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TM 30-900


Dictionary of


13 NOVEMBER 1945

Dictionary of


13 NOVEMBER 1945

Washington 25, D. C, 13 November 1945

TM 30-900, Dictionary of Spoken Spanish, is published for the infor-

mation and guidance of all concerned.

[AG 300.7(13 Nov 45)]

By order of the Secretary of War :

Official: G. C. MARSHALL
EDWARD F. WITSELL Chief of Staff
Major General
Acting The Adjutant General

Distribution :

AAF (10) ; AGF (10) ; ASF (2) T ; of Opn (10) ; Base Comds (10) ;

Arm & Sv Bd (1) ; S Div ASF (1) ; Tech Sv (2) ; SvC (5) Gen & Sp

Sv Sch (10) ; A (10) ; CHQ (10) ; D (10) ; AF (10) The following


distribution is for SWPA and CDC: B (1) ; R (1) Bn (1) C (2)

; ;

W(1);G (1);S (2).

Refer to FM 21-6 for explanation of distribution formula.



Abbreviations Used in This Dictionary iv

Part I Spanish-English N 1

Part II English-Spanish 226

Part III. Appendix 494

1. Countries, Cities, and Nationalities 494

2. Weights and Measures 499

3. Money 500

4. Numbers 501

5. National Holidays 502

6. Important Signs 503

7. Useful Expressions 504

8. Spanish and Spanish-American Dishes 507


I. Sounds and Spelling

Both the sounds and the spelling of Spanish are simple, and will be described
together, with the Spanish letters as a starting point.
. 0.1 Vowels are five in number:

Spelling Description Examples

i like English i in machine or ee fino "fine"; mi "me"
in beet

u like English oo in boot puro "pure"; tú "you"

These two vowels may occur unstressed before or after a stressed vowel, in
which case they are pronounced like English y and w respectively: bien "well";
bueno "good"; automóvil "automobile".

e like the e of English theyif no con-

, yero "but"; puesto "put"
sonant follows in the same syllable;
like e in bed, if a consonant fol-
lows in the same syllable

O like the o of English know, if no todo "all"; corte "court"

consonant follows in the same syl-
lable; like au in taut, if a consonant
follows in the same syllable

a like the a of English father mano "hand";

parte "part"
0.2 Consonants are:

p like English p Pepe "Joe"

t like English t, but with tongue tanto "so much"
against upper teeth instead of gum

qu like English k or "hard c" que "that"; carro "cart'

(before e, i),

c (elsewhere)


These three sounds are never pronounced with the puff of breath after them,
as the corresponding English sounds often are.

Spelling Description Examples

b, v like English b bebe "he drinks"

d like English d dedo "finger"

gu like English "hard g" 'pague Usted "(you) pay";

(before e, i), pagar "pay"
g (elsewhere)

The above three sounds, when they come between two vowels, are not pro-
nounced with a full closure of lips or tongue but with the
(as are English b, d, g)

breath forcing its way out between the lips or between the,tongue and teeth
or between the tongue and top of the mouth.
m like English m mano "hand"
n like English n, but with the tip of nada "nothing"
the tongue against the front teeth

n like ni in English onion, but a año "year"

singlesound (beginning like n and
ending like y)

f like English / fuerte "strong"

c like th in English thick cierto "certain";

(before e, i), zorra "fox"; conozco

z (elsewhere) "I know"
The above sound is not used by speakers of American Spanish, who replace it
by "s".
like English s seso "brain"

like English /, but with the tip of lado "side"

the tongue against the front teeth

like Hi in English million, but a llano "plain";

singlesound beginning like I and milla "mile"
ending like y; in Latin America,
generally like English y

r single flap of the tongue against caro "dear"

the front teeth, somewhat like our
American English d
rr several repeated flaps of the tongue carro "cart"
against the front teeth, like the
telephone operator's "th-r-r-ee"

y like English y reyes "kings"

g like English h gente "people";

(before e, i), junto "together"
j (elsewhere)

Spelling Description Examples

h stands for no sound at all, but is haba "bean";
written in a number of words hierba "grass"

0.3 Syllables. A single consonant sound (and, in writing, two letters repre-
senting a single sound), or a consonant followed by I or r, belongs to the same
vowel following it: ca-ro, ca-rro, mi-lla. Other groups of two
syllable as the
consonants are broken up, the first consonant belonging with the preceding
vowel and the second with the following vowel: juz-gar "to judge"; rec-tor
0.4 Stress. Words ending in a vowel or in -n or -s are normally stressed
on the next to the last syllable; words ending in any other consonant are
stressed on the last syllable. Words having this type of stress bear no written
accent mark: cosa "thing"; cantan "they sing"; cantas "you sing" (Fam); cantar
"to sing". If a word does not conform to this pattern, an accent mark is
written over the vowel letter of the syllable which is stressed: vamonos "let's
go"; jardín "garden". In a few cases, a written accent serves only to mark the
difference between one word and another written like it but having a different
meaning: ¿cuándo? "when?" (interrogative), but cuando "when" (relative).

II. Forms

1.1 Nouns and adjectives are inflected alike, and will be discussed together.
A noun an inflected form that
is may follow el /la and precede a verb; an
adjective is a form that may follow el/la and precede a noun. (For the definite
article, cf §1.22.)
1.11 The plural of nouns and adjectives
one of three ways:
is formed in
1. By leaving the singular unchanged (words ending in
-s, family names,

and a few others): jueves "Thursday, Thursdays"; López "López, Lopezes";

deficit "deficit, deficits".

2. By adding -s to nouns ending in an unstressed vowel or stressed -é:

libro "book", libros "books"; cara "face", caras "faces"; café "coffee", cafés
3. By adding -es to most other nouns: rubí "ruby", pi rubíes; buey "ox",
pi bueyes; papel "paper", pi papeles. The letter c is replaced by qu, and z by c,
before -es: frac "frock coat", pi fraques; lápiz "pencil", pi lápices.
1.12 Gender. Nouns belong either to the masculine or the feminine gender;
adjectives to both. The feminine of an adjective is formed on the masculine
in one of the following three ways:
1. By substituting -a for -o of the masculine: bueno m, buena f "good".
2. By adding -a to the masculine: inglés m, inglesa f "English".
3. By leaving the masculine unchanged: interesante m, f "interesting";
fácil m, f "easy".
1 Reduced forms of adjectives. Certain adjectives are used in shortened
or reduced forms when they stand before a noun they modify, e.g. mm buen libro
"a good book". The following adjectives have reduced forms in the masculine
singular only: buen{o) "good": mal(o) "bad" primer (o) "first"; tercer (o) "third";

un{6) "one" and its compounds. Santo "Saint" has the form San before a
masculine name in the singular: San Francisco "St. Francis". Gran takes the
place of grande "great" (but un gran hombre is "an important man" while
un hombre grande is "a large man"), and cien takes the place of ciento "100",
before either masculine or feminine.
1.2 Pronouns are of five classes: personal, demonstrative, interrogative,
and indefinite.
1.21 Personal pronouns are of two main types: those which can be used
apart from verbs, called disjunctive pronouns, and those which can be used
only with verbs, called conjunctive pronouns.
1. Disjunctive pronouns are:

Singular Plural
1. yo "I" 1. nosotros (m), nosotras (f) "we"
2. tú "you" (Fam) 2. vosotros (m), vosotras (f) "you" (Fam)
3. usted "you" 3. ustedes "you"
él "he", ella "she" ellos (m), ellas (f) "they"

1. mí "me" 1. nosotros (m), nosotras (f) "us"
2. tí "you" (Fam) 2. vosotros (m), vosotras (f) "you" (Fam)
3. usted "you" 3. ustedes "you"
él "him", ella "her" ellos (m), ellas (f) "they"

Reflexive Prepositional
si "himself, herself, itself" si "themselves"

When the pronouns mí, tí, and si (sg) are used as objects of the preposition
con "with", the following forms result: conmigo, contigo, and consigo.
The word is used when speaking to persons
usted (abbreviated Ud. or Vd.)
with whom not well acquainted, and takes a verb in the third person
one is

singular; the plural ustedes (abbreviated Uds. or Vds.) is used in the same way.
In Spanish America, ustedes is often used instead of vosotros, as the plural
corresponding to tú. Tú is used only between relatives, young people, intimate
friends, and in addressing children, servants, and pets. In South America,
especially Argentina, vos is generally used for tú.
2. Conjunctive pronouns are:

Singular Plural
Direct Object
1. me "me" 1. nos "us"
2. te "you" (Fam) 2. os "you" (Fam)
3. le "you" (m), "him" 3. los "you, them" (m)
la "you" (f), "her", "it" (f) las "you, them" (f)
lo "it"



se "yourself, himself, herself, itself" se "yourselves, themselves"

Indirect Object
1. me "to me" 1. nos "to us"
2. te "to you" (Fam) 2. os "to you" (Fam)
3. le "to you, to him, to her, to it" 3. les "to you, to them"

These conjunctive pronouns may occur either singly or in groups of two.

The occurrence of groups of two conjunctive pronouns is determined by the
following rules:
a ) If the pronoun se is present in the group, it always comes before the

other conjunctive pronoun. When se is used in this way, it may have the
meaning of:

aa) An unspecified actor: se dice "it is said"; se la trató bien "she was
treated well".
bb) A third person object, either reflexive or not: se lo dice "he says
it to him (her)", or "he (she) says it to himself (herself)".
b ) If the pronoun se is not present, the first pronoun of the group has
the meaning of an indirect object, and the second that of a direct object:
me lo da "he gives it to me". Le, les may not occur as the first member of a
group of conjunctive pronouns, their place being taken by se (see a 1 bb, above) ,

The conjunctive pronouns are placed after the verb they modify, and
written together with it, in the following circumstances:
a 2 ) After an infinitive or gerund: dárselo "to give it to him"; diciéndolo
"saying it".
b 2 ) After other verb forms, only in literary style or (to save money) in
telegrams: fuime "I went away".
With other verb forms than the infinitive and gerund, the conjunctive
pronouns are usually placed before the verb and written as separate words:
se lo da "he gives it to him"; me fui "I went away".
1.22 Demonstrative pronouns have three genders: masculine, feminine, and
neuter. The neuter occurs only in the singular and is used only to refer to
something abstract or already spoken of. The demonstrative pronouns are
éste "this", ése "that" (near you), aquél "that" (over there), and the definite

article (el, la, los, las, lo) with de and que, meaning respectively "that (those)
of", "the one (ones) with (in, on)", "that (those) which", and "the one (ones)
The forms of these pronouns are:
sg m


The demonstrative adjectives are the same as the demonstrative pronouns

but do not bear a written accent and they usually precede the noun.

Yo escribo con esta pluma "I'm writing with this pen."

Esta pluma y ésa "This pen and that one."

There is no neuter adjective in Spanish and the neuter demonstrative pro-

nouns esto, eso, aquello, and lo bear no written accent. They are used to refer
to a general idea or object without a determined gender.

Eso es verdad "That (what has been said) is true."

Esto me alarma "This (situation, outlook) alarms me."

When used before a noun or noun phrase (cf §2.14.1), el, la, etc, have about
the meaning of English "the", and in this use are termed the definite article.
The form el is used before a masculine singular noun or noun phrase: el hombre
"the man", el gran diccionario "the great dictionary"; and also directly before
a feminine noun beginning with the stressed sound a: el alma "the soul", el
hambre ''the hunger" Before other feminines, la is used: la persona "the
person", la otra persona "the other person". In the plural, los is used before
masculine and las before feminine nouns or noun phrases: los hombres "the
men", los grandes diccionarios "the great dictionaries",, las almas "the souls",
las otras personas "the other persons".
1.23 Interrogative pronouns are: ¿qué? "what?", ¿quién? "who?", ¿quiénes?
(pi), ¿de quién? "whose?", ¿de quiénes? (pi), ¿cuál? "which one?", ¿cuáles?
"which ones?", ¿cuánto? "how much?", ¿cuántos? "how many?".
All interrogative adjectives and pronouns bear a written accent mark to
distinguish them from the corresponding relative.
qué is not inflected, ¿de quién? is always followed immediately by ser:
¿De quién es este libro? "Whose book is this?"
When translating from English into Spanish, the interrogative ¿de quién?
should not be confused with the possessive relative cuyo "whose, of which"

"This book, whose influence has been so beneficial." Ese libro, cuya influencia
ha sido tan beneficiosa. But "Whose book is this?" ¿De quién es este libro?
1.24 Relative pronouns are: que "that, which, who", quien, quienes "who,
whom", el que "he who, the one who, the one which, that which", la que
"she who, the one who, the one which, that which", lo que "that which,
what", los que "those who, those which", las que "those who, those which",
el cual, la cual "he who (she who), the one who, that which", los cuales, las

cuales "they who, the ones who, those which", lo cual "that, which, what",
cuanto "all that, as much as", cuantos "all that, as many as".
A (1, below) has an antecedent in the main clause and the
simple relative
compound relative (2, below) contains its own antecedent. This distinction
concerns the use and not the form.

(1) El libro que está sobre la mesa "The book which is on the table
es suyo. is yours."
<2) Qui en trahaja mejores María. "The one who works best is


lo que is used when reference is made to a phrase, a sentence, or to a specific

thing without a specific gender: Lo que Ud. pide es imposible. "What (That
which) you ask is impossible."
lo cual used in supplementary clauses when the antecedent is a clause, a

phrase, or an idea: *Se negó a recibirme, lo cual lamento mucho. "He refused to
receive me, which I regret very much."
1.25 Indefinite pronouns are: alguien "someone", alguno, -a, -os, -as "some-
body, some", algo "something", nadie "no one", ninguno, -a, -os, -as "nobody,
none", nada "nothing", cualquiera "whichever", and quienquiera "whoever"'
1.26 Possessive adjectives are*

Singular Plural
1. mi, mis "my" 1 nuestro, -a(s) "our"
2 tu, tus "your" (Fam) 2. vuestro, -a(s) "your" (Fam)
3. su, sus "his, her, its, your" 3. su, sus "their"

1. mío, 4a, -ios, -ias "mine" 1 nuestro, -a, -os, -as "ours"
2. tuyo, -a, -os, -as "yours" 2. vuestro, -a, -os, -as "yours"
(Fam) (Fam)
3. suyo, -a, -os, -as "yours, 3. suyo, -a, -os, -as "theirs"
his, hers, its"

Possessives agree in gender and number with the thing possessed. Possessive
pronouns are formed by adding el to mío, tuyo, suyo, nuestro, and vuestro. El
suyo is usually replaced (to avoid ambiguity) by el de él, el de ella, el de ustedes,
el de ellos: Mi libro, el suyo y el de él. "My book, yours, and his." El is omitted

after the verb ser: El libro es mío. "The book's mine."

The English possessive case ("-'s") is rendered by de and possessor noun or
pronoun: Ese es el libro de mi amigo "This is my friend's book."
1.3 Prepositions and conjunctions: a, de, en, por, and para are the most
frequently used prepositions in Spanish.
1. a "to" implies motion, in contrast with en, which corresponds to

English "in" or "at" (place where or state). Bear this distinction in mind in
translating English "at"

Voy a Valencia. "I'm going to Valencia."

Estoy en casa. "I'm at home."
a) a is used as a sign of personal object, and as such is not translated into
Yo amo a Maria. "I love Mary."
María enseña a su hija. "Mary teaches her daughter."

It is also used with the infinitive after verbs of motion (see §2.44.3)
b) al {a-\-el) followed by the infinitive corresponds to English "on" and
"when": "on leaving"
al partir
2 from" is replaced by que "that" and estar "be" when the position
de "of,
of a noun is purely accidental and not permanent or customary: la casa de
enfrente "the house across the street", el hombre que está delante de la casa
"the man who is in front of the house".


3. por points to the cause, motive, or reason for an action and corresponds
to the English "through" (along, around), "by" (expressing agency, means,
manner, unit of measure) and "for" (meaning "on account of", "because of",
"in exchange for", "during", "as").
4. para points to the end or objective of an action and corresponds to the
English "for" denoting purpose or destination.
5. por and para are frequently misused by foreign students of Spanish.

English "for" is translated in each case into Spanish according to its specific

"This present's for you." Este regalo es PARA Ud.

"Do it for me." Hágalo POR mi.

1.31 Coordinate conjunctions are: y "and", o "or", ni "nor", pero "but"

(nevertheless), and sino "but" (on the contrary).
1. y "and" is replaced by e when the word immediately following begins

with i or hi: franceses e italianos "Frenchmen and Italians"; padre e hijo "father
and son".
2. o "or" is replaced by u before o or ho: siete u ocho "seven or eight";
mujer u hombre "woman or man".
1.32 Subordinate conjunctions are: que "that", como' "as, since" (causal),
cuando "when", mientras "while", pues(que) "for, since", porque "because",
and si "if, whether".
1. que, the most widely used subordinate conjunction, introduces noun

clauses. In addition to its conjunctive uses, que is also a relative pronoun

(§1.24) or a comparative adverb ("than"). Unlike Spanish, "that" is very
often omitted in English:

Quiero que venga. "I want him to come."

Creo que se ha ido. "I think he's gone."
Me parece que si. "I think so."

2. si "if, used to introduce adverb clauses of condition.

whether" is

3. si "yes" bears a written accent to differentiate it from the conjunction

si, and is an adverb of affirmation: Le pregunté si iba y me dijo que sí. "I asked
him if he was going and he said yes."
1 .4 Adverbs of manner may be formed by adding -mente (which is the equiva-
lent of English "-ly") to the feminine singular of the adjective: lento, -a "slow";
lentamente "slow, slowly".
Prepositional phrases are preferable in Spanish to the adverbs ending in
-mente: con lentitud or de una manera lenta instead of lentamente.
1.41 Adverbs are placed as near as possible to the verb they modify: Habla
bien el español. "He speaks Spanish well."
1.42 aquí "here", ahi, alii "there", allá "over there" correspond respectively
to the demonstratives este, ese, and aquel.
1.43 no "not" corresponds to English "do not", "is not", etc, and the
adjective "no".
1. no is placed before the verb: No oigo. "I don't hear."


2. Ifanother negative is used after the verb, no must always precede:

No oigo nada. "I hear nothing."
3. When another negative word precedes the verb, no is omitted: Nada
oigo. "I hear nothing."
1.44 When no
is present, no usually follows pronouns and adverbs:
todos no "not them"; todavía no "not yet", si is similarly used.
all of

1.45 In a negative sentence all forms are negative (§1.43).

1.5 Diminutives and augmentatives The suffixes -ito, -Mo, -cito, -cilio

added to nouns, adjectives, or adverbs imply small size or affectionate interest:

Pedrito "little Peter", chiquillo "kid", mujercita "little woman, dear little wife",
pequeñito "very small, tiny", piececito "tiny little foot".
1.51 The more frequent augmentative suffixes are -ón, -ote, -azo, -acho,
which give the idea of large size or comic effect: mujerona "large woman,
awkward woman", grandote "very large", manaza "huge hand", ricacho "rich
1.6 The absolute superlative ending is regularly -isimo, corresponding to
English "most, very, highly, exceedingly": Es un hombre rarísimo. "He's a
most peculiar man." Una mujer simpatiquísima. "A most charming woman."
1.61 There are a number of other ways of expressing a high degree of quality
in Spanish (see §§2.21, 2.5) . The same idea expressed by the suffix -isimo may
be conveyed by muy "very" or sumamente "exceedingly, a most", with the
exception of muchísimo (never muy mucho), regular form for "very much."
1.62 When -isimo is added, adjectives and adverbs ending in -co or -ca, -z,
-go, and -able change their ending to -qui, -c, -gui, and -bil respectively: cerca,
cerquísimo; feroz, ferocísimo; largo, larguísimo; amable, amabilísimo.
1.7 Verbs have ten tenses, or sets of finite forms which show the person and
number of the actor; and three non-finite forms, or forms which do not show
person and number. The non-finite forms are: infinitive, gerund, and past
participle. The ten tenses are formed on three stems, the "present" stem, the
"future" stem, and the "preterite" stem, as follows:

Present Stem Future Stem Preterite Stem

Present Indicative Future Preterite
Imperfect Conditional Past Subjunctive, -se form
Present Subjunctive Past Subjunctive, -ra form

1 .71 . There are four classes of verbs, according to the ending of the infinitive:

I. -ar: cantar "sing" III. -ir: vivir "live"

II. -er: aprender "learn" IV. -r: ver "see"*

In the following paragraphs, we shall give examples of the normal forms of

these four conjugations, as shown in the four model verbs listed above.
1. Present tense. The present tense is generally used to refer to the
present but it is often used as a graphic substitute for other tenses, as: a) era-

* This manual lists as "Class IV verbs" certain verbs usually designated elsewhere as simply
"irregular verbs." For irregular verbs of all classes see page 12.

phatic future: Mañana le escribo. "I'll write him tomorrow." b) when

immediate future time is involved: ¿Vamos ahora? "Shall we go now?" c) for
the perfect conditional in contrary-to-fact conditions: Si dice algo en aquel
momento, le pego. "I'd have hit him if he'd said something at that moment."
d) for the simple past in historical narrative: Por poco le cojo. "I almost
caught him." The forms of the present are:


6. Conditional. This tense refers to hypothetical action or to future

action viewed from past time ("I'd sing").


1.72 Non-finite forms are such as are based on verbs, but do not show
distinction of person and number and belong to other than verbal word classes.
Verbs normally have:
1. Gerund — an adverb formed by adding -ando to the root of I-conju-
gation verbs; -endo to roots ending in -y, -11, -ñ; and -iendo to others: cantando,

aprendiendo, viviendo, viendo; oyendo "hearing" (oír "hear"), bullendo "boiling"

(bullir "boil"), riñendo "wrangling" (reñir "wrangle").
2. Past participle —an adjective formed by adding -ado to the root of
I-conjugation verbs, -ido to the root of II- and Ill-conjugation verbs, and -do
to the root of IV-conjugation verbs. Irregular past participles are all those
that have other endings than these, as: abierto "opened", cubierto "covered",
dicho "said", escrito "written", hecho "done", impreso "printed", muerto
"dead", provisto "provided", resuelto "resolved", roto "broken", visto "seen",
vuelto "returned".

3. Infinitive —a masculine singular noun ending in -r. Occasionally an

infinitive is used in the plural, which then ends in -es.

1.73 Irregular verbs. A number of verbs vary in one way or another from
the patterns set forth above. Some of them fall into regular patterns of

1. Radical -changing verbs are such as have the regular endings of the

conjugation to which they belong, but have certain changes in the vowel of the
last syllable of the root, depending on the form involved. There are three
main types of radical-changing verbs:

Type I, in which a diphthong is substituted for a vowel (ie for e or i;

ue for o or u) when it is stressed. (At the beginning of a verb, the sounds ie
are spelled ye, and the sounds ue are spelled hue.) These forms are (with
contar "count" and pensar "think" as examples):

Present 1. sg cuento pienso

2. sg cuentas piensas
3. sg cuenta piensa
3. pi cuentan piensan

Present Subjunctive sg cuente piense

sg cuentes pienses
sg cuente piense
3. pi cuenten piensen

Imperative 2. sg cuenta piensa

b) Type which ie is substituted for e, and ue for o, in all forms

II, in
where stress falls on this vowel, and i is substituted for e, and u for o, wherever
the root is unstressed but followed by a, ie, or ió.
c) Type III, in which i is substituted for e both in forms where the last
syllable of the root is stressed and where the root is unstressed but followed by
a, ie, or ió.


Examples of types II and III are sentir "feel", dormir "sleep", pedir

Present 1. sg siento duermo pido

2. sg sientes duermes pides
3. sg siente duerme pide
3. pi sienten duermen piden

Present Subjunctive 1. sg sienta duerma pida

2. sg sientas duermas pidas
3. sg sienta duerma pida
1. pi sintamos durmamos pidamos
2. pi sintáis durmáis pidáis
3. pi sientan duerman pidan

Imperative 2. sg siente duerme pide

Preterite 3. sg sintió durmió pidió

3. pi sintieron durmieron pidieron

Past Subjunctive 1,3. sg sintiese durmiese pidiese

1,3. sg sintiera durmiera pidiera

Present Participle sintiendo durmiendo pidiendo

2. Roots ending in -y lose this y wherever it would come before stressed i,

and unstressed i of an ending is lost after this y. Thus, from the root dis-
tribuy- (III) "distribute" we have: infinitive distribuir; present 1. pi distri-

buimos, 2. pi distribuís; imperfect distribuía, etc; imperative 2. pi distribuid;

future distribuiré, etc; conditional distribuiría, etc; preterite 1. sg distribuí,

2. sg distribuíste, 3. sg distribuyó, 1. pi distribuimos, 2. pi distribuísteis, 3. pi
distribuyeron; past participle distribuido; present participle distribuyendo. All
verbs with infinitive in -uir are of this type.
3. Certain verbs, which we shall term the -zc- verbs, substitute -zc- for -c-

wherever -o or -a follows. Thus conocer (II) "know" has:

Present Indicative 1. sg conozco

Present Subjunctive 1. sg conozca 1. pi conozcamos
2. sg conozcas 2. pi conozcáis
3. sg conozca 3. pi conozcan

4. Other irregular verbs, which do not fall into regular sub-patterns, are
the following, here listed with indication of the class of verb to which they
belong and with the individual forms which are irregular:

abrir III "open": past part, abierto.

andar I "walk": preterite anduve etc; past subj. anduviese, anduviera.
atenerse II "depend": like tener.
atraer II "attract": like traer.
avenirse III "agree": like venir.
bendecir III "bless": like decir, but past part, bendito.


caber II "be contained, fit": pres. 1. sg quepo; pres. subj. quepa etc;
fut. cabré; condit. cabría; pret. cupe etc; past subj. cupiese, cupiera,
caer II "fall": pres. l.sg caigo; pres. subj. caiga etc; pret. 3. sg cayó,
3. pi cayeron; past subj. cayese, cayera; pres. part, cayendo,
componer II "compose": like poner,
contener II "contain": like tener.
contradecir III "contradict": like decir,
contraer II "contract": like traer,
convenir III "agree": like venir,
cubrir III "cover": past part, cubierto,
dar IV "give": pres. l.sg doy; imperf. daba etc; pres. subj. l.sg dé,
3.sg dé; pret. di, diste, dio, dimos, disteis, dieron; past subj. diese,
decaer II "decay": like caer,
decir III "say": radical-changing type III and: pres. l.sg digo; pres.
subj . diga etc; imperative 2.sg di; fut. 1 .sg diré etc; condit. diría etc;

pret. dije etc; past subj. dijese, dijera; past part, dicho,
descubrir III "discover": like cubrir,
desenvolver II "unroll, unwrap": like volver,
detener II "hold back, detain": like tener,
disolver II "dissolve": rad-ch I and past part, disuelto,
disponer II "dispose": like poner,
distraer II "distract": like traer,
entretener II "entertain": like tener,
escribir III "write": past part, escrito,

estar IV "be": pres. l.sg estoy, 2.sg estás, 3.sg está, 3. pi están; imperf.
estaba etc; pres. subj. esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén; pret.
estuve etc; past subj. estuviese, estuviera,
exponer II "expose": like poner,
haber II "have, for there to be" (normally used in verbal phrases to
form perfect tenses or in 3.sg meaning "there is, there was" etc):
pres. he, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han; pres. subj. haya etc; fut. habré;
condit. habría; pret. hube etc; past subj. hubiese, hubiera. The spe-
cial form hay is used in pres. 3.sg in the meaning "there is, there are"

hacer II "do, make": pres. l.sg hago; pres. subj. haga etc; fut. haré;
condit. haría; pret. hice etc; past subj. hiciese, hiciera; past part.
imponer II "impose": like poner,

indisponer II "indispose": like poner,

interponer II "interpose": like poner,

intervenir III "intervene": like venir.

ir IV "go": pres. voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van; imperf. ¿6a etc; pres.
subj. vaya etc; fut. iré; condit. iría; pret. and past subj. same as
those of ser.

maldecir III "curse": like decir, but past part, maldito,

mantener II "maintain": like tener.


morir III "die": rad-ch I and past part, muerto.

obtener II "obtain": like tener.
oponer II "oppose": like poner.
poder II "be able": rad-ch I and: fut. podré; condit. podría; pret. pude
etc; past subj. pudiese, pudiera,
poner II "place": pres. l.sg pongo; pres. subj. ponga etc; fut. pondré;
condit. pondría; pret. puse etc; past subj. pusiese, pusiera; past part.
prevenir III "prepare, warn": like venir,
proponer II "propose": like poner,
retener II "retain": like tener,
saber II "know": pres. l.sg sé; pres. subj. sepa etc; fut. sabré; condit.
sabría; pret. supe etc; past subj. supiese, supiera,
salir III "go out": pres. l.sg salgo; pres. subj. saiga etc; fut. saldré;
condit. saldría,
satisfacer II "satisfy": like hacer.
ser IV "be": pres. soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son; imperf. era etc; pres.
subj. sea etc; pret. fui, fuiste, fué, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron; past
subj. fuese, fuera; pres. part, siendo; past part. sido,
sostener II "uphold, sustain": like tener,
suponer II "suppose": like poner.
tener II "have, hold": rad-ch I and: pres. l.sg tengo; pres. subj. tenga
etc; fut. tendré; condit. tendría; pret. tuve etc; past subj. tuviese,
traer II "bring": pres. l.sg traigo; pres. subj. traiga etc; pret. traje etc;
past subj. trajese, trajera,
valer II "be worth": pres. l.sg valgo; pres. subj. valga etc; fut. valdré;
condit. valdría,
venir III "come": rad-ch I and: pres. l.sg vengo; pres. subj. venga etc;
fut. vendré; condit. vendría; pret. vine etc; past subj . viniese, viniera,
ver IV "see": pret. vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron; past subj. viese,
viera; past part, visto,
volver II "turn": rad-ch I and past part, vuelto.

1.8 Special uses of some important verbs:

1. ser "be" is used with a noun or adjective denoting permanent condition,
inherent characteristic or quality, origin, material, or ownership, and also in
impersonal expressions and expressions of time:
¿Quién es? "Who is it?"
Soy yo. "It'sme."
¿De dónde es? "Where's he from?"
Es de Cuba. "He's from Cuba."
Yo soy español. "I'm a Spaniard."
Ella es pintora. "She's a painter."
Esa mesa es de madera. "That table's made of wood."
¿De quién es? "Whose is it?"
Es de ella. "It's hers."


Es para tí. "It's for you."

¿Qué hora est "What time is it?"
Son las cinco. "It's five o'clock."
Es tarde. "It's late."
Pero es necesario ir. "But it's necessary to go.'
Es evidente. "It's evident."

2. estar "be" is used to express a temporary condition, location, and also

as the auxiliary of the progressive tense:.

¿Cómo está Ud.t "How are you?"

¿Dónde está el libro? "Where's the book?"
Está sobre la mesa. "It's on the table."
Ellos están en Chile. "They're in Chile."
¿Quién está hablando? "Who's speaking?"
El niño está jugando. "The child's playing."
Ella está enferma. "She's sick."

a) In order to determine whether to use ser or estar when the predicate

is an adjective, the following rule should be kept in mind: ser is used when the
predicate adjective indicates the nature of an object or an inherent charac-
teristic (1, below); estar is used when the predicate adjective indicates a
temporary condition (2, below):

(1) La lechuga es verde. "Lettuce is green." (by nature)

(2) La fruta está verde. "The fruit's green ." (a state of the fruit)

(1) María es pálida. "Mary's pale." (by nature)

(2) María está pálida. "Mary looks pale."
(1) Es un hombre raro. "He's a queer man."
(2) Está muy raro hoy. "He acts very queer today."

b) estar should never be used with a predicate noun.

c) ser should never be used with the past participle except to form an
unequivocal passive voice:

La ventana está abierta. "The window's open."

La ventana fué abierta por María. "The window was opened by
La casa está bien construida. "The house is well built."
La casa fué construida en 1945. "The house was built in 1945."

3. haber never means "have" in the sense of "possess". This meaning is

rendered by tener: el tiene el libro "he has the book".

a) haber is not used as an auxiliary verb to form the compound
tenses, an impersonal verb corresponding to English "there is, there are,
it is

there was, there were", etc, and as such has the form hay in the present tense:

Hay tres libros sobre la mesa. "There are three books on the table."
Hay un hombre en la habitación. "There's a man in the room."


b) In all other tenses the impersonal form is identical with the third
person singular of the auxiliary:
había "there was, there were"
hubo "there was, there were"
habrá "there'll be"
habría " there 'd be"

4. tener, which means "have" in the sense of "possess", used with que in- +
finitive expresses a strong obligation equivalent to English "have to, must":
Tenemos que hacerlo hoy. "We must do it today."

a) hay que is substituted for tener que in impersonal constructions and

is translated into English as "must, it's necessary":
Hay que decir la verdad. "It's necessary to (One must) tell the truth."
• b) tener as used in many idioms is translated "be" in English. In such
cases the Spanish adjective mucho is rendered in English by the adverb "very" :

Tengo hambre. "I'm hungry."

Tengo mucha hambre. "I'm very hungry."
Tengo sed. "I'm thirsty."
Tengo frío. "I'm cold."
Tengo miedo. "I'm afraid."
Tengo prisa. "I'm in a hurry."

5. The pronoun "it", which is used in the impersonal construction in

English, is never required in Spanish:
Llueve. "It's raining." Escampa. "It's clearing off."
Truena. "It's thundering." Hace fresco. "It's cool."

6. hacer is used impersonally in expressions of weather:

Hace calor. "It's warm." Hace frío. "It's cold."

a) hace . . . que, hacía . que, and hace (hacía) preceded by desde may
be used to indicate time elapsed:
Hace dos días que llegó. "It'stwo days since he arrived."
Está aquí desde hace dos días. "He's been here two days."
No la había visto desde hacía dos años. "I hadn't seen her for two years."

III. Phrase Structure

Two or more words may be combined into groups of words, or phrases,

which are used in sentences to take the place of, and fulfill the functions of,
the various parts of speech. In this section we shall list the main types of
phrases which occur in Spanish, according to the parts of speech whose place
they take. We shall use the term head to refer to the central word of the
phrase, and modifier to refer to a word modifying the head: thus, in English
"good boy", the noun "boy" is the head of the phrase and "good" is a modifier.
2.0 Universal phrase types are such as occur with all parts of speech. In
them two or more heads, usually belonging to the same part of speech, are



placed next to each other, either not connected at all or connected by con-
1. No conjunction is present in some phrases which serve to enumerate
things, actions, etc:
Se lo dije una, dos, tres veces. "I told him once, twice, three times."
Museos, escuelos, templos, todo "Museums, schools, and churches
lo saquearon. they pillaged everything."
2. A conjunction is used in other phrases:
a) Before the last head: frío, la fatiga, y demás dolores
el hambre, el

"hunger, cold, fatigue, and other sorrows".

b) Before each head: ni esto ni aquello "neither this nor that".
2.1 Noun phrases normally contain a noun as their head, and an adjective
or other element as modifier. This modifier may occur either before or after
the head of the phrase, giving two main types of noun phrases:
2.11 Modifier + head. This order occurs primarily when the modifier is:

1. One mentioned in §1.13: buen{o) "good", gran{de)

of the adjectives
"great", cienito) "100", mal(o) "bad", postrer{o) "last", primerio) "first",
San(to) "Saint", tercer[p) "third", and un(o)* "one"; or one of certain others:
pequeño "little", viejo "old", bonito "pretty".
2. A numeral: diez hombres "ten men".
3. An interrogative or indefinite adjective: ¿cuáles libros? "which books?";
otras personas "other persons"; los demás libros "the other books".
2.12 Head + modifier. This order is the normal one when the modifier is:

1. An adjective other than the types mentioned in §2.11: un hombre

fuerte "a strong man"; una puerta abierta "an open door".
2. An adjective phrase (adverb -+- adjective), or a phrase consisting of
preposition+noun, pronoun, or verb: un hombre ?nuy fuerte "a very strong
man"; un vaso de agua "a glass of water"; su libro de él "his book"; la casualidad
de haberse encontrado con ella "the chance of having met her".
3. A clause, normally introduced by a relative pronoun or adjective:
un caballero que desea hablarle "a gentleman who wants to talk to you".
2.13 Reversal of normal order of adjective and head in a noun phrase
noun when it would normally follow, or vice
(placing the adjective before the
versa) gives to the adjective anadded meaning of emphasis, rhetorical orna-
ment, or figurative speech: la blanca nieve "the white, white snow"; cierta
ciudad "a certain city"; un hombre malo "a very bad man".
2.14 Phrase markers are certain types of words which may precede any
noun or noun phrase and mark it as such. They are:
1. The definite article (§1.22): la infeliz madre "the unhappy mother";
los libros escritos en español "the books written in Spanish".
2. The indefinite article un, una, which in the singular has the meaning
"a, an" and in the plural "some": un libro interesante "an interesting book";
unos libros interesantes "some interesting booW-
* Uno used as a pronoun does not drop the o.


3. A possessive adjective: mi viejo amigo "my old friend".

4. A demonstrative adjective: estos cinco libros "these five books"

2.2 Adjective phrases are of the following types:
2.21 Modifier + head. The modifier normally an
in this type of phrase is

adverb* muy bonito "very pretty". A special formation of this type

is the

comparative and superlative of adjectives: más "more" or menos "less" placed

before an adjective makes a phrase with comparative meaning: más interesante
"more interesting"; menos útil "less useful". The definite article placed before
a phrase containing a comparative adjective gives it the meaning of a superla-
tive: el más interesante "the most interesting"; el menos útil "the least useful".

