles and
before the trees scatter them on the forest porcupines often climb trees to attack the
floor. Squirrels gnaw through the soft, unripe bark higher up. Bark stripping often stunts a
cone while it is still attached to the branch. tree's growth, and a severe attack can kill it.
eating the seeds and dropping the remains of
the cone on the ground below. Woodpeckers
often take fallen cones and wedge them
COPING WITH COLD
into tree-holes or broken stumps, using these Coniferous forest has its share of season, il
to hold the cone firm while they peck out visitors, principally insect-eating birds that

all the seeds. Crossbills are even more arrive in spring and then leave for the south
proficient: their bills are uniquely adapted once they have raised their young But for
for dealing with cones, enabling them to the rest of' its animals, long winters arc an
extract the seeds with surgical precision. inescapable fact of forest life. Some species
LIFE IN CONIFEROUS FOREST

POPULATION GRAPH
Fur trappers' records vividl) show hou
POPULATION CYCLES
WUMLshot-hare numbers m Canada \
Since there are relatively few animal spec ies
^^Hl/wn/ an andJail. Tht peaks,
in the northern coniferous forest, the lives ol
ui <
'art, are separated In
predators and prey are very closely linked.
During mild years, strong tree growth can
among

m
trigger a population explosion small
animals; as a result, the predators thai feed
on them begin to increase in number. These
conditions never last for long, though: as
the plant-eaters begin to outstrip the food
supply, their numbers start to fall again.
As the rate of the fall accelerates, the
predators soon follow suit.

Despite the unpredictability ot the


northern climate, these ups and downs
Occur with surprising regularity. In North
America, fur trappers' records dating back
over a century provide some long-term
evidence of population swings. For example,
thev show that the snowshoe-hare population
roughly follows a 10-year cycle, with two
or three good years, followed by a lengthy
slump. The Canadian lynx - one of the
snowshoe hare's main predators follows
the same pattern, but with a one- or
two-year lime-lag. Similar cycles involving
lemmings and other small mammals take
place in tundra (see p.65).
While there is little that they can do to
prevent this boom-and-bust pattern from
occurring, animals like the snowshoe hare
hibernate, but many remain active summer molt: and some species, such as are able to make a fairly fast recovery from
even during the coldest months, the stoat, use this molt to change color, a population slump by breeding quickly
relying on their insulation for survival. developing a white coat that provides better when conditions are favorable.
One group of forest animals, the camouflage for the winter.
mustelids. have that are exceptionally Keeping warm is relatively easy for large

well insulating.
ci >ats

This group includes pine mammals because their bodies contain a


IRRUPTIONS
In the northern coniferous forest, food supplies
martens, wolverines, minks, and sables, all large reserve of heat. But. for the smallest
are affected by the weather and the degree
of them agile hunters renowned for their warm-blooded inhabitants of coniferous nt competition. In winters that follow cool
thick and luxurious fur. As with most forest, winter conditions test their cold summers, the supply of seeds and berries can
mammals, their coats contain two different tolerance to its limits. Voles and other rodents be thin, leaving seed- and fruit-eating birds with
kinds of hair: long, outer guard hairs form can hide in burrows, but birds spend most little to eat. As a result, these birds llv south in

and waves, called irruptions, which ni.iv involve


the coat's water-repellent surface, while of their lives in the open. For wrens
traveling beyond their normal winter range- bv
shorter, much denser hairs tin- underfill
-
- tits, which often weigh less than ioz :
lOg),
as much as 930 miles ,500km Species that
1 .

trap a layer of air close to the body, keeping winter nights are a particularly dangerous
frequently irrupt include crossbills, u axv. ings,
the animal warm. Northern species all grow time. With such minute bodies, their fuel and titmice, in addition to nutcrackers and
an extra-thick coat reserves are tiny, so they must make special Other seed-eating members of the crow family.
after their late- provision if the) are to stav alive until dawn
when the search lor food can resume. Some
of them make the most of what
body heat they have bv
huddling together in

tree-holes, but
., few, -in h .is

the Siberian
tit. bed down
in the snow.
using it as an
sulating material.

