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# 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), Menoufia University, Egypt, 19-21 December 2017

## Development of Newton-Raphson Power-flow

Method Based on Second Order Multiplier
Mohamed Abokrisha, Ahmed Diaa, Ali Selim, and Salah Kamel
Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan 81542, Egypt
Abokrisha93@gmail.com, ahmeddiaakarram@gmail.com, ali.selim@aswu.edu.eg, skamel@aswu.edu.eg

Abstract—The first order Newton-Raphson (NR) method is objective of reducing the analysis time through simplification
considered as the state of the art for power flow calculations. of the Newton method equations.
This method has been widely used in industry applications. Recently the increase of power system network size with
However, this method started to lose ability to converge in case the increasing demand of energy, it was found that the
of ill-conditioned systems (heavy load, high R/X ratio, etc.). This
due to the singularity of Jacobian matrix for this method.
traditional power-flow method started to lose the ability to
Hence, this paper develops an efficient NR method for power- converge fast for weak and ill-conditioned system [6, 7].
flow solution of large scale ill-conditioned power systems. The consequently, studies at that time were conducted to produce
developed technique uses the second order multiplier (SOM) to a load flow method that able to solve and converge fast.
accelerate the convergence and reduce the computation time of Commonly, the ill-conditioned system considers a system
power-flow in case of ill-conditioned systems. The developed that has a very high R/X ratio of lines and low-connecting
algorithm is validated using standard IEEE 30-bus, IEEE 57- links . Nowadays problem turns to be more decisive since
bus, IEEE 118-bus test systems. The result shows that the power system is operating close to security limits in lower
developed power-flow technique is able to find the power flow
modes .Traditional power-flow analysis is unsuccessful to
solution for small and large power systems in case of well and
ill-conditioned cases.
converge as a result of the problem for such system.
Determining if divergence of any power-flow systems is
Index Terms—Power flow, Newton Raphson, second order because of disability of the power-flow methods or because of
multiplier. unknown operating point is an important challenge for ill-
conditioned system [8, 10].
I. INTRODUCTION In case of large scale Ill-conditioned power systems, the
Conventional Newton-Raphson is no longer simple and needs
Load flow analysis is one of the most important analyses
additional storage and computation time.
in power system. It is applied for planning, operation,
The main objective of paper is developing an efficient
economic scheduling and exchange of power between utilities
load flow method for solving the large scale ill-conditioned
[1, 2]. Gauss-Seidel method considered the earliest
power systems. The NR will be developed based on SOM in
computational method which has been used for power flow
order to improve the convergence characteristics and reduce
solution. However, the convergence characteristic of this
the computation time in case of ill-conditioned systems.
method is poor and required high number of iteration. Later,
Different test systems with heavy load are taken as ill-
Newton Raphson (NR) method has been presented to improve
conditioned cases. Developed algorithm is validated using
convergence problem of Gauss-Seidel method . The
standard IEEE test systems.
convergence characteristic of NR can be achieved within a
The paper is organized into five sections: Section II
few number of iterations in most typical networks. Hence, NR
describes second order multiplier formulation, Section III
method is widely used in industry. This technique managed to
discusses the result and discussion, finally, Section IV
overcome computer memory size, which is low at that time
concludes the paper.
.
Fast Decoupled Load Flow (FDLF) method [1, 2] has II. SOM TECHNIQUE
been presented, which improved computational speed. This
Taylor's series expansion considered the main core of
method is an approximation of the exact N-R method  the
Newton-Raphson power flow method. The mathematical
sensitivity of changing in voltage angle į at a bus mostly
expression can be written as:
effected by the real power P flow in the transmission lines
where the effect of the reactive power Q changing is not
noticeable. Also, the sensitivity of changing in voltage f ′′( a )
f ( x ) = f ( a ) + f ′( a )( x − a ) + (x − a)2
magnitude V at a bus mostly effected by the reactive power Q 2!
(1)
flow in the transmission lines where the effect of the active f ′′′( a ) f (n)
( a )
power P changing is not noticeable. This decupled version + ( x − a ) 3 + ... + ( x − a ) n + ...
3! n!
exhibits fast execution time and robust convergence with the