2.22 Head -f- modifier. The modifier may be one of the following:
1. A
phrase introduced by a preposition: esta agua es buena para beber
"this water's good to drink".
A clause introduced by que or de "than" or como "as" (often elliptical)
after acomparative phrase (§2.21): más habladora que su madre "more talkative
than her mother"; tiene tantas tarjetas como ella "he has as many cards as she".
2.3 Pronoun phrases have the structure head + modifier. The modifier
may be:
1. An adjective: yo solo "I alone".
2. A phrase introduced by a preposition: el de mi padre "the one of my
ather, my father's".
3. A clause: lo que me gusta "that which pleases me, what I like".
2.4 Verb phrases are of the following types:

2.41 Verb + verb. These may be classified according to the form of the
second verb in the phrase:
1. Past participle. The first verb may be:
a) haber "have", which forms perfect tenses with the past participle of
other verbs. In such phrases, the past participle is always in the masculine
singular: ha enviado los libros "he's sent the books"; los libros que ha enviado
"the books he's sent"; los ha enviado "he's sent them".
b) ser "be", which forms passive tenses with the past participle of other
verbs. This type of phrase is chiefly literary in use; the past participle agrees in
gender and number with the subject: este libro fué escrito por Pérez Galdós "this
book was written by Pérez Galdós".
c) estar "be", tener "have", quedarse "remain", and similar verbs. The
past participle agrees in gender and number with the noun to which it refers:
la puerta está abierta "the door's open"; los niños estaban sentados en el suelo

"the children were sitting on the floor"; tengo escrita la carta "I have the letter
2. Gerund, with estar "be", seguir "keep on", etc, as the first verb. This
construction is equivalent to the English present progressive, which consists
of a form of "be"+a verb form in "-ing": está hablando "he's talking".
3. Infinitive. The first verb
is one which indicates desire, ability, obliga-

tion, cause, intention, or emotion: debo irme "I have to go away"; creía haberlo



visto "he thought he'd seen it". Among the many verbs which occur in this
construction are*
acostumbrar "be accustomed to" mandar "order to, command to"
bastar "be enough to" necesitar"need to"
conseguir "succeed in" parecer "seem to, appear to"
creer "believe, think" pensar "intend to"
deber "ought, should" poder "be able to"
decidir "decide to" procurar "try to"
dejar "let, allow to" querer "wish to"
desear "wish to, desire to" resolver "decide to"
gustar "like, be pleasing to" saber "know how to"
hacer "cause to, have done" servirse "be so kind as to"
intentar "attempt to, try to" temer "fear, be afraid"
lograr "succeed in" ver "see"

2.42 Verb + direct object, which is normally a noun, pronoun, or clause:

no tenemos "we haven't any books"; no me tratan bien "they don't treat
me well"; quiero que estén contentos "I want them to be happy". But this
construction is normally replaced by that of verb -f- indirect object (cf §2.44.3)
with proper nouns or nouns referring to specific persons (or personified objects
or animals), and with disjunctive personal pronouns, relative, demonstrative,
and indefinite pronouns referring to persons (except que)
2.43 Verb+predicate complement, which is normally a noun or pronoun
used after ser or estar "be" and certain other verbs indicating identity or
development, and agreeing with the subject in gender and number: mi amigo
es abogado "my friend's a lawyer"; estamos cansados "we're tired".

2.44 Verb -f adverbial complement. This latter may be:

1. An adverb: habla muy bien "he speaks very well".

2. An adjective or noun used as an adverb: el enemigo atacó duro "the
enemy attacked hard".
3. A phrase introduced by a preposition: sigue viviendo a la antigua "he
continues to live in the old way"; nos entendimos por fin "we understood each
other at last". This type of adverbial complement, with the preposition a,
isnormal instead of a direct object, in referring to a person (cf 2.42, above).
Furthermore, the preposition a is normally used to introduce an infinitive after
most verbs indicating motion, beginning, teaching, and learning, among others
the following:
acostumbrarse "become accustomed" empezar "begin"
acudir "come up, run" enseñar "teach"
aprender "learn" invitar "invite"
atreverse "dare" ir go
ayudar "help" llegar "come, succeed"
comenzar "begin" negarse "refuse"
correr "run" obligar "oblige"
decidirse "decide" ponerse "start, begin"
disponerse "get ready" probar "try"


resistirse "resist" venir "come"

subir "go up, come up" volver "return, come back"
tornar "return, do again"
The preposition de is normally used to introduce an infinitive after the
following verbs:
acabar "finish, have just . .

acordarse "remember (to)"

cansarse "get tired (of)"
cesar "stop"
dejar "stop, fail (to)"
guardarse "take care not (to)"
haber "have (to), be going (to)"
olvidarse "forget (to)"
quejarse "complain (of)"
tratar "try (to)"; (reflexive) "be a question (of)"
The preposition en is used after the following (and other) verbs:
complacerse "take pleasure (in)" insistir "insist (on)"
consentir "consent (to)" pensar "think (of, about)"
consistir "consist (of)" persistir "persist (in)"
convenir "agree (to)' tardar "delay (in)"
empeñarse "insist (on)"
4. A clause: Antes venía porque me obligaban. "I used to come because
they forced me to."
2.5 Adverb phrases are normally of the structure modifier + head, with the
modifier another adverb: muy phrase with más
bien "very well". An adverb
"more" or menos "less" as modifier has the meaning of the English comparative
or superlative of an adverb: más tarde "later"; menos bien "less well".
Phrases consisting of preposition -+- noun, pronoun, or verb may also be used
adverbially: en el zaguán saludó a la portera "he greeted the janitress in the
main entrance".
2.6 Preposition phrases normally consist of an adverb (or equivalent phrase)
followed by a preposition: junto a "together with"; a pesar de "in spite of".
2.61 Prepositional phrases are used in Spanish -where in English two or more
nouns can be combined to form compound nouns*: máquina de coser "sewing
machine"; ropa para caballeros "men's wear"; neumático de repuesto "spare tire".
2.7 Conjunction phrases usually consist of an adverb or preposition or
equivalent phrase followed by a subordinate conjunction (normally que "that"):
para que "in order that"; sin que "without".

IV. Clause Structure

3.0 The clause is the basic unit of the sentence in Spanish as in English.
Clauses are either major or minor; major clauses are the customary normal
* In Spanish there are only a few genuine compounds of the type oí ferrocarril "railroad",

radiodifusión "broadcasting", which generally have an initial member ending in -o.


type, and minor clauses are all others. The structure of major clauses and
their combinations will be discussed in §§3.1-3.53; of minor clauses, in §§3.6
3.62. A major clause always contains a predicate and may or may not contain
a subject as well.
3.1 The predicate always has as its main element a verb or verb phrase:
nos inclinamos para ver mejor "we bent over to see better"; estoy cansado
"I'm tired"; han matado a la señora "they've killed the lady". Since the verb
indicates by its endings the person and number of the agent, a predicate often
occurs alone (as in the above examples) where English would have a pronoun

3.2 The subject may be one of the following:
1. A noun or noun phrase: Inglaterra es grande y bella "England is great
and beautiful"; las antiguas explotaciones petrolíferas han sido abandonadas
"the old oil drillings have been abandoned".
2. An adjective or other part of speech serving as noun: todo le ayudaba
"everything helped him"; lo mejor y más granado "the finest and most select
3. A pronoun: él iba delante "he went first"; me gusta éste "I like this one".
3.21 Agreement in number. The subject normally agrees in number with
the verb of the predicate: do it"; lo hacemos nosotros "we'll do it".
lo hago yo "I'll

3.22 Agreement in person. The verb of the predicate is normally in the

grammatical person of the lowest-numbered person represented in the subject.
(usted, ustedes "you" naturally count as third person in this respect.) If the

subject contains heads belonging to two different grammatical persons, the

verb is in the first person if the first person element is present, otherwise in the
second: nos casaremos, tú y yo "we'll get married, you and I".
3.23 Agreement in gender. A predicate complement (§2.43) agrees in num-
ber and gender with the subject: él estaba cansado "he was tired"; las señoritas
estaban cansadas "the young ladies were tired".
3.3 Order of subject and predicate is much freer in Spanish than in English.
In general, the normal order is subject + predicate; inversion of this order
implies emphasis or rhetorical force, but is very frequent: eso lo hago yo "I'll
do that"; así continuaba el joven "the young man continued thus". Inverted
order is normal in a clause containing a subjunctive used as an imperative:
quítese usted el sombrero "take off your hat".
Likewise the direct object, predicate complement, or adverbial complement
is often placed before the verb and subject, giving a meaning of greater em-

phasis than does the normal order: eso es "that's it" (literally, "it is that");
el que no se entera de nada soy yo "I'm the one who doesn't understand"; mejor

será avisar a la policía "it'll be better to notify the police"; mucho lo siento
"I'm very sorry". In a sentence containing a specifically interrogative word,
the phrase containing this word comes first: ¿qué quiere usted? "what do you
want?"; ¿desde cuándo le conoces? "since when have you known him?"
3.4 Coordination is the relation to each other of two or more clauses of
equal rank in a sentence. Of two coordinate clauses, the second is usually
joined to the first by a coordinating conjunction, such as pero "but", y "and".


The conjunction que may introduce an independent or coordinate clause when

followed by a verb in the subjunctive indicating a command: que lo haga él
"let him do it".

3.5 Subordination. If a clause has, in another clause, the function of one

and modifies some element of that clause, it is said to be
of the parts of speech,
subordinate to or dependent on the element it modifies. Subordinate clauses
are normally introduced by a subordinating conjunction, often one formed with
que "that". The use of a clause in a subordinate position often requires the
use of a subjunctive form in the main verb of the subordinate clause. The use
of the subjunctive may be automatic, i.e. obligatory in certain constructions.
In others, the use of the subjunctive is not obligatory, and its use is significant,
i.e. it gives the clause a different meaning than the use of the indicative would .

3.51 Automatic use of the subjunctive is found in the following types of

subordinate clauses:
1. Those containing certain verbs:
a) Verbs whose general meaning is that of desire, command, judgment
or opinion, emotion, or doubt. The chief of these verbs are:

agradecer "be grateful" mandar "command"

alegrarse "be glad" pedir "ask"
dejar "let, allow" perdonar "forgive"
deplorar "regret" permitir "permit, allow"
desear "desire" preferir "prefer"
estar "be" + certain adjectives (e.g. prohibir "forbid"
contento (de) "glad", enojado querer "want, wish"
"annoyed") sentir "be sorry"
gustar "like" sorprenderse "be surprised"
impedir "hinder" sugerir "suggest"
insistir (en) "insist (on)" tener miedo (de) "be afraid"
b) Impersonal expressions (used only in the third person singular) in
which ser "be" is followed by any of a number of adjectives, among them:
bueno "good" malo "bad"
difícil "difficult" mejor "better"
extraño "strange" necesario "necessary"
fácil"easy" peor "worse"
importante "important" posible "possible"
justo "right" probable "probable"

c) Verbs, usually when they are in the negative or interrogative, whose

general meaning is that of perceiving, thinking, knowing, declaring; the mean-
ing given by use of the subjunctive is that of uncertainty or doubt. The most
important of the determining verbs are:

concebir "conceive, imagine" juzgar "judge"

creer "believe" pensar "think"
decir "say" saber "know"
estimar "consider" suponer "suppose"


But dudar "doubt" and negar "deny", with essentially

after such verbs as
negative meaning, the subjunctive is used when the main verb is in the positive,

and the indicative when it is in the negative: dudo que sea posible "I doubt
that it's possible".

2. Clauses serving as adverbs: after a number of conjunctions, such as:

a condición que "on condition that" aun cuando "even if"

a fin (de) que "in order that" para que "so that"
a menos que "unless" supuesto que "supposing that"

3.52 Significant use of the subjunctive is found in the following types of


1. Clauses used as adjectives, giving the clauses the meaning of:

a)A desired characteristic or purpose: busco un libro que sea interesante
"I'm looking for a book that'll be interesting".
b) Uncertainty or doubt: las expresiones que Uds. hayan olvidado
"the expressions you may have forgotten". This type of clause is especially
frequent after indefinite and concessive expressions: cualquier libro que escriba
"whatever book he may write"; por rico que sea "no matter how rich he may
be". It is also found after superlatives or equivalent expressions: el libro más
interesante que haya "the most interesting book there is".

2. Clauses used as adverbs, giving the meaning of:

a) Intent, purpose, or anticipation: hable Ud. de manera que todos le

oigan "talk in such a waycan hear you"; aunque venga, no nos

that all lo

enseñará "even though he may. come, he won't show it to us".

b) Futurity: cuando venga, dígaselo "when he comes, tell it to him".

3.53 Conditional sentences. If a sentence contains a clause beginning with

si "if", the tense of the verb in this clause is determined by the tense of the
verb in the main clause, normally as follows:

If the main clause has The "if"-clause has

a verb in the: a verb in the:
Present }

Imperative ¡> Present

Future J
Imperfect Imperfect
Preterite Preterite
Conditional Past Subjunctive (-ra or -se)

Thus: si está aquí, trabaja "if he's here, he's working"; si estaba aquí, trabajaba
"if he was here, he was working"; si está aquí mañana, trabajará "if he's here

tomorrow, he'll be working"; si estuviera aquí, trabajaría "if he were here, he'd
be working". A main verb indicating a condition contrary to fact may also be
in the -ra form of the subjunctive: si estuviera aquí, trabajara "if he were here,
he'd be working".
3.6 Minor clauses, which do not conform to the customary structure of
clauses, are chiefly of the following two types:

3.61 Fragmentary or elliptical clauses: a phrase or single word, such as

could enter into the structure of a full clause
if the rest of a full clause were

uttered. Under this type come most cases of incomplete sentences in normal

conversation, answers to questions, etc: ¿Qué le dijo? Nada. "What did he
— —
say to him? Nothing."; Buenos días. ¿Cómo está Ud.f Muy bien, gracias.
¿Y Ud.t "Hello. How are you?— Very well, thanks. And you?"
3.62 Interjectional clauses, consisting of words which do not have the
inflection or function of any of the parts of speech,and may be used as separate
utterances or joined with other clauses: ¡Ah! "Ah!"; ¡Ay! "Ouch!"; ¡Hola!
"Hello!"; ¡Oh! "Oh!"; etc.



a to Voy a Barcelona. I'm going to Bar- neglect Abandona su trabajo a menudo.

celona. Vamos a casa. Let's go home. He frequently neglects his work.
—Se lo dimos al hombre. We gave it abanicar(se) to fan (oneself) Como
to the man. A at Vengan Uds. a las hacía calor, se abanicaba. As it was
Come two A on, upon
dos. at o'clock. warm, she was fanning herself.
Al salir de la casa, la vimos. Wesaw abanico fan Compró un abanico chino.
her on leaving the house. A later Nos She bought a Chinese fan.
marchamos a los cuatro días. We left abarrotes [m pi] O tienda de abarrotes
four days later. A by La carta estaba grocery store [Mex].
escrita a mano. The letter was written abatir to depress Las noticias le han
by hand. A on Fuimos a pie. We went abatido mucho. The news depressed
on foot. A from Se lo compré a Juan. him very much.
I bought it from John. abeja bee.
O a no ser que if not Le veré, a
. . . abertura opening (of material) La aber-
no ser que venga demasiado tarde. I'll tura de este jersey es pequeña y no me
see him if he doesn't come too late. cabe la cabeza. The opening in this
Quiero ver a Nueva York [Am]. I
|| sweater's small and my head won't go
want to see New York. ¡A que no ]| through.
sabes donde estuve anoche! I bet you abierto (see abrir) open Las ventanas
can't guess where I was last night! están abiertas. The windows are open.
abajo below, down, downstairs Estoy ablandar to soften El asfalto se ablandó
aquí abajo. I'm down here. con el calor. The asphalt was softened
O boca abajo face down. O cuesta by the heat.
abajo downhill No vaya Ud. tan de abogado lawyer.
prisa en la cuesta abajo. Don't drive abolir to abolish.
so fast downhill. O de abajo lower Los abollar to dent, batter El guardabarros
pisos de abajo son muy oscuros. The quedó todo abollado. The fender was
lower floors are very dark. O de arriba
badly dented.
abajo from top to bottom, from head
abonar to pay Abonaremos la diferencia.
to foot Lo examinó de arriba abajo. A to fertilize
We'll pay the difference.
He examined it from top to bottom.
O desde abajo from below Desde abajo Esta es la mejor época de abonar los
campos. This is the best time to fer-
la casa parecía muy alta. From be-
tilize the fields.
low, the house seemed very tall. O abonarse to subscribe Me voy a
O hacia abajo downward, down Cuando
abonar a estos conciertos de música de
pase el puente no mire hacia abajo.
cámara. I'm going to subscribe to
When you cross the bridge, don't look these chamber-music concerts.
down. O por abajo at or around the
bottom, down there El pantalón estaba
abono commutation ticket; subscription;
gastado por abajo. The trousers were
worn at the bottom. abrasar to burn La casa se abrasó. The
abandonado (see abandonar) [adj~\ negli- house burned to the ground.
gent, sloppy Es muy abandonado en su abrazar to embrace, hug.
manera de vestir. He's very sloppy in abrazo embrace, hug.
his dress. abrelatas [m sg] can opener.
abandonar to abandon, leave Abandonó abreviar to shorten; to abbreviate.
a su mujer. He wife. A to abreviatura abbreviation.
left his

— . —
abrigar SPANISH-ENGLISH acero

abrigar to warm Estas mantas abrigan Ud. su trabajo pronto. Finish your
work A to put an end to Aca-
mucho. These blankets are very warm. quickly.
A to shelter, protect La pared me abri- bemos esta discusión. Let's put an end
gaba de la lluvia. The wall protected to this discussion.
me from the rain. O acabar con to exhaust, use up Han
O abrigarse to wrap oneself, dress acabado con todos los recursos del
warmly Abrigúese bien antes de salir. país. They exhausted all the resources
A to wipe out Aca-
Wrap up well before you go out. of the country.
abrigo overcoat. baron con el enemigo. They wiped out
abril [m] April. the enemy. O acabar de to have just
abrir [irr] to open Haga el favor de Acabo de llegar. I've just arrived.
abrir la puerta. Please open the door. acabar por to end by Acabaré por
¿Cuándo han abierto el cajón? When volverme loco. I'll end up by going

was the box opened? A to unlock Con crazy. O acabarse to run out of Se me
esta llave abra Ud. el armario. Un- acabó el dinero. I ran out of money.
lock the cabinet with this key. academia academy.
O abrirse to withdraw, back out acalenturado feverish [Am] El enfermo
[Am] Si se abren Uds. no se hará el está acalenturado esta tarde. The
negocio. If you back out the deal won't patient's feverish this afternoon.
go through. O abrirse paso, abrirse acalorarse to become heated or excited
camino to make one's way Se abría La discusión se acaloró. The argu-
paso entre la multitud. He was mak- ment became heated. A to get over-
ing his way through the crowd. heated Me acaloré jugando al béisbol.
abrochar to buckle, button Abróchale el 1 got overheated playing baseball.
cinturón al niño. Buckle the child's acariciar to caress, pet Acariciaba al
belt. Tengo que abrocharme la cha- perro. He was petting the dog.
queta. I have to button my jacket. acarrear to carry (a load).
absoluto ° en absoluto (not) at all "¿he acaso perhaps, maybe Acaso venga ma-
molesta a Ud.?" "No, en absoluto." ñana. Maybe he'll come tomorrow.
"Do you mind?" "Not at all."— "¿Re- A by chance ¿Acaso lo tiene Ud.? Do
husó Ud. hacerlo?" "¡En absoluto!" you have it by any chance?
"Did you refuse to do it?" "Not at O por acaso just in case Por si
all!" acaso lo necesita, lleve Ud. dinero.
absorber to absorb. Take some money just in case you need
absurdo absurd; absurdity. it.

abuela grandmother. accidental accidental.

abuelo grandfather. accidente [m] accident, mishap, chance.
abundancia abundance. acción [/] action Esas tropas van a en-
abundante abundant. trar en acción. Those troops are going
A plot (of a drama) La
aburrir to bore Aburre a todo el mundo. into action.
He bores everybody. acción se desarrolla rápidamente. The
abusar de to abuse El gobernador abusó plot develops rapidly.
de su autoridad. The governor abused aceite [m] oil.
his authority. A to betray Abusó de aceituna olive.
mi confianza. He betrayed my confi- acento stress, accent Esta palabra tiene
dence. el acento en la última sílaba. This
abuso abuse (of power); betrayal (of word's stressed on the last syllable.
confidence) A accent, pronunciation Tiene buen
acá here, this way Venga Ud. acá. Come acento. He has a good accent.
here. acentuar to accent.
O por acá around here Espero que le aceptar to accept.
veamos por acá pronto. I hope we'll acera sidewalk.
be seeing you around here soon. acerca de about, concerning No sé nada
acabado (see acabar) [adj] Este mueble acerca de eso. I don't know anything
está muy bien acabado. This piece of about that.
furniture has a fine finish. A ex- acercar to bring near Acérqueme una
hausted, worn out [Am] Estoy aca- silla, por favor. Bring up a chair for
bado. I'm worn out. A [m] finish El me, please.
acabado de la mesa era perfecto. The O acercarse a to approach Se acercó
finish of the table was perfect. a la puerta. He approached the door.
acabar to finish, end, terminate Acabe acero steel.

acertar SPANISH-ENGLISH acuerdo

A to lay
acertar [rad-ch 7] to guess right Gana to put the children to bed.
él que acierte el número. Whoever Se puso enfermo y lo acostaron en un
guesses the number wins. banco. He became sick and they laid
O acertar con to locate, find Xo acertó him on a bench.
con la casa. He couldn't find the house. O acostarse to go to bed Se acuesta
O acertar en to hit (a mark) Acertó temprano pero tarda en dormirse. He
en el centro del bianco. He hit the goes to bed early but it takes him a
bull's-eye. long time to get to sleep. O estar
ácido sour Estas naranjas son muy aci- acostado to be lying down Estaba acos-
das. These oranges are very sour. tado en el diván. He was lying on the
A couch.
[ml acid.
acierto good judgment, good choice Es un acostumbrarse a to get accustomed to.

acierto este traje que se ha comprado acrecentar [rad-ch 7] to increase.

Ud. That suit you bought's a good acreditado accredited Es un representante
choice. acreditado del gobierno francés. He's
aclamación [/] acclamation Fué elegido an accredited representative of the
por aclamación. He was elected by French government. A of good reputa-
acclamation. tion Es un medico acreditado. He's a
aclamar to acclaim, applaud. doctor of good reputation. A solvent
aclaración [/] explanation. Es una firma acreditada. It's a solvent
aclarar to make clear, clarify Hay que firm.
aclarar este asunto. This matter must acreedor [m] creditor he persiguen los
be clarified. A to brighten, clear up acreedores. His creditors are after
Parece que el día aclara. It seems to him.
be clearing up. actitud [/'] attitude.
acogida reception Tuvieron una calurosa actividad [/] activity En la oficina ha
acogida. They got a warm reception. habido mucha actividad esta mañana.
acometer to attack. There's been a lot o:f activity around
acomodado (see acomodar) well-to-do Es the office this morning.
una familia acomodada. It's a well-to- O actividades activities Además de su
do family. empleo tiene otras muchas actividades.
In addition to his regular job, he has
acomodador [m] usher.
a lot of other activities.
acomodar to put, place Acomode bien las
activo active.
maletas en la red. Put the suitcases
acto act Fué un acto de valor. It was
carefully on the rack.
O acomodarse an act of courage. A ceremony El
to adapt oneself Se
acomoda a las circuyistayicias.She
acto tuvo lugar por la tarde. The
adapts herself to circumstances. A to
ceremony took place in the afternoon.
A act (of a play) Ahora
va a empezar
make oneself comfortable Acomódense,
que tenemos tiempo de sobra. Make el tercer acto. The third act is about
to begin.
yourselves comfortable, for we have
O en el acto right away ho hizo en el
plenty of time.
acomodo job, position Está buscando
acto. He did it right away.
actor [ml actor.
acomodo. He's looking for a job.
actriz [/] actress.
acompañar to accompany.
actual present, current has circunstan-
aconsejar to advise.
cias actuales son desfavorables. Pres-
acontecimiento event. ent circumstances are unfavorable.
acorazado battleship. actualidad [/] present time En la actuali-
acordar [rad-ch 7] to agree to, on, or dad escasea el café. Nowadays coffee
upon ho acordaron por unanimidad. is scarce.
They agreed to it unanimously. actualmente at present, at the present
O acordarse de to remember, recol- time Actualmente está en Chicago. At
lect ¿Se acuerda Ud. de esto? Do you the present time he's in Chicago.
remember this? actuar to act.
acortar to shorten Haga el favor de acor- acudir to rush Acudieron en su ayuda.
tar la chaqueta. Would you please They rushed to his aid. A to keep (an
shorten the jacket. appointment) No acudió a la cita. He
O acortar la marcha to slow down. didn't keep his appointment.
acostar [rad-ch 7] to put to bed Ya es acuerdo agreement Llegaron a un acuer-
hora de acostar a los niños. It's time do. They came to an agreement.

acumular SPANISH-ENGLISH adornar

O de acuerdo of the same opinion I don't want to go, and besides it's too
Estamos de acuerdo. We're of the late.
same opinion. ° de acuerdo con in O además de in addition to, besides
accordance with Lo hice de acuerdo Además de fruta vamos a tomar he-
con sus instrucciones. I did it accord- lado. Besides fruit we're going to
ing to your instructions. have ice cream.
acumular to accumulate. adentro within, inside Voy a ir adentro.
acusación [/] accusation. I'm going inside.
acusado (see acusar) [adj] accused. A [«] ¡Adentro! Come in!

defendant. adiós good-by, so long.

acusar to accuse Le acusaron de homi- adivinar to guess ¿A qué no adivina Ud.
cidio. They accused him of man- lo que me ha ocurrido hoy? I'll bet
slaughter. A to acknowledge (in busi- you can't guess what happened to me
ness correspondence) Acusamos recibo today.
de su carta. We acknowledge receipt adjunto enclosed. (Used in correspond-
of your letter. ence. )
adaptar to adapt. administración [/] administration, man-
adecuado adequate, suitable. agement.
adelantado (see adelantar) O por adelan- administrador [m] manager; superin-
tado in advance En ese hotel hay que tendent (of a building).
pagar por adelantado. You have to administrar to manage, administer.
pay in advance in that hotel. admirable admirable, excellent, wonder-
adelantar to surpass, take the lead Este ful.
muchacho adelanta al resto de la clase. admiración [/] admiration, wonder.
This boy surpasses the rest of the class. admirar to amaze Me admira su descaro.
— Adelantaron a todos los demás. They I'm amazed at his nerve. A to admire
went ahead of all the others. A to pass Admiraba el trabajo de s?¿ amigo. He
Iban a ochenta kilómetros y nos ade- admired his friend's work.
lantaron. They were doing eighty O admirarse de to be surprised or
kilometers and they passed us. A to amazed at Se admiraron de su resis-
gain time Su reloj adelanta. Your tencia. They were amazed at his
watch gains time. A to put ahead courage.
Adelante Ud. su reloj porque está atra- admitir to admit he han admitido en la
sado. Put your watch ahead; it's escuela de ingenieros. He was ad-
A to be fast
slow. Mi reloj está adelan- mitted to the engineering school. A to
tado cinco minutos. My watch is five accept No se admiten propinas. Tips
minutes fast. A to improve, advance not accepted. A to let, allow No ad-
Su español adelanta poco a poco. His mite interrupciones. He doesn't allow
Spanish is improving little by little. interruptions.
O adelantarse to beat (someone) to,
adolescencia adolescence, youth.
steal a march on Yo quería invitarle,
adolescente [adj; n] adolescent.
pero su amigo se me adelantó. I
adonde where, to what place Adonde voy
wanted to invite you, but your friend
beat me to it.
tú no puedes ir. You can't go where
I'm going.
adelante Siga Ud. adelante. Go ahead. O ¿adonde?
O en adelante from now on De ahora where? where to?
¿Adonde va Ud.? Where are you
en adelante lo haremos así. From now
on we'll do it this way. O m ás ade-
adoptar to adopt Adoptaron una niña.
lante later on Más adelante lo com-
prenderás. You'll understand it later
They adopted a little girl. Han
A farther on Más adoptado un nuevo plan. They've
on. adelante encon-
tramos una casa. Farther on we came adopted a new plan. A to assume
upon a house. Adoptó un aire de gran importancia.
¡Adelante! Come in! or Forward!
He assumed an air of great impor-
adelanto improvement Esta casa tiene tance.
todos los adelantos. This house has adorar to worship, adore.
all the latest improvements. adornar to decorate, fix up El salón está
adelgazar to make thin; to lose weight. muy bien adornado para la fiesta. The
además moreover, furthermore No tengo room's nicely fixed up for the party.
ganas de ir y además ya es muy tarde. A to trim El traje estaba adornado

— —
adorno SPANISH-ENGLISH agosto

encajes. The dress was trimmed with loss of their mother grieved them
lace, very much.
adorno ornament, trimming.
O afligirse to grieve Se afligieron
adquirir to acquire. por la desgracia de su amigo. They
adquisición [/] acquisition. grieved over their friend's misfor-
aduana customhouse. A customs Pagaron tune,
derechos de aduana(s). They paid aflojar to loosen, relax Afloje Ud. un poco
customs duties. la venda. Loosen the bandage a little.
A to slacken No aflojen el trabajo en
adulación [/] flattery.
adular to flatter. tiempo de guerra. Don't slacken in
adulto [n; adj] adult. your work in war time. A to decrease,
adversario opponent. let up, subside La tormenta aflojó.

adversidad [/] adversity, misfortune. The storm let up.

advertencia warning. afortunadamente fortunately.

advertir [rad-ch II] to notice, observe afortunado fortunate, lucky.
Advertí algunos errores en su in- afuera out, outside Vamos afuera. Let's
forme. I noticed some mistakes in go out.
his report.
A to advise, warn Te ad- O afueras [/ pi] suburbs, outskirts
vierto que no lo hagas otra vez. I'm Viven en las afueras de la ciudad.
warning you not to do it again. Ya They live in the suburbs.
se lo advertí a Ud. I told you so. ¡Afuera! Get out!

aéreo aerial, (of the) air Envíelo por agachar to lower, bend down Agachen la
correo aéreo. Send it airmail. cabeza que el techo es muy bajo. Bend
aeródromo airport. down; the ceiling's very low.
aeroplano airplane. agarradero handle.
afable affable, pleasant. agarrar to hold, grasp Agarre Ud. bien
afán [m] anxiety, eagerness. la cuerda. Hold the rope tight. A to
afanarse to be eager Muchachos, no se catch or contract (illness) He agarra-
afanen tanto. Don't be so eager, boys. do un catarro atroz. I caught an awful
A to take [Arg].
afectado (see afectar) affected, unnatu- cold.
ral, O agarrarse to hold on, catch hold
afectar to move La noticia le afectó Se agarró de mi brazo para no caerse.
mucho. The news moved him deeply, She caught hold of my arm so she
afecto affection, regard Les tiene afecto wouldn't fall.
a todos sus compañeros de oficina. He agencia agency (except governmental).
has regard for all his office com- agente [m] agent Es agente de una gran
panions. compañía de seguros. He's agent for
A repre-
afeitar to shave. a big rnsurance company.
O afeitarse to shave (oneself). sentative La compañía ha enviado
afición [/] fondness; inclination. varios agentes para tratar el asunto.
aficionado, aficionada fan Soy tin gran The company's sent several represent-
aficionado al béisbol. I'm a great atives to discuss the matter.
baseball fan. A amateur Esta es una O agente (de policía) policeman
compañía de aficionados. This is an [Am] Pregunte al agente dónde está la
amateur company. plaza de Santiago. Ask the policeman
O aficionado a fond of Es muy afi- where St. James Square is.
cionado a la lectura. He's very fond ágil quick, agile Es ágil de movimientos.
of reading, He's quick in his movements. Tiene
aficionarse a to become fond of Se ha una inteligencia muy ágil. She has a
aficionado a los deportes. He's become very quick mind.
fond of sports. agitación [/] excitement, agitation.
afilar to sharpen. agitar to shake Agítese bien antes de
afinidad [/] relationship by marriage usarlo. Shake well before using. A to
Es pariente mío por afinidad. He's stir up, excite El político agitó a los
one of my in-laws. trabajadores. The politician stirred
afirmar to affirm, assert, maintain. up the workers.
afirmativo [adj] affirmative. O agitarse to become excited Cuando
aflicción [/] affliction, sorrow, grief, lo oyó se agitó mucho. When she
afligir to grieve (someone) Les afligió heard it she got very excited.
macho la pérdida de madre. The
agosto August.

— —

agotar to run through, use up, exhaust aguado O manos aguadas butterfingers
Agotaron rápidamente la herencia. [Am] ¡Tienes las manos aguadas!
They ran through the inheritance. You have butterfingers.
O agotarse to wear oneself out Con aguafiestas [m, /; sg~\ wet blanket, kill-
tanto trabajo se está agotando. He's joy No seas aguafiestas. Don't be a
wearing himself out working so much. wet blanket.
A to go out of print La edición se aguantar to bear, endure, stand Es asom-
agotó rápidamente. The edition went broso como puede aguantar tanto. It's
out of print quickly. A to give out Se amazing how much he can stand.
agotaron las provisiones en poco tiem- Esto no se puede aguantar. This is
po. The provisions gave out in a short unbearable. A to hang on, not give up
time. ¡Aguante duro! Hang on tight!
agradable agreeable, pleasant. O aguantarse to be patient, take it
agradar to be pleasing to Es un tipo que Hay que aguantarse. You have to take
no me agrada. I don't like his type. it.

agradecer [-zc-] to appreciate he agra- aguardar to expect he aguardamos ma-

dezco mucho su amabilidad. I appre- ñana a las diez. We expect him to-
ciate your kindness. A to thank for he morrow at ten o'clock. A to wait for
agradecí mucho su ayuda. I thanked Te estoy aguardando hace horas. I've
him very much for his help. been waiting for you for hours.
agradecimiento gratitude. aguardiente [m] brandy, whiskey.
agrado liking Esto no es de su agrado. agudo sharp, keen El cuchillo tenia la
This is not to his liking. punta muy aguda. The knife had a
agrandar to enlarge Van a agrandar su very sharp point. A clever Es un mu-
tienda. They're going to enlarge their chacho muy agudo. He's a very
store. A to let out (a garment). clever boy. A high-pitched
Tiene una
agravar to aggravate, make worse Esto voz muy aguda. She has a very high-
agrava la situación. This makes the pitched voice. A witty ¡Siempre tiene
situation worse. dichos tan agudos! He's always mak-
O agravarse to get worse El enfermo ing such witty remarks A acute (of

se agravó. The patient got worse. an angle) has calles forman un ángulo
agregado See agregar. A [m] attache agudo. The two streets form an acute
Vimos al agregado militar de la Emba- angle.
jada Americana. We saw the military águila [/] eagle.
attache of the American Embassy. agüita agüita (water flavored with aro-
agregar to add Hace falta agregar más matic leaves) [Am~] ¿Qué quiere Ud.
detalles al informe. You have to add después de la comida, café, té o agüita
more details to the report. de menta? What would you like after
agresión [/] aggression. —
dinner coffee, tea, or mint water?
agresivo aggressive. aguja needle ¿Tiene Ud. una aguja para
agresor [m] aggressor. coser estos botones? Do you have a
agricultor [m] farmer. needle to sew on these buttons? A hand
agricultura agriculture. (of watch, compass) A mi reloj se le
agrio sour ha toronja está muy agria. ha caído una aguja. One of the hands
The grapefruit tastes very sour. has fallen off my watch.
agrupar to group. O agujas [pi] switch El tren ha en-
agua water Quiere un vaso de agua trado en agujas. The train's passed
fresca. He wants a glass of cold the switch.
water. A rain Ahora hace un tiempo agujero hole.
de agzia. We're having a rainy spell. aguzar to sharpen to a point Aguce un
O agua de coco coconut milk. O aguas poco la estaca. Sharpen the end of
termales hot springs. O más claro que the stick a little.
el agua clear as crystal Tiene Ud. II
Aguzó el oído. He pricked up his
razón, eso está más claro que el agua. ears.
You're right, that's as clear as crystal. ¡ah! oh!
¡Hombre al agua! Man overboard! ahí there Ahí está su amigo. There's
aguacate [m] avocado, alligator pear. your friend. Qué tiene Ud. ahí en el
aguacero [m] rainstorm El aguacero bolsillo? What have you got there in
de anoche ha cortado el camino. Last your pocket?
night's storm washed out the road. ° por ahí that way Por ahí, haga el

— !

ahijada SPANISH-ENGLISH alcanzado

A around aislamiento isolation.

favor. That way, please.
here Por ahí anda su sombrero. Your aislar to isolate, cut off.

hat's somewhere around here. ¡aja! ¡Aja! ¿Conque esas tenemos? So


¿Y de ahí, qué hubo? Hello there, that's what's going on
what's new? [C.A.] ajedrez [m] chess.
ahijada goddaughter. ajeno another's, someone else's No se
ahijado godson. meta en vidas ajenas. Don't meddle
ahogar to choke Trató de ahogarle. He in other people's affairs.
tried to choke him. ajo garlic.
O ahogarse to drown, to be drowned O echar ajos to swear Empezó a
Muchos animales se ahogaron en la echar ajos. He started swearing.
inundación. Many animals were O estar en el ajo to be in the know.
drowned in the flood. A to be suffo- ajustar to tighten Tiene Ud. que ajustar
cated Me ahogo en esta habitación esos tornillos. You have to tighten
tan pequeña y tan caliente. This those screws. A to fit Esta tapadera
room's so small and hot that I'm suffo- no ajusta. This cover doesn't fit. A to
cating. agree about, decide (on) Se reunieron
ahora now, right now Ahora voy a casa. para ajustar las condiciones de la paz.
I'm going home now. A now ¿Ahora, They met to decide peace terms. A to
qué piensa Ud.? Now, what do you settle Vamos a ajustar las cuentas.
think? Let's settle accounts.
O ahora bien now, now then Ahora al (a +
el) See a.
bien, hay que aclarar este problema. ala wing; brim (of a hat).
Now then, let's get this problem alabanza praise.
cleared up. ° ahora mismo at once, alabar to praise.
right away Hágalo ahora mismo. Do alacrán [?rc] scorpion.
it right away.
A just, just now Salió alambrada wire fence.
ahora mismo. He just left. O ¿e ,
alambre [?n] wire.
ahora en adelante from now on ho alameda mall, public walk (lined with
haremos así de ahora en adelante. poplars).
We'll do it this way from now on. álamo poplar.
O hasta ahora up to now, so far Hasta alarde [m] boast.
ahora nunca hemos tenido este pro- O
hacer alarde de to show off hevantó
blema. Up to now we've never had baúl para hacer alarde de fuerza.
this problem. O por ahora for the He lifted the trunk to show off his
present Por ahora tenemos bastante strength.
comida. We have enough food for the alardear to boast.
present. alargar to lengthen, extend Hay que
ahorcar to hang (execute) ho ahorcaron alargar las mangas de este abrigo.
el mismo día. They hanged him the The sleeves of this coat have to be
same day. lengthened. A to hand Haga el favor
ahorita right now [Am] Ahorita vamos de alargarme la maleta. Would you
a verle. We're going to see himright now. hand me the suitcase, please?
ahorrar to save ¿Cuánto dinero hemos alarma alarm.
ahorrado este mes? How much have alba dawn.
we saved this month? albañil [m] mason, bricklayer.
aire [m] air El aire de esta habitación albaricoque [m] apricot [Sp].
está muy cargado. The air in this alborotar to disturb, make noise hos
room's very stuffy. A wind Sopla un niños están alborotando mucho. The
aire muyfuerte. There's a very strong children are making a lot of noise.
wind blowing. A look, appearance alboroto disturbance, excitement; [C.A.]
Tiene aire de millonario. He looks popcorn.
like a millionaire. Tenía un aire muy alcachofa artichoke.
cansado. He looked very tired. alcalde [w] mayor.
° al aire libre in the open air Pasa- alcance [?n] reach Estaba fuera de su
mos tres horas al aire libre. We spent alcance. It was out of his reach.
three hours in the open air. O tomar alcancía toy bank; collection box.
el aire to get some fresh air. alcanzado short (of money) Siempre
Se da aires de persona importante.
|| anda alcanzado de dinero. He's always
He puts on airs. short of money.


alcanzar SPANISH-ENGLISH allí

alcanzar to catch up with, overtake Nos algodón [m] cotton.

alcanzaron muy pronto. They caught alguien somebody, someone Alguien llama
up with us quickly. A to reach No a la puerta. Somebody's knocking at
puedo alcanzar esa lata de tomate. I the door. A anybody, anyone ¿Ha ve-
can't reach that can of tomatoes. A to nido alguien? Has anybody come?
attain, reach Alcanzó el grado de algún (see alguno) some Espero que Ud.
general. He reached the rank of vuelva algún día. I hope you'll come
general. again some day.
O alcanzar a to succeed in, can Desde alguno some, any Quiero hacerle algunas
aquí no alcanzo a verlo. From here I preguntas. I want to ask you some
can't see it. questions. ¿Quiere Ud. hacerme al-
alcoba bedroom. guna pregunta? Do you want to ask
alcohol [m] alcohol. me any questions?
alcohólico [adj ; w] alcoholic. O alguna cosa más anything else
aldea village. ¿Necesita Ud. alguna cosa más? Do
alegar to allege, state, assert. you need anything else? O alguna
alegrar to brighten (up) Las flores ale- vez now and then, sometimes Nos
grarán la mesa. The flowers will visita algunas veces. He visits us now
brighten up the table. A to cheer up. and then. O algunos some people Al-
O alegrarse to rejoice, be glad Me gunos no tienen paciencia. Some peo-
alegro mucho de verla. I'm very glad ple have no patience.
to see you. alhaja jewel.
aliado allied. A [n~\ ally.
alegre glad, happy ¿Por qué está Ud. tan
alegre hoy? Why are you so happy alianza union, alliance.
today? A cheerful Son gente muy ale- aliarse to form an alliance, ally oneself.
gre. They're very cheerful people. aliento breath Llegó sin aliento. He was
A brilliant, bright ¡Qué traje tan ale- out of breath when he got here.
gre! What a bright-colored suit that is! Es una persona de muchos alientos.

