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Teknik Metalurgi

03. Ironmaking in Blast Furnace

Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking (MG-4113)

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan


Department of Metallurgical Engineering
Institute of Technology Bandung
Course Content
Teknik Metalurgi

1. Introduction
2. Burden materials preparation for ironmaking
3. Ironmaking in blast furnace
4. Blast furnace technology
5. Smelting reduction (COREX, HISMELT, DIOS, etc.)
6. Direct reduction (HyL I, HyL III, MIDREX, SL/RN, CIRCORED, etc.)
7. Heat and mass balance in ironmaking
8. Midterm Examination
9. Hot metal desulphurization & Steelmaking based on hot metal (de-C, de-Si,
De-P, Mn-removal, LD-Converter / BOF)
10. Steelmaking based on scrap and sponge iron (SIEMENS MARTINS, EAF)
11. Secondary metallurgy (Deoxidation, Desulphurization, Alloying, LF, CHF)
12. Vacuum metallurgy (RH, VD)
13. Stainless steelmaking (AOD, VOD)
14. Continous casting (CCM)
15. Final Examination
Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking
Iron and Steelmaking Route
Teknik Metalurgi

LT

Blast furnace
HM de-S BOF
RH /
RH-TCOB

CCM
COREX Plant

VD/
VD-OB
EAF
Direct Reduction LF
Plant Ingot
Primary Secondary
Scrap
Ironmaking Steelmaking Steelmaking Casting

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Blast Furnace
Teknik Metalurgi

S: http://www.jfe-21st-cf.or.jp/

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Blast Furnace
Teknik Metalurgi

• High production rate


Modern Blast furnace: 14.000 ton hot metal (THM) perday

• High degree of heat utilization (85-90%), extremly efficient counter


current heat exchanges apparatus

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Blast Furnace
Teknik Metalurgi

Throat

Shaft / Stack

Belly

Bosh

Hearth

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Chemical Reaction in Blast Furnace
Teknik Metalurgi

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Chemical reactions in blast furnace
Teknik Metalurgi

6-8 hours, burden from top to


H2O = {H2O} 200°C
Fe2O3 Fe2O3 tuyere level
3<Fe2O3> + {CO} = 2<Fe3O4> + {CO2} C C C
2{CO} = {CO2} + <C> C H2O C
<MgCO3 > = <MgO> + {CO2}
3<Fe3O4> + {CO} = 3<FeO> + {CO2} Fe3O4 Fe3O4
CO2 <FeCO3 >= <FeO> + {CO2}
800°C CO2 CaO CO2
FeO <CaCO3 >= <CaO> + {CO2}
3<Fe3O4> + 4{CO} = 3<Fe> + 4{CO2} FeO
CO CO
<FeO> + {CO} = <Fe> + {CO2}
CO CO FeO + {CO} = Fe + {CO2}
FeO
> 1000°C Fe Fe {CO2} + <C> = 2{CO}
Fe Fe
Fe Al2O3 P2O5 Fe SiO2 + 2<C> = [Si] + 2{CO}
MnO SiO2
{CO2} + <C> = 2{CO}
CO CO MnO + <C> = [Mn] + {CO}
{O2} + <C> = {CO2} CO C Fe Si CO
Fe Mn <C> = [C]
1800-2000°C N2 O2 S P O2 N2 CaO+SiO2+Al2O3
1500°C
Residence time of gas: [S] + (CaO) + C = (CaS) {CO}
1-10 seconds or more 1400°C

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Reactions
Teknik Metalurgi

Reaction DH (298 K) kJ/kmol


C + ½ O2 = CO -26.42
C + O2 = CO2 -94.05
CO + ½ O2 = CO2 -67.84
C + CO2 = 2 CO +41.21
3 Fe2O3 + CO = 2 Fe3O4 + CO2 -10.33

Fe3O4 + CO = 3 FeO + CO2 +8.75

FeO + CO = Fe + CO2 -3.99

FeO + C = Fe + CO +37.22

3 Fe2O3 + H2 = 2 Fe3O4 + H2O -0.65

Fe3O4 + H2 = 3 FeO + H2O +18.43

FeO + H2 = Fe + H2O +5.69


Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking
Reduction of Iron Ore
Teknik Metalurgi

F2O3 -50

CO
Fe3O4
Gangue: -100 Fe2O3
NiO
FeO
SiO2, Al2O3
-DG = RT Ln K [kcal/mole O2]

Fe3O4

-150

Cr2O3
MnO
C
-200 SiO2

Ash: SiO2,
Al2O3
-250 Al2O3

MgO

CaO
-300
-100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600
Temperature [°C]
CaCO3