RUNNING ON SNOW I I VIM. SOUTH


Cold winters actually mak Bohemian waxwings pausi during

ibilit) ta i mi at southwardJhght. Like other irruf

it In catch usually spread south whet a high

large animals, such as reindeer, u In, h i an


outpace it during the rummer months.
MOUNTAINS

MOUNTAINS /K A
gfh'k Ji

I\ MANY LAND HABITATS, climatic


conditions vary only slightly within
a region. In mountains, however, the
average air temperature drops by about
**£^+
dM
HOOFED MAMMALS.
1.8°F (1°C) for every 650ft (200m)
gained in height,oxygen becomes
as the bighorn sheep, surma
at high altitude. They can
::±..A±
often be found as high as tht
scarcer, and the air becomes less effective snowline.
at screening out ultraviolet light. As a
result, mountains can be divided into
distinct zones, each supporting plant
and animal life that is very different
from that of the zone above and below.
A wide range of animals Live in the low-
altitude foothills, but only the hardiest
survive year-round in the harsh
environment above the tree-line.
MARMOTS hibernate in

burrows, while some oilier

mountain rodents, such as

TEMPERATE MOUNTAINS pikas. stockpile food to

In temperate regions, a mountain's climate is


throughout the year. However,
relatively cool
seasonal changes are much more marked than ihey
are in the Tropics. At high altitude, above the tree-
line, there is a sudden burst of plant growth in

spring and summer. Some animals


migrate upward to make use <>!

this brief abundance of food, but


THE MOUNTAIN
Others, such as the marmot, are permanent residents lion an adaptable
is

between mid- and high altitude, surviving the winter predator that ranges from
}
cold by living in burrows and by hibernating for up • I to over

to eight months a year. High-altitude insects spend 9,900ft


main months in a dormant state, coming to life (3.000m).

when warm weather arrives. For many, this dormant


period is spent inside the egg. which hatches when
the d.i\s lengthen and the temperatures rise.
1 At lower altitudes, the
climate is warmer, and

J^O*° -.y generally more


of the surrounding land.
like that

However, because the THE PEREGRINE

7 *lj sloping, rocky


is difficult to
mountainsides often
ground
farm, the
FALCON
of
points
steep cliffs as uantagt

and nest sites.

THE NORTHERN retain more of their


temperate zone's mountain tree cover than does
Hatter ground. In
peaks an earth. In the
undisturbed conditions,
I

mountains are smaller


these montane forests are

and more isolated. the natural habitat of large


mammals, such as mountain
lions, bears, and dec and also of a wide range ol
seed- and insect-eating birds.
Temperate mountains abound in birds ol prey.
Some, such .is the peregrine falcon, pursue their pre)
on fast-flapping wings, while eagles and buteos soar
high up. riding on updrafts. One characteristic :
mountain species, a vultun ailed the lammergeier,
LIKE MANY PI
turns the mountain landsi to it-- advantage 1>\ the while-tailed
carrying carrion bones alofl .-'hi dropping them vertically, feeding

onto the rocks to expose the edible marrow inside. tree-line in summer.
MOUNTAINS

TROPICAL MOUNTAINS
In tin- Tropics, the generally warm climate means
thatmountain vegetation zones extend much higher
than they do in montane habitats elsewhere in the
world. For example, near the Equator, trees often
grow at altitudes of up to 13,200ft (4,000m), which
is why main tropical mountains are forested to
their summits. Above this altitude is the tropical
alpine zone, an open landscape dominated by
grass and some highly-
specialized plants. This
zone is often above the
clouds, which means that
nights are cold and frosty
and yet the sunshine is fierce.
Many tropical animals
have successfully adapted
to life at high altitude. They TROPICAL MOUNTAINS
include the vicuna, which include a major chain.
can be found up to 18.100ft and isolated .

ranges in East Africa and


5,500m in the South
Southeast Asia.
American Andes, and the
yak, which reaches a record 19,800ft (6,000m just
north of the Tropics in the Himalayas. Birds also
ive at great heights: in South America, for example,
mountain hummingbirds called hillstars often feed
atover 13,200ft (4,000m). Because of the hillstar's
minute size, it has difficulty in storing enough
energy to enable it to survive the cold nights.
To combat the problem, its nocturnal heartbeat
slowsdown and its temperature plummets,
conserving energy.
I he cloud-covered forest
below the alpine
zone is the habitat of some of the world's most
endangered animals. They include the mountain
gorilla - a species restricted to the mountains of
central Africa - and the resplendent quetzal, a
bird that lives in the cloud forests of Central
America. The abundant moisture means that the
forest zone also teems with mam different species
of frog, living both on the ground and in trees.

CONSERVATION
Among the current threats to mountain wildlife
are deforestation, quarrying, and development for
hydroelectricity and However, in the long
ski resorts.
term, global warming
threatens even greater changi
by altering the pattern of vegetation zones. Some
mountain animals will benefit from this, but others
will be faced with a steadily shrinking
habitat. This i-
particularly problematic for those species that live at
specific altitudes on isolated ranges or peaks bee ause
mans of them arc unable to descend to lower ground
in order to find
other areas ol
suitable habitat.