A drunk, tipsy Está un poco alegre. He's a very energetic person.

He's a little tipsy. aligerar to lighten Tenemos que aligerar
alegría delight, joy, pleasure Mostró la carga. We
have to lighten the load.
A to
gran alegría cuando le vio. He showed hasten, hurry Aligera porque es
great joy when he saw him. tarde. Hurry up, it's late.
alejarse to go away No se aleje demasia- alimentar to feed, nourish Esta comida
do. Don't go too far away. no alimenta bastante. This food's not
alentado well, all right [Am] Estaba en- nourishing enough.
alimento food, nourishment.
fermo, pero hoy ya está alentado. He
alistarse to enlist Se alistó en la Legión
was ill, but today he's all right.
Extranjera. He enlisted in the For-
alentar [rad-ch I] to comfort, cheer up
eign Legion.
Hay que alentarla un poco. She needs
alistarse to get ready [Am] Hay que
a little cheering up. A to encourage
alistarse temprano porque el tren no
Aliéntele Ud. a que lo haga ahora.
Encourage him to do it.
espera. We'd better get ready early
because the train won't wait.
alfabeto alphabet.
aliviar to relieve, alleviate.
[m] pin.
allá there ¡Allá está! There it is!
alfombra carpet, rug. O allá arriba up there, way up Está
algo something ¿Tiene Ud. algo que de- allá arriba esperándole. He's up
cirme? Have you something to tell me? there waiting for you. O allá dentro
A rather,
somewhat Me parece algo in there, inside Allá dentro están sus
caro. It seems rather expensive to amigos. Your friends are in there.
me. hacia allá, para allá that way Vamos
O algo de some ¿Tiene Ud. algo de hacia allá. Let's go that way. O m ás
dinero? Have you got some money? allá farther on, beyond El pueblo está
° por algo for some reason Por algo más allá de aquellos árboles. The vil-
me dice Ud. eso. You must have a lage is beyond those trees. O por allá
reason for telling me. O servir para over there Les vi por allá hace un rato.
algo to be useful, be good for some- 1 saw 'em over there a while ago.
thing No sé si esto le servirá para allí there Póngalo allí. Put it over there.
algo. I don't know whether this'll be — Su casa está allí a la derecha. His
of any use to you. house is there on the right.



O de allí from there Vive lejos de alterar to change, transform Su venida

allí. She lives far from there. O desde alteró completamente nuestra vida.
allí from there Desde allí se veía per- His coming changed our lives com-
fectamente. From
there one could see pletely.
perfectly. O por allí that way Dice O alterarse to get excited No se
que vayamos por allí. He says we altere Ud. que no es nada. Don't
should go that way. get excited; it's nothing.
alma soul. alternar to alternate, take turns.
O almas people Es un pueblo de tres alternativa [/] alternative.
mil almas. It's a town of 3000 people. alto high, tall ¿Qué es aquel edificio tan
O de mi alma (term of affectionate alto? What's that very tall building?
used Spanish-speaking A high (in rank) Habló con un alto em-
address in
countries) ¡Hijo de mi alma! My pleado del Ministerio de Hacienda. He
dear child! talked to a high official of the Treas-
|| Lo siento en el alma. I'm terribly ury Department. A high Los precios
sorry. son muy altos en esta tienda. Prices
warehouse, stockroom; A loud
almacén [to] are very high in this store.
store, shop; department store; [Arg] No hables tan alto. Don't talk so loud.
grocery store. O a altas horas de la noche very late
almendra almond. at night Volvió a altas horas de la
almidón [to] starch. noche. He returned very late at night.
almidonar to starch. O altos upper story Viven en los altos
almirante [to] admiral. de aquella casa. They live in the
almohada pillow. upper story of that house. O lo alto
ho voy a consultar con
la almo- top La casa está en lo alto de la colina.
hada. I'm going to sleep on it (i.e., The house is on top of the hill. ° pasar
think over).
it por alto to overlook, forget Hemos
almohadón [m] cushion. pasado por alto muchos puntos im-
almorzar [rad-ch /] to lunch, breakfast. portantes. We've overlooked many im-
almuerzo lunch, noon meal; breakfast. portant facts.
alocado reckless Es un muchacho muy alto O hacer alto to stop, halt Hicimos
alocado. He's a reckless young fellow. alto en el camino para almorzar. We
alojamiento lodging. stopped along the way to have lunch.
alojar to put up, lodge, quarter. Los soldados hicieron alto a la entrada
alpargata espadrille (sandal with fiber del pueblo. The soldiers halted at the
sole and canvas upper). entrance to the town.
alquilar to rent, hire Alquilaron una ||
¡Alto! Halt! or Stop!
casa. They rented a house. A to let altura height, altitude, elevation No me
Se alquilan habitaciones. Rooms for encuentro bien a tanta altura. I don't
rent. feel well at such a high altitude.
alquiler [w] rent, price of rent. aludir a to allude to, refer to.
A lighting,
alrededor O alrededor de around Estaban alumbrado See alumbrar.
sentados alrededor de la mesa. They lighting system Hay muy poco alum-
were sitting ai'ound the table. A about brado en esta parte de la ciudad. The
Costó alrededor de treinta pesos. It lighting's poor in this part of the city.
cost about thirty pesos. O alrededores alumbrar to give light Los faroles de la
[m pi] outskirts, surroundings. calle no alumbran bastante. The street
altar [m] altar. lamps don't give enough light. A to
altavoz [to] loudspeaker. light, illuminate ¿Puede alumbar el
alteración [/] alteration, change Tene- camino? Can you light the way?
mos que hacer algunas alteraciones en alumno pupil, student.
nuestros planes. We have to make alusión [/] allusion, reference; hint.
some changes in our plans. A strong alzar to lift, raise No alzó los ojos del
emotion Daba muestras de gran altera- libro. He didn't raise his eyes from
ción. He showed signs of great emo- the book.
tion. O alzarse to rise, revolt Se alzaron
O alteración del orden tumult, public contra el gobierno.' They revolted
disorder Hubo alteraciones del orden against the government. A to get up.
en todo el país. There were disorders O alzarse con to lift, steal, swipe Se
all over the country. alzó con el dinero. He stole the money.


amabilidad SPANISH-ENGLISH andar

amabilidad kindness. He's found a new love. A love,

[/] dar-
amable kind, amiable. ling Sí,mi amor. Yes, darling.
amanecer to dawn En verano amanece O amor propio self-esteem, pride
más temprano que en invierno. In the Tiene un amor propio excesivo. He
summer it dawns earlier than in the has too much pride.
winter. amoscarse to become peeved or irked Se
amanecer [m] daybreak, dawn. ha amoscado con tus palabras. He
amanecida O a la amanecida at day- was peeved by what you said.
break, at dawn. amotinarse to mutiny.
amante [adj~\ loving. A [n] lover; mis- amparo aid; protection.
tress. ampliación [/] enlargement Quiero una
amapola poppy. ampliación de esta fotografía. I want
amar to love. an enlargement of this photograph.
amargado (see amargar) embittered ampliar to enlarge, amplify, extend.
Ese tipo está amargado. That guy's amplio ample, roomy, large.
very embittered. amueblar to furnish, supply with furni-
amargar to make bitter, make miserable ture Amueblaron la casa con todo lujo.
Amarga vida de todos los que le
la They furnished the house very luxu-
rodean. He makes life miserable for riously.
everyone around him. analfabeto [adj, n] illiterate.
amargo bitter. análisis [m or f] analysis.
amargor [m] bitterness No podia sopor- analizar to analyze.
tar el amargor del café. He couldn't anarquía anarchy.
stand the bitterness of the coffee. ancho wide, broad ¿Cree Ud. que el ca-
amargura bitterness Sus desgracias le mino es bastante ancho para automó-
causaron una gran amargura. His viles? Do you think the road's wide
misfortunes caused him great bitter- enough for cars? A too big, too wide
ness. Este traje me está ancho. This suit's
amarillo yellow. too big for me. A width,
breadth ¿Qué
amarrar to tie, fasten. ancho tiene la tela? What's the width
ambición [/] (excessive) ambition. of the material?
ambicioso overambitious. ° a sus anchas at ease, comfortable.
ambiente [m] atmosphere, environment. anciano aged, very old (of people).
ambulancia ambulance. ancla anchor.

amén amen. andada hike [Am] Dimos la gran andada

Dice a todo amén. He's a yes-man. para llegar a la cumbre. We took a
amenaza threat, menace. long hike up to the summit.
amenazar to threaten, menace. andalón [m] wanderer, gadabout [Am]
americana coat (of a man's Eres muy andalón, muchacho. You're
suit) [Sp].
a great gadabout, my boy.
amigo, amiga friend Es una amiga mía.
andar [irr] to walk, go on foot Es dema-
She's a friend of mine.
siado lejos para ir andando. It's too
amistad [/] friendship. A to
O hacer amistad to become friends, far to walk. go, move El tren
echó a andar. The train began to
make friends (with) Pronto hicieron A to run,
move. go, work ¿Anda ese
amistad. They soon became friends.
reloj? Is that clock going?
Hizo amistad con Juan. He made O andar andando to roam around
friends with John. O hacer amistades
[Mex, Col] He andado andando todo
to get acquainted En poco tiempo hizo
el día. I've been chasing around all
amistades allí. He got acquainted day. O andar cerca to come close to
there in a short time.
amistoso friendly.
No se sacó el premio, pero le anduvo
cerca. He didn't win the prize, but
amo, ama owner, proprietor Hablamos
he came close to it. O andar en to be
con el amo de la casa. We talked with
going on [Am] El niño anda en siete
the owner of the house. A boss
No se afws. The child's going on seven.
lo digas al amo. Don't tell the boss. O andarse por las ramas to beat around
amontonar to heap, pile up. the bush.
amor [m] love Le gusta hablar de amor. ¡Anda! Move on! or Get up! or

He likes to talk of love. A love,

heart- Go ahead! Go on! or Go
; Ándale!

throb Ha encontrado un nuevo amor. to it! [Am]

andarivel SPANISH-ENGLISH aparte

andarivel [m] cable ferry, aerial cable ante todo above all, first of all Ante todo
car [Am]. A rail, fence [Arg] El no olvide escribirme. Above all, don't
jinete cayó cerca del andarivel. The forget to write me.
jockey fell right by the rail. anticipar to advance, lend Me anticipó
andén [m] (railroad) platform. treinta pesos. He lent me 30 pesos.
A to advance Anticiparon la fecha de
angosto narrow.
ángulo angle. la fiesta. They advanced the date of
anillo ring he regaló un
anillo de brillan- the party.
tes. He gave
her a diamond ring. O anticiparse to arrive ahead of time
animación [/] animation, liveliness La Se anticiparon media hora. They ar-
A to get
animación de la reunión me sorpren- rived half an hour early.
dió. The liveliness of the gathering ahead of Se me anticipó. He got
surprised me. ahead of me.
animado (see animar) lively, animated. antiguo former; old, ancient.
animal [?n] animal. A jackass, stupid O a la antigua in an old-fashioned
person ¡No seas animal! Don't be a way Le gusta vestir a la
antigua. She
jackass! likes to dress in an old-fashioned way.
animar to cheer, encourage Vamos a antipatía dislike Me tiene antipatía. He
animar a los jugadores. Let's encour- dislikes me.
age the players. A to pep up Su antipático disagreeable Es un hombre
llegada animó la fiesta. His arrival muy antipático. He's a very disagree-
pepped up the party. able man.
O animar a to encourage to, urge to antojarse Hace todo lo que se le an-

he estoy animando a que venga con toja. She does whatever comes into her
nosotros. I'm urging him to come with mind. Lo hago porque se me antoja.

us. I do it because I take a notion to.

ánimo (state of) mind, spirits Estaba de anunciar to announce; to advertise.
buen ánimo. He was in good spirits. anuncio advertisement; announcement;
A courage. notice.
O dar ánimos to encourage, cheer up añadir to add (to).
Le dio ánimos porque estaba decaído. año year.
She cheered him up because he was O año bisiesto leap year. O año
depressed. nuevo new year Feliz año nuevo.
aniversario [w] anniversary. Happy New Year. O tener años . . .

anoche last night. to be years old Tengo veinte años.

. . .

anochecer \_-zc-] to grow dark, get dark I'm twenty years old.
Ahora anochece a las cinco. It gets apagar to put out, extinguish Apague
dark at five now. Ud. la luz. Put out the light.
anochecer [m] dusk, nightfall. O apagarse to go out Se apagaron
ansiedad [/] anxiety. las luces. The lights went out.
ansioso anxious, eager, impatient Estoy apagón [m] blackout.
ansioso de conocerla. I'm anxious to aparato apparatus, set Vende aparatos
meet her. de radio. He sells radio sets.
anteanoche night before last. aparecer \_-zc-] to show up, turn up No
anteayer day before yesterday. apareció. He didn't show up.
anteojos [m pi] eyeglasses, spectacles. aparición [/] appearance (presence) he
antepasado \_adj] before last El año ante- sorprendió la aparición repentina de
pasado fuimos a Europa. The year su amigo. He was surprised by the
before last we went to Europe. A [w] sudden appearance of his friend.
A apparition.
ancestor, ancestress.
anterior previous, last, apariencia appearance, looks No me
antes before Ya
se lo dije a Ud. antes. gusta su apariencia. Idon't like his
I told you that before. A formerly looks.
Esta calle tenía otro nombre antes. apartado (see apartar) distant, far away.
This street used to have another name. O apartado (de correos) post office
antes de before Comamos antes de box.
ir. Let's eat before we go. O antes apartamiento apartment [Am].
que before Salieron antes que nosotros apartar to separate, divide.
llegásemos. They left before we ar- aparte separate Eso es cuestión abarte.
A aside.
rived. That's a separate question.


apearse SPANISH-ENGLISH apuesta

separately Ponga este paquete aparte. motion. Apoyo la proposición. I

Put this package aside. second the motion.
apearse to get off Se prohibe apearse en O apoyarse to support oneself, lean
marcha. Don't get off while the ve- Se apoya en un bastón. He's leaning
hicle's in on a cane.
apellido (family) name. apoyo prop, support.
apenado sorry, grieved Estaban aperlados aprecio esteem, respect, liking Le tengo
por la enfermedad de su tía. They mucho aprecio. I have great respect
were grieved by the illness of their for him.
aunt. A worried [Am~\ Estábamos ape- aprender to learn.
nados porque no recibíamos noticias. apresurar to hasten, hurry No apresure
We were worried because we weren't el paso; llegaremos a la hora. Don't
getting any news. walk so fast; we'll get there on time.
apenas scarcely, hardly Apenas puede O apresurarse to hurry up Haga el
andar. He can hardly walk. A as soon favor de apresurarse; ya llegamos
as Apenas llegue, avíseme. Let me tarde. Please hurry; we're late al-
know as soon as he comes. ready.
apertura opening (of exhibition, public
apretar [rad-ch I] to tighten Apriete
event). A to
este tornillo. Tighten this screw.
apetito appetite.
be too tight on Me aprieta mucho este
apiñado gathered in a crowd La gente
cuello. This collar's too tight. A to
está apiñada para ver el desfile. A press down on, put pressure on, com-
crowd of people gathered to see the
press Apretó para cerrar la maleta.
He pressed down on the suitcase to
apio celery. A to grip Me
close it. apretó la mano.
aplanar to smooth, flatten.
He gripped my hand. A to clench
O aplanarse to be in low spirits, get A to go faster,
(fist or teeth). sprint
depressed Se aplanó después del fra-
El corredor apretó en la última vuelta.
caso. He got very depressed after his
The runner sprinted on the last lap.
apretazón [/] crowd [Am] Era tanta la
aplastar to crush Aplastaron toda resis-
apretazón que nadie vio nada. There
tencia. They crushed all resistance.
A was such a crowd that nobody saw
to flatten Le aplastaron las narices.
They flattened his nose.
aprieto jam, tight spot Se vio en un
O aplastarse to flatten oneself Se
aplastaron contra la pared. They
aprieto. He found himself in a tight
tened themselves against the wall.
aprisa swiftly, fast, quickly Hace todo
aplaudir to applaud.
aplauso applause.
muy aprisa. He does everything very
aplicado (see aplicar) studious, indus-
trious Es un estudiante muy aplicado. aprobación [/] approval.
He's very studious. aprobar to approve of No apruebo su
aplicar to apply, put on Le aplicaron a conducta. I don't approve of his con-
duct. A to
la silla una capa de pintura. They pass (an examination)
put a coat of paint on the chair. ¿Aprobó Ud. en el examen de matemá-
O aplicarse to apply oneself. ticas? Did you pass your math exam?
aplomo self-possession, poise Tiene mu- aprontar to advance [Am] El patrón
cho aplomo. He has a lot of poise. tuvo que aprontarle algún dinero. The
apoderarse de to take possession of, seize. boss had to advance him some money.
apodo nickname. aprovechar to profit by, make use of
aporrear to beat up, club. Aprovechaba todos los restos. She
apostar to bet ¿Cuánto apuesta Ud.? made use of all the left-overs.
How much do you bet? O aprovecharse de to take advantage
O apostar a que to bet that Apuesto of No dejes que se aproveche de tí.
a que llego yo antes de Ud. I bet I Don't let him take advantage of you.
get there before you. aprovisionar to supply, provision.
apoyar to rest, prop Apoye el pie en ese aproximarse to approach, move near No
escalón. Rest your foot on that step. se aproxime Ud. demasiado al fuego.
A to back, support, second Nadie apoyó Don't go too near the fire
su proposición. No one supported his apuesta bet, wager.

— —
apunarse SPANISH-ENGLISH arrastrado

apunarse to become ill from altitude arena sand.

[Am]. arenoso sandy.
apuntar to aim Apunta demasiado bajo arenque [»(] herring.
para dar en el blanco. You're aiming arepa arepa (corn griddle cake) [Aw].
A to jot argumento argument, logic, premises No
too low to hit the target.
down, make a note of Apúntelo en su me convencen sus argumentos. His
cuaderno de notas. Jot it down in arguments don't convince me. A plot,
your notebook. story No me gustó el argumento de la
apurar to drain, drink up, consume Apu- película. I didn't like the plot of the
raron las copas. They drained their movie.
A to smoke to the end. árido arid, dry, barren.
O apurar (se) to worry La situación aristocracia aristocracy.
me apura mucho. The situation worries arma weapon Se prohibe llevar armas.
me very much. No se apure Ud. It's forbidden to carry arms.
worry. A to hurry ¡Apúrate
Don't armadura armor; framework.
niña! Hurry up, child! ¡Apúrale! armar to arm Armaron al pueblo. They
Hurry up! [Aw]. armed the people. A to assemble, put
apuro jam, tight spot, fix Estoy en gran together Hay que armar esta máquina.
apuro. I'm in a jam. The machine has to be assembled.
aquel, aquella, aquellos, aquellas [adj] O armar jaleo to make a racket
that, these Compré aquella bufanda Anoche armaron mucho jaleo. They
que vimos ayer. I bought that scarf made a big racket last night. O ar-
we looked at yesterday. marse to balk [Am] Las mulas sc
aquél, aquélla, aquéllos, aquéllas [pron] armaron a medio camino. The mules
that (one), these Prefiero este libro a balked halfway there. ° armarse de
aquél. I like this book better than to arm or provide oneself with Se armó
that one. de una pistola. He armed himself with
aquello [neu pron] that (thing) ¿Qué a pistol. A to build up [Am] Se armó
es aquello? What's that? de un buen negocio en poco tiempo.
aquí here No está aquí. He isn't here. He built up a good business in a short
O aquí dentro in here Les espero aquí time.
dentro. I'll wait for you in here. Siempre arma
líos. He's always
O de aquí en adelante from now on making a mess of things.
De aquí en adelante tendremos que armario closet, wardrobe.
gastar menos. From now on we'll armonía harmony
have to spend less money. O por aquí arqueo balance (in accounting).
here, this way Venga Ud. por aquí.
arquitecto architect.
Come this way. arquitectura architecture.
arado plow.
arrabal [m] suburb, outskirts.
araña spider.
arrancado broke [Am] Siempre está
arañar to scratch.
arrancado a fin de mes. He's always
arañazo scratch.
broke at the end of the month.
arar to plow.
arrancar to root out, pull out, tear out
araucano [adj, n] Araucanian. Han arrancado tres páginas. Three
arbitro arbitrator, umpire, referee. pages have been torn out. A to start
árbol tree. Vimos arrancar el automóvil. We saw
arbusto bush, shrub. the car start.
archivar to file, put in a file.
arranque [m] sudden impulse En un
arco arch; bow (for arrows). arranque me volví a mi pueblo. On
O arco iris rainbow. a sudden impulse I returned to my
arder to burn (be in flames) La leña home town. A starter Este automóvil
mojada no arde bien. Wet firewood tiene arranque automático. This car
doesn't burn well. A to burn (with has a self-starter.
fever). arrastrado (see arrastrar) low, con-
ardido burned up, sore [Am] Me tiene temptible ¡Qué tipo tan arrastrado!
ardido con lo que me dijo. was A bootlicker, yes-man
I What a heel !

burned up by what he said. [Am] Consigue todo porque es muy

ardiente [adj] burning. arrastrado. He gets everything be-
ardilla squirrel. cause he's a bootlicker.


arrastrar SPANISH-ENGLISH asar

arrastrar to drag, drag along Le arras- arriesgar to risk, hazard No le importa

tró la corriente. He was dragged arriesgar la vida. He doesn't mind
A to touch the risking his life.
along by the current.
floor or ground, drag Cuidado, le O arriesgarse to take risks Si no nos
arrastra el abrigo. Be careful, your arriesgamos yio haremos nada. If we
coat's dragging. don't take risks we'll never get any-
O arrastrarse to crawl, creep, drag thing done.
oneself Salieron de la cueva arrastrán- arrimar to place or put near or close
dose. They crawled out of the cave. No arrimes tanto la mesa a la pared.
arreglar to arrange, adjust, settle ¿Está Don't put the table so close to the
todo arreglado para el viaje? Is every- wall.
A to fix hombro! me
thing arranged for the trip? ||
¡Arrima el Give a
Creo que arreglarán el radio esta hand!
tarde. I think they'll fix the radio arrinconar to neglect; to pigeonhole; to
this afternoon. corner.
O arreglarse to tidy up, dress, put arrodillarse to kneel.
make-up on Arréglate un poco y valuó- arrogante arrogant, haughty, proud.
nos al cine. Tidy up a bit and we'll arrojar to throw, hurl, cast Se prohibe
go to the movies. O arreglárselas para arrojar objetos por la ventanilla. Don't
to manage to ¿Cómo me las arreglaré throw things out the window.
para terminar a tiempo? How can I
arrollar to coil Hay que arrollar esa
manage to finish on time? cuerda. That rope has to be coiled.
arreglo arrangement, settlement, agree- A to trample, run over Fueron arrolla-
ment; alteration. dos por la multitud. They were tram-
O con arreglo a according to, in ac-
pled by the crowd.
cordance with Lo hicimos con arreglo
arroyo brook.
a sus instrucciones. We did it accord-
arroz [m] rice.
ing to your instructions.
arrugar to wrinkle, crumple.
arrendar [rad-ch /] to rent, let ¿Quiere
arruinar to ruin (financially) Ese hombre
Ud. arrendar su casa? Do you want
A to rent, hire los ha arruinado completamente. That
to rent your house?
Necesito arrendar una habitación. I
man ruined them completely.
O arruinarse to be ruined (finan-
want to rent a room.
cially) Con esos negocios se ha arrui-
arrepentirse [rad-ch II] to be sorry for,
nado. He was ruined by that business.
regret Se arrepentirá Ud. de esto.
arte [m or /] art ¿Le interesa el arte?
You'll be sorry for this.
Are you interested in art? Las bellas
arrestar to arrest, imprison.
artes. Fine arts. A skill Presenta sus
arriba up, above Viven dos pisos más
argumentos con mucho arte. He pre-
arriba. They live two flights up. sents his arguments with great skill.
A upstairs Los dormitorios están arri-
A craft, cunning.
ba. The bedrooms are upstairs. arteria artery.
O arriba de beyond, past (on higher
articulación [/] joint.
level) Es más arriba de la plaza. It's
artículo article, news article Lea el artí-
past the square. O boca arriba, panza
culo de la página dos. Read the article
arriba, patas arriba face up, on one's
on page two.
or its back. O cuesta arriba uphill.
O artículos things, goods Venden ar-
O de arriba abajo from top to bottom,
tículos de deportes. They sell sporting
from head to foot Le miró de arriba
abajo. He looked him up and down.
artificial artificial.
O desde arriba from above Desde arri-
artista [m, /] artist.
ba se veía el río. From above one
artístico artistic.
could see the river. O hacia arriba up,
upwards El coche iba hacia arriba. arveja green pea [Aw].
The car was going up. O para arriba
' as [m] ace, star; ace (cards).
A [m] roast.
up, upward Vamos para arriba. Let's asado See asar.
go up. O por arriba at or around the asaltar to assault, attack, hold up.
top, up there El sombrero estaba sucio asamblea assembly, convention.
por arriba. The hat was dirty around asar to roast Vamos a asar las castañas.
the top. Let's roast the chestnuts.

ascender SPANISH-ENGLISH atacar

O asarse to be roasting, be uncom- asimismo likewise, too, in the same way

fortably warm Se asa uno en este Asimisyno lo creo yo. I think so too.
cuarto. It's roasting in this room.
asistencia attendance, presence Su asis-
tencia no es necesaria. Your attend-
ascender [rad-ch I] to ascend, go up El
ance isn't necessary. A assistance, help.
globo ascendió lentamente. The balloon
A to be promoted asistir to assist, help, take care of he
went up slowly.
asistí en su enfermedad. I took care
Ascendió tres veces en un aíw. He was
of him during his illness.
promoted three times in one year.
O ascender a to amount to La cuenta O asistir a to attend, be present at
The ¿Asistió Ud. a la reunión? Were you
ascendía a cuatrocientos pesos.
present at the meeting?
bill amounted to 400 pesos.
asno ass, donkey.
ascensor [m] (passenger) elevator.
asociación [/] association, club.
ascensorista [m, /] elevator operator.
asociado See asociar. A [n] associate,
asco nausea, disgust Rechazó la comida partner.
con asco. He refused the food with asociar to associate.
disgust. asolear to dry in the sun Hay que asolear
O darasco to disgust Esas cosas me la ropa. The wash'll have to be put
dan asco. Those things disgust me. in the sun to dry.
O estar hecho un asco to be very dirty, O asolearse to take a sun bath [Am]
be filthy No te acerques, estás hecho Estuvieron asoleándose en la playa.
un asco. Don't come near me; you're They were taking a sun bath on the
filthy. O hacer ascos to turn up one's beach.
nose Le hace ascos a todo. He turns up asomar to put out (one's head, hand, etc)
his nose at everything. Asojtió la cabeza por la ventana. He
asegurar to secure, fasten (with rope or put his head out of the window.
strap) Aseguró con una cuerda la carga O asomarse a to lean out of Se pro-
del caballo. He fastened the horse's hibe asomarse al exterior. It's for-
pack with a rope. A to assure Le ase- bidden to lean out of windows.
guro que todo estará preparado a asombrar to astonish, amaze Asombra a
tiempo. I assure you everything will todo el mundo por su ingenio. He
be ready on time. A to affirm, maintain amazes everybody by his cleverness.
Asegura que es cierto. He maintains O asombrarse de to wonder at, be
it's true.
A to insure El equipaje está astonished by, be amazed at Me asom-
asegurado. The baggage is insured. bra que diga Ud. eso. I'm amazed that
O asegurarse to make sure Asegú- you say that.
rense primero de que la información asombroso wonderful, astonishing.
es cierta. First make sure the infor- áspero rough, harsh Esa tela es muy
mation's correct. A to get insured Se áspera. That cloth's very rough.
aseguró contra accidentes. He took aspiración [/] ambition.
out accident insurance. aspirar to aspire.
asesinar to murder, asqueroso filthy, nasty, mean, low.
asesinato murder. astilla chip; splinter.
asesino assassin, murderer. O astillas [pi] kindling.
así so, that way Así es. That's the way astucia [/] cunning.
it is.
A in this manner, this way Lo astuto astute, crafty.
debe Ud. hacer así. You must do it asumir to assume, take on Asumió todas
this way. A therefore, and so Así, las responsabilidades. He assumed full
decidieron actuar inmediatamente. And responsibility.
so they decided to act immediately. asunto subject ¿Cuál es el asunto de esa
O así, así so so ¿Cómo está Ud.?" comedia? What's the subject of that
"Así, así." "How
are you?" "So so." play? A affair, business No se meta
O así como así without reason No ¡o Ud. en mis asuntos. Don't meddle in
digo así como así. I don't say it with- my affairs, or Mind your own business.
out reason. O así que as soon as, after asustar to frighten Me asustaron sus y ri-
Así que llegue le avisaré. I'll let you tos. Your screams frightened me.
know as soon as I get there. O asustarse to be frightened Se asus-
asiento seat, chair Tome Ud. asiento. ta de los ruidos fuertes. She's fright-
Take a seat. ened by loud noises.
asilo orphanage; home (for aged). atacar to attack.

atado SPANISH-ENGLISH atravesar

atado See atar. A [m] bundle, parcel [Am]. atleta [m, /] athlete.
atajar to overtake, catch up with Por este atlético athletic.
camino les atajaremos. If we go this atmósfera atmosphere.
way we'll catch up with 'em. A to in- atol, atole [m] atol, atole (a hot non-
terrupt, cut short Le atajó cutiéndole alcoholic drink widely used in Mexico
que no. He cut him short by saying no. and Central America).
atajo short cut, shorter road. atolondrado scatter-brained No he visto
ataque [m] attack, assault; attack, fit. una persona más atolondrada. I've

atar to tie, lace, bind Átate bien los zapa- never seen such a scatterbrain.
tos. Lace your shoes up tight. atontado foolish, stupid No seas atontado.
O atar cabos to put two and two to- Don't be so foolish.
gether Aoírlo, até cabos. When I atormentar to torment, torture.
heard that I put two and two together. atornillar to screw, turn a screw.
atarantado dizzy He bailado tanto que atracción [/] attraction.
estoy atarantada. I've danced so much atractivo attractive, charming ¡Que mu-
that I'm dizzy. jer tan atractiva! What an attractive
atareado busy. woman! A [m] charm, appeal Es muy
ataúd [m] coffin, casket. bonita pero no tiene atractivo. She's
atención [/] attention El anunciador very pretty but she has no appeal.
pidió atención. The announcer called atraer [irr] to attract, charm.
for attention. atrás back Está allí atrás con unos ami-
O atenciones [pi] kindness Nunca gos. She's back there with some
olvidaré sus atenciones. I'll never for- friends.
get your kindness. O llamar la aten- O dar marcha atrás to go into re-
ción to attract attention Le gusta verse, back up No dé marcha atrás que
llamar la atención. She likes to attract hay un árbol. Don't back up; there's
A to reprimand Le llamé la
attention. a tree behind you. O hacia atrás back,
atención por su falta de respeto. I backward Miró hacia atrás. He looked
reprimanded him for his insolence. back. O quedarse atrás to stay behind,
atender [rad-ch I] to attend, wait on fall behind Se ha quedado atrás con
El dependiente los atendió en seguida. unos amigos. She stayed behind with
The clerk waited on them immediately. some friends.
A to pay attention Haz el favor de
atrasado (see atrasar) backward, behind
atender a lo que te digo. Please pay (in work, studies, etc).
attention to what I'm saying. A to atrasar to delay, detain Esto atrasa mu-
look after, take care of Atiende muy cho mi viaje. This'll delay my trip a
bien a sus invitados. He takes very long time. A to put back (watch or
good care of his guests. clock) Tengo que atrasar mi reloj, está
atenerse a [irr] to depend on, rely on muy adelantado. I have to set my
(accept as valid) No sé a que atenerme. watch back it's very fast. A to go or

I don't know what depend on.

to be slow, lose time Mi reloj atrasa diez
atentado assassination (attempted or suc- minutos al día. My watch loses ten
cessful) attempt (to overthrow by vio-
; minutes a day.
lence) Se cometió un atentado contra O atrasarse to remain or get behind,
la vida del presidente. There was an lose time Creo que nos atrasamos en
attempt on the life of the president. este trabajo. I think we're getting
atento polite, courteous; attentive. behind in this work.
S?t atento seguro servidor.
Very atraso backwardness El atraso de ese
truly yours. paí es bien conocido. The backward-
aterrar to terrify. ness of that country's well known.
atinar to hit the mark. A to guess A delay.