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Fe-O System
Teknik Metalurgi

Hematite composes into


magnetite and oxygen at
1457°C
Transformation of hematite to
magnetite: hexagonal to cubic
 volume expansion, increased
porosity and cracks.
Reduction of hematite produces
a porous product. Reduction of
hematite has higher reduction
rate compared to magnetite.
Melting point magnetite: 1597°C
Melting point of FeO decreases
with decreasing of oxygen
content ~ 1371°C

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Tuyeres
Teknik Metalurgi

Solution loss: 200°C

carbon reacts with


CO2 (dissolves)
before it reaches
the tuyeres
800°C

> 1000°C

{CO2} + <C> = 2{CO}

C
CO
{O2} + <C> = {CO2} C CO2
1800-2000°C N2 O2 O2 N2
1500°C

1400°C

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Tuyere
Teknik Metalurgi

Tuyere: Side view


CO2 is not stable at T > 1000°C,
CO is produced according to
CO2 + C = 2 CO
For dry blast, tuyere gas consist of
35% CO and 65% N2

The burning of coke in front of


tuyeres results in continous
creation of an empty space around
Gas velocity ~ 150 – 300 m/s the hearth, which permits the flow
Hot blast of air entering the of the charge materials downwards
furnace through the tuyeres burns
coke to CO2 immediately, give a
flame temperature of 1800-2000°C
Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking
Tuyere
Teknik Metalurgi

Tuyere: Side view Tuyere: Top view

Depth of combustion zone: 1-2 m

Dead man`s zone: in active zone:


coke floats on the liquid iron in hearth.
No FeO in blast furnace slag!!!

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Cohesive Zone
Teknik Metalurgi

Coke is the only component ot the


charge materials wich descend as a
solid to the tuyere level.
Beside for supplying the reductant
and heat for processing the burden
into finished product, coke provides
mechanical support to the burden,
especially in the bosh region, where
the metal and slag are liquid.

Cohesive zone: alternate layer of


coke and viscous, impervious,
semifused mass of slag and iron.
Permeable coke layers (coke
slits), act as gas distributors and
permit gas to flow horizontally
through them.

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Direct reaction
Teknik Metalurgi

Solution loss: 200°C Direct reaction:


carbon reacts with
at T > 1000°C,
CO2 (dissolves)
wustite reduction
before it reaches
and boudouard
the tuyeres
800°C reaction take place
simultaneously

{CO2} + <C> = 2{CO}


> 1000°C

{CO2} + <C> = 2{CO} CO FeO + {CO} = Fe + {CO2}


FeO CO2 C
C
CO Fe <C> = [C]
{O2} + <C> = {CO2} C CO2
1800-2000°C N2 O2 O2 N2
1500°C

1400°C

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Carbon content in hot metal
Teknik Metalurgi

Solution loss: 200°C Direct reaction:


carbon reacts with
at T > 1000°C,
CO2 (dissolves)
wustite reduction
before it reaches
and boudouard
the tuyeres
800°C reaction take place
simultaneously

{CO2} + <C> = 2{CO}


> 1000°C

{CO2} + <C> = 2{CO} CO FeO + {CO} = Fe + {CO2}


FeO CO2 C
C
CO Fe +
{O2} + <C> = {CO2} C CO2 FeO + <C> = Fe + {CO}
1800-2000°C N2 O2 O2 N2 <C> = [C]
1500°C

1400°C

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Indirect reaction
Teknik Metalurgi

200°C Indirect reaction:


3<Fe2O3> + {CO} = 2<Fe3O4> + {CO2}
at T < 900°C,
reduction of iron
3<Fe3O4> + {CO} = 3<FeO> + {CO2} with CO gas
800°C producing CO2
3<Fe3O4> + 4{CO} = 3<Fe> + 4{CO2}

<FeO> + {CO} = <Fe> + {CO2}


{CO2} + <C> = 2{CO}
> 1000°C

{CO2} + <C> = 2{CO} CO FeO + {CO} = Fe + {CO2}


FeO CO2 C
C
CO Fe
{O2} + <C> = {CO2} C CO2
1800-2000°C N2 O2 O2 N2
1500°C

1400°C

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Thermodynamic of Iron Oxide Reduction (CO-CO2)
Teknik Metalurgi

