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J. Env. Bio-Sci., 2015: Vol.

29 (2):483-486
(483) ISSN 0973-6913 (Print), ISSN 0976-3384 (On Line)

GARLIC ESSENTIAL OIL AS A NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT IN EDIBLE COATING OF


ENROBED CHICKEN MEAT BALLS
S.Arun Prabhu, A.Kalaikannan, A.Elango, K.A. Doraisamy1 and D. Santhi*
Department of Livestock Products Technology,
Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal
1
Dean, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal
[Corresponding author E-mail*: drdshanthi@tanuvas.org.in]

Received: 19-06-2015 Accepted: 25-07-2015


Enrobed chicken meat balls were prepared with the objective of incorporating garlic essential oil (GO) as a natural antioxidant in
the edible coating and assessing the physico-chemical and sensory properties. Emulsion based chicken meat balls were enrobed
with cornflakes, where beaten whole-egg was applied as an inner edible coating in which the GO was blended at 0.05%, 0.10% and
0.15% levels along with a control. The product pH before and after frying, percentage of enrobing and frying loss did not differ
significantly among the treatments. The antioxidant efficacy as assessed by the DPPH (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity
of GO in product was significantly (P  0.01) higher at 0.10% and 0.15% levels. In the sensory evaluation based on an eight point
hedonic scale there was no significant difference in the appearance, texture, crispiness, juiciness and mouth coating of the
chicken meat balls among the treatments. The flavour and overall acceptability scores were significantly (P  0.01) lower for the
0.15% GO treatment wherein those of other treatments were comparable with that of control. Hence from the above results it could
be concluded that GO might be added as a natural antioxidant in the edible coating of enrobed chicken meat balls up to 0.10% level
without affecting the physico-chemical and the sensory properties with good consumer acceptability.

Since ancient times Indian spices play an important role in for the antimicrobials such as nisin, essential oils and
Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine for their well known antibacterial antifungal agents. These edible coatings containing active
and anti-inflammatory effects. In recent days, the essential compounds are mostly effective than mixing these compounds
oils extracted from these spices had been demonstrated to to the food itself, due to the localised nature of the
possess antimicrobial and antifungal effects against various contamination on the surface.
food borne pathogens. Garlic is one of the important spices
Meat products have longer shelf life in frozen storage, yet the
which is invariably used in Indian culinary known for its
organoleptic properties could be well retained in refrigerated
antimicrobial and preservative effects, it had been used by our
storage. Thus, to extend the refrigerated shelf life of meat
ancestors from historic times. The antioxidant and antibacterial
products, a combination of edible coating and natural
properties of garlic essential oil in various meat products had
preservatives could be incorporated at a maximum tolerable
been established by many researchers 1-6. Currently,
level without affecting the sensory characteristics. The present
consumers are aware about the ill effects of chemical
study was done with the objective of incorporating garlic
preservatives and try to shift towards preservative free foods or
essential oil (GO) as a natural antioxidant in the edible coating,
foods with only natural preservatives. Hence it is imperative to
assessing the physico-chemical and sensory properties and
develop foods free from synthetic preservatives or foods with
evolving the maximum incorporation level without affecting the
only natural preservatives to meet the consumer needs.
sensory properties.
Presently, poultry meat, especially broiler meat consumption
MATERIAL AND METHODS
had increased in India due to the reason that it has a low fat
content compared to other meats and thus a meat of choice The deboned chicken meat was trimmed of all visible adipose
of most of the consumers. With regard to the meat, poultry, and connective tissues, minced, packaged in low-density
and fisheries industries, edible coatings with good moisture polyethylene (LDPE) and stored in the laboratory freezer at -
barrier properties could help alleviate the problem of moisture 18±2oC for subsequent use in the experiments. The frozen
loss. Further, these edible coatings are found to act as a carrier minced meat was tempered to 4°C by keeping in refrigerator
NAAS Rating (2016)-4.20

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GARLIC ESSENTIAL OIL AS A NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT (484)

Table-1. Formulation for chicken meat balls. Table-2. Effect of garlic oil (GO) in edible coating on
Physico-chemical characteristics of enrobed
chicken meat balls.

Means bearing different superscripts between columns differ


significantly. NS - Not significant

Table-3. Effect of garlic oil (GO) in edible coating on Antioxidant properties of enrobed chicken
meat balls

Means bearing different superscripts between columns differ significantly.