(right) Atinó el dinero que yo tenia en atravesar [rad-ch I] to pierce La bala le

el bolsillo. He guessed the amount of atravesó el brazo. The bullet pierced
money I had in my pocket. his arm. A to cross He atravesado el
° atinar a to succeed in No atinó a Atlántico varias veces. I've crossed
explicar lo que quería. He didn't suc- the Atlantic several times.
ceed in explaining what he wanted. O atravesarse to stop crosswise Se
O atinar con to find (hit upon) No atravesó un camión en la carretera. A
atino con el ojo de la cerradura. I truck stopped crosswise in the middle
can't find the keyhole. of the road.

atreverse SPANISH-ENGLISH avion

atreverse to dare, venture No se atreve a autobús o el tranvía? Which is cheaper,

decírmelo. He doesn't dare to tell me. the bus or the street car?
atribuir to attribute. automático automatic. A [m] snap (for
atrocidad [/] atrocity; horrible or ter- clothing).
rible thing ¡Qué atrocidad! What a automóvil [m] automobile.
horrible thing! autor [m] author.
atropellar to run over, knock down Le autora authoress.
atropello un auto. An automobile ran autoridad [/] authority, power No supo
over him. mantener su autoridad. He couldn't
O atropellarse to rush through Si maintain his authority.
quiere Ud. hacer el trabajo bien, no se O autoridades authorities, govern-
atropelle. If you want to do a good ment Han dado parte a las autoHdades.
job, don't rush through it. They reported it to the authorities.
atropello abuse, outrage No podemos autorizar to authorize.
tolerar tal atropello. We
can't toler- auxiliar to aid, help, assist.
A accident (in
ate such an outrage. avanzar to move forward El coche avan-
which a pedestrian injured) Tres
is zaba muy despacio. The car moved
peatones fueron víctimas de un atro- very slowly. A to advance, make prog-
pello. Three pedestrians were victims ress, get ahead No avanzamos yiuda en
of an accident. nuestro trabajo. We're not making
atroz terrible, atrocious ¡Fué una cosa any progress in our work.
atroz! It was a terrible thing! avaro stingy, miserly. A [n] miser.
aturdir to rattle Me aturde tanto ruido. ave [m] bird, fowl,
So much noise rattles me. avena oats.
O aturdirse to be stunned Se aturdió
avenida avenue. A flood Las avenidas han
y no supo que contestar. He was
estropeado la cosecha. The floods
stunned and didn't know what to an- ruined the crops.
avenirse \irr~\ to agree Se avino a lo que
audacia audacity, boldness.
le dijeron. He agreed to what they
audaz bold, daring.
auditorio audience, listeners.
aventajado promising Es un muchacho
aumentar to increase Han aumentado los
sueldos. They've increased the sala-
muy aventajado. He's a very promis-
ing young man.
aventajar to get ahead, to surpass Aven-
aumento increase. trabajo. He gets
taja a todos en el
aun, aún still Aun podemos llegar a
ahead of everybody in his work.
tiempo. We can still get there on time.
aventura adventure; risk, chance.
A evenNi aun ahora sería posible.
aventurar to risk, hazard ¡No se aven-
Even now it wouldn't be possible.
ture! Don't risk it!
A yet No ha venido aún. He hasn't
come yet. aventurero adventurous; adventurer,
O aun cuando even though, even if avergonzar [rad-ch I] to shame, to make
Aun cuando no venga tendremos que (someone) ashamed Avergonzó a toda
empezar. Even if he doesn't come su familia con su conducta. He shamed
we'll have to begin. his whole family by his conduct.
O avergonzarse to be ashamed Des-
aunque though, even if Aunque no he
conozco muy bien. pués de decirlo se avergonzó. After
nacido en el país, lo
Though I wasn't born in the country, he said it, he was ashamed.
I know it very well.
avería damage El mecánico arregló la
ausencia absence. avería sin demora. The mechanic re-
ausentarse to leave, absent oneself Se paired the damage without delay. i

ausentó de la clase porque se sentía averiarse to be damaged, be spoiled Con

la lluvia se averió el cargamento. The
enfermo. He left the class because he
was feeling sick. shipment was damaged by the rain,
ausente absent. A [n] one who is absent. averiguar to find out.
auténtico authentic. aviación [/] aviation.
auto auto, car ¿Hay bastante sitio en el aviador [th] aviator.
ávido eager, anxious Estaba ávido de
auto para todos? Is there enough room
in the car for everybody? noticias. He was eager for news.
autobús [w] bus ¿Qué es más barato, el avión [m] airplane, plane.



avisar to notify, inform Hay que avisar ayunas O e n ayunas hungry, fasting, on
a la policía We have to notify the an empty stomach No fume en ayunas.
police. A to warn, advise, counsel Es Don't smoke on an empty stomach.
la última vez que te aviso. I'm warn- azada hoe.
ing you for the last time. azafate [m] tray [Am].
aviso announcement, notice, warning azafrán [m] saffron.
Aviso al público. Notice to the public. azahar [?«] orange blossom.
avispa wasp. azar [m] chance, risk Corramos ese azar.
Let's take that chance. A chance Le
avivar to revive (make bright) Avivaron
el fuego echando más leña. They re- gustan los juegos de azar. He likes
vived the fire by putting on more wood. games of chance.
O avivar el ojo to keep one's eyes O al azar at random Los escogió al
open, look sharp ¿Por qué no avivas azar. He chose them at random.
el ojo? Why don't you keep your eyes azarar to embarrass, confuse Esto azara
open? O avivar el paso to step lively a cualquiera. This would embarrass
Avive el paso; es muy tarde. Step anyone.
lively ;it's very late. O avivarse to O azararse to be embarrassed Cuando
se lo dije se azaró mucho. When I told
wake up, to cheer up Avívate; estás
como dormido. Wake up; you're half him that he was very much embar-
azote [m] whipping; spank; lash.
jay! oh! ouch!
azteca \_adj; ri\ Aztec.
ayer yesterday.
azúcar [m or /] sugar.
ayuda help, aid, assistance Necesito azucarera sugar bowl. A [adj] pertain-
ayuda en esto. I need help with this. ing to sugar La industria azucarera.
ayudar to aid, help, assist Quiero ayu- The sugar industry.
darle a llevar los paquetes. I want to azucena white lily.
help him carry the packages. azufre [m] sulfur.
ayunar to fast. azul [adj; n] blue.

babucha slipper. bajamar [/] low tide.
bacalao codfish. bajar to go down, descend Bajemos la
bachiller [m] graduate, holder of a bache- escalera despacio. Let's go down the
lor's degree (person possessing a Span- A to fall, drop
stairs slowly. La tem-
ish degree equivalent in the U.S. to a peratura bajó. The temperature fell.
high-school diploma plus two years of A to lower
to bring down Baje Ud. la

college). maleta de mi cuarto. Bring the suit-

bagazo pulp [Am]. case down from my room. A to take
bahia bay (arm of sea). down ¿Quiere ayudarme a bajar las
bailar to dance. maletas de la red? Will you help me
bailarín [w] dancer. take the suitcases down from the
bailarina [/] dancer. rack?
baile [m] dance, ball. O bajarse to get down, get off Nos
baja (military) casualty El enemigo su- vieron al bajarse del tren. They saw
frió muchas bajas. The enemy suf- us as they were getting off the train.
fered many casualties. A fall (in price) A to
bend over Se bajó para atarse un
Hubo una baja en todos los precios. zapato. He bent over to tie his shoe.
There was a general fall in prices. bajo low Quiero una mesa baja. I want
O dar de baja to drop out (from a a low table. A short Es
más bajo que
list of members 01 subscribers) Se dio su hermano. He's shorter than his
de baja del club. He dropped out of brother. A low, soft Hablaban
en voz
the club. Por falta de pago, lo dieron baja. They were speaking in a low
de baja de la lista de subscriptores. A
voice. bass (voice, instrument) Va-
Fot lack of payment they dropped him mos a colocar los bajos a la izquierda.
from the subscription list. Let's put the basses on the left. A be-
bajada descent, slope. l»w La temperatura ha llegado a bajo

— —— — !


cero. The temperature's fallen below baño bath; bathroom; bathtub.

zero. A street floor, ground floor El baraja deck of cards.
portero vive en el bajo The superin- barajar to shuffle (cards).
tendent lives on the ground floor. baranda banister.
bala bullet, ball. barata cockroach [Ch, Peru].
balance [m] balance balance sheet ¿Cuál
; barato cheap, inexpensive Es muy bonito
es mi balance de este mes en el banco? y además barato. It's very pretty and
What's my bank balance this month? besides it's cheap. A cheaply, cheap
balancearse to sway, rock, swing No se En este almacén venden muy barato.
balancee en la silla; se va a romper. They sell things very cheap in this
A [m] sale Hoy hay un barato
Don't rock in the chair; it's going to store.
break. en ese almacén. There's a sale today
balanceo [m] rocking, wobbling. in that department store.
balanza scales, balance. barba beard; chin.
balazo shot Se oyeron tres balazos. Three barbaridad [/] any excess in speech or
shots were heard. A bullet wound action Come una barbaridad. He eats
Tenía tres balazos en el pecho. He too much. No diga Ud. barbaridades.
had three bullet wounds in his chest. Don't talk nonsense. Lo que hizo fué
balcón [m] balcony. una barbaridad. What he did was an
balde [m] bucket, pail Este balde se sale. outrage. Me gusta una barbaridad. I
This bucket leaks. like her an awful lot.
O de balde gratis, free Dan boletos bárbaro crude Es un hombre bárbaro.
de balde. They're giving tickets free. He's a crude man.
O en balde in vain, without success barbería barbershop.
Trató en balde de hablar con ella por barbero barber.
teléfono. He tried to get her on the barca (small) boat.
phone without success. barco boat, ship ¿Cuántas veces ha hecho
balear to wound by gunshot [Am] Lo Ud. el viaje por barco? How many
balearon ayer. They shot him yester- times have you made the trip by boat?
day. barniz [m] varnish.
balneario bathing resort. barnizar to varnish.
balón [m] football. barquinazo tumble, fall [Am].
banana banana. barra bar, rod Necesitamos una barra de
banco bank ¿Puedo cobrar mi cheque en hierro. We need an iron bar. A public,
este banco? Can I cash my check in spectators [Am] La barra animaba a
this bank? A bench Todos los bancos los jugadores. The spectators cheered
están ocupados. All the benches are the players on.
taken. barranco gorge, ravine.
banda sash, band (wide strip of material) barrer to sweep.
La falda tenía tres bandas rojas. The barril [m] barrel, cask.
skirt had three red bands. Llevaba barrio quarter, section, district.
una banda roja cruzada al pecho. He barro mud; pimple.
wore a red sash across his chest. base [/] basis; base.
A band (music) Esa banda (de música)
¡basta! (See bastar) enough! stop!
me da dolor de cabeza. That band ¡Basta ya! He dicho que te calles.
gives me a headache. A gang Una That's enough !I told you to shut up
banda de ladrones actúa por esta re- bastante enough, sufficient ¿Tiene Ud.
gión. A gang of thieves works these bastante dinero? Do you have enough
parts. money? A enough, rather Es una
bandeja tray. mujer bastante bonita. She's a rather
bandera flag. pretty woman.
bandido bandit. bastar to be enough No bastó la comida
banquero banker. para todos. There wasn't enough food
banqueta sidewalk [Mex]; stool. for all.
bañar to bathe Haga el favor de bañar a bastidores [m pi] O entre bastidores
los niños. Please bathe the children. behind the scenes, backstage.
O bañarse to take a bath Voy a basto coarse, rough El traje está hecho
bañarme. I'm going to take a bath. de material muy basto. The suit's made
bañera bathtub. of very rough material.
bañero lifeguard. bastón [m] cane, walking stick.

basura SPANISH-ENGLISH bocado

basura garbage, refuse. If Fíjese bien en lo que le digo. Pay

bata robe, bathrobe; house coat. close attention to what you.I tell
batalla battle. bienestar [m] well-being, comfort.
batata sweet potato. bienvenido [adj] welcome ¡Bienvenido a
bate [m] baseball bat [-Am], mi casa! Welcome to my house!
batería battery. biftec [m] see bistec.
batir to beat Haga el favor de batir los bigote [m] mustache.
huevos. Please beat the eggs. A to billar [m] billiards, pool.
defeat Batió a su enemigo. He de- billete [m] ticket ¿Ha comprado Ud. los
feated his enemy. billetes? Have you bought the tickets?
O batirse to fight; to fight a duel. O billete (de banco) bill Déme el
baúl [m] trunk No han deschecho toda- dinero en billetes de a cinco y de a
vía los baúles. They haven't unpacked diez. Give me the money in fives and
their trunks yet. tens. O billete de ida y vuelta round-
bautismo baptism. trip ticket.
bautizar to baptize. biombo screen Hay que poner un biombo
bebé [m] baby. delante de la puerta. You have to put
beber to drink ¿Qué van a beber Uds.? a screen in front of the door.
What are you going to drink? bisabuela great-grandmother.
bebida drink, beverage. bisabuelo great-grandfather.
becerro calf; calfskin. bistec, biftec [m] beefsteak.
béisbol [m] baseball (game) [Am]. bizco cross-eyed.
beisbolista [m] baseball player [Am]. bizcocho sponge cake.
belleza beauty.
bianco white ¡Ojalá hubiera comprado un
traje blanco! I wish I'd bought a
bello beautiful.
white dress! Á [w] white (person) En
bendecir [irr~\ to bless ¡Qué Dios le
esta ciudad hay blancos, indios y
bendiga! God bless you!
negros. There are white people, In-
bendición [/] blessing.
dians, and Negroes in this city.
bendito (see bendecir) blessed, holy. A [m] target Dieron en él bianco.
beneficencia public charity; department
hit the target.
of welfare. O en bianco blank Deje Ud. esta hoja
beneficio favor No agradece los beneficios. en blanco. Leave this sheet blank.
He doesn't appreciate favors. A profit O hacer blanco to hit the mark Hicieron
Los beneficios fueron muy altos. The blanco tres veces. They hit the mark
profits were very high. three times. O tirar al blanco to shoot
benevolencia kindness, good will. at the target, have target practice
berenjena eggplant. Los soldados tiraron al blanco por la
besar to kiss. mañana. The soldiers had target prac-
beso kiss. tice in the morning.
bestia beast. blando soft; tender.
betabel [/] beet [Mex]. blanquillo egg [Mex].
Biblia Bible. bloque [m] block, piece.
biblioteca library. blusa blouse.
bicarbonato bicarbonate of soda. bobo fool; foolish ¡Hijo, no seas bobo!
bicha snake. Son, don't be foolish!
bicicleta bicycle, bike. boca mouth No abrió la boca en toda
bien [m] good No distingue el bien del a tarde. He didn't open his mouth
mal. He doesn't know the difference all afternoon. A entrance (of subway,
between good and evil. A [adv~\ well cave, etc) En la esquina está la boca
Habló muy bien. He spoke very well. del metro. The subway entrance is on
A very La cerveza the corner.
está bien fría. The
beer's very cold. O boca abajo on one's stomach, face
O ahora bien now then. O bienes down El niño duerme boca abajo. The
[m pi] property, estate Tiene muchos child's sleeping on his stomach. O boca
bienes. He has a great deal of prop- arriba on one's back, upside down
erty. O más bien que rather Es más Estaba echado en la playa boca arriba.
bien rico que pobre. He's rich rather He was lying on his back on the beach.
than poor. bocacalle [/] street intersection.
Está bien. All right or Correct. bocado mouthful; bit.


bochorno SPANISH-ENGLISH brea

bochorno embarrassment ¡Qué bochorno tres bombillas. Three bulbs have

pasamos! What an embarrassing situ- burned out.
was A sultry weather bonaerense [adj; n] (native) of Buenos
ation that !

¡Qué bochorno hace! What sultry Aires.

weather we're having! bondad [/] kindness, goodness Le agra-
bochornoso embarrassing; shameful ¡Qué dezco su bondad. Thank you for your
acción bochornosa! What a shameful kindness.
action !
A sultry. O tener la bondad (de) please Tenga
bocina horn Toque la bocina para que ese la bondad de esperar un momento.

auto nos deje pasar. Blow the horn so Please wait a moment.
that car'll let us pass. bondadoso [adj] kind.
boda wedding. boniato sweet potato [Sp, Cuba],
bodega (wine) cellar, winery; storehouse; bonito pretty.
[Am] grocery store. bono government bond.
boquilla cigarette holder.
bofe lung.
O echar los bofes to pant, be out of bordar to embroider.
I'm borde [m] edge, border.
breath Estoy echando los bofes.
out of breath.
bordo O a bordo aboard (ship).
borrachera drunkenness.
bofetada slap.
O coger una borrachera to get drunk.
bohemio [adj; n] Bohemian.
borracho [n, adj] drunkard; drunk.
boina beret.
borrar to rub out, erase.
bola ball, round body or mass Deme Ud.
bosque [m] forest, woods.
esa bola de hierro. Give me that iron
A ball (to play with) [Am] Com- bostezar to yawn.
pramos unas bolas de tenis. We bought bostezo yawn.
A crowd [Mex] bota boot; wine bag.
some tennis balls.
Había una bola de gente a la entrada botado (See botar) cheap, inexpensive
del teatro. There was a crowd of peo- [Am] Está botado. It's dirt-cheap.
A lying (down) [Am] Estaba botado
ple at the entrance of the theater.
boleador [m] bootblack [Mex]. en la cama. He was lying on the bed.
boletería box office [.Am]. botar to throw away [Am] Tenga cuida-
boleto ticket [Am]. do, no bote esos papeles. Be careful,
bolo drunkard [Am]. don't throw away those papers. A to
O jugar a los bolos to bowl. throw out, fire Le han botado de su
bolsa purse Llevaba una bolsa de seda. empleo. They've fired him. A to
She carried a silk purse. A bag Nece- bounce [Sp] Mire cuanto bota esa
sito una bolsa de papel para guardarlo.
pelota. Look how that ball bounces.
A stock bote [m] boat. A can, box Quiero un
I need a paper bag to put it in.
exchange No sé como están hoy las bote de tomates. I want a can of to-
cotizaciones en la bolsa. I don't know matoes.
what the quotations are on the ex- O dar un bote to jump Cuando lo oyó
change today. dio un bote. When he heard it he
bolsillo pocket; [Sp~\ (woman's) handbag, jumped. O de bote en bote crowded,
purse. jammed El teatro estaba de bote en
bomba pump Usaron una bomba para bote. The theater was jammed.

sacar el agua. They used a pump to botella bottle.

take out the water. A bomb La bomba botica pharmacy.
destruyó tres casas. The bomb de- botón [m] button.
stroyed three houses. ¡Cayó como una botones [m sg] bellboy.
bomba! It struck like a bombshell! boxeador [m] boxer, prize fighter.
O bomba de gasolina gasoline pump; bozal [m] muzzle (for animals).
filling station ¿Dónde hay una bomba bravo fierce, wild Cuidado, es un toro
de gasolina? Where is there a filling bravo. Be careful, it's a fierce bull.
station ? O bomba de incendios fire Aangry, mad [Am] Se puso muy bravo.
engine. He got very mad.
||Se puso una bomba. He got drunk ¡Bravo! Bravo!

[Am]. brazo arm (of body).

bombero fireman (fire department). O ¡r del brazo to go arm in arm.
bombilla (electric) bulb Se han fundido brea pitch, tar.

breve SPANISH-ENGLISH cabecilla

breve brief, short. No estoy muy bueno. I'm not feeling

O en breve in a little while, shortly. very well. A well, all right, O.K.
brillante shiny No me gusta este papel; Bueno, nos veremos a las cinco. All
es muy brillante. I don't like this right, we'll meet at five.
paper; it's too shiny. A [m] diamond ° por lasbuenas willingly Me lo dio
Le regaló una pulsera de brillantes. por las buenas. He gave it to me
He gave her a diamond bracelet. willingly.
brillantina brilliantine. ||
¡Está bueno! That's enough! [Am]
brillar to shine. Buenos días. Good morning.

brillo gloss, shine. buey [m] ox.

brincar to leap, jump. bufanda muffler, scarf.
brindar to drink to a person's health,
buho owl.
toast ¡Brindemos a su salud! Let's
bujía candle; spark plug; watt.
drink to your health!
bulla noise, racket.
brindis [m sg] toast (ceremony).
O armar bulla to make a racket
brisa breeze.
brocha paint brush; shaving brush.
Armaron una bulla terrible. They
broma joke, jest Siempre está diciendo
made a terrible racket.
bromas. He's always joking. bulto bundle Salió con un
bulto de ropa
O en broma as a joke Lo dije en en la mano. He went
out with a bundle
of clothes in his hand. A swelling,
broma. I said it as a joke. O tomar a
broma to take lightly, take as a joke lump Tiene un bulto en la cabeza. He
Todo lo toma a broma. He takes every- has a swelling on his head.
thing lightly. O escurrir, huir, or sacar el bulto to
bromear to joke Está siempre bromeando. duck out En cuanto vio lo que había
He's always joking. que hacer escurrió el bulto. As soon
as he saw what he had to do, he ducked
bronca fight, quarrel.
O armar una bronca to pick a quar- out.

rel, start a fight. buque [m] ship, steamer.

bronce [m] bronze. burla mockery, jest.
brotar to bud, sprout.
O hacer burla to make fun of, make
brújula (mariner's) compass. a fool of he estaban haciendo burla.
brusco abrupt, rough Es brusco en su
They were making fun of him.
burlarse de to make fun of Se burla de
manera de hablar. He's abrupt in his
way of speaking. todo el mundo. He makes fun of
brutal brutal. everybody,
bruto beast, brute No seas bruto. Don't burro donkey, ass. A jackass, dope ¡Qué
be a brute. burro eres! What a dope!
budín [m] pudding. busca O en busca de in search of.
buen good, kind Es un buen hombre. buscar to look for, seek.
He's a good man. busto bust.
bueno good Ese automóvil es muy bueno. butaca arm chair; orchestra seat.
That's a very good car. A appropriate, buzón [m] mail box Eche Ud. estas car-
good Era una buena ocasión. It was tas en el buzón. Put these letters in
a good opportunity. A well, all right the mail box.

¡ca! oh no! no sir! caballete [m] sawhorse; easel.

cabal complete El juego de té no está caballo horse.
cabal. The tea set isn't complete. O a caballo on horseback.
caballería cavalry; saddle horse. cabana cabin, hut.
caballero gentleman Es todo un caballero. cabaret [m] cabaret, night club.
He's a perfect gentleman. A sir Ca- cabecera head (of a bed, table); seat of
ballero, aquí está la cuenta. Here's honor.
your bill, sir. cabecilla ringleader.


cabello SPANISH-ENGLISH cajero

cabello hair (of the head) Lleva el cabello cacho piece, hunk D.eme Ud. un cacho de
suelto. She wears her hair loose. pan. Give me a piece of bread.
caber [irr] to fit, be contained in No cactus [m] cactus.
caben más cosas en Nothing
el baúl. cada every, each Cada día dice una cosa
A to go distinta. Every day he says something
else will fit in the trunk.
through El piano no cabe por esa different.
puerta. The piano won't go through O cada cual, cada uno every one
that door. Cada cual pagó su comida. Every one
O no cabe duda (de que) there's no paid for his own meal. O cada vez
doubt (that) No cabe duda de que es que every time, whenever Me lo pide
inglés. There's no doubt that he's cada vez que me ve. He asks me for
English. it every time he sees me.

cabeza head Ese chico tiene la cabeza cadáver [m] corpse.

muy grande. That child has a very cadena chain; range (of mountains).
A chief, leader, head Fué cadera hip.
large head.
la cabeza del movimiento. He was the cadete [m] cadet.
A mind, brains
leader of the movement. caer [irr] to fall Cayó una lluvia torren-
Este trabajo hay que hacerlo con ca- cial. A heavy rain fell. A to drop
beza. You have to use your brains in Cayó de rodillas. He dropped to his
this work. knees. A to be becoming to El traje
O de cabeza headlong, head first Se le cae bien. The suit's becoming to
tiró de cabeza al agua. He plunged him. A to fall, come Su cumpleaños
A topsy-
into the water head first. cae en domingo. His birthday falls on
turvy, in a mess Los negocios andan de Sunday.
cabeza. Business is in a mess. O dolor O caer enfermo (en cama) to be
de cabeza headache. O perder la ca- taken sick, Cayó enfermo hace
fall sick
beza to lose one's head Nunca pierde unos días. He was taken sick a few
la cabeza. He never loses his head. days ago. O caer en la cuenta to real-
Ese proyecto no tiene pies ni ca-
ize, notice,think of No caí en la cuenta
beza. There's no rhyme or reason to hasta mucho después. I didn't realize
that plan. it until much later. O caerse to fall Se

cabildo city hall. cayó por la escalera. She fell down

the stairs. ° dejar caer to drop Tenga
cable [m] cable; cablegram.
cuidado, no deje caer la bandeja. Be
cablegrama [m] cablegram.
careful, don't drop the tray.
cabo end De cabo a cabo. From end to
café [m] coffee; café.
end. No podemos dejar cabos sueltos.
cafetera coffee pot.
We can't leave any loose ends. A cape
caída fall, drop Se quedó cojo después de
Pasaron el cabo de Buena Esperanza.
la caída. He was lame after the fall.
They passed the Cape of Good Hope. A fall, collapse La oposición de la Cá-
A corporal Tiene galones de cabo. He
mara causó la caída del gobierno. The
has corporal's stripes.
opposition of the House caused the fall
O dar cabo a to end, put an end to,
of the government.
finish Dieron cabo a la conversación.
caja box, case Le regaló una caja. He
They put an end to the conversation.
gave her a box.
de cabo a rabo from beginning to end O caja de ahorros savings bank Ha
Conozco la historia de cabo a rabo.
ingresado mucho dinero en la caja de
1 know the story from beginning to
ahorros. He put a lot of money in the
end. O llevar a cabo to carry out En
savings bank. O caja de caudales, caja
seguida llevaron a cabo el proyecto.
de hierro safe Tienen sus alhajas en la
They carried out the plan right away. caja de caudales. They keep their
cabra goat. jewelry in the safe. O caja (registra-
cacahuate [m] peanut [Am]. dora) cash register Mire lo que marca
cacahuete [m] peanut [Sp~\. la caja. Look and see how much the
cacao cacao tree; cocoa bean. cash register rings up. O en caja on
cacerola casserole. hand (of cash) Hay que ver lo que
cachivache(s) [m] junk, trash Quite de tenemos en caja. We have to see how
aquí estos cachivaches. Take this junk much cash we have on hand,
out of here. cajero cashier.

cajetilla SPANISH-ENGLISH calzoncillos

we were A to
cajetilla pack of cigarettes Voy a com- talking. conceal, keep
prar una cajetilla. I'm going to buy from someone Había callado la verdad.
a pack of cigarettes. He kept the truth from us.
cajón [m] drawer Han perdido la Have O callarse to shut up Cállate, ya has
del cajón. They've lost the key to the hablado bastante. Shut up! You're
drawer. A box Recibieron un cajón de talking too much. A to stop talking,
libros. They received a box of books. playing, singing, etc Se callaron de
cal [/] lime. repente. All of a sudden they stopped
calabaza pumpkin, squash. talking.
O dar calabazas to refuse, turn down, calle [/] street ¿En qué calle vive Ud.?
reject (a declaration of love) he dio What street do you live on?
calabazas. She turned him down. A to O echar a la calle to throw out, to
flunk he dieron calabazas en geometría. fire No tuve más remedio que echarle
They flunked him in geometry. a la calle. I had no choice but to
calabozo prison, cell. throw him out. O quedar(se) en la
calamar [m] squid. calle to be left penniless Al fracasar
calambre [m] cramp he dio un calambre el negocio se quedó en la calle. When
mientras nadaba. He got a cramp his business failed he was left penni-
while he was swimming. less.
calamidad [/] disaster, calamity, misfor- callejón [m], calleja alley, lane Estamos
tune. en un callejón sin salida. We're in a
calar to penetrate El puñal le caló hasta blind alley.
el corazón. The dagger penetrated to calma calm, quiet Después de la tem-
A to soak through, pestad vino la calma. There was a
his heart. drench
hlegué a casa calado. I got home calm after the storm.
drenched. O con calma slowly, taking one's time
O calarse to put on or pull down (a Trabaja con mucha calma. He takes
hat) Se caló sombrero hasta las
el his time when he works.
cejas. He pulled his hat down to his calmar to calm, soothe, ease Estas pildo-
eyes. ras le calmarán el dolor. These pills
calavera skull; madcap, rake. will ease the pain.
calcetín [m] sock. O calmarse to calm down No se calmó
calcular to calculate, figure out Vamos a hasta mucho después. He didn't calm
calcular los gastos del viaje. Let's down until much later.
figure out the cost of the trip. salor [m] heat No me gusta el calor. I
cálculo calculation. don't like the heat.
caldera boiler, large kettle. O hacer calor to be warm (of
caldo broth, bouillon. weather) Hoy hace mucho calor. It's
calefacción [/] heating (system). very warm today. O tener calor to
calendario calendar. feel warm Tengo calor. I'm warm.
calentar to heat, warm Caliente el agua, calumnia slander, false charge Todo lo
por favor. Please heat the water. que dice son calumnias. Everything
O calentarse to get warm Se calen- he's saying is slander.
taron al sol. They warmed themselves calumniar to slander.
in the sun. caluroso warm, hot ¡Qué días más calu-
calentura fever Está con calentura desde roso! What a hot day!
hace días. He's had a fever for the calva bald head; baldness.
past few days. calvicie [/] baldness (loss of hair).
calidad [/] quality ¿Es de buena calidad calvo bald Estoy quedándome calvo. I'm
esta tela? Is this good material? getting bald.
O en calidad de in one's capacity of, calzada paved highway; [4m] sidewalk.
as. calzado shoes, footwear.
caliente hot, warm Cuidado, la sopa está calzador [m] shoe-horn.
muy caliente. Be careful, the soup's calzar to put on or wear (shoes) ¿Qué
very hot. número calza Ud.? What size shoe do
callado (See callar) silent, quiet ¿Por you wear? A to block, chock Voy a
qué está Ud. tan callado? Why are calzar las ruedas para que no se mueva
you so quiet? el coche. I'm going to chock the wheels
callar to keep quiet Calló mientras noso- so the car won't move.
tros hablábamos. He kept quiet while calzoncillos [m pi] shorts (underwear).


cama SPANISH-ENGLISH candido

cama bed Hágame la cama por favor. set out Se pusieron en camino al día
Please make my bed. siguiente. They started out the fol-
O guardar cama, estar en cama to be lowing day.
confined to bed Está enfermo en cama camión [m] truck; [Mex] bus.
desde hace tres meses. He's been con- camisa shirt.
fined to bed for the past three months.
O en mangas de camisa in one's shirt
cámara camera ¿Qué clase de cámara sleeves Estaba en mangas de camisa.
tiene Ud.? What kind of a camera do He was in his shirt sleeves.
you have? camisería haberdashery, store for men's
O cámara de comercio chamber of wear.
commerce. O cámara de diputados camiseta undershirt.
chamber of deputies, house of repre- camisón [m] nightgown.
sentatives. camote [m~\ sweet potato [A/ex, C.AJ],
cantarada [m, /] comrade, pal Charla- campamento camp Los soldados volverán
ban como viejos camaradas. They pronto al campamento. The soldiers
were talking together like old pals. will soon return to camp.

camarera maid, chambermaid La cama- campana bell Oímos las campanas de la

rera todavía no ha arreglado el cuarto.
iglesia. We heard the church bells.
The maid hasn't made up the room yet. campanada stroke of a bell or clock No
L waitress Pídale el menú a la cama- he oído cuántas campanadas eran. I

Ask the waitress for the menu. didn't hear how many times the clock
camarero waiter; valet.
campanilla small bell, hand bell.
camarote [w] cabin, stateroom Quiero
campaña campaign.
reservar un camarote de primera clase.
campeón [m] champion.
I want to reserve a first-class state-
campeonato championship.
No ha cambiado nada campesino, campesina peasant.
cambiar to change
desde que le vi. He hasn't changed a campo country, field Vivimos durante
bit since saw him. A to change
muchos años en el campo. We lived in
the country for many years.
(money) ¿Puede cambiarme un billete
Can you change a
O campo de batalla battlefield.
de diez pesos?
ten-peso bill for me? cana gray hair Se encontró la primera
cana. She found her first gray hair.
cambio change ¿Ha habido algún cambio
Tiene muchas canas. She has a lot of
de política? Has there been any change
in policy? A small change, coins gray hair.

¿Tiene Ud. cambio? Do you have any canal [»?] canal Pasamos por el canal de
change? A rate of
exchange ¿Cuál es Panamá. We passed through the
Panama A strait, channel El
What's the Canal.
el cambio del dólar hoy?
rate of exchange on the dollar today? barco seacercaba al canal de la
O a cambio de in exchange for he Mancha. The boat was approaching the
daré este libro a cambio de ese otro. English Channel.
I'll give you this book in exchange for
canario canary.
the other one. O en cambio on the canasta wide basket Nos trajeron una
other hand. canasta de fruta. They brought us a
camilla stretcher, litter. basket of fruit.
caminar to walk Es muy aficionado a cancha court En este parque hay canchas
caminar. He's very fond of walking. de tenis. There are tennis courts in
this park. A popcorn [Am].
O caminar con pies de plomo to move
cautiously En este asunto hay que canción [/] song ¿Cuál es la canción que
caminar con pies de plomo. You have está más de moda? What's the latest
to move cautiously in this matter. song hit?
caminata long walk, hike. candado padlock.
camino road, way, highway ¿Está bien candela candle Encienda la candela.
el camino para ir en auto? Is the Light the candle. Might Déme can-
road all right to drive on? A method, dela para encender el cigarrillo. Give
way No sé qué camino seguir para me a light for my cigarette.
conseguirlo. I don't know how to go candidato candidate, applicant.
about getting it. candido simple-minded, innocent, gul-
O ponerse en camino to start out, lible.

. !


canela cinnamon. canon del Colorado? Have you seen

cangrejo crab (shellfish). the Grand Canyon?
canje [m] exchange (publications, pris- caoba mahogany.
oners). capa cape (clothing) Usa capa española.
canjear to exchange Decidieron canjear lie wears a Spanish cape. A coat La
los prisioneros. They decided to ex- puerta necesita otra capa de pintura.
change prisoners. The door needs another coat of paint.
canoa canoe. O andar (or ir) de capa caída to be
cansado (see cansar) tired Estoy can- on the downgrade ¡Pobrecillos, andan
sada. I'm tired. A tiresome, boring
de capa caída! Poor people, they're
Ese hombre es muy cansado. This on the downgrade
man's very tiresome. capacidad [/] capacity Este tanque tiene
cansancio tiredness, fatigue Está muerto una capacidad de treinta litros. This
de cansancio. He's dead-tired. tank has a capacity of thirty liters.
cansar to tire Es un trabajo que cansa A capability
Es un hombre de gran
mucho. It's a very tiring job. capacidad para los negocios. He's a
O cansarse to get tired Se cansa en very capable business man.
seguida. She gets tired quickly. capataz [w] foreman Querría hablar con
cantaleta Siempre está con la misma
|| el capataz. I'd like to talk to the fore-
cantaleta. He's always harping on the man.
same string. capaz large Es una habitación bastante
cantante [m, /] singer. capaz para biblioteca. It's a room large
cantar [?n] song Quiero aprender ese enough for a library. A capable No es
cantar. I want to learn that song. capaz de una acción tan baja. He's not
[v] to sing El tenor ha cantado muy capable of such a low trick. A able,
bien esta noche. The tenor sang very competent Me han dicho que es una
well tonight. persona muy capaz. I've been told
O cantar claro Tendré que cantárselo that he's a very competent person.
claro. I'll have to tell it to him straight capellán [m] chaplain.
from the shoulder. capilla chapel.
cantidad [/] amount, quantity ¿Qué can- capital [m] capital La compañía tiene
tidad le debo? How much do I owe
un capital de un millón de dólares. The
you? company has a capital of a million
cantimplora canteen, water bottle. A
dollars. [/] capital (city) Hicieron
cantina tavern, saloon [Am] ; railroad un viaje a la capital. They took a
restaurant [Sp~\ trip to the capital.
canto singing Es profesor de canto. O pena capital capital punishment.
He's a singing teacher. A song Me capitán [w] captain.
gustan los cantos populares. I like
capítulo chapter He leído sólo los tres
folk songs.
primeros capítulos. I've read only the
canto edge. first three chapters.
O de canto on edge, on its side Ponga
capotera hat or clothes rack [Aw].
el libro de canto. Stand the book on
capricho whim, fancy No haga Ud. caso
de sus caprichos. Don't pay any at-
caña reed, cane En Cuba se cultiva mucha
tention to her whims.
caña de azúcar. A lot of sugar cane
is grown in Cuba. A walking stick, caprichoso fickle, capricious.
cane (of bamboo) Llevaba una caña. cápsula capsule; shell (for short fire-
He carried a cane. arms).
O caña de pescar fishing rod. capturar to capture.
cañada ravine. capullo bud; cocoon.
cañería water pipe, pipe line Tienen cara face Tiene una cara muy bonita.
que arreglar la cañería; está atrancada. She has a very pretty face. A face,
They have to fix the water pipe; it's front No entiendo las palabras que
clogged. hay en la cara de la moneda. I don't
cañón [m] barrel (of a gun) Compró una understand the words on the face of
escopeta de dos cañones. He bought the coin.
a double-barreled shotgun. A cannon, O cara a cara right to a person's
gun. A canyon, gorge ¿Conoce Ud. el face Se lo dijo cara a cara. He told

caracol SPANISH-ENGLISH carta

him right to his face. O cara o cruz carne[/] meat Generalmente como carne
heads or tails. O dar la cara to face una vez al día. I usually eat meat
the music Tuvo que dar la cara. He once a day.
had to face the music. O carne de gallina goose flesh Con
caracol [m] snail. este frío se me pone la carne de ga-
O escalera de caracol winding stair- llina. This cold weather gives me goose
case. flesh. O carne de res beef [Am].
carácter [m] character Es un hombre de O carne de vaca beef ¿Quieren Uds.
muy buen carácter. He's a man of carne de vaca o de cerdo? Do you want
very good character. A firmness, char- beef or pork?
acter En todo muestra que tiene carác- carnero sheep; mutton, lamb.
ter. Everything she does shows she carnicería meat market, butcher shop.
has character. carnicero butcher.
característica [/] characteristic. caro dear, expensive Estas corbatas son
¡caramba! gosh darn! heavens! ¡Caramba muy caras. These ties are very ex-
que frío hace! Heavens, how cold it is! pensive.
caramelo candy ¿Tiene caramelos de carpeta briefcase [Am] Necesito una
menta? Do you have any peppermint carpeta de cuero. I need a leather
candy? A letter
briefcase. file, folder La co-
carbón [m] coal Hay que poner más
rrespondencia está guardada en varias
carbón en la estufa. You have to put carpetas. The correspondence is kept
more coal in the stove.
in several files.
carbonera coal bin La carbonera está
carpintero carpenter.
llena. The coal bin's full.
carrera race Me gustan las carreras de
carbonero coal dealer. A avenue,
caballos. I like horse races.
carburador [m] carburetor. broad street [Col] Viven en la Carrera
carcajada burst of laughter, loud laugh- Tercera. They live on Third Avenue.
ter Se estaban riendo a carcajadas. A career Está preparándose para la
They were splitting their sides. carrera diplomática. He's preparing
cárcel [/] jail, prison he metieron en la for a diplomatic career.
cárcel. They put him in jail. O a la carrera hastily, hurriedly Lo
carecer \_-zc-~\ to lack, not to have Carece escribió a la carrera. He wrote it hur-
del dinero necesario para viajar. He riedly. O dar una carrera to sprint
doesn't have enough money to travel. Dio una carrera para alcanzarlos. He
carey [m] tortoise shell. sprinted to catch up to them.
carga load Este mulo no puede llevar más carreta wagon.
carga. This mule can't carry a heavier carretera highway, road En este pais las
load. A cargo Es un barco de carga.
carreteras son magníficas. The high-
It's a cargo ship. A freight Están
ways in this country are excellent.
sacando la carga del vagón. They're
carro cart Por la carretera iba un carro
taking the freight out of the car.
de muías. There was a mule cart on
cargamento load; shipment. the road. A car, automobile [Am]
cargar to load Cargaron el camión. They
Vamos a ir en carro a la casa. We're
loaded the truck. A to charge Hay que
going home by car.
cargar la batería. The battery has to
carruaje [m] carriage (vehicle).
be charged. La caballería cargó sobre
carta letter Voy a echar esta carta al
el enemigo. The cavalry charged the
enemy. A to charge (to one's account) correo. I'm going to mail this letter.
Cargo esta cantidad en su cuenta. I'm O a carta cabal thoroughly, in every
charging this amount to your bill.
respect Es honrado a carta cabal. He's
caricatura caricature, cartoon. thoroughly honest. O a la carta á la
caridad [/] charity. carte. O carta certificada registered
cariño affection, love Le tienen mucho letter Recibió una carta certificada.
cariño. They're very fond of him. He received a registered letter. O car-
cariñoso affectionate Era muy cariñoso ta de crédito letter of credit. O carta
con sus padres. He was very affec- de presentación letter of introduction.
tionate with his parents. O carta de recomendación letter of
||Recuerdos cariñosos a su familia. recommendation. O jugar a las cartas
My best regards to your family. [Sp], jugar cartas [Am] to play cards

cartel SPANISH-ENGLISH catedral

un rato a las cartas. your brains over it, you won't solve it.
Vamos a jugar
casco de caballo horse's hoof.
Let's play cards a while.
caserío small village, settlement.
cartel [w] placard, bill, poster.
casero, casera landlord, landlady; build-
cartera bag Llevaba bajo el brazo una
ing superintendent. A [adj~\ homemade
gran cartera de cuero. She was carry- They're home-
Son dulces caseros.
ing a large leather bag under her arm.
A wallet Sacó la cartera del bolsillo. made candies,
caseta de baños locker, bath house.
He took his wallet out of his pocket. casi almost, nearly.
A briefcase ¿Caben muchos libros en esa
O casi, casi very nearly Casi, casi lo
cartera? Will that briefcase hold many
ha acertado. You very nearly guessed
cartero mailman, postman ¿A qué hora caso case Ha habido varios casos de
viene el cartero? What time does the parálisis infantil. There have been
mailman come? several cases of infantile paralysis.
cartón [m] cardboard. A occurrence, event Les voy a contar un
casa house. A home ¿Estará Ud. en casa caso curioso. I'm going to tell you
esta tarde? Will you be at home this about a strange incident.
afternoon? ° en tal caso in such a case En tal
O casa de comercio commercial house, caso avise a su familia. In such a
firm. O casa de empeño(s) pawnshop. case, notify his family. O en todo
O casa de huéspedes boarding house. caso at all events, anyway En todo caso
O casa de maternidad maternity hospi- nos vemos mañana. Anyway, we'll see
tal (charitable institution).
O casa de each other tomorrow. O hacer caso a
socorro emergency hospital. to pay attention to, heed, obey (a per-
casado (see casar) married ¿Es Ud. casa- son) No hace caso a sus padres. He
do o soltero? Are you married or doesn't obey his parents. O hacer caso
single? de to mind, heed, pay attention to No
casamiento wedding, marriage. hagas caso de lo que te cuente. Don't
casar to marry Este es el cura que los pay any attention to what he tells you.
casó. This is the priest who married castaña chestnut.
them. A to match Estos colores no casan castaño chestnut tree. A [adj] brown
bien. These colors don't match well. Tiene el pelo castaño. He has brown
O casarse to marry, get married Se hair.
casará el domingo próximo. He'll be castañuela castanet.
married next Sunday. ° casarse con to castigar to punish No castigue a los
marry Se casó con una muchacha muy niños. Don't punish the children.
joven. He married a very young girl. castigo punishment.
cascar to crack ¿Tiene Ud. algo con que castillo castle.
cascar estas nueces? Have you got castizo correct, pure Habla un español
something to crack these nuts? castizo. He speaks a pure Spanish.
A genuine, real Es un español castizo.
cascara rind, peel Esta naranja tiene una
cascara muy gruesa. This orange has He's a real Spaniard.
a thick rind. A shell (of nuts, eggs, casual accidental, chance Fué un encuen-
etc) ¿Dónde tiro estas cascaras de tro casual. It was a chance meeting.
huevos? Where do I throw these egg- casualidad [/] coincidence ¡Qué casuali-
shells? dad encontrarle aquí! What a coinci-
cascarrabias [adj; m
& f sg] irritable dence meeting you here!
(person), crab (by) Te estás volviendo O por casualidad by chance, by any
muy cascarrabias. You're getting to chance ¿Por casualidad le conoce Ud.?
be an old crab, Do you know him, by any chance ?.
casco helmet Los soldados llevaban casco catalogar to catalog, list.
de acero. The soldiers were wearing catálogo catalog, list.
steel helmets. A hull (of a ship) El catarata cataract, waterfall; cataract (of
casco del buque está averiado. The eye).
ship's hull is damaged. catarro cold He cogido un catarro ho-
° calentarse los cascos to rack one's rrible. I've caught a terrible cold,

brains Aunque se caliente Ud. los cas- catástrofe [/] catastrophe.