100

90
Ptot = 0.2 atm

80
Ptot = 1.0 atm Fe
70 Ptot = 5.0 atm
CO / (CO + CO2) [%]

60

50

40 FeO
30

20

10
Fe3O4
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Temperature [°C]

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Teknik Metalurgi

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Thermodynamic of Iron Oxide Reduction (H2-H2O)
Teknik Metalurgi

100

90

80 Fe
70
H2 / (H2 + H2O) [%]

60

50
FeO
40

30

20

10
Fe3O4

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Temperature [°C]

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Thermodynamic of Iron Oxide Reduction
(CO-CO2-H2-H2O)
Teknik Metalurgi

100

90
Ptot = 0.2 atm
CO / (CO + CO2) [%] or H2 / (H2 + H2O) [%]

80
Ptot = 1.0 atm Fe
70 Ptot = 5.0 atm
60

50

40 FeO
30

20

10
Fe3O4
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Temperature [°C]

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Reduction of Iron Ore
Teknik Metalurgi

For dense sintered hematite pellets the reduction of iron oxide is slow,
resulting in layers of iron, wustite, magnetite and hematite as result of
slow diffusion of gas in the product layer. The greater driving force for
reduction, the greater tendency to form product layer. For example,
reduction by H2 is more likely to produce layers than reduction by CO.

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Reduction of Iron Ore
Teknik Metalurgi

For lump ores or pellets with high porosity, there is no product layer
formation

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Teknik Metalurgi

S: http://www.jfe-21st-cf.or.jp/

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Chemical reactions in blast furnace
Teknik Metalurgi

H2O = {H2O} 200°C


Fe2O3 Fe2O3
3<Fe2O3> + {CO} = 2<Fe3O4> + {CO2} C C C
2{CO} = {CO2} + <C> C H2O C
<MgCO3 > = <MgO> + {CO2}
3<Fe3O4> + {CO} = 3<FeO> + {CO2} Fe3O4 Fe3O4
CO2 <FeCO3 >= <FeO> + {CO2}
800°C CO2 CaO CO2
FeO <CaCO3 >= <CaO> + {CO2}
3<Fe3O4> + 4{CO} = 3<Fe> + 4{CO2} FeO
CO CO
<FeO> + {CO} = <Fe> + {CO2}
CO CO
FeO
> 1000°C Fe Fe FeO + {CO} = Fe + {CO2}
Fe Fe
Fe Fe {CO2} + <C> = 2{CO}
{CO2} + <C> = 2{CO} SiO2 + 2<C> = [Si] + 2{CO}
CO CO
{O2} + <C> = {CO2} CO C Fe Si CO MnO + <C> = [Mn] + {CO}
Fe Mn
1800-2000°C N2 O2 O2 N2 <C> = [C]
1500°C
[S] + (CaO) + C = (CaS) {CO}
1400°C

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Carbon Deposition
Teknik Metalurgi

CO stability decreases with decreasing temperature and increasing


pressure.
Maximum instability: 600 – 800°C.
Carbon deposition occurs mostly in the upper stack.
Deposition of carbon: reduces stack diameter, causes breakdown of the
ferrous charge materials, retards burden descent, hanging of the furnace

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Blast Furnace Slag
Teknik Metalurgi

SiO2

Acid Slag

Basic Slag
anorthite

CaO Al2O3

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Si- Reduction
Teknik Metalurgi

SiO2 (s) + 2[C]sat = [%Si] + 2CO


DG° = 141525 – 93.58 T cal

K Si 
%Si  'Si PCO
2

aSiO2 a2C

Log KSi = -30935 / T + 20.455

For carbon saturated iron aC = 1


and `Si = 15 :

%Si PCO
2
 6.73 x 10-4 K Si  SiO 2
(%SiO2 )

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Si-Reduction
Teknik Metalurgi

%Si PCO
2
 6.73 x 10-4 K Si  SiO 2
(%SiO2 )

For obtaining low silicon iron:


• Temperature : lower temperature, lower Ksi,  lower silicon in iron
• Basicity : increase CaO/SiO2, decrease SiO2  lower silicon
in iron
• Pressure : increase PCO, decrease [%Si]/(%SiO2)

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Mn- reduction
Teknik Metalurgi

MnO2 (s) + [C]sat = [%Mn] + CO


DG° = 69050 – 50.20 T cal

K Mn 
%Mn  'Si PCO
aMnO aC 

Log KMn = -15090 / T + 10.97

For carbon saturated iron aC =


1 and `Mn = 0.8 :

%Mn PCO  1.07 x 10-2 K  MnO


Mn
(%MnO)

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Desulphurization
Teknik Metalurgi