## 978-1-5386-0990-3/17/\$31.00 ©2017 IEEE

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In the power flow solution, the first order of Taylor's A factor μ can be used to increase the convergence
series used in Newton-Raphson power flow method to find characteristic by applying this factor to the correction values
the state variables; voltage magnitude and phase angle where (ǻV, ǻ ) as expressed in Eq. 2
the second order is neglected in the conventional power flow.
sp calc
ªP º ª P(V , δ ) º ª μΔV º ª P(V , δ ) º ª μΔV º
A. First Order Newton –Raphson Method «Q » = «Q(V , δ )» + J« »+« »« » (7)
The Newton-Raphson method can be formulated in ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ μΔδ ¼ ¬Q(V , δ )¼ ¬ μΔδ ¼
rectangular to avoid the use of complex number. This is can
be done as follows: Or Eq. 4
1) Calculated Power
sp calc
The calculated power equations in rectangular can be ªP º ª P(V , δ ) º ªΔV º ª P(V , δ ) º ªΔV º
found by substituting the complex values by magnitude and «Q » = «Q(V , δ )» + μJ « » + μ 2 « »« » (8)
angles for voltages and real and imaginary and real parts for ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬Δδ ¼ ¬Q(V , δ )¼ ¬Δδ ¼
Eq. 8 can be written in the form of:
n
Si∗ = Vi ∗ ¦ YikVk (2) a + μb + μ 2 c = 0 (9)
k =1
Where, the factors a, b and c can be calculated as follows:
The above equation can be resolved into real and
imaginary parts as follows: sp calc
ªP º ª P(V , δ ) º
a = « » −« » (10)
n
¬Q ¼ ¬Q(V , δ )¼
Pi = ¦ Vi Vk (Gik cos δ ik + Bik sin δ ik ) (3)
k =1 ªΔV º
n b = − J « » = −a (11)
Qi = ¦ Vi Vk (Gik sin δ ik − Bik cos δ ik ) (4) ¬Δδ ¼
k =1 calc
ª P(V , δ ) º ªΔV º
c = −« » «Δδ » (12)
The advantage of the rectangular formulation is that allows
establishing the admittance matrix real and imaginary parts
¬Q(V , δ )¼ ¬ ¼
separately and hence the final admittance matrix will
compose of two matrices, they are G and B instead to the full A quadratic mismatch based function is minimized in order to
Y matrix. calculate the factor μ as:
2) Jacobian Matrix formulation 1 2n
In matrix format, the Jacobian matrix can be written as: F= ¦
2 i =1
(ai + μbi + μ 2 ci ) 2 (13)
ª ∂P ∂P º
The optimal solution can be given when
ª ΔP º « ∂δ ∂ V » ª Δδ º ∂F
«ΔQ » = « ∂Q »
∂Q » «¬Δ V »¼
(5) =0 (14)
¬ ¼ « ∂μ
« ∂δ ∂ V »¼
¬ which leads to

## B. Developed Second Order Newton –Raphson Method

A0 + A1 μ + A2 μ 2 + A3 μ 3 = 0 (15)
The conventional power flow in terms of Taylor’s series
results can be written as follows:
Where the factors A0, A1, A2 and A3 can be obtained using the
sp calc
following equations:
ªP º ª P (V , δ ) º ªΔV º ª P(V , δ ) º ªΔV º 2n
«Q » = «Q(V , δ )» + J« »+« »« » (6) A0 = ¦ ai bi (16)
¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬Δδ ¼ ¬Q(V , δ )¼ ¬Δδ ¼ i =1
2n
A1 = ¦ (bi + 2ai ci )
2
Eq. 2 is an expansion in terms of Taylor’s series of (17)
voltage magnitude and angles where J is the Jacobian matrix. i =1

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2n to validate its effectiveness and feasibility. The developed
A2 = 3¦ bi ci (18) technique is incorporated into Newton-Raphson power-flow
i =1 method to solve the power flow in ill-conditioned systems.
2n Various loading factors are used to increase the load demand
A3 = 2¦ ci
2
(19) to accomplish the ill-condition problem. The comparison
i =1 between the conventional and the developed power flow
After calculating the factors Eq. 11 can be solved using based on the convergence characteristic is investigated to
Cardano's method to obtain the value of μ which will be used show the performance of the developed technique.
in the next iteration as: Four cases of loading have been selected to examine the
convergence rate of the developed technique as follows:
Case 1: base case condition
V k +1 = V k + μ k ΔV k (20) Case 2: 150% loading factor of base case
Case 3: 200% loading factor of base case
Case 4: 250% loading factor of base case
δ k +1 = δ k + μ k Δδ k (21) Algorithm convergence can be assessed by calculating
magnitude increments speed and angles increments speed
The overall algorithm is performed according to Fig. 1 according to , as:

N − NPV − 1
Get line data Speed (ΔV ) = ¦ (ΔV ) 2
i =1 (22)

Calculate Y bus N −1 2
Speed (Δδ ) = ¦ ( Δδ ) (23)
i =1
Calculate ǻP and ǻQ
A. IEEE-30 bus system
Yes Fig. 2 shows the standard IEEE-30 bus system , this
Check the tolerance system is solved using traditional Newton-Raphson. The
method is compared with the developed second order
No multiplier technique
Calculate J
29 27
28