cos no lo resolverá. Though you rack catedral [/] cathedral.

catedrático SPANISH-ENGLISH centenar

catedrático professor Es catedrático en la ceder to transfer, turn over, cede Cedió

Universidad Nacional. He's a profes- todos sus bienes a su hijo. He trans-
sor at the National University. ferred his whole estate to his son.
A to yield, give in No cedió en su em-
categoría class, category Los dos no son
de la misma categoría. The two are peño. He wouldn't give in.
not in the same category. A rank No cedro cedar.
tiene categoría para ese puesto. His cédula personal identification card.
rank isn't high enough for that posi- cegar [rad-ch I] to blind Me ciega esa luz
tion. tan fuerte. That strong light blinds
O de categoría of importance Es un me.
hombre de categoría. He's a man of ceja eyebrow.
importance. ° tener entre ceja y ceja to dislike,
catolicismo Catholicism. have a grudge against Mi jefe me tiene
católico [adj, n] Catholic. entre ceja y ceja. Myboss has a
catorce fourteen. grudge against me.
catre [m] cot. celebrar to celebrate, commemorate Cele-
caucho rubber (material). braron su cumpleaños en una gran
caudal [m] fortune, wealth, means Ha fiesta. They celebrated his birthday
aumentado mucho el caudal de esa with a big party. A to praise, applaud,
familia. The family fortune has in- approve Todos celebran sus éxitos.
creased a great deal. A volume (of They all applauded his success. A to

water) El río lleva un gran caudal. be glad, rejoice Celebro mucho verle a
The river carries a huge volume of Ud. I'm certainly glad to see you.
water. célebre famous Fué el escritor más céle-
caudillo leader, chief Fué uno de los cau- bre de su tiempo. He was the most
dillos de la revolución. He was one of famous writer of his day.
the leaders of the revolution. celebridad [/] celebrity.
causa cause ¿Cuál fué la causa de su re- celo zeal,enthusiasm Trabaja con mucho
traso? What was the cause of his celo. He's a very zealous worker.
delay? A case, trial, lawsuit Fué una O estar en celo to be in heat (of ani-
de las causas célebres de su época. It mals). O tener celos to be jealous
was one of the famous cases of his Tiene muchos celos de su mujer. He's
time. very jealous of his wife.
causar to cause, occasion Me ha causado celoso jealous.
muchos disgustos. She's caused me a cementerio cemetery, graveyard.
lot of trouble. cemento cement, concrete.
cauto cautious, careful Uno tiene que ser cena supper ¿Qué vamos a tomar de
cauto en los negocios. You have to be cena? What are we having for sup-
careful in business. per?
cavar to dig. cenar to dine, eat ¿Dónde cenaron Uds.
caverna cavern, cave. anoche? Where did you eat last
cayuco dugout canoe [Am]. night? A to have for supper Cenamos
caza hunt, hunting Ahora está prohibida pescado anoche. We had fish for sup-
la caza. Hunting's forbidden now. per last night.
A game En esa selva hay mucha caza
cenicero ash tray.
mayor. There's a lot of big game in ceniza ashes, cinders.
that forest. censura censorship La correspondencia
O andar a caza de to go hunting for, tiene que pasar por la censura. Mail
go in search of Los periodistas andaban has to go through censorship. A office
a caza de noticias. The reporters were of censor Hay que enviar este artículo
hunting for news. a la censura. This article has to go
cazador [m] hunter. through the censor's office. A reproach,
cazar to hunt. criticism Es una censura injusta la que
cazuela earthen cooking pot. Ud. me hace. Your criticism's unfair.
cebada barley. censurar to blame, criticize No se la
cebo bait. puede censurar por lo que ha hecho.
cebolla onion; bulb. You can't blame her for what she did.
cecear to lisp. centavo cent [Am].
cedazo sifter (utensil). centenar [m] a hundred Había un cen-

centenario SPANISH-ENGLISH chai

tenar de personas en el local. There cercana a la nuestra. They live in a

were a hundred people in the hall. house close to ours.
O a centenares by hundreds Murie- cercar to surround, fence in Cercaron la
ron las gentes a centenares. People finca con alambrado. They fenced in
died by the hundreds. the property with wire.
centenario centenary. cerdo pig, hog; pork.
centeno rye. O chuletas de cerdo pork chops,
centímetro centimeter. cereal [adj; m] cereal.
céntimo cent [Sp~\. ceremonia ceremony La ceremonia fué
centinela [m] sentry, guard. muy solemne. The ceremony was very
O de centinela on sentry duty Está impressive.
de centinela. He's on sentry duty. cereza cherry.
central [adj ; /] central. cerilla match Voy a comprar una caja de
O central eléctrica electric power cerillas. I'm going to buy a box of
plant, power house. matches.
centro center Vivimos en el centro {de cerillo match [Mea;].
la ciudad) .We live in the center of cero zero La temperatura está a cuarenta
the city. A business district, down- grados bajo cero. The temperature's
town Vamos al centro. Let's go down- forty below.
town. A club Hubo un baile en nuestro cerradura lock.
centro. There was a dance at our club. cerrar to close, shut Cierre Ud. la puerta,
ceñir [rad-ch III~\ to fit tightly Esta por favor. Please close the door. A to
cinturón me ciñe demasiado. This belt seal Añade unas palabras antes de que
fits me
too tightly. yo cierre la carta. Add a few words
O ceñirse to confine or limit oneself before I seal the letter.
Cíñase Ud. al asunto. Confine your- cerro hill Desde ese cerro hay muy buena
self to the facts. vista. There's a very good view from
No se ciña tanto en la curva. Don't
that hill.
hug the inside of the curve. cerrojo bolt, latch.
ceño O mirar con ceño to frown. certero well-aimed Fué un disparo cer-
ceñudo [adj] scowling, frowning Siempre tero. It was a well-aimed shot.
está ceñudo. He's always scowling. certeza assurance, certainty Tengo la
cepillar to brush Tengo que cepillar el certeza de que vendrá. I'm certain he's
sombrero. I have to brush my hat. coming.
to plane, make smooth Estas tablas certificado (see certificar) certificate
no están bien cepilladas. These boards ¿Necesita Ud. un certificado médico?
haven't been planed right. Do you need a doctor's certificate?
A piece of
cepillo brush (flat, with bristles on one registered mail.
side) ¿Dónde puedo comprar un ce- certificar to register (a letter) Voy a
pillo? Where can I buy a bi-ush? certificar estas cartas. I'm going to
° cepillo de cabeza hairbrush. O ce- register these letters.
pillo de carpintero carpenter's plane. cervecería bar, saloon.
O de dientes toothbrush. O ce-
cepillo cerveza beer, ale Vamos a tomar unos
pillo de ropa clothes brush. vasos de cerveza. Let's drink a few
cera wax. glasses of beer.
cerca fence La huerta tiene una cerca de cesar to stop, cease El ruido no ha cesado
madera. The garden has a wooden en todo el día. The noise hasn't stopped
all day. A to dismiss, fire Ayer
fence. cesaron
cerca de near (in place) La estación está a siete empleados. Yesterday they
cerca del hotel. The station's near the fired seven employees.
A césped [m] lawn, grass.
hotel. nearly, about, almost Son
cerca de las once. It's about eleven cesta basket Compraron una cesta de
o'clock. fruta. They bought a basket of fruit.
° por aquí cerca near here, some- cesto large basket.
where near here ¿Hay un buen restau- chabacano vulgar, in bad taste Siempre
rante por aquí cerca? Is there a good hace chistes chabacanos. He always
restaurant somewhere near here? tellsvulgar jokes. A [m] apricot [Mex].
cercado fenced in, enclosed. chacra small farm [S.A.],
cercano near, close Viven en una casa chai [m] shawl.

chaleco SPANISH-ENGLISH chocante

chaleco vest. chicharrón [m] thick crisp bacon.

chalet [m] chalet. chichón [m] bump, lump (on the head).
chamaco youngster [Mex]. chicle [m] chewing gum.
chambergo soft hat. chico small El cuarto en que vive

champú [m] shampoo. es muy chico. He lives in a very small

chancearse to Se chancea
jest, joke, fool room. A boy, kid Tiene tres chicos.
de todo el mundo. He makes fun of She has three kids.
everybody. chifladura eccentricity.
chancho hog [Aw].
pig, chiflón [m] draft [A?n] Por esa ventana
chanchullo something underhanded, entra un chiflón muy fuerte. A strong
racket Siempre anda metido en chan- draft's blowing in at that window.
chullos. He's always in something chile [/] chili, red pepper.
underhanded. chillar to screech, scream.
chanclos [m pi] rubbers. chillido screech, scream.

chanza joke Déjate de chanzas porque la chimenea smokestack Desde la ventana se

cosa es muy seria. Stop joking; it's a ven las chimeneas de la fábrica. From
serious matter. the window you can see the smoke-
chapa plate, sheet (of metal) El tejado stacks of the factory. A chimney Se
está cubierto de chapas metálicas. The
subieron al tejado para limpier la chi-
roof's covered with sheet metal. A lock menea. They climbed up on the roof
to clean the chimney. A fireplace Se
[Am] Hay que cambiar la chapa de la
puerta. You have to change the lock
sentaron junto a la chimenea. They
sat by the fireplace.
on the door.
O chapas rosy cheeks [Am] Tiene china pebble, small stone Se me ha metido
una china en el zapato. I have a peb-
unas lindas chapas. She has beautiful A peasant girl, maid,
ble in my shoe.
rosy cheeks.
servant [Am] La china lo llevará a su
chaparro short person [Mex].
casa. The maid'll take it to your house.
chaparrón [in] heavy shower, downpour. A china, porcelain ¿Son de china estas
chapetón [m] Spaniard (fresh from
tazas? Are these cups porcelain?
Spain) [S.A.]. A orange [Antilles] Deme una docena
chapetonada illness caused by change of
de chinas. Give me a dozen oranges.
climate [S. A.].
chinche [/] bedbug; thumbtack.
chapucería botched job, hurried job
chiquitín [m] small child.
Hágalo Ud. con cuidado, no me gustan
chiquillo, chiquilla small child.
les chapucerías. Do it carefully. I
chiripa chance or unexpected event
don't like botched jobs.
[Fam] Me ha salido bien por chiripa.
chapurrear to speak (a language) bro-
I got it right by accident.
kenly Chapurrea el español. He speaks
¡chis! sh!
broken Spanish.
chisme gossip, malicious remark Siempre
chaqueta jacket, coat.
anda metiendo chismes. He's always
charco puddle.
charlar to talk, chatter.
chispa spark ¡Cuidado con las chispas que
charol [m] patent leather.
saltan de la chimenea! Watch out for
charro cowboy [Mex].
the sparks that are flying out of the
chasco O darle a uno un chasco to fool, fireplace. A little bit, small amount No
play a joke on Le dimos un chasco tiene chispa de tonto. He's not at all
dejándole la cuenta. We played a joke stupid.
on him by leaving him the bill. O echar chispas [Fam] to rage, be
O llevarse un chasco to be disappointed furious Cuando se lo dije echó chispas.
or disconcerted Con esa muchacha nos When I told him that, he got furious.
llevamos un chasco terrible. We were chistar to keep quiet.
very disappointed in that girl. O no, or ni, chistar not to say a
chato flat-nosed, pug-nosed. word Cuando vio a su padre ni chistó.
cheque [m] check (money). When he saw his father, he didn't even
chequear to check, put a check next to say a word.
[Am]. chiste [m] joke Contó un chiste muy gra-
chica girl. cioso. He told a very funny joke.
chicha chicha (alcoholic drink made from chistoso funny, witty.
corn) [Am]. chocante surprising, witty [Sp] annoy- ;

chícharo green pea [Mex], ing, unpleasant [Mex].

chocar SPANISH-ENGLISH circular

chocar to collide, crash Chocaron los dos ciervo deer.

autos. The two cars crashed. A to cifra figure, digit (number) ¿Cuántas
clash Han chocado varias veces por sus cifras tiene ese número? How many
opiniones políticas. They often clashed number have? A code
digits does that
over their political beliefs. A to sur- La
carta estaba escrita en cifra. The
prise unpleasantly, to vex Me choca que letter was written in code.
diga Ud. eso. I'm surprised to hear cigarrera cigarette case [Am] woman

you say that. cigar maker.

choclo green ear of coi'n [S.A.]. cigarrería place where cigars and cigar-
chocolate [m] chocolate. ettes are made or sold [Am].
chofer, chófer [w] chauffeur. cigarrillo cigarette.
cholo, chola half-breed [S.A.]. cigarro (see puro) cigar Le regaló una
choque [m] collision, crash. caja de cigarros habanos. She pre-
chorizo Spanish sausage. sented him with a box of Havana
chorrear to gush, drip. cigars. A cigarette Voy a comprar un
chorro jet, spurt Abrió el grifo y salió un paquete de cigarros. I'm going to buy
chorro de agua. He turned on the a pack of cigarettes.
faucet and a jet of water came out. cilindro cylinder.
O a chorros abundantly [Fam~\. cima summit, peak.
O Hover a chorros to pour (rain). cimiento foundation Han comenzado los
choza hut, cabin. cimientos de la casa. They laid the
chuchería trinket; tidbit; trifle. foundation of the house.
chueco crooked, bent [Am] Este zapato cine [m] zinc.
está chueco. This shoe is crooked. cinco five.
chuleta chop. cincuenta fifty.
chupar to suck. cine [m] moving pictures, movies Me
churro a kind of cruller. gusta mucho el cine americano. I like
chusco funny, amusing. American movies very much. A movie
cicatriz [/] scar. theater Es un nuevo cine. It's a new
ciclón [m] cyclone. movie theater.
ciego blind Se está quedando ciego. He's cinematógrafo movie house.
going blind. A [w] blind person Han cínico cynic; cynical.
construido un asilo para ciegos. They cinta ribbon Llevaba una cinta atada a la
built an asylum for the blind. cabeza. She wore a ribbon tied around
O a ciegas in the dark, blindly iSe her hair. A film (moving picture) Es
metió en ese negocio a ciegas. He went la mejor cinta del año. It's the best
into that business blindly. film of the year.
cielo sky El cielo estaba lleno de aviones. cintura waist Tiene una cintura muy pe-
The sky was filled with airplanes. queña. She has a small waist.
A paradise, heaven. A dear, darling. O meter en cintura to discipline, re-
Ven aquí, mi cielo. Come here, darling. strain Hay que meter en cintura ese
O llovido del cielo out of the clear chico. That child has to be restrained.
sky Apareció como llovido del cielo. cinturón [m] belt Voy a comprar un cin-
He appeared out of a clear sky. turón de cuero. I'm going to buy a
cien (see ciento) one hundred. leather belt.
ciencia science. circo circus Este año el circo tiene diez
científico scientist; scientific. elefantes. This year the circus has
ciento one hundred. ten elephants.
O por ciento per cent Gana el cinco circulación [/] circulation Este periódico
por ciento sobre lo que vende. He tiene mucha circulación. This paper
makes five per cent on what he sells. has a large circulation. A traffic No
cierto sure, certain, true ¿Es cierto que conozco el reglamento de la circulación
vendrá mañana? Is it true he's com- aquí. I don't know the traffic regula-

ing tomorrow? A certain, some A tions here.

cierta gente le gusta. Some people circular [/] circular, letter He recibido
like it. A [adv] certainly Cierto, tiene una circular del banco. I've received
Ud. razón. Certainly, you're right. a circular from the bank.
O no por cierto certainly not No por circular to move about, get around Era
cierto,no estoy de acuerdo con Ud. casi imposible circular por esa calle. It
Certainly not, I don't agree with you. was almost impossible to get around

— .

círculo SPANISH-ENGLISH cobrador

A classroom Esa clase es dema-

on that street. A to circulate, get year.
around Ha circulado esa noticia. That siado pequeña. That classroom's too
news got around. small.
Estábamos sentados en cír-
círculo circle ° dar clase to give a class, hold
culo. We were seated in a circle. class Tengo que dar una clase mañana
A club, social circle Comimos juntos en a las ocho. I have to give a class to-
el círculo. We ate together at the morrow at eight.
club. clásico classical Anoche asistimos a un
circunstancia circumstance. concierto de música clásica. Last night
circunstante [m] bystander. we attended a concert of classical
ciruela plum. music. [m] classic ¿Ha leído los
O ciruela pasa prune. clásicos latinos? Have you read the
ciruelo plum tree. Latin classics?
cita engagement, appointment, date clasificar to sort out, classify Todavía no
¿Acudió Ud. a la cita? Did you keep han clasificado la correspondencia.
A quotation Es
your appointment? They haven't sorted the mail yet.
una cita del Quijote. It's a quotation claustro cloister En esa iglesia hay un
from Don Quixote. claustro muy bonito. There's a very
citar to call, summon Todavía no nos beautiful cloister in that church.
han citado para la reunión. We haven't clavar to nail Necesito un martillo para
been called to the meeting yet. A to clavar las tablas. I need a hammer to
make (or give) an appointment El nail the boards. A to stick, pin Tenga
dentista me citó para las siete. The cuidado donde clava el alfiler. Be
dentist gave me an appointment for careful where you stick the pin.
seven o'clock. A to quote, refer to En O clavarse to stick, prick Me clavé
mi artículo cité muchas veces su libro. una espina en el dedo. I got a thorn
In my article, I referred to your book in my finger.
a great deal. clave [/] key (of a code) Necesito la
ciudad [/] city. clave para descifrar esta comunicación.
ciudadano, ciudadana citizen ¿De qué país I need the key to decode this message.
es Ud. ciudadano? What country are A key Esta canción está en clave de sol.
you a citizen of? This song's in the key of G.
civil civil. clavel [m] carnation.
O derechos civiles civil rights. clavo nail Necesito una caja de clavos.
civilización [/] civilization, culture. I need a box of nails.
civilizar to civilize Los misioneros civili- O dar en el clavo to hit the nail on
zaron a los indígenas. The mis- the head.
sionaries civilized the natives. clemencia mercy.
claramente clearly, openly, frankly Díga- clerical clerical (church).
melo claramente. Tell me frankly. clero clergy.
claridad [/] clearness, distinctness La cliente [m, /] client, customer.
claridad de la explicación lo convenció. clientela clientele.
The clearness of the explanation satis- clima [w] climate.
fied him. clínica clinic.
clarín [w] trumpet. cobarde [m, /] coward ¡Anímese Ud.!
claro clear, transparent Es tan claro ¡No sea cobarde! Come on, don't be
a coward! A [adj] cowardly Lo que
como el agua. It's as clear as crystal.
A thin En las sienes tiene el pelo muy hizo fué muy cobarde. It was a cow-
claro. His hair's thin at the temples. ardly thing he did.
A cloudless, fair Es un día muy claro. cobardía cowardice.
It's a veryclear day. A light Lleva cobija cover, blanket [Aw] ¿Cuántas
un traje azul claro. She's wearing a cobijas tiene la cama? How many
A plain, clear La ex- blankets are there on the bed?
light blue suit.
plicación es clara. The explanation is cobrador [m~\ collector (bills, taxes) Les
clear. visitó el cobrador de contribuciones.
clase [/] class, kind, sort.
A class Era uno The tax collector called on them. A con-
de los dirigentes de la clase trabaja- ductor (of bus or trolley) Se lo pre-
dora. He was a leader of the working guntaremos al cobrador (del tranvía).
class. Sólo asisto a dos clases este We'll ask the conductor (of the
curso. I have only two classes this trolley)

— ;

cobranza SPANISH-ENGLISH colecta

cobranza collection La cobranza de im- por el codo de la cañería. The water's

puestos está bien organizada. The col- leaking from the elbow of the pipe.
lection of taxes is well organized. cofre [m] (see also baúl) trunk [Am]
cobrar to collect, receive ¿Cobró Ud. el chest [Sp~\ Cerró el cofre con Have.
dinero que le debían? Did you collect He locked the trunk with a key.
the money they owed you? A to cash coger [should not be used in Arg] to
En esta ventanilla puede cobrar su catch Cogieron al ladrón. They caught
cheque. You can cash your check at the thief. A to pick, gather Van a em-
this window. A to charge Cobran muy pezar a coger las naranjas. They're
caro en esa tienda. They charge high going to start picking oranges.
prices at that store. coincidencia coincidence.
cobre [m] copper. coincidir to coincide, agree Los dos rela-
cobro collection (of money due) Pre- tos no coinciden. The two statements
sentó la factura al cobro. He presented don't agree.
the bill for collection. cojear (not used in Arg; see renguear)
coca coca (plant from which cocaine is to limp, hobble Cojea un poco del pie
obtained) [Am]. derecho. He limps slightly on his right
cocal [m] coconut plantation [Am]. foot.
cocer [rad-ch 7] to boil Cueza Ud. esas cojín [m] pad, cushion Ponga esos coji-
papas. Boil those potatoes. A to bake nes en el diván. Put those cushions
El pan se está cociendo en el horno. on the couch.
The bread's baking in the oven. col [/] cabbage.
coche [m] carriage, coach Tienen un cola tail El perro movía la cola. The dog
coche de dos caballos. They have a was wagging his tail. A train
two-horse carriage. A car Acaban de dress) Llevaba un vestido de cola.
comprar un coche nuevo. They've just She wore a dress with a train. A line
bought a new car. of people Esta es la cola para sacar los
O coche-cama sleeping car, Pullman billetes. This is the ticket line.
¿Lleva coche-cama este tren? Does this O hacer cola to stand in line He
train have a sleeping car? O coche- estado haciendo cola más de dos horas.
comedor dining car El coche-comedor I was standing in line for more than

va a la cabeza del tren. The dining two hours.

car's at the forward end of the train. colaboración [/] collaboration, working
cochero coachman Déle la dirección al together Escribe en colaboración con
cochero. Give the address to the coach- su hermano. He writes in collabora-
man. tion with his brother.
cochino hog, pig. A swine (insult). colaborador [m] collaborator, co-worker.
A dirty, filthy, vile A contributor
¡Qué cochinos están (to a periodical, etc)
estos niños! How filthy these children Es uno de los mejores colaboradores de
are! este periódico. He's one of the best
cocina kitchen La cocina de esa casa es contributors to this newspaper.
muy bonita. The kitchen in that house colaborar to collaborate, cooperate; to
is very nice.
A cuisine, cooking Me contribute.
gusta la cocina francesa. I like French colador [m] colander, strainer Ponga las
cooking. verduras en el colador. Put the vege-
cocinar to cook Su mujer cocina muy tables in the strainer.
bien. His wife cooks very well. colar to strain El jugo de naranja no
cocinero, cocinera cook. está bien colado. The orange juice
coco coconut; coconut tree. isn't well strained.

cocotero coconut tree. colcha bedspread Tienen una colcha azul

coctelera cocktail shaker. sobre la cama. They have a blue bed-
codicioso greedy Es un hombre codicioso.
spread on the bed.
He's a greedy man. colchón [m] mattress.
código code (of laws). colección [/] collection (of things) Tiene
O código civil civil law. O código una buena colección de cuadros moder-
militar military law. nos. He has a good collection of mod-
codo elbow Se está rompiendo la chaqueta ern paintings.
por los codos. The jacket's wearing coleccionar to collect (stamps, coins, etc).
through at the elbows. Se sale el agita colecta collection (charity).

colectivo SPANISH-ENGLISH comercio

colectivo collective Los intereses colecti- color [m] color Todo lo ve color de rosa.
vos deben protegerse. Collective inter- He sees the world through rose-colored
A organized. glasses. A blush, flush Le hizo salir
ests must be protected.
colega [m] fellow worker, colleague. los colores (a la cara). He made her
A slant Este periódico no tiene
colegio school (private) Acaba de entrar blush.
en el colegio. He's just entered school. color político. This newspaper has no
A association, college Es miembro del political slant.
colegio de médicos. He's a member of colorado [ad/] red.
the medical association. ° ponerse colorado to blush.
cólera [/] anger, rage, fury Eso le dio colorear to color (a map, etc).
mucha cólera. That made him very colorido colors, coloring El colorido de
angry. este cuadro es muy brillante. The
cólera [m] cholera. colors of this painting are very bright.
colgado (See colgar) hanging El som- colosal huge, gigantic, colossal; "ter-
brero está colgado en la percha. The rific."

hat's hanging on the rack. columna column.

colgando (See colgar) dangling Llevaba coma comma.
el reloj colgando del bolsillo. His comadre [/] (term of address between
watch was dangling from his pocket. mother and godmother of a child) ;

colgar [rad-ch /] to hang Cuelgue Ud. gossip; old woman (among country
aquí sus ropas. Hang your clothes people).
here. A to hang (by the neck) Merecía comandante [m] commander; major.
que lo colgaran. He deserved to be combate [m~\ combat, battle, fight.
hanged. combatir to combat, fight, oppose, attack.
combinación [/] combination; (woman's)
colina hill.
collar[w] necklace; collar.
combinar to combine, join, unite.
colmena beehive.
combustible [w] fuel ¿Con qué clase de
colocación [/] job, position ¿Le gusta su
combustible funciona esta máquina?
nueva colocación? Do you like your
new job? A arrangement ¿Le agrada What kind of fuel do you use in this
Do you machine?
la colocación de los muebles?
like the arrangement of the furniture?
comedia comedy; play.
colocar to put, arrange Voy a colocar comedor [m] dining room.
estas flares. I'm going to arrange these comentar to comment on Comentaban su
flowers. A to take on Colocaron mu- nuevo libro. They were commenting on
chos empleados nuevos. They took on his new book.
many new employees. comentario remark, comment, commen-
O colocar dinero to invest (money) tary No hay que hacer comentarios.
Voy a colocar dinero en este negocio. One should not make comments.
I'm going to invest (money) in this comenzar [rad-ch /] to begin, commence
business. ° colocarse to take a job /Cuándo comienza la función? When
Me he colocado en un banco. I've taken does the performance begin?
a job in a bank. comer to eat. A to dine ¿A qué hora
colonia colony Jamaica es una colonia comen Uds.? What time do you have
inglesa. Jamaica's an English colony. dinner? A to fade El sol come los
A suburb, (real estate) development colores. The sun fades colors.
Hay lindas colonias en los alrededores O comerse up Se han comido
to eat
de la capital. There are beautiful de- todo el pastel. They ate up all the
cake. A to omit, skip Se ha comido
velopments on the outskirts of the
A to
capital. un renglón. He skipped a line.
O (agua de) Colonia toilet water, run through, squander Se comieron
colonial \_adj~\ colonial. rápidamente el dinero. They squan-
colonizador [w] colonizer. dered their money.
colono tenant farmer Tiene muchos colo- comercial commercial.
nos en la hacienda. He has many comercio commerce, trade, business Ha
tenants on his land. A colonist Los hecho mucho dinero en el comercio de
primeros colonos americanos llegaron frutas. He's made a lot of money in
en el siglo diecisiete. The first Ameri- the fruit business. A store, shop Tienen
can colonists arrived in the 17th cen- un comercio de trajes. They own a
tury. dress shop.

comestible SPANISH-ENGLISH complaciente

O cámara de comercio chamber of compadecer [-zc-] to pity, sympathize

commerce. O comercio exterior for- with Le compadezco a Ud. I sympa-
eign trade. O comercio interior do- thize with you.
mestic trade. compadre [w] (term of address between
comestible edible, good to eat. father and godfather of a child) pal ;

O comestibles [m pi] provisions, gro- (among country people).

ceries En esta calle hay una tienda de compañero, compañera companion, pal,
comestibles. There's a grocery store schoolmate Fueron compañeros de
on this street. estudios. They were schoolmates.
cometa [m] comet; [/] kite. compañía company Trabaja en una com-
cómico comic, funny, amusing ¡Qué situa- pañía de seguros. He works for an in-
ción más cómica! What an amusing surance company. A company
of ac-
situation A [n] actor, actress Son unos
! tors, stock company ¿Le gusta la com-
cómicos malísimos. They're very bad pañía que hay en ese teatro? Do you
actors. like thecompany at that theater?
comida food La comida es muy buena en O
hacer compañía (a) to keep com-
este hotel. The food in this hotel's pany (with) Está sola; hágale com-
very good. A dinner ¿A qué hora es la pañía. She's lonely; keep her com-
comida? When's dinner served? pany.
comienzo beginning, start. comparable comparable.
comilón [m] glutton. comparación [/] comparison.
comisaria police station.
comparar to compare Compare Ud. esta
comisario de policía chief of police. copia con el original. Compare this
comisión [/] assignment Le han dado copy with the original.
una comisión difícil. They gave him a comparecer [-zc-] to appear (in answer
difficult assignment. A committee, dele-
to summons) Los testigos compare-
gation Ha llegado una comisión de cieron ante el juez. The witnesses ap-
diputados. A committee of congress- peared before the judge.
men has arrived. compartir to share Compartieron lo que
comisionado agent. tenían. They shared what they had.
comisionar to commission Han sido co- — No comparto su opinión. I don't
misionados por el Gobierno. They've share his opinion.
been commissioned by the Government.
compás [m sg] compass Es difícil dibu-
como how Voy a decirle como lo tiene que jar un círculo sin un compás. It's hard
hacer. I'll tell you how to do it. A as
to draw a circle without a compass.
Como Ud. quiera. As you like. A as, A beat, rhythm, time No sabe llevar el
since Como no me lo dijo, no fui. Since
compás. He can't keep time.
he didn't tell me, I didn't go. Mike
compasión [/] compassion, pity, sym-
Nada como un pez. He swims like a
A if Como Ud. no pathy No tiene compasión de nadie.
fish. se lo diga, él no
He has no pity for anybody.
lo If you don't tell him, he
won't do
compatriota \m, /] (fellow) countryman,
fellow citizen.
° ¿cómo? why? how come? ¿Cómo no
me lo dijo? Why didn't you tell me? compensar to balance, compensate Las
O tan .como as ... as ¿Es Ud. tan
. .
ganancias compensan los gastos. The
alto como yo? Are you as tall as I? income balances the expenses.
O tanto como as much as No creo que competencia competition, rivalry Hay
Ud. trabaje tanto como él. I don't be- mucha competencia en el comercio.
lieve you do as much work as he does. There's a lot of competition in busi-
cómoda chest of drawers. ness.

comodidad [/] convenience La casa tiene competir [rad-ch III] to compete No va

todas las comodidades. The house has a competir en el campeonato. He's not
all the conveniences. A ease, comfort going to compete for the champion-
Viven con mucha comodidad. They ship.
live very comfortably. complacer [-zc-] to please, accommodate
cómodo convenient, suitable, handy Una ¿En qué puedo complacerla? How can
maleta de este tamaño es muy cómoda. I help you?
A valise of this size is very handy. complaciente pleasing, accommodating,
A comfortable ¿Está kind Es una persona complaciente.
Ud. cómodo? Are
you comfortable? She's a very accommodating person.


completar SPANISH-ENGLISH conciencia

completar to complete, finish No han endo su carrera política. He's jeopar-

completado el informe. They haven't dizing his political career.
completed the report. O comprometerse to get involved No
completo complete ¿Está completo este se comprometa Ud. en eso. Don't get
juego de té? Is this tea set complete? yourself involved in that. A to be-
A full El tranvía va completo. The come engaged Se comprometieron ayer.
trolley's full. They became engaged yesterday.
complicación [/] complication. compromiso obligation, engagement No
complicar to complicate No complique puedo ir con Ud., tengo un compro-
Ud. la cuestión. Don't complicate the miso. I can't go with you, I have an
matter. engagement. A predicament,
cómplice [m, /] accomplice. fix Se encontró en un compromiso te-
componer to repair, fix ¿Compusi-
[¿77"] rrible. He found himself in a terrible
eron reloj?
el Did they repair the fix.
watch? A to compose Ha compuesto O compromiso matrimonial engage-
una sonata. He's composed a sonata. ment Rompió su compromiso matrimo-
O componerse to fix oneself, to doll nial. She broke her engagement.
up Se compuso mucho para ir al baile. compuesto See componer.
She dolled up a lot to go to the dance. común common, usual, general Fué la
composición [/] composition.
opinión común. It was the general
compositor [?rc] composer ¿Quién es el
compositor de esta sinfonía? Who's
comunicación [/] communication.
the composer of this symphony?
comunicar to communicate, transmit,
compostura mending, repair(s), repair-
send, issue Comunique Ud. esta orden
ing Hacemos toda clase de compostura.
a sus. empleados. Issue this order to
We make all kinds of repairs.
your employees.
compota stewed fruit.
O comunicarse to connect Las dos ha-
compra purchase, buy Hicimos una buena
compra. We made a good buy.
bitaciones se comunican. The two
rooms are connected. A to communi-
° hacer la compra to do the day's
cate, tellone another Se comunican
marketing La criada salió a hacer la
compra. The maid went out to do todo lo que ocurre. They tell each
other about everything that happens.
the day's marketing. O ¡r de compras
comunicativo communicative Es un per-
to go shopping.
sona muy comunicativa. He's very
comprador, compradora buyer, purchaser
Tiene varios compradores para la finca.
He has several buyers for the property. con with Salió con su hermano. She left
comprar to buy, purchase. with her brother.
comprender to understand, comprehend ° con tal que provided that.
¿Comprende Ud. español? Do you concebir [rad-ch III] to imagine No con-
understand Spanish? A to cibo que motivo puede tener para hacer
eso. I can't imagine what reason he
comprise, cover Esta historia com-
prende también la época contemporá- has for doing that.
nea. This history also includes the con- conceder to give, grant Le han concedido
temporary period. una pensión. They've granted him a
comprensión [/] comprehension, under- pension.
standing. concejal [m] councilman.
comprimir to compress. concejo board of aldermen.
comprobar [rad-ch /] to verify, confirm, concentrar to concentrate.
check Comprobaron las cuentas. They concepto judgment, opinion, thought
checked the accounts. Compruebe Ud. Tengo buen concepto de él. I have a
esta traducción con el original. Check good opinion of him.
this translation with the original. A to concesión [/] concession, grant.
substantiate, verify No se pudo compro- conciencia conscience Me remuerde la
bar la inocencia del acusado. The de- conciencia. My conscience bothers
fendant's innocence could not be veri- me. A scruples Es un hombre sin con-
fied. ciencia. He's a man without scruples.
A religion En este país no hay libertad
comprometer to risk No comprometan
Uds. su fortuna en eso. Don't risk de conciencia. There's no freedom of
your fortune on that. A to expose, religion in this country. A conscious-
jeopardize, endanger Está comprometi- ness Con el golpe perdió la conciencia.