ROCK REMOVAL
In >«m« parti of the
uorld. quarrying has
destroyed important
uildlif, habitats. As
road building and
constructior,
TROPICAL MOl'Vl MS
i fiogi lit c at all
the demand
altitudes, from foothillforests
continues 6
Ill I IN MOUNTAINS

LIFE IN MOUNTAINS Compared with mammals, cold-blooded


animals, such as reptiles, have fewer problems
with I hin air because they use oxygen more
slowly. For them, the main problem with
LIFE AT hk;h ALTITUDE CAN BE HARSH. Food is often scarce, the weather mountain life is cold: if the temperature
can be treacherous, and the thin air can make it difficult to breathe. is too low. their body processes slow down,
and their muscles have difficulty working.
However, there is also more space, relatively little interference from
humans, and fewer predators than there are lower down. Many animals
are "incomers," using high ground as an extension of their normal
MOVEMENT
range, but there are also some that live only on high ground. In large Mountains seem almost specially made for
soaring birds because strong air currents
mountain chains, many animals have a wide distribution, but isolated
make it easy for them to gain height. For

mountains are often inhabited bv animals that are found nowhere else. animals on or near the ground, moving
about is not so easy. Many insects are
Birds are unusual in being able to cope with and species do
BREATHING THIN AIR wingless, that fly usually
rapid changes in altitude without experiencing keep close to the rock to reduce the risk

At 19,800ft (6,000m). air is half as dons,- as it any ill effects. For mammals, moving from of being blown away by the wind.
is at sea level. As a result, it contains only half one altitude to another necessitates special For larger animals, the situation is even

tin- normal amount of oxygen so little that adjustment by the body, which is achieved more hazardous, lor a single misjudged move
anyone trying to breathe at this height would by acclimatization - a process that can can lead to a fatal fall. Many rock-dwelling
have difficulty remaining conscious. Vet some take several weeks to complete. During mammals therefore have feet designed to
mountain animals live even higher than this acclimatization, the number of red cells prevent slipping. In Australia, rock
because they have evolved specialized body in the blood slowly increases, boosting its ^^^^^^^ wallabies use their large back
systems that enable them to get the maximum oxygen-carrying capacity. This physical I feet to take leaps of up to
amount of oxygen into their blood. adjustment, which is shown by a broad 1 3ft (4m), with their
In the vertebrate world, birds are the range of mammals - including humans - long tails helping
unrivaled experts at high-altitude living is temporary. If an animal moves back to them to
This is because air passes through their lungs lower ground, the process is reversed. balance.
in only one direction, not in and out. which for mountain mammals, such as
However,
ensures that a high proportion of the air's the vicuna and ibex, adaptation to life high
oxygen enters the blood far more than up is permanent state, not something that
,i

enters a mammal's bloodstream in the same can be switched on and off. When measured
conditions. This fact is apparent from the as a proportion of volume, \icunas have three
height at which birds are capable of living. times more red cells in their blood than most
In the Himalayas, choughs have been seen other mammals, and the hemoglobin in
fluttering around campsites at over 26.400ft their red cells is unusually good at collecting

(8.000m). and there are records of vultures oxygen. As a result, vicunas can run almost
colliding with planes at over 36. 300ft effortlessly on the aluplano the high-altitude
(1 1,000m) far higher than Mount Everest. plateau that runs the length of the Andes.
NONSLIP FEET
I In kyrax's .mall, adhesiveJed am perfectfir negotiating rods,
although form species also use them fen climbing trees. In

addition In Irving high up. mil, hyraxes inhabit kopjes


miniature mountains of boulders on the African savanna.

In Africa and the Middle East, hyraxes run


over rocks and boulders with the help of
which work like suction cups.
specialized soles,
But most of the world's mountains, the
in
most adept climbers are hoofed mammals.
Hooves may seem far from ideal lor
climbing, and it is true that some hoofed
mammals, such as horses, have great difficulty
moving around on rocky slopes. But in
climbing mammals, such as mountain goals
and klipspringcrs. hooves haw evolved into
perfect aids for moving about in mountains:
they are small and compact, allowing them
to tit onto narrow ledges, and they have hard
edges surrounding rough nonslip pads.
These characteristics make good grip in
lor

all conditions, including rain and snow.