Calculate ǻ , ǻV Print 30

Using N-R
26 25

Equations
Calculate a , b , c
#10,#11,#12

24
23
Equation
Calculate A0 , A1 , A2 , A3
#16,#17,#18,#19

Equation
Calculate μk 15 18 19
#20,#21
20
21
Let ǻ = μ k * ǻ 14 16 17
22
Let ǻV = μk * ǻV

10
13 12
V = V + ǻV
= +ǻ 11 9

## Fig. 1 .Developed NR load flow algorithm based SOM 1

3 4 6 8
7
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The developed technique is tested using standard IEEE 2 5

test systems (IEEE 30-bus, IEEE 57-bus, and IEEE 118-bus) Fig. 2 . Single line diagram of IEEE-30 bus test system

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increment speed The of magnitude and angle are ability of the developed technique to solve the ill-conditioned
demonsterated in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 respectively, it is clear system in IEEE 57-bus test system. All results of increment
form these figures that, at Case #1 and Case #2, the speed of magnitude and angle for the studied cases are shown
increment speed of voltage is converged at 4 iterations while, in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6
with increasing the loading factors to 200 and 250 % as in In Case #1 and Case #2, the SOM is converged at 4 and 5
the two cases 3,4 respectively which used as ill-conditioned iterations however, in the two next Case #3 and Case #4, the
cases the increment speed of the magnitude and angle converged occurred at 274 and 92 respectively. But the
converged at 5 iterations increment speed of magnitude and angle are drawn at
The convergence characteristics is presented in Table 1. maximum 10 iterations to show the difference in the
For IEEE 30-bus it can be observed that the conventional convergence for well and ill conditioned at the first 10
first order NR is failed to solve the power flow in case of iterations.
increasing the load factor more than 250 % while, the From the results summarized in Table 1 for IEEE 57-bus
developed SOM power flow method is suitable for solving test system, it is clear that the developed SOM power flow
the power flow in ill-conditioned cases. can solve the ill-conditioned compared to first order NR
0.4 which failed to solve the power flow in case of the loading
0.35 factor increased to more than 200%
0.3
0.25 1.8
Speed (ѐV)

0.2 1.6

0.15 1.4
1.2
0.1

Speed (¨V)
1
0.05
0.8
0
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 0.6
Iteration 0.4
0.2
Case1 Case2 Case3 Case4
0
Fig. 3 . Magnitude increments speed for IEEE-30 bus test system 1 3 5 7 9 11
Iteration

## 4.5 Case1 Case2 Case3 Case4

4
3.5 Fig. 5. Magnitude increments speed for IEEE-57-bus test system
3
Speed (¨į)

2.5
10
2
9
1.5 8
1 7
Speed (ѐɷ)

0.5 6
0 5
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 4
Iteration 3
2
Case1 Case2 Case3 Case4 1
Fig. 4 . Angle increments speed for IEEE-30 bus test system 0
1 3 5 7 9 11
Iteration
TABLE 1 NUMBER OF SOLUTION ITERATIONS
Case1 Case2 Case3 Case4
IEEE 30-bus IEEE 57-bus IEEE 118-bus
load NR NR with NR NR with NR NR with
SOM SOM SOM Fig. 6. Angle increments speed for IEEE-57-bus test system
100% 4 4 4 4 3 3
150% 4 4 5 5 5 5
200% 5 5 NC 274 NC 852 C. IEEE-118 bus system
250% 6 5 NC 92 NC 540 The original data of IEEE 118-bus test system can be
300% NC 10 NC 18 NC 134
obtained from . The same studied test cases are carried
350% NC 14 NC 13 NC 583
400% NC 11 NC 122 NC 904 out to validate the developed SOM power flow method in
case of large scale test system in presence of ill conditioned
case. the increment speed of magnitude and angle for the
B. IEEE-57 bus system studied cases are exhibited in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.
The details of IEEE 57-bus test system are given in .
Four studied cases are used in this section to verify the the

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1.6
method can be used for voltage stability analysis. Also, it can
1.4 be used by transmission companies (especially, in smart grid
1.2 technologies) as well as academia.
1
Speed (ѐV)

0.8 REFERENCES
0.6  B. Stott, "Review of load-flow calculation methods,"
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0.2
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Fig. 7. Magnitude increments speed for IEEE-118 bus test system
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https://www2.ee.washington.edu/research/pstca/pf57/pg_tca57
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bus.htm
power-flow algorithm. Based on the obtained results, it can be  IEEE 118-bus test system data. Available: .
concluded that the ability of NR power-flow algorithm in <http://www.ee.washington.edu/research/pstca/pf118/pg_tca11
solving power systems in case of ill-conditioned cases has 8bus.htm>.
been improved. Consequentially, the developed power-flow

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