concierto SPANISH-ENGLISH conferenciar

He lost consciousness as a result of hombre de mala condición. He's a

the blow. man of bad character.
O a conciencia conscientiously ho O a condición de que, con la condi-
hizo a conciencia. He did it conscien- ción de que on the understanding that,
tiously. A painstakingly Hizo su tra- on condition that, pi'ovided (that) Iré
bajo a conciencia. He did his work a condición de que Ud. vaya conmigo.
painstakingly. I'll go provided you go with me. O con-
concierto concert ¿Va Ud. al concierto diciones qualities Tiene buenas condi-
esta noche? Are you going to the con- ciones, pero está mal educada. She
cert tonight? has good qualities, but she's badly
conciliar to conciliate, reconcile Es difícil brought up. A terms ¿Cuáles son las
conciliar todas las opiniones. It's diffi- condiciones del contrato? What are
cult to reconcile all the opinions. the terms of the contract? A condi-
concisión [/] conciseness La concisión es tion, quality, state ¿En qué condiciones

una virtud. Conciseness is a virtue. está el edificio? What condition is the

concluir to conclude, end, finish, close building in?
¿A qué hora concluyó la sesión? What condiscípulo, condiscípula schoolfellow,
time did the meeting end? schoolmate, fellow student.
conclusión [/] conclusion ¿Se ha llegado cóndor [to] condor.
a alguna conclusión? Has any conclu- conducir [-zc-] to lead ¿A dónde conduce
sion been reached? este camino? Where does this road
concretar to express concretely Concrete lead? A to take, accompany Conduzca
Ud. su idea. Express your idea con- a este señor a mi oficina. Take this
cretely. gentleman to my office. A to drive
O concretarse to limit or confine one- Ud. conduce a demasiada velocidad.
self Concrétese al tema. Confine your- You drive too fast.
self to the subject.
O conducirse to act, behave Se con-
concreto definite, concrete ¿Le ha dicho duce como una persona educada. She
a Ud. algo concreto? Has he told you acts like a well-bred person.
anything definite? conducta conduct, behavior.
° en concreto concretely, in so many conductor [to] driver, motorman Se pro-
words Dígame en concreto lo que nece- hibe hablar al conductor. Don't talk
to the driver. A conductor of train
sita. Tell me in so many words what
you need. [Mea?].
concurrir to attend Mucha gente concu- conectar to connect ¿Han conectado la
rrió a la sesión. Many people attended antena del radio? Have they connected
the meeting. the radio antenna?
concurso competition, contest ¿Quiénes conejo rabbit.
se presentaron al concurso? Who took conexión [/] connection No tiene conexión
part in the contest? una cosa con la otra. There's no con-
condado county. nection between the two things.
conde [to] count (title). confección [/] workmanship, finish La
condena sentence, term of imprisonment, confección del traje es muy mala. The
penalty Cumplió su condena en el penal workmanship on the dress is very bad.
de Alcatraz. He served his sentence confederación [/] confederacy, federa-
at Alcatraz. tion.

condenar to prove, find, or declare guilty conferencia conference, meeting Hubo

¿Ud. cree que lo condenarán? Do you muchas conferencias entre los ministros
think they'll find him guilty? A to y senadores. The Ministers and the
sentence he condenaron a treinta años Senators held many conferences.
A public lecture Está dando unas con-
de cárcel. They sentenced him to thirty
years in prison. A to condemn, blame ferencias sobre literatura. He's giv-
Condenaron su conducta. They con- ing some lectures on literature.
demned his behavior. conferenciar to confer, consult together,
condensar to condense Tienen un nuevo hold an interview Después de confe-
procedimiento para condensar la leche. renciar varias horas hicieron públicos
They have a new process for condens- los acuerdos. After conferring for
ing milk. several hours, they made the agree-
condición [/] condition, character Es un ments public.


confesar SPANISH-ENGLISH conmemorativo

confesar [rad-ch /] to admit, confess había hecho, quedó confundido. On

Confesó su delito. He confessed his seeing what he had done, he was ex-
crime. tremely embarrassed.
confesión [/] confession, acknowledg- confundir to confound, jumble, mix up
ment. Han confundido todas las tarjetas.
confiado (See confiar) trusting, unsus- They've mixed up all the cards. A to
pecting Son unas personas muy con- mistake Ud. me confunde con mi her-
fiadas. They're very trusting people. mano. You're mistaking me for my
confianza confidence, faith Han perdido brother.
la confianza en él. They've lost con- O confundirse to make a mistake Me
fidence in him. he confundido muchas veces al copiar
O de confianza informal, intimate esta carta. I made many mistakes in
Fué una reunión de confianza. It was copying this letter.
an informal meeting. O en confianza confusión [/] confusion, disorder Hubo
confidentially, in confidence Le digo unos momentos de confusión. There
esto en confianza. I'm telling you this were a few moments of confusion.
confidentially. O hombre de confianza A embarrassment, confusion.
right-hand man Es su hombre de con- confuso confusing, not clear Los infor-
fianza. He's his right-hand man. mes eran confusos. The reports were
O tener confianza con to be on intimate confusing. A hard to read or under-
terms with No tengo suficiente coyi fianza stand Su letra es confusa. His hand-
con él para eso. I'm not sufficiently writing's hard to read. A hazy, vague
intimate with him for that. ° tener Tengo un recuerdo confuso. I have a
confianza en to trust ¿Por qué no tiene vague recollection. A confused, mixed
Ud. confianza en mí? Why don't you up, embarrassed Se quedaron muy
trust me? confusos. They were completely con-
confiar to entrust to, put in charge of fused.
he confiaron la administración de sus congestión [/]stroke (sun, etc) Le dió-
negocios. They put him in charge of una congestión. He had a stroke.
their business. congestionado congested El tráfico está
O confiar en to rely on, trust in, count congestionado. The traffic's congested.
on Ud. puede confiar en él. You can congraciarse to get into one's good graces
rely on him. Quería congraciarse con la madre de
confidencia ° hacer confidencias to con- su novia. He wanted to get into the
fide Me ha estado haciendo confiden- good graces of his sweetheart's mother.
cias. He's been confiding in me. congregación [/] congregation.
confidencial confidential. congregar to congregate, assemble El
confirmación [/] confirmation. cura congregó a los fieles en la iglesia.
confirmar to confirm, corroborate La The priest assembled the parishioners
prensa confirmó los rumores. The in the church.
press confirmed the rumors. O congregarse to gather, assemble
confitería candy store, confectionery; Los manifestantes se congregaron en
candy. la plaza. The demonstrators gathered
conflicto conflict, struggle. in the square.
conforme as Todo queda conforme estaba. congreso congress, convention.
Everything remains as it was. Con- O Congreso de los Diputados House
forme leía, más me interesaba. As I of Representatives.
was reading, I became more interested. conjetura conjecture, guess Se hacían
O conforme a in accordance with, in muchas conjeturas sobre lo que iba a
line with Conforme a su petición. . . . ocurrir. There was a great deal of
In accordance with your request. . . . conjecture as to what would happen.
° estar conforme con to be resigned to conjunto joint, unified Acción conjunta.
Está- conforme con su suerte. He's re- Joint action. [m] whole, entirety
signed to his fate. A to be in agreement Vale más el conjunto que las partes.
with Estoy conforme con lo que Ud. The whole is worth more than the
dice. I agree with you. parts.
confundido confused, mistaken. O en conjunto as a whole En con-
O estar confundido to be mistaken, junto el plan me parece bien. As a
confused. O quedar confundido to be whole, the plan seems good to me.
extremely embarrassed Al ver lo que conmemorativo commemorative.

conmigo SPANISH-ENGLISH constancia

conmigo with me Fueron conmigo de consentimiento. He hasn't given his

paseo. They went for a walk with me. consent.
conocer [-zc-~\ to know, understand Co- consentir [rad-ch II] to allow, permit,
noce muy bien el problema. He knows tolerate ¿Cómo lo consiente Ud.? Why
the problem very well. A to know, be do you permit it? A to coddle, spoil
acquainted with ¿Conoce Ud. al Sr. Consentían demasiado a sus nietos.
López? Do you know Mr. López? They spoiled their grandchildren.
O conocerse to meet, become ac- conserva ° conservas preserves; canned
quainted Nos conocimos la semana pa- food. O en conserva canned Me gustan
sada. We met last week. A to know las frutas en conserva. I like canned

each other Se conocen muy bien. They fruits.

know each other very well. conservación [/] conservation, mainte-
conocido (see conocer) prominent, well nance.
known Era muy conocido en su país. conservador [adj; m~\ conservative.
He was well known in his country. O el partido conservador the conser-
A [n] acquaintance Es un conocido vative party.
nuestro. He's an acquaintance of conservar to conserve, preserve, keep
ours. Ponga Ud. esta fruta en la nevera para
conocimiento knowledge, understanding que se conserve bien. Put this fruit
in the ice box so it will keep. A to keep
Tiene muy pocos conocimientos de geo-
grafía. He has very little knowledge Conservó el retrato durante muchos
of geography. A consciousness Todavía años. He kept the picture for many
no ha recobrado el conocimiento. He years.
still hasn't regained consciousness.
° conservarse to keep (oneself)
conquista conquest. young, be well preserved Se conserva
conquistador [m] conqueror Alejandro
muy joven. He keeps himself very
fué un gran conquistador. Alexander
considerable considerable, great, large
was a great conqueror. A Don Juan,
lady-killer Tenga Ud. cuidado con él;
Es una cantidad considerable. It's a
large amount.
es un conquistador. Be careful with
consideración [/] consideration, account
him; he's a Don Juan.
Lo tomaré en consideración. I'll take
conquistar to conquer, overcome, subdue A respect No
it into consideration.
Conquistaron la ciudad. They con-
tuvo ninguna consideración con ella.
quered the city. A to win No pude con-
He showed her no respect.
quistar su amistad. I wasn't able to
considerado thoughtful, tactful.
win his friendship.
considerar to consider, think over Con-
consagrar to devote, dedicate; to conse-
sidere de nuevo el problema. Consider
crate Consagró toda su vida a la cien-
the problem again. A to show con-
cia. He devoted his whole life to
sideration Lo consideran mucho. They
O consagrarse to devote oneself Se show him every consideration.
consigo with him (self), with her (self),
consagra a su trabajo. He devotes with it (self), etc Lleve Ud. el dinero
himself to his work.
consigo. Take the money with you.
consciente conscious. O consigo mismo to oneself Hablaba
consecuencia consequence La disputa tuvo consigo misma. She was talking to
malas consecuencias. The quarrel had herself.
unfortunate consequences. consiguiente O p0 r consiguiente conse-
conseguir [rad-ch ///] to attain, get, ob- quently, therefore.
tain Conseguí lo que quería. I got consistir en to be a question or matter of
what I wanted. A to succeed in Con- La felicidad consiste en la moderación.
siguió salir de la casa. He succeeded in Happiness is a question of moderation.
getting out of the house. consolar [rad-ch /] to console, comfort.
consejero adviser, counselor. consolidar to strengthen, consolidate Hay
consejo advice, counsel No necesito sus que consolidar la República. It's nec-
consejos. I don't need your advice. essary to strengthen the Republic.
A council Lo acordó el consejo.
The conspiración [/] conspiracy, plot.
council agreed on it. conspirador, conspiradora conspirator.
O consejo de ministros cabinet (of a conspirar to conspire, plot.
government). constancia perseverance Todo lo consigue
consentimiento consent No ha dado su por su constancia. He gets everything


constante SPANISH-ENGLISH contentar

through perseverance. A record, state- consumar to carry out, commit (an evil
ment No hay constancia de lo que ha action) Consumaron el crimen. They
dicho. There's no record of what he committed the crime.
said. consumidor, consumidora consumer.
constante firm, faithful, constant. consumirse to be used up, run out Se
constar to be evident, be clear, be certain consumieron todas las provisiones. All
Consta que es así. It's clear that it's the supplies ran out.
A to be recorded or registered Eso O consumirse de to be consumed with
consta en las actas. That is recorded Se consume de curiosidad. He's con-
in the minutes. sumed with curiosity.
O constar de to be composed of, con- consumo consumption No es grande el
sist of La obra consta de treinta capí- consumo diario. Daily consumption
tulos. The book consists of thirty isn't large.
chapters. ° constarle a uno to be evi- contabilidad [/] bookkeeping, accounting.
dent to one, be positive Me consta que contable [m, /] bookkeeper, accountant.
A ignition (of
no salió ayer. I'm positive he didn't contacto contact, touch.
go out yesterday. O conste que let it motors) Encienda el contacto. Turn
be understood that Conste que yo no lo on the ignition.
he hecho. Let it be clearly understood contado (see contar) few Son contadas
that I didn't do it. las personas que lo saben. Very few
constitución [/] constitution La constitu- people know it.
ción del país es muy democrática. The O contado (for) cash ¿Va Ud. a
constitution of the country is very pagar contado? Will you pay cash?
democratic. Es un hombre de una contador [m] accountant, bookkeeper.
A meter (for gas, water, electricity, or
constitución muy fuerte. He has a
strong constitution. taxi).
constitucional constitutional. contagiar to infect.
constituir to constitute, be Esto consti- contagio contagion.
tuye la parte esencial de la obra. This contagioso contagious El tifus es una
A to enfermedad contagiosa. Typhus is a
is the essential part of the work.
establish, organize, constitute Consti- contagious disease.
tuyeron una nueva firma comercial. contaminar to contaminate, pollute.
They established a new firm. contar [rad-ch I] to count Cuente Ud. el
construcción [/] construction Han empe- cambio. Count your change. A to re-
zado la construcción del nuevo ferro- late, tell Contaron muy bien la historia.
carril. They've begun the construction They told the story very well.
of the new railroad. A structure, build- O contar con to depend upon, count
ing Es la mayor construcción de la on Cuento con su ayuda. I'm counting
ciudad. It's the biggest building in the on your help.
city. contemplación [/] contemplation (in
constructor [?n] builder. visual sense).
construir to build, construct. contemporáneo [ad], n] contemporary.
consuelo consolation, comfort. contener [irr] to check, curb, control No
cónsul \_m\ consul. podía contener el caballo. He couldn't
consulado consulate. control the horse. A to contain La bo-

consulta consultation, conference Se reu- tella contenía vino. The bottle con-
nunieron en consulta. They met in tained wine.
conference. A office hours ¿A qué hora O contenerse to control oneself Se
tiene el doctor la consulta? What are contiene admirablemente. He controls
the doctor's office hours? himself admirably.
consultar to consult (about) Tengo que contenido See contener, [w] contents
consultarle una cosa. I want to con- ¿Puedo ver el contenido del paquete?
sult you about something. May I see the contents of the package?
O consultar con la almohada to sleep contentar to satisfy, please Es muy difícil
on, think over Antes de decidirlo con- de contentar. He's very hard to please.
súltelo con la almohada. Sleep on it O contentarse to be satisfied No se
before deciding. contenta con nada. He isn't satisfied
consumado complete, perfect, accom- with anything. A to become reconciled,
plished Es un nadador consumado. He's make up Se han. contentado ya. They've
an accomplished swimmer. already made up.

contento SPANISH-ENGLISH contrato

contento happy, glad Estaba muy con- ración. He contradicted himself sev-
tento. He was very happy. eral times in his testimony.
contestación [/] reply, answer No he contradicción [/] contradiction.
recibido contestación a mi carta. I contraer \irr\ to contract Contrajo esa
haven't received a reply to my letter. enfermedad hace muchos años. He
contestar to answer, reply No ha con- contracted that illness many years ago.
A to incur, run into Contrajeron deu-
testado a mi carta. He hasn't answered
my letter yet. das. They ran into debt.
contigo with you No
sabia que tu madre O contraer matrimonio to marry, get
vivía contigo. I didn't know that your
married Contraerán matrimonio el
mother lived with you. próximo sábado. They'll get married
contiguo adjacent, next Se oían voces en next Saturday. O contraerse to con-
el cuarto contiguo. They heard voices tract, diminish Se contrae con el frío.
It contracts with the cold.
in the next room.
continente [m] continent.
contrahecho deformed, crippled (from
continuación [/] continuation; sequence.
contraorden [m] countermand.
O a continuación immediately, right
contrariar to thwart, change, spoil (a
away Entró y a continuación se sentó.
plan) Esto contraría todos mis planes.
He came in and immediately sat down.
This spoils all my plans. A to annoy
Continuación de la primera página.
Esto me contraría mucho. This annoys
Continued from page one.
me very much.
continuar to continue, pursue, carry on
contrariedad [/] disappointment Fué una
Continúa sus esttidios. He's pursuing
Á to remain Su estado contrariedad no verle. It was a dis-
his studies.
appointment not to see him.
continúa lo mismo. His condition re-
contrario contrary Esto es contrario a la
mains the same. A to be still (in same
ley. This is against the law. A ad-
place or condition) Juan continúa en-
verse, unfavorable El fallo fué con-
fermo y en el mismo hospital. John is
trario. The verdict was unfavorable.
still sick and in the same hospital. A [w] opponent Ganaron el pleito sus
A to go on, keep on Continuó hablando
contrarios. His opponents won the
dos horas. He kept on talking for two
hours. ° al contrario on the contrary "¿Ha
continuo continuous, uninterrupted.
dicho eso?" "Al contrario, no la ha
contorno neighborhood Es conocido en dicho." "Did he say that?" "On the
todo el contorno. He's known in the contrary, he didn't say that." O de lo
whole neighborhood. A contour, out- contrario otherwise, if not Saldré a las
line El contorno de la figura no es seis; de lo contrario llegaré tarde. I'll
claro. The outline of the figure isn't leave at six; otherwise, I'll be late.
clear. O todo la contrario just the opposite,
contra against ¡Apoye Ud. la escalera the other way around No es lo que Ud.
contra la pared! Put the ladder dice, sino todo lo contrario. It isn't
A against, in oppo-
against the wall !
what you say, but just the opposite.
sition to Los Diputados votaron contra contraseña countersign; pass, check (for
la proposición. The Representatives hat, baggage, or for readmittance).
voted against the proposition. contrastar to contrast, be opposed Sus
O contra viento y marea against all ideas contrastaban con la mías. His
odds Contra viento y marea consiguió ideas were opposed to mine.
lo que quería. He got what he wanted O contrastar bien to harmonize, go
against all odds. O en pro y en contra well together Esos colores contrastan
for and against. O llevar la contra muy bien. Those colors go well to-
to oppose, object, raise objections Le gether. O contrastar mal to clash Esos
gusta llevar la contra. He likes to colores contrastan mal. Those colors
raise objections. clash.
contrabando contraband, smuggling. contraste [m] contrast.
contradecir [irr~\ to contradict Se enfada contratar to engage, hire Le han con-
si le contradicen. He gets angry if tratado por un año. They hired him
he's contradicted. for one year.
O contradecirse to contradict oneself contratista [?»] contractor.
Se contradijo varias veces en su decla- contrato contract.


contribución SPANISH-ENGLISH cordón

A tax Han ya la reunión? Have they called the

contribución [/] contribution.
aumentado mucho las contribuciones. meeting yet?
They've raised the taxes considerably. coñac [m] cognac, brandy.
contribuir to contribute. cooperativa [/] cooperative (enterprise).
control [w] control. cooperativo [adj] cooperative.
controlar to control. copa glass, stem glass, goblet Llenó las
convalecencia convalescence. copas de vino. He filled the glasses
convencer to convince. with wine. A drink Se fueron a tomar
O convencerse to become (or be) con- unas copas. They went out to get a few
drinks. A tree-top Las copas de los
vinced No se convence fácilmente. He's
not easily convinced. árboles estaban llenas de pájaros. The
A crown (of
convencido (see convencer) convinced. trees were full of birds.
conveniencia self-interest, good, advantage a hat) La copa de este sombrero es
No mira más que su propia convenien- demasiado alta. The crown of this
He only looks out for his own hat's too high. * heart (of playing
cards) Tengo el as de copas. I have
O ser de la mayor conveniencia to be the ace of hearts.
highly desirable Seria de la mayor con-
O sombrero de copa top hat.
veniencia que viniese Ud. It would be copia copy Necesito tres copias de esta
highly desirable for you to come. carta. I need three copies of this let-

conveniente suitable Este clima es muy ter. Este cuadro es una buena copia
conveniente para él. This climate's del original. This painting's a good
very suitable for him. A convenient copy of the original.
¿Será esta hora conveniente para Ud.? copiar to copy, make a copy of; to imi-
Will this time be convenient for you? tate.
A desirable, advisable Es conveniente copla popular song.
para su salud. It's advisable for his copo flake (of snow, soap, etc).
health. coqueta coquette, flirt Es la mujer más
convenir [irr] to agree Convengo con coqueta que he conocido. She's the

Ud. en ese punto. I agree with you on biggest flirt I've ever known.
that point. coquetear to flirt Coquetea con todo el
O convenirle a uno to be to one's mundo. She flirts with everybody.
advantage, be advisable, suit No le coraje [w] anger; courage, bravery.
conviene aceptar ese empleo. It isn't
O darle a uno coraje to make one
advisable for him to take that position, angry or mad Lo que le dijeron le dio
convento convent; [Arg] tenement house. mucho coraje. What they told him
conversación [/] conversation, talk. made him very mad.
coral [m] coral.
conversar to talk, converse Le gusta con-
versar. He likes to talk. corazón [w] heart. A core (of fruits).
convertir [rad-ch J] to convert, turn Han
O dar el corazón, decir el corazón to
convertido la casa en un museo. They've have a premonition or hunch Me da el
converted their house into a museum. corazón que no vendrá. I've a hunch
O convertirse to be converted Se con- he isn't coming. O de buen corazón
virtió al catolicismo. He became a kind-hearted Es un hombre de buen
Catholic. corazón. He's a kind-hearted man. O de
convicción [/] conviction, belief. (todo) corazón heartily, sincerely Lo
convidado (see convidar) invited. A [«]
dijo de (todo) corazón. He said it

very sincerely.
guest ¿Había muchos convidados en la
cena? Were there many guests at the corazonada presentiment, hunch.
dinner? corbata necktie, tie ¿Qué tipo de corbata
quiere Ud., de lazo o de nudo? What
convidar to invite Me convidaron a pasar
kind of tie do you want, a bow tie or
unos días en su casa. They invited me
to spend a few days at their house.
a four-in-hand?
O convidarse to invite oneself, come corcho cork.
uninvited Se convida siempre a comer. cordel [w] thin rope, cord.
He always invites himself for dinner. cordero lamb.
convite [m~\ treat; invitation ¿Esto es un cordial cordial, hearty.
convite o tenemos que pagar? Is this cordillera mountain range.
a treat or do we have to pay? cordón [m] cord, twine, lace Quiero com-
convocar to convoke, call ¿Han convocado prar unos cordones de zapatos. I want


corneta SPANISH-ENGLISH corriente

A cordon A
to buy some shoe laces. (of fresco. very cool wind's blowing.
A to move, push Corre esa
police or soldiers). silla para
corneta [/] bugle; cornet. aquí. Push that chair over here. A to
corneta [m] bugler. slide,draw Corre la cortina. Draw the
coro chorus, choir. curtain. A to go over, travel over Han
corona crown; wreath. corrido medio mundo. They've traveled
coronar to crown Aquel rey fué coronado over half the world.
a los quince años. That king was O correr el rumor to be rumored
crowned when he was fifteen years old. Corre el rumor de que se va a casar.
— Sus esfuerzos fueron coronados por It's rumored that he's going to get
el éxito. Their efforts were crowned married. O correr por cuenta de uno
with success. to be one's affair, to be up to one Eso
coronel [ni] colonel. corre por mi cuenta. I'll take care of
coronilla top of the head, crown. that, or That's up to me.
O estar hasta la coronilla de to be fed correspondencia correspondence Hemos
up with ¡Estoy hasta la coronilla de sus mantenido correspondencia desde hace
bromas! I'm fed up with his jokes! años. We've kept up a correspondence
A mail
corporación [/] (non-profit) corporation. for years. Voy a abrir la co-
corral [w] animal enclosure, corral. rrespondencia. I'm going to open the
O aves de corral domestic fowls. mail.
correa strap, belt. ° en justa correspondencia in re-
corrección [/] correction He tardado ciprocation, to get even Lg hice en
mucho en la corrección de estas pági- justa correspondencia. I did it to get
nas. The correction of these pages has even.
taken me a long time. La carta tiene corresponder to correspond, match Estos
muchas correcciones. The letter has botones no corresponden. These but-
many corrections. A good manners Es tons don't match. A to concern, be up
un hombre malo pero de gran correc- to Eso le corresponde a Ud. That's up
A to
ción. He's a bad man, but with very to you. return, reciprocate, re-
good manners. spond to Correspondió a sus atenciones.
correcto correct, right El libro estaba She responded to his attentions.
escrito en correcto español. The book corresponsal [m] correspondent.
was written in correct Spanish. A ir- O
corrida corrida de toros bullfight.
reproachable Sit conducta es muy co- corrido corrido (typical Latin American
rrecta. His conduct is irreproachable. song and dance).
corredor [m] runner, racer; corridor. corriente current, common No
es de uso
corregir [rad-ch ///] to correct Corrija corriente. not current usage.
Ud. los errores. Correct the errors. A ordinary
Está hecho con tela corrien-
A to discipline, correct No
le han cor- A run-
te. It's made of ordinary cloth.
regido cuando era malo. They didn't ning, flowing ¿Hay agua corriente en
discipline him when he was bad. este cuarto? Does this room have run-
correo mail ¿Ha venido el correo? Has ning water? A instant, present (month
the mail come? A post office ¿Está cerca or year) Contesté a su carte el veinte
de aquí el correo (or la oficina de cor- del corriente (mes). I answered your
reos) ? Is the post office near here? letter on the twentieth instant (or on
O administrador de correos postmas- the twentieth of the present month).
ter. O correo aéreo air mail Envié Ud. A
[/] current (of electricity, air, river)
sus cartas por correo aéreo. Send your Cuidado, la c'orriente es muy fuerte.
letters by air mail. O correo certifi- Be careful, the current's very strong.
cado registered mail. O echar al ° al corriente informed, posted he
correo to mail ¿Echó Ud. las cartas al tendré al corriente de lo que pase. I'll
correo? Did you mail the letters? keep you informed of what happens.
O lista de correos general delivery. O contra corriente upstream, against
correr to run Tenemos que correr para the tide. ° corriente y moliente com-
llegar a tiempo. We'll have to run to monplace Es una expresión corriente
get there on time. A to race Su caballo y moliente. It's a commonplace ex-
correrá mañana. His horse is racing pression. O dejarse llevar de la co-
tomorrow. A to flow El río corre hacia rriente to follow the current, follow the
el sur. The river flows towards the crowd En todo se deja llevar de la
A to blow Corre
south. un viento muy corriente. He always follows the crowd.

— —
corromper SPANISH-ENGLISH costa

corromper to corrupt. haciendo la corte desde hace tiempo.

corrupción [/] corruption. He's been courting her for some time.
cortada cut, wound [Mex] Tengo una O las cortes [pi] the Spanish parlia-
cortada en la mano. I have a cut on ment.
my hand. cortedad [/] bashfulness, shyness, timid-
cortado [adj] cut El traje estaba muy ity.
bien cortado. The suit was well cut. cortés polite, courteous No es una res-
A chapped Tengo las manos cortadas puesta muy cortés. It's not a very cour-
por el frío. My hands are chapped teous answer.
from the cold. A confused, abashed cortesía courtesy.
Se quedó cortado y no pudo seguir corteza bark (of tree) crust (of bread). ;

hablando. He became confused and cortijo ranch [Andalusia].

couldn't continue talking. cortina curtain.
cortador [m] cutter (tailoring). corto short La chaqueta me está demasia-
cortadura cut (wound) Tiene una cor- do corta. The jacket's too short for
tadura muy profunda en el pie. He me. A bashful, shy.
has a very deep cut on his foot. O a la corta o a la larga sooner or
cortapapeles [m sg~\ paper knife. later Les veremos a la corta o a la
cortaplumas [m sg] penknife, pocket- larga. We'll see 'em sooner or later.
knife. O corto de vista near-sighted Tiene
cortar to cut ¿Tiene Ud. algo con que que usar gafas porque es muy corto de
cortar e$ta cuerda? Have you any- vista. He has to wear glasses because
thing to cut this string? A to inter- he's very nearsighted.
rupt, stop, cut short Su entrada cortó cosa thing Eso ya es otra cosa. That's
la conversación. His entrance inter- quite another thing.
rupted the conversation. Por favor, O como si tal cosa as if nothing had
no me cortes el relato. Please don't happened. O cosa de about, more or
interrupt my story. A to cut off Tiene less Serían cosa de veinte personas.
Ud. que cortar los tallos de esas flores. There must have been about twenty
You'll have to cut off the stems of people. O cosa de ver thing worth
these flowers. A to cut out El sastre seeing. O cosa nunca vista something
todavía no ha cortado el traje. The unheard of. O cosas ideas, notions
A to ¡Qué cosas tiene Ud.! What ideas you
tailor still hasn't cut out the suit.
shut off, cut off (steam, water, elec- have O cosas de of the nature of, per-

tricity) Han cortado la electricidad. taining to. O cosas de niños childish

They shut off the electricity. A to cut things (doings or sayings). O no . . .

out, abridge Han cortado algunas esce- gran cosa not much No vale gran
. . .

nas importantes de la película. They cosa. It isn't worth much. No dijo

cut out several important scenes in the gran cosa. He didn't say much. O no
picture. hay tal cosa no such thing.
O cortar al prójimo to criticize [Am] coscorrón [m] blow on the head.
Le gusta mucho cortar prójima. He
el cosecha crop, harvest.
likes to criticize others. O cortar el hilo cosechar to reap, harvest.
to interrupt, break the thread (of a coser to sew.
story) Por favor, no mé cortes el cosmopolita [adj] cosmopolitan.
hilo. Please don't interrupt my story. cosquilla tickle.
O cortársele a uno to get chapped Se O buscarle a uno
cosquillas to
me ha cortado la cara con el viento. pick on one. O hacer
cosquillas to
My face has got chapped in the cold tickle. O tener cosquillas to be ticklish.
wind. cosquilloso ticklish.
corte [m] cut Tenía un pequeño corte costa coast Viven en un pueblecito de la
en la mano. He had a small cut on his costa. They live in a little village on
hand. A cut (style) Este traje tiene the coast.
buen corte. This suit's well cut. O a costa de by dint of, at the ex-
A length (of material) Le regaló un pense of Lo hizo a costa de su salud.
corte de vestido. He presented her He did it at the expense of his health.
with a dress length. — A costa de mucho trabajo consiguió
corte [/] court [Aw] El pleito será juz- lo que quería. By dint of hard work
gado en la Corte Suprema. The case he got what he wanted. O a poca costa
will be tried in the Supreme Court. with little effort Lo consiguió a poca
O hacer la corte to court, woo Le está costa. He got it with little effort.

costado SPANISH-ENGLISH cuadro

O a toda casta at all hazards, at any The cat had a litter.—Esa cerdo
cost ho hará a toda costa. He'll do it tiene buena cría. That sow has a fine
at any cost. litter.
costado side, flank. O ama de cría wet nurse.
costar [rad-ch I] to cost Eso cuesta de- criada maid, servant.
masiado. That costs too much. criado servant.
coste [m] cost, price. criar to raise, bring up.
costilla rib Se rompió una costilla mon- criatura baby, infant ¡Cómo llora esta
tando en bicicleta. He broke a rib criatura! How this baby cries! ¡No
riding his bike. A better half, wife seas criatura! Don't be a baby!
Tengo que ver a mi costilla. I must crimen [m] crime (spilling of blood).
see my better half. criminal [adj, n] criminal.
costo cost, price. crío baby (fretful).
costoso costly, expensive. criollo [adj, n] Creole.
costumbre [/] custom; habit. crisis [/] crisis.
costura sewing; seam. cristal [m\ crystal, glass ¿Cuánto vale
cotidiano [adj] daily. este juego de cristal? How much is
cotorra parrot. crystal worth? A window
this set of
coyuntura joint (of body) he duelen las pane El cristal de esta ventana está
coyunturas. His joints hurt. A oppor- roto. The pane of this window's
tunity, chance Es una buena coyuntura broken. A crystal, lens Se me han roto
para hacer dinero. It's a good chance los cristales de las gafas y el del reloj.
to make money. I've broken my lenses and my watch
coz [/] kick (of animals). crystal.
cráneo skull (of living person or animal). cristianismo Christianity.
cráter [m] crater. cristiano [adj, n] Christian.
creación [/] creation. Cristo Christ.
creador [m] creator. criterio criterion No tenemos los dos el
crear to create ¿Quien creó el mundo? mismo criterio. The two of us don't
Who created the world? A to create, have the same criterion. A judgment
design Están creando nuevos modelos Es un hombre de buen criterio. He's a
de aeroplanos. They're designing new man of good judgment.
airplane models. A to create, cause crítica criticism.
Creó muchos disgustos su actuación. criticar to criticize.
His actions caused a lot of trouble. crítico critical A [ri\ critic.
crecer [-zc-~\ to increase Su capital ha cruda hangover [Mex],
crecido en los últimos años. His capi- crudo raw, not cooked enough Estas pata-
tal's increased in the last few years. tas están muy crudas. These potatoes
A to grow ¡Cómo crece ese niño! How weren't cooked long enough. A crude
that child's growing! Habla de una manera muy cruda. He
crecimiento growth. speaks very crudely.
crédito credit Puedo comprar a crédito en cruel cruel.
esta tienda. I can buy on credit at crueldad [/] cruelty.
this store. cruz [/] cross.
O dar crédito a to believe No di nin- cruzar to cross, go across Cuidado al
gún crédito al relato. I didn't believe cruzar la calle. Be careful when you
the story at all. cross the street.
creencia belief. O cruzarse con to pass (a person) Me
creer to believe Creyó lo que Ud. le dijo. crucé con él en la calle. I passed him in
He believed what you told him. A to the street. O cruzarse de brazos to
think, believe No lo creo. I don't think fold one's arms; to be idle.
so. cuaderno notebook.
¡Ya lo creo! Of course! cuadra stable; [Am] block of houses.
crema cream (of milk); cream (cos- cuadrado [adj; n m~\ square (shape).
metic). cuadro painting Es un cuadro de Velaz-
crespo curly. quez. It's a painting by Velazquez.
cretona cretonne. A scene ha obra está dividida en tres
cría breeding, stock breeding Se dedicó actos y ocho cuadros. The play's di-
a la cría de caballos. He devoted him- vided into three acts and eight scenes.
self to horse breeding. A the young O a cuadros plaid, checked hlevaba
(of animals) ha gata tuvo una cría. un traje a cuadros. She was wearing
cuajado SPANISH-ENGLISH cuenta

a checked dress. many? ¿Cuántos vendrán? How many

cuajado de filled with La calle estaba cua- will come ? O en cuanto as soon as En
jada de gente. The street was filled cuanto llegue avíseme. Let me know
with people. as soon as he arrives.
cuajar to materialize No cuajó su plan. cuarenta forty.
His plan didn't materialize. cuaresma Lent.
O cuajarse to coagulate La sangre se cuarta span (of the hand).
cuajó en el suelo. The blood coagulated cuartel [m] barracks.
on the ground. O leche cuajada jun- cuarto room Está en su cuarto. He's in
his room. A quarter, one fourth Le
¿cuál? which? which one? what? ¿Cuál he esperado más de un cuarto de hora.
de los dos lo hizo? Which one of the I waited for him for more than a quar-
A fourth Carlos IV
two did it? ¿Cual es el número de su ter of an hour.
casa? What's the number of your (cuarto). Charles the Fourth. A cuar-
house? to (old Spanish coin) No tengo un
O por lo cual for that reason, that's cuarto. I don't have any money.
why Me dijo que estabas enfermo, por O cuarto de baño bathroom.
lo cual te he llamado. He told me you ||
Son las tres y cuarto. It's a quar-
were ill and that's why I'm calling. ter past three.
Cual el padre, tal el hijo. Like cuatro four.
father, like son. cuatrocientos four hundred.
cualidad [/] quality, trait. cuba barrel, cask.
cualquier(a) any, whatever, whatsoever cubeta pail, bucket [Am].
Llegarán cualquier día. They'll come cubierta wrapping El paquete tenia una
any day now. Déme un libro cual- cubierta de papel grueso. The package
quiera. Give me any book whatsoever. was wrapped in thick paper. cover
A any, any one Déme Ud. cualquiera de (of book,magazine). A deck (of ship)
esos libros. Give me any (one) of those Estuvimos paseando sobre cubierta.
books. A anyone (at all) Cualquiera We were walking on the deck.
puede hacer eso. Anyone can do that. cubierto (see cubrir) covered. A [m]
O un cualquiera a nobody, low-down place at table.
fellow Es un cualquiera. He's a low- O cubiertos set of silver; cover.
down fellow. cubrir \irr\ to cover Cúbralo con un
A to
cuando when Cuando Ud. venga se lo plato. Cover it with a plate.
diré. When you come I'll tell you. cover, balance Sus ingresos cubrían sus
A if Cuando Ud. lo dice será verdad. gastos. His earnings covered his ex-
If you say so, it must be true. penses.
° ¿cuándo? when? ¿Cuándo vendrá O cubrirse to put on one's hat Cú-
Ud.? When will you come? O cuando brase Ud. Put on your hat.
más at most Cuando más, costará cucaracha cockroach.
treinta pesos. It'll cost, at the most, cuchara soup spoon, tablespoon.
thirty pesos. O cuando quiera when cucharada tablespoonful.
you please, when you're ready Cuando cucharadita teaspoonful.
Ud. quiera, empezamos. When you're cucharilla teaspoon.
ready, we'll begin. O de cuando en cucharón [m~\ ladle.
cuando from time to time Vendré a cuchichear to whisper.
verle de cuando en cuando. I'll come cuchicheo whisper, whispering.
to see you from time to time. cuchilla wide blade; razor blade.
cuanto all that, as much as Le daré a Ud. cuchillo knife.
cuanto necesite. I'll give you all that cuelgo See colgar.
you need. cuello neck Tiene un cuello muy largo.
° cuánto how much? ¿Cuánto cuesta? He has a long neck. A neck (of a
How much does it cost? A how /Cuán- bottle) Se le ha roto en cuello a la
to me alegro de verle! How glad I botella. The neck of the bottle was
am to see you !
O cuanto antes broken. A collar Necesito una camisa
as soon as possible Venga cuanto de cuello duro. I need a shirt with a
antes. Come as soon as possible. stiff collar.
O cuanto más menos the more
. . . . . . cuenta account Póngalo en la nienta. Put
the less Cuanto más me lo digas menos it on my account.
A bill ¿Le ha pedido

te creeré. The more you tell me, the la cuenta al camarero? Did you ask
less I'll believe you. O ¿cuántos? how the waiter for the bill?