** (P  0.01); NS - Not significant
Table-4. Effect of garlic oil (GO) in edible coating on Organoleptic properties of enrobed chicken
meat balls

Means bearing different superscripts between columns differ significantly.


* - (P  0.05), NS - Not significant

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(485) PRABHU, KALAIKANNAN, ELANGO, DORAISAMY AND SANTHI

overnight and used for the preparation of emulsion. The emulsion significantly among the treatments which was in concurrent
was prepared by adding minced meat and the other ingredients with the results of earlier workers12(Table-4). Addition of GO at
of the formulation in a bowl chopper (Table-1). 0.15% level significantly (P  0.05) decreased the flavour scores
over the other levels of addition and control; yet the score was
Meat balls of 10 g weight each were formed manually, cooked
above 'moderately acceptable' level. Similarly, some other
in water to reach a core temperature of 82°C, allowed to cool
workers also reported a decrease in flavor score with increasing
at room temperature and enrobed. For enrobing, the meat ball
level of garlic essential oil in minced pork13. GO in the edible
(control) was first dipped in a homogenized mixture containing
coating did not affect the texture scores over control where
beaten whole egg, 2.5% each of garlic, ginger and onion paste
some also reported that there was no significant difference in
and again coated with a mixture containing refined wheat flour,
texture scores of the sausages added with GO. Addition of
2.5% spice mix and 2% salt. For treatment groups, GO at
GO did not affect the crispiness14.
three levels of 0.05 %, 0.1% and 0.15 % were added to the
beaten whole egg mix with the control formulation. The enrobed Similar to the studies of earlier workers who reported no
meat ball was tumbled in vacuum tumbler for 15 min and again significant difference in juiciness of sausage added with garlic,
dipped in beaten egg mix followed by coating with crushed in the present study juiciness score did not differ significantly
cornflakes to make the final product. The enrobed meat balls among treatments14. There was no significant difference in
were fried in oil at 172°C for about 2 minutes. Then the enrobed mouth coating scores. Overall acceptability score was
meatballs were subjected to physico-chemical and sensory significantly (P  0.05) lower in 0.15% added garlic than other
evaluation7. Statistical analyses were performed as per the treatments and control. As earliers also reported a non
standard methods8. significant decrease in overall acceptability with addition of
fresh garlic at 5% level in sausages.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
Physico-chemical characteristics: In the present study,
addition of GO did not show any marked effect on product pH Presently, consumers' concern over synthetic preservatives
before and after frying which was similar to the results of earlier has increased interest in the use of natural preservatives. Thus
workers who studied the effect of addition of fresh garlic to it could be concluded that GO might be used as one of the
chicken sausages9(Table-2). Also there were no significant natural preservatives in the edible coating of chicken meat
differences in percentage of enrobing and frying loss among balls owing to its antioxidant activity. The maximum inclusion
the treatments. level of GO in the chicken patties may limited to 0.10% with
respect to the flavour odour and overall acceptability score
Antioxidant properties: DPPH scavenging activity of GO (%)
with no influence on other organoleptic attributes. Yet
was high in 0.10% GO, followed by 0.15% and 0.05%. However,
depending upon the palate of consumers it may be still
there was no significant difference between 0.10% and 0.15%
increased up to 0.15% levels if it is acceptable. Thus, Garlic
level of addition (Table-3). In assessing the in vitro antioxidant
essential oil could be used as a potent natural preservative in
activity of the essential oil isolated from fresh rhizomes of
the edible coating of many food products at a concentration
garlic, some workers also reported an increase in DPPH
not affecting the sensory properties of the food.
scavenging activity with the increase in concentration of garlic
essential oil10. DPPH scavenging activity of GO in product ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
was significantly (P  0.01) higher in 0.10% and 0.15% levels
The authors acknowledge the Ministry of Food Processing
when compared to 0% and 0.05% levels with no significant
Industries, Government of India for the financial grant and Tamil
difference between former two levels and the latter two levels.
Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University for providing
Earlier researchers reported that free radical scavenging activity
the institutional support for carrying out this research work.
increased in ready-to-eat garlic products11.

Organoleptic properties: Appearance score did not differ

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GARLIC ESSENTIAL OIL AS A NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT (486)

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