CaO (s) + [%S]+ [C]sat = CaS(s) + CO


DG° = 27500 – 27.15 T cal

aCaS PCO
KS 
aCaO %S  'S aC 

Log KS = -6010 / T + 5.935

For carbon saturated iron aC =


1 and `S = 7 :

%S   4
 CaO (%CaO) K S
%S  CaS PCO

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Teknik Metalurgi

RIST DIAGRAM

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Chemical Reaction in Blast Furnace
Teknik Metalurgi

900°C  indirect
reduction

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Thermodynamic of Iron Oxide Reduction (CO-CO2)
Teknik Metalurgi

100
CO-utilization factor CO
90
(fraction of CO converted to Fe
at 900°C
80 CO2)
CO/CO2=2.3
70
CO / (CO + CO2) [%]

%CO2
60 %CO  x100
(%CO  %CO2 )
50
FeO
40

30

CO/CO2=0.25
20

10
Fe3O4
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Temperature [°C]

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


CO-utilization factor (CO)
Teknik Metalurgi

% CO = %CO2 / (%CO + %CO2) * 100


Equilibrium at 900°C
Reactions CO/CO2 % CO

3 Fe2O3 + CO = 2 Fe3O4 + CO2 0 Ca. 100

Fe3O4 + CO = 3 FeO + CO2 0.25 80

FeO + CO = Fe + CO2 2.3 30

Wustite (FeO) needs very high CO/CO2 ratio for reduction (2.3)
FeO + 3.3 CO = Fe + 2.3 CO + CO2
Magnetite and Hematite requires smaller CO/CO2 ratio
Fe3O4 + 1.25 CO = 3 FeO + 0.25 CO + CO2

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Reduction of Iron Ore
Teknik Metalurgi

For 1000 kg Fe produced  ..........


1430 kg Fe2O3 is needed

Total Oxygen in 1430 kg Fe2O3 ~ .......


430 kg O

Fe2O3 = Fe3O4 + O
Oxygen removed from the reduction of Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 ~ .....
48 kg O

Fe3O4 = 3FeO1.055 + 0.835 O


80 kg O
Oxygen removed from the reduction of Fe3O4 to FeO1.055 ~ ......

FeO1.055 = Fe + 1.055 O
302
Oxygen removed from the reduction of FeO1.055 to Fe ~ ........ kg O
Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking
Plotting of Rist Diagram
Teknik Metalurgi

450
Removed Oxygen [kg] / 1000 kg Fe

400 48 Fe2O3

% Oxygen = 100 * kg oxygen / 430


350 80 Fe3O4

% Direct Reduction
300

250 FeO1.055

200

150 302
100

50

0
CO
Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking
Plotting of Rist Diagram
Teknik Metalurgi

450
Removed Oxygen [kg] / 1000 kg Fe

400 48 Fe2O3

% Oxygen = 100 * kg oxygen / 430


350 80 Fe3O4
300

250 FeO1.055

200

150 302
100

50

0
CO
Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking
Indirect Reduction
Single-Stage and Two-Stage Process
Teknik Metalurgi

100 at 900°C
90

80
Fe
CO/CO2=2.3
70
CO / (CO + CO2) [%]

60

50

40 FeO
30

CO/CO2=0.25
20

10

0 Fe2O3
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Temperature [°C]

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Direct Reduction (DR) vs. Indirect Reduction (IDR)
One Single-Stage Process Direct Reduction
Teknik Metalurgi

One Single-Stage Process


For 100% indirect reduction at 900°C:
Ratio CO/CO2 = 2.3 must always maintained
Fe2O3 + 3 x 3.3 CO = 2 Fe + 3 x 2.3 CO + 3 CO2
For 1000 kg Fe produced  1000/56*3*3.3/2*12
..........................................
= 1060 kg C is required

Carbon requirement is too high!!!


To plot in Rist Diagram:
• % Direct Reduction = 0 (Reduction from wustite to iron)
• CO = %CO2/(%CO+%CO2) = 3/(3*2.3+3)= 30%

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Rist Diagram
Teknik Metalurgi

100% IDR (One

Fe2O3 – Fe3O4
single stage)

Fe3O4 - FeO
FeO - Fe

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Direct Reduction (DR) vs. Indirect Reduction (IDR)
Two-Stage Process Direct Reduction
Teknik Metalurgi

Two Single-Stage Process


For 100% indirect reduction at 900°C
Ratio CO/CO2 = 2.3 must maintained for wustite reduction
FeO + 3.3 CO = Fe + 2.3 CO + CO2
Fe3O4 + 2.3 CO = 3FeO + 1.3 CO + CO2
For 1000 kg Fe produced  ..........................................
1000/56*3.3*12 = 707 kg C is required

Carbon requirement is relative high!!!