cuento SPANISH-ENGLISH culto

a cuenta y riesgo at one's own risk ron el cuerpo en el río. They found
Lo hizo a su cuenta y riesgo. He did it the body in the river.
at his own risk. O caer en la cuenta O tomar cuerpo to take shape El
to figure out, catch on No caigo en la proyecto va tomando cuerpo. The proj-
cuenta de que quiere Ud. decirme.
lo ect's taking shape.
I what you're trying to
can't figure out cuervo crow.
tell me. O dar cuenta de to account cuesta slope, hill A l otro lado de la cuesta
for, report Hay que dar cuenta de este está el río. The river's on the other
dinero. You must account for this side of the hill.
money. A to exhaust, finish
up Dio O a cuestas on one's back Llevaba la
cuenta de todo el tabaco. He finished carga a cuestas. He was carrying the
up all the tobacco. O darse cuenta de load on his back. O cuesta abajo
to realize Se dio cuenta de su error. downhill. O cuesta arriba uphill.
He realized his mistake. O en resumi- cuestión [/] question (problem) Esta es
das cuentas in short, in a word En la cuestión que tenemos que resolver.
resumidas cuentas, no quiso venir. That's the question we have to solve.
O hacer A
In short, he wouldn't come. argument Tuve una cuestión con él.
cuentas de to compute, calculate, figure I had an argument with him.
out Estaba haciendo las cuentas de la cueva cave; cellar.
casa. She was figuring out her house- cuidado care El cuidado de la piel es im-
hold expenses. O tener en cuenta to portante. Care of the skin is important.
A keeping,
keep in mind Tenga en cuenta lo que care Considera muy impor-
le digo. Keep in mind what I tell you. tante el cuidado de su casa. She con-
O tomar por su cuenta to take upon one- siders the care of her home very im-
self Ese asunto lo tomo yo por mi portant.
cuenta. I'll take that matter upon O estar con cuidado to be anxious or
myself. worried Tardan tanto que estoy con
Eso no me tiene cuenta. That isn't
cuidado. They're so late that I'm wor-
convenient for me. ried. O tener cuidado to be careful
cuento story, tale Compró un libro de Tenga cuidado al bajar. Be careful
cuentos. He bought a book of stories. going down.
O dejarse de cuentos to stop beating ¡Cuidado! Look out!

around the bush, come to the point. cuidadoso careful, painstaking.

no venir a cuento not to have bear- cuidar to take care of, mind Cuida muy
ing on the question Lo que dice Ud. bien de los niños. She takes very good
ahora no viene a cuento. What you're care of the children.
saying now has nothing to do with the culebra snake.
question. culpa fault, blame Eso no ha ocurrido por
cuerda cord ¿Tiene Ud. una cuerda para mi culpa. It isn't my fault that it hap-
atar este paquete? Do you have a cord pened. A sin Confesó todas sus culpas.
to tie this package with? A string He confessed all his sins.
Tengo que cambiar una cuerda a la O echar la culpa a to blame No me
guitarra. I have to change a string on eches la culpa a mi. Don't blame me.
the guitar. A spring, mainspring Se le O tener la culpa to be to blame Ella
rompió la cuerda al reloj. The watch tiene la culpa de todo. She's to blame
spring broke. for everything.
O dar cuerda a to wind (a watch or culpable guilty.
clock) No le di cuerda al reloj anoche. culpar to blame, accuse.
1 didn't wind the clock last night.
cultivado (see cultivar) cultured, culti-
cuerno horn (of an animal). vated Es un hombre muy cultivado.
cuero tanned skin, leather La maleta es He's a very cultured man.
cultivar to cultivate.
de cuero. It's a leather valise. A skin
cultivo cultivation, growing Se dedican al
El elefante tiene el cuero muy duro.
cultivo del algodón. They devote them-
The elephant's skin is very tough. A cul-
selves to the growing of cotton.
O cuero cabelludo scalp Es una en-
tivated fields, crops La inundación ar-
fermedad del cuero cabelludo. It's a ruinó los cultivos. The flood ruined
scalp disease. O e n cueros stark-naked.
the crops.
cuerpo body. A corps Pertenece al cuerpo culto cultured, educated Es un hombre
diplomático. He belongs to the diplo- muy culto. He's a very cultured man.
matic corps. A corpse, body Encontra- A [ra]
worship Acaban de abrir al culto

cultura SPANISH-ENGLISh dar

esta iglesia. They've just opened this A

parish. [/] cure, treatment El médi-
church for worship. co venía a hacerle la(s) cura(s). The
cultura culture (of the mind). doctor came to dress his wound.
cumbre [/] top, summit. Ocura de urgencia first aid.
cumpleaños [m sg] birthday ¡Feliz cum- curación [/] healing, recovery.
pleaños! Happy birthday! curar to treat, dress the wounds of Los
cumplido polite Es un hombre muy cum- médicos estuvieron curando a los heri-
plido. He's a very polite man. dos. The doctors were treating the
cumplidor reliable Es muy cumplidor en wounded. A to salt, cure, preserve No
su trabajo. He's very reliable in his han curado bien estos jamones. They
work. haven't cured these hams well.
cumplidos formalities ¡Basta de cumpli- O curarse to recover Se ha curado
dos! Enough of formalities! muy bien de la pulmonía. He's com-
cumplimiento performance, fulfillment pletely recovered from pneumonia.
Murió en el cumplimiento de su deber. curiosidad [/] curiosity; curio.
He died in the performance of his duty. curioso curious, inquisitive. A odd,
A compliment Me llenó de cumplimien- strange, quaint, rare Es tin tipo curio-
tos. He paid me many compliments. so. He's very odd.
cumplir to carry out, execute ¡Cumpla cursi unsuccessfully pretentious.
Ud. mis órdenes! Carry out my orders! curso course (direction) Seguimos el
A to keep (a promise) Cumplirá lo que curso del río. We followed the course
nos ha prometido. He'll keep his of the river. A course (of studies)
promise to us. Estudia un curso de historia. He's
O cumplir (años) to reach one's
. . . taking a history course. A course (de-
. .birthday Mañana cumpliré veinte y
. velopment) La enfermedad sigue su
cinco. I'll be twenty-five tomorrow. curso. The ailment's taking its course.
O cumplirse to mature, fall due Hoy curtido (see curtir) experienced, hard-
se cumple el plazo. The installment ened (by life) Es un hombre curtido
falls due today. por la vida. He's a man hardened by
cuna cradle. life.
cuneta gutter (along highway). curtir to tan (hides).
cuña wedge. O curtirse to become tanned or
cuñada sister-in-law. weatherbeaten.
cuñado brother-in-law. curva curve.
cuota share, quota; dues. cutis [m] complexion.
cúpula dome. cuyo whose Este es el hombre cuya hija
cura [w] priest, minister Es el cura de conociste ayer. This is the man whose
esta parroquia. He's the priest of this daughter you met yesterday.

dados dice. ages. O hacerle daño a uno

to be
O jugar a los dados to shoot dice. harmful to one, not to agreewith one
dama lady. Primero las damas. Ladies Me hace daño la comida picante. High-
first. ly spiced food doesn't agree with me.
danza dance (spectacle) Ha escrito un O hacerse daño to get hurt, hurt oneself
libro sobre la historia de la danza. Me hice daño en el pie. I hurt my foot.
written a book on the history of the dar [irr] to give. A to bear Este árbol
dance. da muy buena fruta. This tree bears
danzar to dance (as a performance). good fruit. A to show No da señales
dañar to damage. de vida. He doesn't show any sign of
O dañarse to damage Al aterrizar se life.
A to show (movies or plays)
le dañó uv ala al avión. The plane ¿Dónde dayi esa película? Where's that
damaged a wing in landing. movie showing?
daño damage El temporal causó gran ° dar a to face, overlook Las ven-
daño. The storm caused a lot of tanas dan a la calle. The windows
damage. fa.ce the street. ° dar a conocer to
O daños damages Tuvo que pagar make known Dio a conocer su opinión.
los daños. He had to pay the dam- He made his opinion known. O dar a
entender SPANISH-ENGLISH decepción

entender to pretend El da a entender que pensar. His queer behavior made

que no le interesa. He pretends that it me suspicious. O dar recuerdos to give
doesn't interest him. A to insinuate, regards Déle recuerdos de mi parte.
drive at ¿Qué quiere dar a entender? Give him my regards. O dar saltos to
What are you driving at? O dar (al) jump Al ver a su padre los niños dieron
fiado to sell or give on credit Se lo saltos de alegría. When they saw their
podemos dar fiado. We can let you father, the children jumped for joy.
have it on credit. ° dar calabazas See O darse la mano to shake hands ¡Ea,
calabaza. ° dar con to find, locate dense la mano, muchachos! Come on,
No puedo dar con él. I can't locate shake hands, boys O darse prisa to

him. O dar de baja to dismiss Le han hurry ¡Dése prisa que perdemos el
dado de baja del equipo. They've tren! Hurry up or we'll miss the
dropped him from the team. ° dar train! O (no) darle a uno la gana
de sí to stretch, give Estos calcetines (not) to feel like No me da la gana
no dan de sí cuando se lavan. These (de) hacerlo. I don't feel like doing it.
socks don't stretch when you wash 'em. or I refuse to do it.
O dar el golpe to create a sensation, datos data.
make a hit Darás
el golpe con ese ves- de of, -'s Viven en casa de mi madre.
tido. You'll make
a hit with that dress. They my mother's house. A of
live in
dar en to hit ¡Al fin ha dado Ud. en Haga favor de darme un vaso de
el clavo! At last you've hit the nail agua. Please give me a glass of water.
A A from
on the head !to take to Dio en co- Soy de Madrid. I'm from
leccionar sellos. He took to stamp col- Madrid. A about ¿Habla Ud. de mi
lecting. O dar fin a to complete, finish amiga? Are you talking about my
Dimos fin a la obra. We finished the friend? A in Se lo bebió de un trago.
work. O dar guerra to make trouble He drank it in one gulp. A with ¿Quién
or a rumpus Dile a los chicos que no es esa señora del sombrero rojo? Who's
den guerra. Tell the boys not to make the woman with the red hat? A to Es
a rumpus. O dar la hora to strike El la hora de salir. It's time to leave.
reloj de la catedral acaba de dar las debajo de beneath, under Encontrará Ud.
tres. The cathedral'sclock just struck la carta debajo de estos papeles. You'll
three. Odar la razón to agree, be of find the letter under these papers.
the same opinion Le doy la razón. debate [m] debate.
1 agree with you. ° dar las gracias deber to owe Nos debe mucho dinero. He
to thank No le dieron las gracias. owes us a lot of money. A to have to,
They didn't thank him. O darle a uno must Debemos irnos. We have to go.
to be stricken with, come down with O deber de must be (probability)
(illness) Me dio el sarampión. I came Debe de hacer frío. It must be pretty
down with measles. ° darle a uno cold.
gana(s) to want, desire Me dan ganas deber [m] duty, obligation Cumple con su
de comprar un automóvil. I want to deber. He does his duty.
buy an automobile. O dar manos . . . débil weak Después de su enfermedad se
de to put on coats (as of paint)
. . . ha quedado muy débil. Since his ill-
Dio dos manos de pintura a la pared. ness he's been very weak.
He put two coats of paint on the wall. debilidad [/] weakness.
O dar parte to report ¿Dieron ya parte debilitar to weaken.
a la policía? Have they reported it to debut [w] debut.
the police yet? O dar por cierto or decadencia decline.
seguro to feel sure Doy por segiiro que decaer [irr~\ to fail Su salud decae. His
vendrá. I feel sure he'll come. O dar health's failing. A to
lessen, fall off
por hecho to assume, take for granted Ha decaído mucho el interés del pú-
Lo dimos por hecho. We took it for blico. Public interest has fallen off a
granted. O dar que decir or hablar to lot.
cause criticism Eso dará mucho que decano dean.
decir. That'll cause a lot of criticism. decente nice, decent A ese lugar no va
O dar que hacer to give or cause trouble gente decente. No decent people go to
or work ¡Estos niños me dan tanto qué that place. A honest Creo que son per-
hacer! These children give me so much sonas decentes. I think they're honest
trouble! O dar que pensar to make people.
suspicious Su conducta extraña me dio decepción [/] disappointment.

decepcionar SPANISH-ENGLISH dejar

decepcionar to disappoint. decoración [/] decoration. A (stage) set-

decidido (see decidir) determined Es una ting, props Las decoraciones de la obra
persona muy decidida. He's a very de- eran muy acertadas. The settings of
termined person. the play were very appropriate.
decidir to decide Decidieron hacer el decorar to decorate.
viaje en seguida. They decided to decoro dignity, decorum.
make the trip right away. decretar to decree.
O decidirse a to make up one's mind decreto decree.
to Se decidió a casarse con ella. He dedal [?n] thimble.
made up his mind to marry her. dedicar to devote Dedica todo su tiempo
décimo tenth. A[m] one-tenth of a lot- al trabajo. He devotes all his time to
his work. A to inscribe, autograph El
tery ticket.
decir [irr\ to tell No dijo la verdad. He autor me ha dedicado su libro. The
didn't tell the truth. A to say ¿Qué author has autographed his book for
dice hoy el periódico? What does the me. A to dedicate El libro está dedi-
paper say today? cado al Presidente. The book's dedi-
O como quien no dice nada as if it were cated to the President.
of no importance Habló de ganar miles dedillo O saber al dedillo to know per-
de dólares como quien no dice nada. He fectly.
spoke of earning thousands of dollars dedo finger; toe.
as if it were nothing. O decir bien to O dedo anular ring finger. O dedo
be right Dice Ud. bien. That's right. gordo thumb; big toe. O dedo índice
O decir para sí to say to oneself. O de- index finger. O dedo medio middle
cir por decir to talk for the sake of finger. O dedo meñique little finger,
talking, talk to make conversation No pinky. O dedo pulgar thumb.
hace más que decir por decir. He just deducir [-zc-~\ to deduce, imagine Se pue-
talks for the sake of talking. O e l qué den deducir las consecuencias. You
dirán gossip, what people will say No can imagine the consequences. A sub-
hay que preocuparse del qué dirán. tract, deduct Deduzca Ud. esa cantidad
One shouldn't worry about what people del total. Subtract this amount from
are going to say. O es decir that is to the total.
say, that is. O querer decir to mean defecto defect, imperfection, shortcoming
¿Qué quiere decir eso? What does that No tiene defectos físicos. He has no
mean? O ser un decir to be a manner physical defects.
of speaking Todo esto es un decir. All defectuoso defective, faulty.
this is a manner of speaking. defender [rad-ch I] to defend Defendió
\Diga! Hello! (telephone) [Sp, su opinión con energía. He defended
his opinion with vigor. A to protect
Cuba] .

decisión [/] determination Muestra siem- La pared nos defendía del viento. The
pre mucha decisión en todo lo que wall protected us from the wind.
emprende. He always shows great defensa defense, protection.
determination in everything he under- defensor [m] defender Era uno de los
takes. A decision ¿Han hecho ya pú- defensores de Bataan. He was one of
blica la decisión del tribunal? Have the defenders of Bataan. A champion
they announced the decision of the Siempre ha sido uno de mis defensores.
court yet? He's always been one of my champions.
A [adj~\ for the defense Después habló
decisivo decisive, final.
declaración [/] declaration ¿Fué después el abogado defensor. Then the attor-
de la declaración de guerra? Was it ney for the defense spoke.
after the declaration of war? A state- deficiencia deficiency.
ment Lea Ud. su declaración antes de definir to define.
firmarla. Read your statement before definitivo final, definite.
you sign it. deformar to deform.
declarar to testify Después declararon los degenerar to degenerate.
testigos. Afterwards the witnesses dejado (see dejar) sloppy ¡Anda siempre
testified. tan dejado! He's always so sloppy!
O to declare one's love
declararse dejar to leave Dejó el libro sobre la mesa.
No se declarado todavía. He
me ha He left the book on the table. A to let,
hasn't he loves me yet. O de-
told me leave Déjale tranquilo. Let him alone.
A to leave, abandon Dejó a su mujer
clararse en huelga to declare a strike.


y a sus hijos. He left his wife and deliberar to deliberate El jurado está
children. A to intrust, leave,
turn over todavía deliberando. The jury's still
Dejó sus negocios a su hijo por un año. deliberating.
He turned the business over to his son delicadeza delicacy.
for a year. A to yield, produce, pay delicado delicate.
(income, dividends, profit) Es un nego- delicia delight.
cio que deja muchas ganancias. It's delicioso delightful Hemos pasado un rato
a business that pays big dividends. delicioso. We had a delightful time.
A to give up, leave Ha dejado ese em- A delicious El postre está delicioso. The
pleo. He's left that job. A to permit, dessert's delicious.
allow, let Déjeme Ud. que se lo ex- delincuente [adj; n] delinquent.
plique. Let me explain it to you. delirio delirium El delirio le duró toda la
O dejar caer to drop Cuidado, no noche. The delirium lasted all night.
dejes caer la botella. Be careful, don't O con delirio madly La quiere con de-
drop the bottle. ° dejar de to stop lirio. He's madly in love with her.
Dejó de comer. He stopped eating. O delirio de grandeza delusions of
O dejar dicho to leave word Dejó dicho grandeur.
que vendría a las cuatro. He left word delitomisdemeanor, crime.
that he'd come at four. O dejar en demanda claim, demand, request Han
paz to leave alone Déjeme en paz por- aceptado nuestra demanda. They've
que estoy trabajando. Leave me alone; accepted our demand. A demand, call
I'm working. O dejar sin efecto to (Com) Ahora hay mucha demanda de
cancel. O no dejar de not to fail to este artículo. There's a great demand
No dejes de venir a verme. Don't fail for this article now.
to come and see me. O demanda (judicial) legal proceed-
del (de + el; see de) Es el padre del ing, court action Entablaré demanda
abogado. He's the lawyer's father. contra ellos. I'll take court action
— Acaba de llegar del extranjero. He's against them. O oferta y demanda
just arrived from abroad. supply and demand.
delantal [m] apron. demás ° lo demás the rest Luego contaré
delante de before, in front of Mi casa la demás. I'll tell you the rest later.
está delante de la catedral. My house ° los demás, las demás others, the
A before, others, the rest Esperemos a los demás.
is in front of the cathedral.
in front of, in the presence of No digas Let's wait for the others. ° por demás
esas cosas delante de una señora. too, too much Eso es por demás. That's
Don't say such things in front of a too much. O por lo demás aside from
lady. this, as to the rest Por lo demás me
delantera start, lead El caballo blanco parece bien. Aside from this, it seems
ha tornado la delantera. The white all right to me. O todo lo demás every-
horse has taken the lead. A front row thing else.
(of seats). A front, facade (of build- demasiado [adj] too much, too many
ing). Había demasiada gente. There were
many A [adv~\
delantero front Hay que arreglar el de- too people there. too
lantero de la chaqueta. You have to much Cuesta demasiado. It costs too
A forward much.
fix the front of the jacket.
demente mad, insane. A [w] insane per-
(basketball, soccer).
delegación [/] delegation Es un miembro son.
de la delegación española. He's a mem- democracia democracy.
ber of the Spanish delegation. demócrata [w, /] democrat.
O delegación de policía police station democrático democratic.
Lo llevaron a la delegación de policía. demoler [rad-ch /] to demolish.
They took him to the police station. demonio devil ¿Para qué demonios lo

delegado delegated. A [n] delegate. quiere? What the devil does he want
deletrear to spell (out) ¿Quiere Ud. hacer it for?

el favor de deletrear su apellido? O ¡demonio! damn (it)! ¡Demonio,

Would you spell your name, please? qué frío hace! Damn it, it's cold!
delgado thin, slim Se ha quedado muy demora delay.
delgado. He's become very thin. A thin, demorar to delay Se demoraron en el
light Ese abrigo es muy delgado. That camino. They were delayed on the
coat's too thin. way.


demostración SPANISH-ENGLISH derrumbarse

demostración [/] proof Eso no necesita depravado depraved, lewd.

demostración. That doesn't need any depreciado depreciated Esa mercadería
A demonstration That merchandise
proof. Se le recibió está depreciada.
con grandes demostraciones de alegría. has depreciated.
He was received with great demonstra- depresión [/] depression.
tions of joy. I
deprimir to depress.
demostrar [rad-ch /] to prove Demostró derecha right (hand), right (side) To-
que tenía razón. He proved he was mamos el camino de la derecha. We-
right. A to show Demostró macho took the road to the right. Conserve
talento. He showed great talent. (or lleve) la derecha. Keep to the
densidad [/] density. right.
dentadura set of teeth. O a derechas right, well No hace
dentífrico toothpaste, toothpowder. nada a derechas. He doesn't do any-
dentista [m, /] dentist. thing right. O a la derecha to the
dentro inside, into, within he espero den- right. O de derecha conservative Per-
tro. I'll wait for you inside. tenece a un partido de derecha. He
O a dentro See adentro. O dentro de belongs to a conservative party.
inside (of) Está dentro del cajón. It's derecho [adj] right (opposed to left)
inside the drawer. A in, within Ven- Llevaba un anillo en la mano derecha.
drá dentro de dos meses. He'll be here He wore a ring on his right hand.
O dentro de poco soon, A straight Póngase Ud. la corbata de-
in two months.
A [m]
in a little while Nos veremos dentro de recha. Straighten your tie.
poco. I'll see you again soon. O p0 r right Ud. no tiene derecho a decirme
dentro inside, on the inside La caja eso. You have no right to say that
A law Es estudiante de derecho.
está pintada por dentro. The box is to me.
painted on the inside. He's a law student.
denunciar to denounce. O del derecho right side out Fíjese
departamento section, department. que esté del derecho. Make sure it's
A apartment [/Ira] Viven en una casa right side out. O derechos de aduana
de departamentos. They live in an customs duties No tiene Ud. que pagar
apartment house. derechos de aduana. You don't have to
depender to depend, be dependent No le pay duty. O derechos de autor copy-
gusta depender de nadie. He doesn't right; royalties. O hecho y derecho
like to be dependent on anyone. grown-up, full-fledged Es un hombre
O depende it depends Depende de lo hecho y derecho. He's a real man now.
que quiera Ud. hacer. It depends on O ponerse derecho to stand up straight.
what you want to do. derecho [adv] straight, right Siga Ud.
dependiente [w, /] clerk, salesman. todo derecho hasta la plaza. Go
deplorar to deplore, regret, lament. straight ahead to the square.
deponer [irr] to depose. derramar to spill Derramó el agua en el
deportar to deport, exile. mantel. He spilled water on the table-
deporte [m] sport ¿Le gustan a Ud. los cloth.
deportes? Do you like sports? derretir [rad-ch IIP] to melt El sol está
deportista [m, /] sportsman, sports- derritiendo la nieve. The sun's melt-
woman. A [ad;] fond of sports. ing the snow.
deportivo [adj] sport, athletic. O derretirse to melt La mantequilla
depositar to deposit Depositaron su di- se está derritiendo. The butter's melt-
nero en el banco. They deposited their ing.
money in the bank. A to put, have derribar to demolish, tear down Han
Deposité en él toda mi confianza. I put derribado muchas casas viejas. Many
all my trust in him. old houses have been torn down. A to
depósito deposit, bond Para entrar en el throw down, knock down De un golpe
pais hay que dejar un depósito. You lo derribó al suelo. He knocked him
must leave a deposit in order to enter down with one blow. A to overthrow
the country.
A warehouse Estos edifi- Derribaron al gobiei~no. They over-
cios son los depósitos de la fábrica. threw the government.
These buildings are the warehouses of derrochar to waste, squander.
the factory. derrota defeat, rout.
O depósito de agua water tank; res- derrotar to defeat, rout.
ervoir. O en depósito on deposit. derrumbarse to collapse, tumble down El

derrumbe SPANISH-ENGLISH descansar

puente se derrumbó. The bridge col- tuvo muy desanimada. The fiesta was
lapsed. very poorly attended.
derrumbe [w] landslide Hay un derrumbe desanimar to dishearten, discourage ¿Por
en el camino. There's a landslide on qué me desanima Ud. a hacer el viaje?
the road. Why are you discouraging me from
desabrigarse to take off outer clothing, to taking the trip?
expose oneself (to cold). ° desanimarse to become discouraged
desabrochar to unclasp, unbutton, un- Se desanima con la menor dificultad.
fasten. He gets discouraged at the least diffi-
desacierto error, mistake, blunder. culty.
desacreditar to discredit. desaparecer [-zc-] to disappear.
desacuerdo disagreement. desaparición [/] disappearance.
desafiar to challenge Le desafío a una desaprobar to disapprove of Desapruebo
partida de ajedrez. I challenge you to su actitud. I disapprove of his atti-
a game of chess. A to defy Desafiaba tude.
el peligro. He defied the danger. desarmar to disarm Desarmaron a los
desafinar to be out of tune. soldados. They disarmed the soldiers.
A to take
desafío duel; challenge; match (sports). apart Desarmé la máquina
desagradable disagreeable, unpleasant. de escribir para limpiarla. I took the
desagradar to displease Me desagrada typewriter apart to clean it.
mucho lo que Ud. ha hecho. I'm very desarreglar to disarrange.
much displeased with what you did. desarrollar to develop Están desarrollan-
desagrado displeasure. do una nueva industria. They're de-
desaguar to drain, draw liquid off. veloping a new industry.
desagüe [m] drain (plumbing). O desarrollarse to develop El niño se
desahogado comfortable Viven de una ha desarrollado muy de prisa. The
manera muy desahogada. child's developed very quickly.
They live
very comfortably. A cheeky, nervy desarrollo development.
¡Qué tío más desahogado! What a desaseado slovenly, not clean.
nervy guy. desastrado untidy, slovenly.
desahogo relief, breathing spell, rest No desastre [w] disaster, catastrophe.
he tenido un momento de desahogo desastroso unfortunate, disastrous.
desde que empecé este trabajo. I haven't desatar to untie.
had a moment's rest since I began this desatento discourteous.
desatinado foolish Me dio un consejo
work. A cheek, nerve Tiene un desa-
desatinado. He gave me foolish advice.
hogo terrible. He has an awful nerve. A [n] idiot,
desairar to scorn, disregard, slight No
desatino nonsense.
quiero desairarle. I don't mean to
desavenencia discord, disagreement.
slight him.
desayunarse to breakfast ¿Se ha desa-
desalentar [rad-ch J] to discourage No
yunado Ud. ya? Have you had your
le desaliente en su trabajo. Don't
breakfast yet?
discourage him about his work.
desayuno breakfast.
desaliento discouragement.
desbaratar to destroy, ruin Estos niños
desalmado inhuman, merciless.
desalquilado unrented, vacant ¿Tienen al- desbaratan todo lo que cogen. These
gún apartamento desalquilado? Do children destroy everything they get
you have a vacant apartment? hold of.
desalquilarse to become vacant Me han O desbaratarse to fall to pieces Se
dicho que este piso se desalquilará el han desbaratado todos nuestros planes.
mes próximo. I've been told this apart- All our plans went to pieces.
ment will be vacant next month. desbordarse to overflow.
desamparar to abandon, desert. descabellado preposterous, absurd ¡Qué
desamueblado unfurnished. ideas tan descabelladas tiene Ud.!
desandar to retrace (one's steps). What absurd ideas you have!
desangrarse to bleed, lose blood, descalabro setback, misfortune.
desanimación [/] lack of enthusiasm descalificar to disqualify.
Hubo gran desanimación en el público. descalzarse to take off one's shoes.
There was a great lack of enthusiasm descalzo [adj] barefoot.
on the part of the public. descamisado ragamuffin [Aw].
desanimado poorly attended La fiesta es- descansar to rest Cuando termine este

descanso SPANISH-ENGLISH descubrimiento

trabajo, descanse Ud. un rato. When puso todos nuestros planes. That up-
you finish this work, rest for a while. set all our plans. A to put out of
descanso rest, let-up Trabaja sin des- order Los niños descompusieron el
canso. He works without let-up. A re- radio. The children put the radio out
lief ;Qué descanso me da haber termi- of order.
nado eso! What a relief to be finished O descomponerse to dislocate Se ha
with that! A intermission Iremos a su descompuesto un brazo. He's dislocated
palco en descanso. We'll come to his arm. A to get out of order El telé-
your box during the intermission. fono se descompuso. The telephone got
A landing (of staircase). out of order. A to spoil, rot Por el
descarado impudent, saucy, fresh. calor se ha descompuesto la comida.
descargar to unload Varios hombres des- The food's spoiled because of the heat.
cargaban el camión. Several men were A to get very angry, lose one's temper
unloading the truck. A to free (from Al oír aquello, se descompuso. When
an obligation or debt) Le han descar- he heard that he got very angry. A to
gado de esas obligaciones. They've lose one's looks [.1/ex] Con la enferme-
freed him from those obligations. A to dad se ha descompuesto mucho. On
burst, strike (as a storm) La tormenta account of her illness she's lost a lot of
va a descargar de un momento a otro. her good looks.
The storm's going to strike any minute. descompuesto (see descomponer) out of
descargo unloading, unburdening. order; spoiled.
descartar to discard, eliminate Hay que desconcertar [rad-ch /] to disturb, con-
descartar esa posibilidad. You have fuse La pregunta le desconcertó
to eliminate that possibility. mucho. The question confused him.
O descartarse (de) to discard (at desconfianza distrust.
cards) Me he descartado de un rey. I desconfiar de to distrust, suspect No
discarded a king. tiene Ud. razón para desconfiar de él.
destendencia descendants Su descenden- You have no reason to distrust him.
cia llegó a ser ilustre. His descendants A to have little hope of El médico des-
came to be well known. confiaba de poder salvarlo. The doctor
descender [rad-ch /] to go down, descend had little hope of saving him.
Esa carretera desciende hasta el mar. desconocer [-~c-] to disregard, ignore
That road goes down to the sea. A to Desconoce las reglas de la etiqueta.
be descended Creo que descienden de He ignores the rules of etiquette.
una familia francesa. I think they're desconocido (see desconocer) unknown,
descended from a French family. A to strange Es difícil orientarse en una
descend, come down El avión descendió ciudad desconocida. It's difficult to
rápidemente. The airplane came down find one's way around in a strange
rapidly. A to drop, decrease ha tempe- city. A [n~\ stranger Se le acercó un
ratura está descendiendo. The tem- desconocido. A stranger approached
perature's dropping. him.
descendiente [m, /] descendant. desconsideración [/] inconsiderateness
descenso descent, going down El descenso ;Eso es mucha desconsideración!
era muy peligroso. The descent was That's very inconsiderate.
very dangerous. A fall, decrease Du- desconsolado disconsolate.
rante varios años hubo un descenso en descontado See descontar. O dar por
la natalidad. There was a fall in the descontado to take for granted.
birth rate for several years. descontar [rad-ch /] to deduct Descuente
descifrar to decipher, make out. Ud. de esa cantidad los gastos de viaje.
descolgar to take down Ayúdeme a des- Deduct the traveling expenses from
colgar este cuadro. Help me take down that amount.
this picture. descontento dissatisfied, displeased Esta-
descolorido faded La tela está muy des- ban muy descontentos de su trabajo.
colorida. The very faded. A pale
cloth's They were dissatisfied with his work.
Después de la enfermedad se quedó A [w] dissatisfaction.
muy descolorido. He was very pale descortés discourteous, rude.
after his illness. describir to describe.
descomedido impolite, rude Es un mucha- descripción [/] description.
cho muy descomedido. He's very im- descrito See describir.
polite. descubierto See descubrir.
descomponer [irr] to upset Eso descom- descubrimiento discoverv.

descubrir SPANISH-ENGLISH desgracia

descubrir [irr~\ to discover Descubrimos desembarco, landing, disembarkation.

que todo era mentira. We discovered desembocar to flow, or empty, into Ese
that it was all a lie. A to disclose, río desemboca en el Pacífico. That river
show, make clear Descubrió sus inten- flows into the Pacific. A to end, lead

ciones. He disclosed his intentions. No sé donde desemboca esa calle. I

O descubrirse to take off one's hat. don't know where that street leads.
descuento discount; deduction. desembolsar to pay out.
descuidado (see descuidar) sloppy, sloven- desempacar to unpack [Am'] Tengo que
A unaware,
ly, unclean. off guard. desempacar el equipaje. I have to
A careless, negligent No seas tan des- unpack my luggage.
cuidado en tu trabajo. Don't be care- desempeñar to carry out Desempeñó muy
less in your work. bien su misión. He carried out his
descuidar to neglect Descuidó mucho su mission very well.
trabajo. He neglected his work. desenfrenado wild Lleva una vida desen-
Descuida, yo me encargo de eso. frenada. He leads a wild life.
Don't worry, I'll take care of that. desengañar to set right, undeceive.
descuido carelessness, negligence. O desengañarse to be disillusioned,
O al descuido carelessly Hace todo al not to fool oneself Desengáñate, no te
descuido. He does everything care- quiere. Don't fool yourself, he doesn't
lessly. O en un descuido when least love you. O estar desengañado to be
expected [Mea?] En un descuido llega. disappointed or disillusioned Están
He turns up when least expected. muy desengañados después de lo ocu-
desde from Le vi desde lejos. I saw him rrido. They were disillusioned after
from a distance. A since Vivo en esta what happened.
casa desde el mes pasado. I've been desengaño disappointment, disillusion.
living in this house since last month. desentendido O hacerse el desentendido
O desde ahora from now on. O desde to pretend not to know.
entonces since then Desde entonces he desenterrar [rad-ch /] to dig up.
cambiado mucho. I've changed a lot desenvolver [rad-ch /] to unwrap Voy a
since then. O desde hace for Le conoz- desenvolver el paquete. I'm going to
co desde hace muchos años. I've known unwrap the package.
him for many years. O desde luego of desenvuelto (see desenvolver) forward;
course ¡Desde luego Uds. vendrán con free and easy.
nosotros! Of course you're coming deseo desire, wish No puede refrenar sus
with us! O desde que (ever) since deseos. He can't control his desires.
Desde que la conocí la quiero. I've O tener deseo de to be eager to Tengo
loved her ever since I met her. O desde muchos deseos de verle. I'm very eager
un principio from the beginning Desde to see him.
zin principio me pareció que estaba deseoso desirous, eager.
equivocado. It seemed to me from the desertor [m] deserter.
beginning that he was mistaken. desesperación [/] desperation.
desdén [m] scorn. desesperanza despair.
desdicha misfortune.
desesperar to despair, lose hope El médi-
desdichado unhappy, unfortunate Fué un
co desespera de salvarle. The doctor's
accidente desdichado. It was an unfor- A to drive
losing hope of saving him.
tunate accident.
crazy Me desesperó con su insistencia.
desdoblar to unfold.
He drove me crazy with his insistence.
desear to desire, want, like Deseo verle
desespero despair.
cuanto antes. I want to see you as soon
desfallecer [-zc-] to be on the verge of
as possible.
collapse, grow weak, break down.
desechar to reject Desecharon su pro-
puesta. They rejected his proposal. desfavorable unfavorable.
A to put aside Deseche Ud. esos temores. desfigurar to disfigure, deform.
Put aside those fears. desfilar to parade.
desembarcar to unload, put ashore Esta- [m] parade.
ban desembarcando las mercancías. desganado having no appetite.
They were unloading the goods. A to desgarrar to tear, rip.
land, disembark Cuando desembarca- desgracia misfortune Tuvo la desgracia
mos vimos a nuestro amigo en el de perder todo su dinero. He had the
muelle. When we landed we saw our misfortune to lose all his money. A sor-
friend on the pier. row, grief Trataban de consolarla en

desgraciadamente SPANISH-ENGLISH desorden

su desgracia. They tried to console la pista. The skaters glided rapidly

her in her grief. around the rink.
O por desgracia unfortunately Por deslucido worn, faded Este traje está
desgracia no lo supimos a tiempo. Un- muy deslucido. This dress is too worn.
fortunately we didn't find it out in A unsuccessful La fiesta fué muy des-
time. lucida. The party was a failure.
desgraciadamente unfortunately. deslumhrar to dazzle.
desgraciado [should not be used in Ecua- desmayar to be dismayed or depressed or
dor] unfortunate Han sido muy des- discouraged No desmayó en su intento.
graciados durante los últimos años. He wasn't discouraged in his plan.
They've been very unfortunate during O desmayarse to faint A I saber la
A [n] wretch No
the past few years. noticia se desmayó. When she learned
es más que un desgraciado. He's noth- the news she fainted.
ing but a miserable wretch. desmejorado O estar desmejorado to look
deshacer [irr] to undo Tenemos que des- sickly.
hacer lo hecho. We have to undo what desmentir [rad-ch II] to disprove Pude
was done. A to untie, unwrap No desmentirle en todo lo que decía. I
puedo deshacer este nudo. I can't un- was able to disprove every statement
tie this knot. A to dissolve Deshaga la he made.
pastilla en un vaso de agua. Dissolve O desmentirse to take back, retract
the tablet in a glass of water. A to Después de haberlo dicho trató de des-
spoil,upset Su llegada deshizo nuestros mentirse. After he had said it, he tried
planes. His arrival spoiled our plans. to take it back.
O deshacerse to wear oneself out Se desnudar to undress Está desnudando a
deshace con tanto trabajo. He's wear- los niños. She's undressing the chil-
ing himself out with so much work. dren.
O deshacerse de to dispose of, get rid O desnudarse to take off one's clothes,
of Me deshice de mis alhajas. I got rid get undressed Se desnudó y se tiró al
of my jewels. O deshacerse en to out- agua. He took off his clothes and dove
do oneself in Se deshizo en amabilida- into the water.
des con las señoras. He outdid himself desnudo naked, nude, bare.
in courteous attentions to the ladies. desobedecer [-zc-~\ to disobey No desobe-
O deshacerse en lágrimas to burst into dezca Ud. mis órdenes. Don't disobey
tears. my orders.
deshecho (see deshacer) undone, not desocupado unoccupied, vacant ¿Hay al-
made. A worn out, exhausted Estoy gún piso desocupado? Do you have an
deshecho. I'm exhausted. apartment vacant? A not busy, not oc-
deshonesto dishonest, dishonorable; lewd. cupied Hablaré con Ud. cuando esté
deshonra dishonor, disgrace. desocupado. I'll talk with you when

deshonrar to disgrace. you're not busy. A [w] idler Toda su

desierto deserted; uninhabited La esta- vida no ha sido más que un desocupado.
ción estaba desierta. The station was He's been an idler all his life.
deserted. A [m] desert La última parte desocupar to vacate Tenemos que desocu-
del viaje fué a través del desierto. The par la casa antes del mes próximo. We
last part of the trip was across the must vacate the house before next
desert. month. A to empty Voy a desocupar
designar to name, appoint (a person). este armario para que Ud. lo use. I'm
desigual unequal La lucha era muy desi- going to empty this cabinet so that
gual. It was an unequal struggle. you can use it.
A uneven
El terreno era muy desigual. desolación [/] desolation.
The ground was very uneven. desolado desolate, disconsolate; disap-
desigualdad [/] difference, inequality. pointed.
desilusión [/] disillusionment. desollar to skin Después de matar el car-
desinfectante [adj ; m~\ disinfectant. nero tendrá Ud. que desollarlo. After
desinfectar to disinfect. you kill the sheep you'll have to skin it.
desinteresado impartial; disinterested. Queda el rabo por desollar. The

desistir de to give up, call off Desistió de most difficult part's still to be done.
hacer el viaje. He called off the trip. desorden [ni] disorder, confusion, mess
desleal disloyal. El cuarto estaba en el más completo
deslizarse to slip, slide, glide Los patina- desorden. The room was a complete
dores se deslizaban rápidamente por mess.