Getting a firm grip is essential for moving
on rock, but equally important is a strong
SOARING
sense of balance and a head for heights.
I pdrafts provide an almost effortless means of travel for

birds like the Andean eondor. which ean cover hundreds of


Most terrestrial mammals are afraid of steep

mil, > in a day br riding naves of rising air. drops, but. from an early age. mountain
dwellers sWHHhtt appears to lie a reckless
LIFE IN MOUNTAINS

mountain top to the forests lower down, but


some mountain forest species also migrate.
Among these latter migrants are birds such
as nutcrackers, which feed on conifer seeds.
If the seed crop fails, they fly downhill in a
form of sporadic migration called an
irruption see p.57 . Clark's nutcracker, from
the Roi k\ Mountains, is a typical example:

normally found at up to 8,21 Hi 2,51 >m it II II .

descends as low as sea level when food


becomes hard to find.

FINDING FOOD
As in most land habitats, a mountain's
animal life depends ultimately on plants, for
plants provide food for herbivorous animals,
which are. in turn, eaten by a wide range of
predators. However, some mountain animals
make use of a very different food source -
the small animals, mainly insects, that are
carried uphill by the wind to be stranded
disregard for their own Adult chamois
safety. VERTICAL MIGRANTS among the rocks, snow, and ice.
take 20ft (6m) leaps and can run down near- In mountainous regions, red deer spend the summer high up, Most of these wind-blown animals are
vertical slopes as easily as they can run up where food is plentiful and there are relatively few biting flies.
so tiny that they are practically imisible:
Their downhill migration in autumn often coincides with the
them. Their young are able to keep up with yet they provide useful nourishment for
start of the rutting season, when males grow a mane of hair
them when just a few weeks old. scavengers that above the snowline.
live
on the neck and compete with each otherfor the right to mate.
They consist almost entirely of invertebrates,
COPING WITH WINTER For other animals, the first autumn snows such as springtails and snow fleas, which can
are the signal to move downhill. These survive the very low temperatures of high-
In tropical mountains, conditions are often vertical migrations are a common feature altitude winters. During the depths of winter.
much the same all year round, which means of mountain temperate regions, and
life in they hide among rocks and moss, but when
that animals can stay at one altitude all their they are demonstrated by a wide range of the weather warms up they can often be
lives. But in temperate mountains, seasonal mammals and birds, from mountain sheep seen hopping across banks of snow, feasting
changes affect the food supply. Winter is the and deer to grouse. In many cases, the on the debris that the wind has brought up
critical time: anything that cannot survive migration involves moving from the exposed from lower altitudes.
the cold weather conditions and the shortage
of food has to move to lower ground or
hibernate until the return of spring.
LIFE IN CAVES
Many animals use caves temporarily, but some have sensors along each side of its body that enables
Animals that are resident at high altitude
adapted to spend their entire lives in them. These it to detect other animals several yards aw ay.
have a vane r> ot ways cl coping with the
permanent cave dwellers, called troglodytes, feed Although food is scarce, animals exist main
changes. Insects often enter a dormant either on each other or on the droppings deposited miles underground and have even been found in
diapause, which puts their
state, called by roosting bats and birds. pothole systems that have no
development on hold. Many small mammals, As a habitat, deep cases have the advantage thai direct contact with the
such as marmots, survive mountain winters temperatures remain fairly constant throughout the surface except via water
year. However, they are also completely dark. and. trickling way
by hibernating, while many of those that its

consequently eyes are useless. Bats, oilbirds. and


remain active live on food reserves collected
swiftlets use echolocation to navigate while
example, gather
earlier in the year. Pikas, for
underground, but permanent cave dwellers sense
up leaves and grass and build them into their surroundings largely by touch, often using
"haystacks" among the broken rocks around smell to track down food. Cave crickets detect
their homes. Before adding fresh supplies to a food using antennae, while spiders and harvestmen
stack, they sometimes spread them out to dry use their feet. In subterranean streams and pools.
cave salamanders, such as the olm. sense vibrations
m the sunshine, which reduces the chances
in the water. The case fish has a row of pressure
of the food rotting before it is eaten.

MIGRANT
Like mum temperate
mountain animals,
GIAN 1 \N I INN U
the nutcrch >

Cave crickets ' antennae, a hi, h i an be two or three


altitudes,
times the body length, locate the dead remains and
mi the
bat droppings that make up the animal's diet.
conditions: severe cold
m nhill.
UNDERWATER LIFE
' litionfor hkc mo\i aquat u olm

food on low ground i little pigment in its skin. lt\ eyes are

uphill d in

as soon as the water and remain m it throughout at


weather imj
rOLAR REGIONS

POLAR
REGIONS
The .Arctic and Antarctic are the
coldest places on earth. The Arctic is
a partly frozen ocean, hemmed in by
large expanses of windswept tundra: the
Antarctic is an ice-covered continent,

surrounded by the world's stormiest


seas. They are similar to each other
and unlike any other habitat - in that
they have 24-hour daylight in summer
and perpetual darkness in winter, but
they are physically different in ways that
have important effects on animal life.
In the Arctic, mam- animals live on

land: in the Antarctic, animal life is

based almost entirely in the ocean.