To plot in Rist Diagram:
• % Direct Reduction = 0 (Reduction from wustite to iron)
• CO = %CO2/(%CO+%CO2) = 1/(1+1.3)= 43.5%

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Rist Diagram
Teknik Metalurgi

100% IDR (One

Fe2O3 – Fe3O4
single stage)

100% IDR (two-


stage

Fe3O4 - FeO
FeO - Fe

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Direct Reduction (DR) vs. Indirect Reduction (IDR)
100% Direct Reduction
Teknik Metalurgi

For 100% direct reduction:


Fe2O3 + 3C = 2 Fe + 3 CO
For 1000 kg Fe produced  ..........................................
1000/56*3/2*12 = 321 kg C is required

Carbon requirement is relative low!!!


However, temperature process requirement is high, since
direct reduction takes place at temperatue > 1000°C
CO gas is potential to be used for indirect reduction

To plot in Rist Diagram:


• % Direct Reduction = 100% (Reduction from wustite to iron)
• CO = %CO2/(%CO+%CO2) = 0/(1+1.3)= 0%

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Rist Diagram
Teknik Metalurgi

100% IDR (One

Fe2O3 – Fe3O4
single stage)

100% IDR (two-


stage

Fe3O4 - FeO
100% DR

FeO - Fe

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Direct Reduction (DR) vs. Indirect Reduction (IDR)
(Optimum Condition)
Teknik Metalurgi

Direct reduction of wustite:


FeO + C = Fe + CO
Suppose: y kg of wustite oxygen (O from FeO) is removed
directly by carbon.
kmol CO evolved = y/16

CO evolved removes the rest oxygen indirectly (302-y).


Indirect reduction of wustite at 900°C
FeO + 3.3 CO = Fe + 2.3 CO + CO2
y/16 = 3.3 (302-y)/16
y = 232 kg
% of DR = 232/430 * 100% = 54%

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Direct Reduction (DR) vs. Indirect Reduction (IDR)
(Optimum Condition)
Teknik Metalurgi

Direct reduction of wustite:


FeO + C = Fe + CO
O removed by direct reduction = 232 kg
C needed = 232/16*12 = 174 kg  CO evolved = 174/12*22.4 = 325 m3 (STP)
Indirect reduction:
Fe2O3 + 3CO = 2Fe + 3CO2
O removed by indirect reduction = 430 - 232 = 198 kg
CO2 evolved = 198/16*22.4 = 277 m3 (STP) = CO required
CO rest = 325 – 277 = 48 m3 (STP)

To plot in Rist Diagram:


• % Direct Reduction = 54% (Reduction from wustite to iron)
• CO = %CO2/(%CO+%CO2) = 277/(48+277)= 85%
Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking
Rist Diagram
Teknik Metalurgi

100% IDR (One

Fe2O3 – Fe3O4
single stage)

100% IDR (two-


stage

Fe3O4 - FeO
100% DR

Optimum
Percentage of
Direct Reduction

FeO - Fe

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Rist Diagram
Teknik Metalurgi

100% IDR (One

Fe2O3 – Fe3O4
single stage)

100% IDR (two-


stage

Fe3O4 - FeO
100% DR

Optimum
Percentage of
Direct Reduction

FeO - Fe Line 5: DR < 54%,


CO evolved is less
than than required
for indirect
reduction of wustite

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Rist Diagram
Teknik Metalurgi

100% IDR (One

Fe2O3 – Fe3O4
single stage)

100% IDR (two-


stage

Fe3O4 - FeO
100% DR

Optimum
Percentage of
Direct Reduction

FeO - Fe Line 5: DR < 54%,


CO evolved is less
than than required
for indirect
reduction of wustite

Line 4: CO supply in
excess

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


From „Principles of Extractive Metallurgy“, by T.
Rosenqvist
Teknik Metalurgi

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking


Thank you for your attention!
Teknik Metalurgi

 Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan


 Department of Metallurgical Engineering
 Institute of Technology Bandung
 Jl. Ganesha No. 10
 Bandung 40132
 INDONESIA

 Telefon : +62 (0) 22 250 2239


 Fax : +62 (0) 22 250 4209
 Mobil : +62 (0) 813 22 93 94 70

 E-Mail: zulfiadi@metallurgy.itb.ac.id

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan 2009 MG-4113 Metallurgy of Iron and Steelmaking