ARCTIC AND TUNDRA


Covering about 4.6 million square miles (12 million
square km), the Arctic Ocean is both the smallest
and the shallowest ocean in the world. For several
months in summer, permanent daylight produces a
constant supply of energy, which is harnessed by vast
quantities of planktonic algae. These form the first
link in die Arctic Ocean's food chain, which ultimately
nourishes animals as large as whales and polar bears.
Sea ice - or the lack of it - is a major factor in
determining where large mammals live, especially
during winter when the surface area of the ice is at
its greatest. Polar bears and Arctic foxes can traverse

the ice to find food, but seals and some other marine
mammals must maintain breathing holes to sunive.
Despite the ice. sea life is

plentiful in the Arctic since


cold water is rich in oxygen

and the seabed sediment is


rich in nutrients. On
land, though, trees
'1 cannot survive because
of the intense cold. The
TRUE TUNDRA IS found result is tundra - an open,
north of the Antic Circle, but often featureless, landscape,
tundra-like conditions exist on made smooth by glaciers in
some mountains elsewhere.
the last ice age. Today. Arctic
glaciers are restrictedmainly to mountains and to
the ice-op th.it covers Greenland, but large areas of
tundra are permanently frozen underground. This
frozen zone - the permafrost layer - prevents
spring meltwater from draining away, creating
waterlogged landscapes in a region where rainfall.
or snow, is paradoxically very low.
and early summer, tundra plants
In late spring
grow and flower very rapidly. Geese and other
migratory birds arrive to breed, and \-ast numbers
THE POLAR BEAR U tl

of mosquitoes emerge from tundra pools. The superb swimmer, and it is

migrants' departure, when the short summer draws at much at home on shiftim
to a close, marks the end of another biological year. pack ice as it is on tundra.
POLAR REGIONS

ANTARCTIC
Unlike the Arctic, mainland Antarctica is isolated
from the rest of the world. covered with ice, up
It is

to 13,200ft (4,000m i
thick, which continues out to sea
forming; large ice shelves. On
the Antarctic Peninsula
- a finger of land pointing towards South America
SKUAS. Jtilllirl in i
summer temperatures rise to a few degrees above
I
1

freezing point, but in the rest of the continent average


on carrion and on other
temperatures are below freezing all year round.
Algae and lichens grow
on bare rocks in many parts
of the Antarctic coastline.
Inn the Antarctic Peninsula is

the only pan of the continent


where terrestrial plants can
survive. This is also the only
place that has a significant
range of terrestrial animals. most of Antarctica,
although these are chiefly excluding the relati

Sphngtails, mites, and Antarctic Peninsula, ties

nematode worms - few of soulh °J " '

which are over in (5mm) '


>
long. The rest of
Antarctica's land-based animal life consists of
species that feed in the sea and come ashore to breed,
such as penguins, or those that scavenge food at these
animals' breeding grounds, such as skuas. With the
exception of emperor penguins, vertebrates desert the
ice at the end of summer to spend the winter at sea.
The Southern Ocean, which surrounds Antarctica,
is one of the most biologically productive seas in the
world, .\lthough species numbers are relatively low.
p< ipulation sizes are often enormous because the non-
stop summer daylight generates a vast supply of food.
Krill - small crustaceans that form the diet of seals
and whales - are especially prolific: some of their
swarms are estimated to weigh in excess of 10 million
tons and are large enough to be seen by satellites in
spa« e. .Vlthough the Southern Ocean is always cold, it

maintains a minimum temperature of about 28.8 "F


1.8°C); below this, seawater freezes. As a result, the
ocean is quite warm compared with Antarctica itself

CONSERVATION
Under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, which came
into effect in 1961. Antarctica is currently protected
against commercial exploitation. In the Arctic, the
situationis quite different, with oil production,
mineral
extraction, and hunting taking place in mam areas. In
both polar regions but particularly in the Antan t»
wildlife faces habitat change brought about 1>\
atmospheric increases in carbon dioxide causing global
warming and by thinning of the atmosphere's ozone
layer causing increased levels of ultraviolet radiation .

GAPS IN THE ICE


In the rear 2000.
oeeanographers reported
finding large sin
of open water at the
North Pole - a region
that is normally covered
by floating ice. This
unprecedented melting

of the polar u;

most certainly
i
global
u arming.
LIFE IN TOIAK RLGIONS

Whales make breathing


LIFE IN POLAR REGIONS Instead, the)
tan come up
rarely