desordenado SPANISH-ENGLISH despojar

O desórdenes riots, disturbance En despegar to unglue, take off Voy a despe-

los últimos desórdenes hubo varios gar este sello con agua caliente. I'm
heridos. There were several people going to take off this stamp with hot
hurt in the recent riots. water. A to rise, take off El avión to-
desordenado disorderly. davía no ha despegado. The plane
desordenar to upset. still hasn't taken off.
desorganizar to disorganize. O despegarse to come off El sello se
desorientar to confuse Me desorienta su despegó. The stamp came off. O no
manera de presentar el asunto. His despegar los labios to keep silent,
way of presenting the matter confuses keep one's mouth shut.
me. despejado (see despejar) smart, bright
O desorientarse to lose one's bear- ¡Qué muchacho tan despejado! What
ings, get lost Me desorienté al salir del a bright boy!
metro. I lost my bearings when I despejar to clear La policía ha despejado
came out of the subway. la plaza. The police have cleared the
despachar to ship, send out Despacharon square.
un vagón de géneros. They shipped a O despejarse to clear up (of the
carload of goods. A to attend to, take weather or sky) Me parece que el
care of No he despachado todavía la tiempo se está despejando. I think it's
correspondencia de hoy. I haven't clearing up.
taken care of today's mail yet. A to despensa pantry.
wait on, take care of Señorita, ¿quiere desperdiciar to waste No se debe desper-
Ud. despacharme, por favor? Will you diciar la comida. Food shouldn't be
please wait on me, miss? A to fire, dis- wasted.
miss he despacharon por inútil. They desperdicio [m] waste Esta carne no
fired him because he was useless. tiene desperdicio. This meat has no
despacho dispatch. A office ¿Quiere Ud. waste.
pasar a su despacho? Will you go into O desperdicios refuse, garbage.
his office? desperezarse to stretch (oneself).
° despacho de billetes ticket office, despertador [m] alarm clock Ponga el
ticket window Tuvo que hacer cola en despertador a las siete. Set the alarm
el despacho de billetes. He had to stand clock for seven o'clock.
in line at the ticket office. O despacho despertar [rad-ch I] to wake up Des-
de mercancía shipment of goods Se ha piérteme a las ocho. Wake me up at
retrasado mucho el despacho de esa eight o'clock. A to arouse, sharpen, ex-
mercancía. That shipment's been very cite Todo lo que ve despierta su curiosi-
much delayed. dad. Everything he sees arouses his
despacio slowly ¿Quiere Ud. hablar más curiosity.
despacio? Would you speak more ° despertarse to wake up Me des-
slowly? perté al amanecer. I woke up at sun-
despedazar to tear up, mangle. rise.
despedida farewell, send-off Les dieron despierto (see despertar) awake. A smart,
una comida de despedida. They gave wide-awake Es tin chico muy despierto.
them a farewell dinner. He's a very wide-awake boy.
despedir [rad-ch III] to dismiss, dis- despintar to remove paint; to remove
charge Tuvieron que despedir a la make-up.
mitad del personal. They had to dis- desplegar [rad-ch 7] to unfold Estaban t

miss half their personnel. A to see desplegando el mapa sobre la mesa.

(someone) off Iremos a despedirle a la They were unfolding the map on the
estación. We'll go to the station to see table. A to deploy (Mil).
him off. O desplegar los labios to open one's
despedirse a la francesa to take mouth Estuvo allí sin desplegar los
French leave, sneak away. O despe- labios. He sat there without opening
dirse (de) to take leave (of), say good- his mouth.
by (to) Tengo que despedirme de unos desplomarse to fall, collapse.
amigos. I have to say good-by to some despoblado uninhabited place, wilderness.
friends. O ser despedido, salir despe- despojar to strip (of property), despoil
dido to be thrown out A corisecuencia Le han despojado hasta del último cen-
del choque uno de los pasajeros salió tavo. They stripped him of his last
despedido. As a result of the collision penny.
one of the passengers was thrown out. O despojarse de to take off (clothing^

despojo SPANISH-ENGLISH desventura

Al entrar se despojó del abrigo. On destapar to take the lid or cover off
entering he took off his coat. ¿Puede Ud. destapar esta caja? Can
despojo spoils. you take the lid off this box? A to open
O despojos remains. Destape Ud. otra botella de Coca-Cola.
déspota [?n] tyrant, despot. Open another bottle of Coca-Cola.
despotismo tyranny, despotism. desternillarse to split (one's sides with
despreciable despicable, low-down. laughter).
despreciar to look down on, despise No desterrar [rad-ch T] to banish, exile Lo
tiene Ud. ninguna razón para despre- van a desterrar. They're going to exile
ciarle. You have no reason to look him.
down on him. A to scorn, reject Des- destilar to distill.
preció todos mis consejos. He scorned destinado (see destinar) addressed La
all my advice. carta venía destinada a mí. The letter
desprecio contempt. was addressed to me.
desprender to unfasten Desprenda Ud. el O estar destinado a to be bound to,
broche. Unfasten the
pin. be destined to Ese proyecto está desti-
O desprenderseto loosen, fall off Se nado a fracasar. That plan's bound to
ha desprendido un botón del saco. A fail.
button's fallen off the jacket. O des- destinar to appoint, assign Le destinaron
prenderse de to give away Se ha des- a otra sucursal del banco. They ap-
prendido de toda su fortuna. He gave pointed him to another branch of the
away his whole fortune. bank.
desprendido (see desprender) generous destinatario, destinataria addressee.
Siempre ha sido muy desprendido. He's destino job Tiene un destino en el minis-
always been very generous. terio de Hacienda. He has a job in the
desprestigiado having lost one's prestige Treasury Department. A destiny, fate
or reputation Es un hombre completa- Su destino fué trágico. He had a tragic
A destination Esta carta no lle-
mente desprestigiado. He's a man fate.
who's completely lost his reputation. gará a su destino. This letter won't
desprestigiar to slander. reach its destination.
despropósito nonsense. O con destino a bound for, going to
después later Tendremos una reunión y Salió con destino a Buenos Aires, He
después podemos dar un paseo. We'll was bound for Buenos Aires.
have a meeting and later we can take destituir to dismiss (from office).
a walk. A then Después fuimos al tea- destornillador [w] screw driver.
tro. Then we went to the theater. destornillar to unscrew.
A afterwards Se lo contaré después. destreza skill.
I'll tell you afterwards. destrozar to destroy, tear down.
O después de after Iremos después destrucción [/] destruction.
de comer. We'll go after we eat. destruir to destroy.
° después de todo after all Después de desunir to separate, take apart Tendre-
todo es lo razonable. After all, it's mos que desunir los alambres. We'll
reasonable. have to separate the wires. A to es-
despuntar to be outstanding Ese alumno trange La política desunió a las dos
despunta mucho. That student's very familias. Politics estranged the two
outstanding. families.
desquitarse to get even Vamos a jugar desvalido destitute.
otra partida, a ver si me desquito. desván [w] attic.
Let's play another game to see if I can desvanecerse to vanish, disappear Con el

get even. viento, el humo desvaneció.

se The
desquite [m] revenge, getting even En- smoke vanished with the wind. A to
tonces se le presentó la ocasión de su faint Al oír la mala noticia se desvane-
desquite. Then he had a chance for ció. When she heard the bad news she
revenge. fainted.
destacar to stand out Destacaban por su desvelar to keep awake El café me des-
estatura. They stood out because of vela mucho. Coffee keeps me awake.
their height. O desvelarse to outdo oneself Se des-
O destacarse to be noted, be famous, velaban por sernos agradables. They
distinguish oneself Se destacaron por outdid themselves in being kind to us.
su valor. They distinguished them- desventaja disadvantage; handicap.
selves by their courage, desventura misfortune, mishap.

desvergüenza SPANISH-ENGLISH día

desvergüenza impudence; shamelessness. detrás from behind El enemigo atacó

desviación [/] detour Había una desvia- por detrás. The enemy attacked from
ción en el camino. There was a detour behind. A behind one's back Por de-
on the road. trás hablaba mal de él. He talked about
desviar to change the course of Desviaron him behind his back.
la carretera para hacerla más corta. deuda debt Pagó todas sus deudas. He
They changed the course of the road paid all his debts.
to make it shorter. ° estar en deuda to be indebted
O desviar la mirada to avoid some- Estoy en deuda con Ud. I'm indebted
one's eyes, look away. O desviarse to to you.
deviate, get away (from) No se desvíe deudo, deuda relative, kin.
Ud. del tema. Don't get away from deudor, deudora debtor.
the subject. A to drift El avión se ha devanar to wind Estaba devanando un
desviado de su ruta. The plane drifted ovillo de lana. She was winding up a
from its course. spool of wool.
desvío indifference Su desvío me molesta. ° devanarse to double up (with pain)
Her indifference annoys me. [Am]. O devanarse los sesos to racíc
detallar to tell in detail, to detail. one's brains Me estoy devanando los
detalle [m] detail Cuénteme Ud. todos sesos para encontrar una solución.
los detalles. Tell me all the details. I'm racking my brains to find a solu-
O con detalle in detail Expliquenme tion.
Uds. con detalle como ha ocurrido eso. devastar to lay waste.
Explain to me in detail how it hap- devoción [/] piety, devoutness; devotion.
pened. devolver [rad-ch I] to return, give back
detener [irr~\ to stop, detain Por favor, ¿No ha devuelto Ud. todavía esos libros?
deténgale un momento. Please detain Haven't you returned those books yet?
him for a minute. A to arrest La po- A to pay back
¿Te ha devuelto el dinero
licía detenuvo a los cómplices del ase- que le prestaste? Has he paid back the
sino. The police have, arrested the money you lent him? A to
accomplices of the murderer. Aquella noticia le devolvió la tranquili-
O detenerse to stop, halt El automó- dad. That news restored her peace of
vil se detuvo. The automobile stopped. mind.
A to stop, restrain oneself Detente un devorar to devour.
momento a pensarlo. Stop and think devoto devout, pious.
it over for a minute. devuelto See devolver,
detenido (see detener) [adj; ri\ (person) día [m] day ¿A qué día estamos hoy?
under arrest Los detenidos esperaban What day's today?
a que se les interrogara. Those under O al día a day, per day Producen cien
arrest were waiting to be questioned. automóviles al día. They produce a
determinación [/] determination; deci- hundred automobiles a day. A up to
sion Tenemos que tomar una determi- date Ponga Ud. Esa correspondencia
nación. We have to make a decision. al día. Bring that correspondence up
determinado determined [i4m] Triunfó to date. O al día siguiente the follow-
porque era muy determinado. He suc- ing day. O buenos días good morning
ceeded because he was very determined. Buenos días. ¿Cómo está Ud.? Good
determinar to fix, determine Determina- morning. How are you? O darle a
ron las condiciones del negocio. They uno congratulate one on his
los días to
fixed the terms of the deal. A to de-
saint'sday or birthday Fui a dar los
cide ¿Determinó Ud. lo que quiere
días a mi hermano. I went to con-
hacer? Did you decide what you want
gratulate my brother on his birthday.
to do?
O de día before dark ¿Cree Ud. que
O determinarse to make up one's
mind ¿Se determinó a hacer el viaje?
volveremos de día? Do you think
we'll return before dark? A by day,
Did he make up his mind to make the
when it's light Llegó a casa cuando ya
detestable hateful, detestable, awful. era de día. It was daylight when he
detrás behind Vienen detrás. They're got home. O de día en día from day
coming along behind. to day, as time goes by De día en día
O detrás de behind, in back of De- la situación va empeorando. The situ-
trás de los árboles hay una casa. ation's getting worse from day to day.
There's a house behind the trees. O por O de hoy en . . . días . . . days from today


diablo SPANISH-ENGLISH dilatar

Iremos de hoy en ocho días. We'll go a ters to him. Hizo lo que le dictó su
week from today. ° de un día para consciencia. He did what his con-
science dictated. A to give,
otro from day to day Está dejando issue (by
esa visita de un día para otro. He decree) Acerca de esto no se han dic-
keeps putting off that visit from day tado órdenes. They haven't given any
to day. O día de Año Nuevo New orders about this.
Year's Day. O día de fiesta holiday diente [?»] tooth Tengo un diente picado.
I have a cavity in my tooth. A tine El
¿Es mañana un día de fiesta? Is to-
morrow a holiday? Odia del
santo tenedor tiene torcidos los dientes. The
O el día menos pensado tines of the fork are bent. A cog Se
saint's day.
when one least expects. O el mejor cogió el brazo entre los dientes de la
día some fine day El mejor día se pre- rueda. His arm was caught between
senta aquí. Some fine day he'll show the cogs of the wheel.
up here. O hoy (en) día today, these O decir (or hablar) entre dientes to
days Hoy día es muy difícil encontrar mumble, mutter. O tener buen diente
eso. It's very hard to find that today. to be a hearty eater Este chico tiene
ocho días a week Voy al cine cada muy buen diente. This boy's a hearty
ocho días. I go to the movies every eater.
week. O quince días two weeks Estaré diestro able, skillful. A [m] bull fighter.
en el campo quince días. I'll be in the dieta diet.
country two weeks. ° todos los días diez ten.
daily, every day Le veo todos los días. diferencia difference.
1 see him every day. O un día sí y diferenciar to distinguish between.
otro no, día de por medio every other diferente different.
day Tengo clase un día si y otro no. diferido (see diferir) deferred Pusieron
I have a class every other day. un cable diferido. They sent a de-
diablo devil ¡Qué diablo estás haciendo! ferred cablegram.
What the devil are you doing? diferir [rad-ch 77] to postpone, put off
O irse al diablo to go to the devil. No difiera Ud. esos asuntos. Don't put
off those matters. A to differ Difiero
diáfano transparent.
dialecto dialect. de Ud. en ese punto. I differ with you
diálogo dialogue. on that point.
diamante [?n] diamond. difícil difficult, hard.

¡diantre! the deuce! the devil! dificultad [/] difficulty.

diario [adj] daily Salió a dar su paseo dificultar to make difficult.
diario. He went out for his daily walk. difundir to spread, tell ¿Quién habrá di-
A [in] journal, diary Escribía por las fundido esa noticia? Who could have
noches su diario. He used to write his spread that news? A to broadcast Esa
diary in the evening. A paper, journal emisión será difundida a toda América.
¿Qué trae el diario? What's new in the That program'll be broadcast through-
paper today? out America.
O a diario daily, every day Nos ve- difunto [adj] dead, deceased A [n] de-
mos a diario. We see each other every ceased person, corpse.
day. difusora (radio) broadcasting station.
dibujar to draw, sketch. digerir [rad-ch 77] to digest Es una co-
dibujo drawing. mida que se digiere muy mal. That
diccionario dictionary. food's hard to digest.
dicha happiness. digestión [/] digestion.
dicho See decir. A [m] saying, saw Ese dignidad [/] dignity; high rank (office).
es un dicho muy antiguo. That's a digno dignified ¡Que hombre tan digno!
A witty What a dignified man A worthy No es
very old saying. remark !

Tiene unos dichos muy graciosos. digno del puesto que tiene. He's not
He makes some very witty remarks. worthy of his position. A worthwhile.
Dicho y hecho. No sooner said O digno de confianza reliable Es una
than done. persona digna de confianza. He's a re-
dichoso happy, fortunate, lucky. liable person.
diciembre [m] December. dije [m] trinket, charm, pendant.
dictador [m] dictator. dilatación [/] expansion, enlargement.
dictadura dictatorship. dilatar to expand, dilate Tiene las pupi-
dictar to dictate Le voy a dictar unas las dilatadas. The pupils of his eyes
A to delay [Am] No dila-
cartas. I'm going to dictate some let- are dilated.


diligencia SPANISH-ENGLISH disgustar

ten Uds. más la resolución del negocio. Dirigió la campaña política. He man-
Don't delay finishing the business. aged the political campaign. A to lead
diligencia diligence Trabaja con mucha Diríjanos Ud. que sabe el camino. Lead
A speed
diligencia. He works diligently. us, since you know the road. A to steer
Hay que resolverlo con toda la dili- Dirigieron el barco hacia el muelle.
gencia posible. You must solve it with They steered the boat toward the
all possible speed. wharf.
Ohacer una diligencia to attend to O dirigir la palabra to speak, address
some business, do an errand. No me dirigió la palabra en varios días.
diligente industrious. He didn't speak to me for several days.
diluvio flood, deluge. dirigirse (a, hacia) to go, make
dimensión [/] dimension. one's way (to or toward) Se dirigieron
diminuto diminutive, tiny. hacia la puerta. They went toward
dineral [m] large sum of money. the door.
dinero money En ese cajón he dejado el disciplina discipline.
dinero. I've left the money that in discípulo, discípula student, pupil.
drawer. No venturen Uds. su dinero disco disk. A
phonograph record Ponga
en eso. Don't risk your money in that. Ud. un disco de música de baile. Put
O dinero suelto small change. O per- on a dance record.
sona (or gente) de dinero wealthy discordia discord.
person (or people). discreción [/] discretion.
Dios, dios [m sg~\ God, god. discrepar to differ, disagree Discrepo de
° a Dios gracias, gracias a Dios su opinión. I differ from your opinion.
thank God A Dios gracias, tenemos lo discreto fair (fairly good) Es un actor
que necesitamos. Thank God, we have discreto. He's a fair actor. A discreet
what we need. O ¡Dios mío! My God! Lo que dijo no era discreto. What he
Goodness! O ¡por Dios! for goodness' said wasn't discfeet.
sake ¡Por Dios! No diga Ud. eso. For disculpa apology Sus disculpas no me in-
goodness' sake, don't say that! teresan. I'm not interested in his
Que Dios se lo pague. May God
apologies. A
excuse Lo que ha hecho
reward you. no tiene disculpa. There's no excuse
diplomacia diplomacy. for what he did.
diplomático diplomatic Su respuesta no disculpar to pardon, excuse Tenemos que
fué diplomática. His answer wasn't disculpar sus faltas. We must excuse
diplomatic. A [w] diplomat Era un his mistakes.
buen diplomático. He was a good dip- O disculparse to apologize Tengo que
lomat. disculparme por lo tai-de que he venido.
diputado a cortes congressman. 1 must apologize for coming late.
dirección [/] direction ¿En qué dirección discurrir to think Es un hombre que dis-
va Ud.? Which way are you going? curre muy bien en una emergencia.
A address (mail, etc) Escriba Ud. He's a man who thinks well in an emer-
dirección con claridad. Write the ad- gency.
dress clearly. A board of directors. discurso speech.
A management. discusión [/] discussion.
O de dirección única one-way Esta discutir to discuss (involving difference
calle es de dirección única. This is a of opinion between two or more per-
one-way street. sons) Estuvieron varias horas discu-
directo [adj] direct. tiendo el asunto. They discussed the
director \m\ director, manager Hable matter for several hours. A to argue
Ud. con el director de la empresa. Discute todo lo que se le manda. He
Speak to the manager of the firm. argues about everything he's told to do.
Odirector de escena stage manager. disfraz [m] disguise.
director (de escuela) principal (of a disfrazar(se) to disguise (oneself).
school). O director de orquesta orches- disfrutar O disfrutar de to enjoy (good
tra conductor. O director (de un pe- health) Disfruta de muy buena salud.
riódico) editor (of a newspaper). He enjoys good health. O disfrutar en
dirigible [ml dirigible. or de to enjoy Disfrutamos mucho en
A to
dirigir to direct. address ¿A quién la excursión. We enjoyed the excur-
tengo que dirigir la carta? Who should sion very much.
1 address the letter to?
to manage disgustar to displease, grieve Aquella

disgusto SPANISH-ENGLISH distar

disgustó a todos. That displeased pardon Dispense Ud. que le interrum-

everyone. pa. Pardon me for interrupting you.
O disgustarse to be displeased or — Dispénseme. Excuse me. or Beg par-
A to distribute, dispense.
hurt Se disgustó por lo que le dije. don.
She was hurt by what I said to her. dispersar to scatter, disperse Los guar-
disgusto quarrel He tenido un disgusto dias dispersaron a la multitud. The
con unos amigos. I had a quarrel with police dispersed the crowd.
some friends. A grief sorrow Cuando
, disponer [irr] to place, arrange Han
se enteró de la muerte de su amigo se dispuesto mal los muebles. They ar-
llevó un disgusto terrible. When he ranged the furniture badly. A to ar-
found out about the death of his range Disponga Ud. lo que quiera.
friend, he was very much grieved. Make any arrangements you like. A to
O dar disgustos to distress, grieve order, decree El gobierno ha dispuesto
Ese muchacho le dio muchos disgustos la movilización general. The govern-
a sus padres. That boy distressed his ment's ordered total mobilization.
parents very much. O estar a dis- O disponer de to spend [Am] Dis-
gusto to be uncomfortable, be ill at puso de todo el dinero que le di. He
ease Estaba muy a disgusto con aquella spent all the money I gave him. A to
gente. I was very ill at ease with those have at one's disposal Dispongo de muy
people. poco tiempo. I have very little time at
disimular to conceal, dissimulate Siempre my disposal. O disponerse a to get
disimula sus intenciones. He always ready to Me dispongo a salir mañana.
A to tolerate,
conceals his intentions. I'm getting ready to leave tomorrow.
overlook Como la quiere tanto disimula disponible available.
todas sus faltas. Since he likes her disposición [/] disposal, service Estoy a
so much, he overlooks her faults. su disposición. I'm at your service.
disimulo dissimulation. A provision, order Han cambiado las
disipar to squander Disiparon su fortuna disposiciones. They changed the orders.
en un par de años. They squandered A arrangement La disposición de los
their fortune in a couple of years. A to cuadros. The arrangement of the pic-
dispel, drive away Quiero disipar sus tures.
dudas. I want to dispel his doubts. O estar en buena disposición to be in
disminución [/] decrease, diminution. a good frame of mind. O tener disposi-
disminuir to decline, lessen En unas ción to have aptitude or talent Tiene
horas disminuirá el dolor. The pain'll mucha disposición para el dibujo. She
be lessened in a few hours. A to de- has a great talent for drawing.
crease En estos días han disminuido dispuesto (see disponer) disposed, ready;
las ventas. Sales have decreased these zealous.
days. A to die down, diminish Si dis- ° bien dispuesto favorably disposed.
minuye el viento, iremos. If the wind ° mal dispuesto ill-disposed.
dies down, we'll go. disputa dispute.
disolución [/] dissolution. O sin disputa undoubtedly, doubtless.
disolver [irr] to dissolve Disuelva Ud. la disputar to dispute, argue Disputaban
pastilla en un vaso de agua. Dissolve por cualquier cosa. They argued over
the tablet in a glass of water. A to anything at all.
break up La policía disolvió la reunión. O disputarse to fight for or over Los
The police broke up the meeting. dos se disputaron el premio. The two
disparado (see disparar) ° a la disparada of them fought for the prize.
[Am] at full speed. O salir disparado distancia distance ¿Qué distancia hay de
to beat it Al llegar la policía salieron
su casa al pueblo? How far is it from
disparados. When the police arrived your house to town?
they beat it. O a distancia at a distance. O a
disparar to shoot, fire Dispararon al aire.
larga distancia long-distance [Am]
They fired into the air.
O dispararse to go off Se disparó la ¿Cuánto tiempo hay que esperar para
escopeta. The shotgun went off. una llamada a larga distancia? How
disparate [m] nonsense; mistake. long must one wait for a long-distance
disparo discharge, shooting (of weapon). call?
dispensar to excuse he han dispensado de distante far, distant.
hacer ese trabajo. They've excused him distar to be distant ¿Dista mucho de
from doing that work. A to excuse, aquí? Is it far from here?
A to be

distinción SPANISH-ENGLISH dólar

A very beautiful Era una

far Distaba mucho de ser cierto. It divino divine.
was far from certain. mujer divina. She was a very beauti-
distinción [/] distinction Era una mujer ful woman.
de mucha distinción. She was a O culto divino public worship in
woman of great distinction. A differ- churches.
ence, distinction Hay que hacer una divisar to make out, perceive indistinctly.
distinción entre los dos sonidos. It's división [/] division. A compartment El
necessary to make a distinction be- cajón de la cómoda tiene varias divi-
tween the two sounds. A distinction, siones. The bureau drawer has several
honor Aquella distinción era merecida. compartments. A disunity, discord Hay
That distinction was well-deserved. una gran división en el partido.
distinguir to distinguish, tell apart Era There's a serious split in the party.
muy difícil distinguir a los gemelos. A division [Mil] Se han rendido dos di-
It was very the twins
difficult to tell visiones. Two divisions have sur-
apart. A to makeout ¿Distingue Ud. a rendered.
lo lejos una luz? Can you make out a divorciarse' to get a divorce.
light in the distance? A to esteem, divorcio divorce.
show regard for La distingue de un divulgación [/] diffusion, spread.
modo especial. He has a special regard divulgar to reveal, let out No sé quien di-
for her. vulgó la noticia. I don't know who let
O distinguirse to distinguish oneself. out the news. A to popularize, make
distinto different. popular Ese libro ha contribuido mucho
distracción [/] absent-mindedness Lo a divulgar la química. That book's
hizo por distracción. He did it absent- done a lot to popularize chemistry.
mindedly. A diversion, pastime, amuse- ° divulgarse to become widespread
ment El cine es una gran distracción. Se ha divulgado mucho el uso de ese
Movies are a great diversion. tipo de radio. The use of this type of
distraer [irr~\ to distract Ese ruido me radio has become widespread.
distrae. That noise distracts me. A to doblar to fold Está doblando el mantel.
entertain, divert Me ha distraído mucho She's folding the tablecloth. A to dou-
esta novela. I've enjoyed this novel ble Doblaron las apuestas. They dou-
very much. bled their bets.
distraerse to be distracted, not to O doblar cabeza to give in, yield.
be able to concentrate Ese chico se di- O doblar la esquina to turn the corner.
strae fácilmente. That child's easily doblarse to bend, sag Con tanto peso
distracted. se doblará la barra. The rod'll bend
distribución [/] distribution. under so much weight.
distribuir to distribute Distribuyeron doble double Tendrá Ud. que pagar el
víveres. They distributed food. A to doble. You'll have to pay double.
sort ¿Han distribuido el correo? Has A thick, heavy Quiero una tela doble.
the mail been sorted? 1 want some heavy cloth. A deceitful,
distrito district. two-faced No se fíe Ud. de él, es muy
divagar to digress. doble. Don't trust him, he's very two-
diván [m] couch. faced.
diversidad [/] diversity. ||
Ponga la manta doble. Double the
diversión [/] pastime, diversion. blanket.
diverso different Tenían opiniones diver- doblez [m] fold, crease Tiene que hacer
sas. They had different opinions. el doblez bien derecho. You have to
O diversos various, several he he make the crease very straight.
visto en diversas ocasiones. I've seen doce twelve.
him on several occasions. docena dozen.
divertir [rad-ch II] to amuse, entertain, dócil docile, obedient.
divert Esa película le divertirá mucho. doctor [m] doctor (academic title) Acaba
That picture will amuse you. de obtener el grado de doctor en Filo-
O divertirse to be entertained, have sofía. He's just received his Ph.D.
a good time. ¿Se divirtieron Uds. ano- A doctor (of medicine) El doctor dijo
che? Did you have a good time last que será necesario operar. The doctor
night? said it'll be necessary to operate.
dividendo dividend. doctrina doctrine; Sunday school.
dividir to divide. documento document, paper.
divinidad [/] divinity. dólar [m~\ dollar.

dolencia SPANISH-ENGLISH dotar

dolencia pain; disease. Ud.? Where are you going? O ¿de

doler [rod-ch /] to hurt, pain Esta in- dónde? how? ¿De dónde va a saberlo
yección no duele nada. This injection si nadie se lo ha dicho? How's he going
doesn't hurt a bit. A to hurt, grieve to know if no one's told him? O ¿dónde?
Les dolió mucho lo que dijo. What he where? ¿Dónde estuvo Ud. ayer?
said hurt their feelings. Where were you yesterday? O ¿por
dolor [w] pain, ache Tornó un calmante dónde? which way? where? ¿Por dónde
para el dolor de muelas. He took a está la salida? Where's the exit?
sedative for his toothache. A sorrow, ¡De dónde! Nonsense! Fui don-
|| ||

grief, affliction Trataba de consolarla de mi hermano. I went to my brother's.

en su dolor. He tried to console her in dondequiera wherever; anywhere.
her sorrow. Doña Mrs. (used before a woman's first
dolorido sore, painful. name or full name) ¿Conoce Ud. a
domar to tame; to subdue, overcome. Doña María López? Do you know Mrs.
doméstico [adj] domestic. A [??] domestic, María López? A Miss [Col] ¿Ha lle-
servant. gado Doña Juanita? Has Miss Janet
domicilio residence Avise Ud. si cambia arrived?
de domicilio. Let us know if you dorado gold, gilded.
change your residence. dormilón, dormilona sleepyhead.
dominar to have a command or mastery dormir [rad-ch II] to sleep. A to rest,
of Domina el español. He has an ex- be inactive Deje que duerma el asunto
cellent command of Spanish. A to hasta que yo vuelva. Let the matter
dominate Nodeje que ese hombre le rest until I get back. A to put to sleep
domine. Don'tlet that man dominate Duerme al niño. Put the child to sleep.
you. A to overlook,
command a view O dormirse to fall asleep Se durmió
of Esta colina domina la ciudad. This en la conferencia. He fell asleep at
hill overlooks the city. A to predomi- the lecture. A to go to bed, retire
nate Entre los productos de esta región Nunca se duerme antes de las doce.
domina el algodón. Among the prod- He never goes to bed before midnight.
ucts of this region, cotton predomi- dormitorio bedroom; dormitory.
nates. dos two. A second Saldré el dos o el tres
O dominarse to control oneself Domí- del mes próximo. I'll leave the second
nese, no se ponga Ud. así. Control or third of next month. A [w] deuce
yourself; don't get excited. Echó el dos del triunfo. He played the
domingo Sunday. deuce of trumps.
dominico Dominican friar. O de dos en dos in pairs, by twos, two
dominio power, rule, control Tiene un abreast Las niñas iban de dos en dos
gran dominio sobre sí mismo. He's por el paseo. The girls went down the
very self -controlled. A domination, au- walk in pairs. O de dos en fondo two
thority Estos territorios estuvieron abreast Los soldados marchaban de dos
bajo el dominio extranjero. These en fondo. The soldiers were mai-ching
lands were under foreign domination. two abreast. O entre los dos between
A dominion El rey salió a visitar sus you and me Esto queda entre los dos.
dominios. The king went to visit his This is just between you and me. O en
dominions. un dos por tres in a jiffy En un dos por
dominó [m] game of dominoes. tres lo arregló todo. He fixed it all up
Don [wi] Mr. (used before a man's first in a jiffy.
name or full name). doscientos two hundred.
don [m] gift Tiene un don natural para dosis [/] dose (of medicine).
hablar. He has a natural gift for dotación [/] allotment La dotación no es
speaking. suficiente. The allotment's inadequate.
O don de gentes winning manners. A endowment, foundation; donation.

donación [/] donation, gift, grant. A crew Ya está completa la dotación del
donativo donation, gift. buque. The ship's crew is now com-
doncella maid, servant [Sp] La doncella plete.
sirvió el té. The maid served the tea. dotado (see dotar) gifted Es tin muchacho
A girl ¡Qué doncella tan linda! What a muy bien dotado. He's a very gifted
pretty girl! boy.
donde where Aquí es donde murió. This dotar to give a dowry to Su padre la dotó
is where he died. muy bien. Her father gave her a good
O ¿a dónde? where? ¿A dónde va dowry.



dote [/] dowry Se gastó la dote de su duodécimo twelfth.

mujer. He spent his wife's dowry. duplicado (see duplicar) [adj; m] dupli-
A talent Con tan buenas dotes tenia que cate Este ejemplar está duplicado.
triunfar. With such talents he was This is a duplicate copy.
bound to succeed. ° por duplicado in duplicate Envíelo
draga dredge. por duplicado. Send it in duplicate.
drama [m] play, drama. duplicar to double; to duplicate; to repeat.
dramático dramatic. duque [m] duke.
droga drug. duquesa duchess.
droguería drug store. duración [/] duration, term, length La
ducha shower, shower bath. duración de la guerra perjudica al
duda doubt. comercio. The length of the war's
O sin duda certainly, without doubt harmful to trade.
"¿Vendrá Ud. mañana?" "Sin duda." O ser de duración to wear well, last
"Will you come tomorrow?" "Cer- Este género es de mucha duración.
tainly." This material will wear very well.
dudar to doubt Dudo que venga. I doubt duradero lasting, durable.
that he'll come. A to hesitate Dudó al durante during.
darme la respuesta. He hesitated be- durar to last ¿Cuanto dura la película?
fore he answered me.
O dudar de to doubt, distrust, ques- How long does the picture last? A to
wear, last El abrigo me ha durado tres
tion No dudamos de lo que Ud. dice. We
años. This overcoat's lasted me three
don't question what you say.
A dubious, suspicious years.
dudoso doubtful.
Ese es un tipo dudoso. He's a suspi- dureza hardness, solidity La dureza del
cious character. ébano es bien conocida. The hardness
duelo mourning Se cerraron las tiendas of ebony is well known. A hardness,
en señal de duelo. The stores were harshness ¡Qué dureza de corazón!
closed as a sign of mourning. A sor- How hard-hearted! Debe evitarse la
row La muerte del presidente causó dureza en esos casos. Harshness
gran duelo. The president's death should be avoided in those cases. A cal-
caused great sorrow. A duel Su abuelo lus Me ha salido una dureza en la
murió en un duelo. His grandfather planta del pie. I have a callus on the
was killed in a duel. sole of my foot.
duende [m] hobgoblin. durmiente [m] (railroad) tie [Am\.
dueño, dueña owner, landlord, landlady duro hard Este colchón es muy duro.
Es el dueño de la propiedad. He's the This is a very hard mattress. A hard,
owner of the property. A master, mis- rough ¡Llevan una vida tan dura!
tress El perro miraba a su dueño. The
They lead such a hard life. A hard,
dog looked at his master.
O dueño de sí mismo self -controlled stubborn ¿Por qué tienes la cabeza tan
Siempre es dueño de sí mismo. He's dura? Why are you so hard-headed?
A [adv]
always self-controlled. hard Trabajó muy duro para
dulce [adj~\ sweet. A [vi] a piece of conseguirlo. He worked very hard to
accomplish it. A [w] duro
candy; pi candy Compró una caja de (Spanish
dulces. He bought a box of candy. coin equal to five pesetas).
O aguadulce fresh water. a duras penas with difficulty,
dulzura sweetness; mildness El clima es hardly A duras penas se hacía en-
de una gran dulzura. The climate's tender. He could hardly make himself
very mild. understood.

e and (before
i or hi) María e Inés irán cajón. We'll throw this into the
conmigo. Mary and Inez will go with drawer. A to discharge, dismiss, fire
me. Echaron a muchos empleados. They
¡ea pues! come on! ¡Ea pues! Sigamos fired many
employees. A to pour
adelante. Come on, let's get going. Puede echar el vino en el vaso. You
echar to throw Echaremos esto en el can pour the wine into the glass

. — —
eclipsar SPANISH-ENGLISH ejército

O echar a (followed by verb of mo- pueblo. The people must be educated.

A to train Han educado muy bien a su
tion) to begin to, start to Echaron a
correr al ver al policía. They began perro. They've trained their dog very
to run when they saw the police. well.
O echar a perder to spoil, ruin Ha efectivo effective.
echado a perder el trabajo. He's O en efectivo in cash Quiero que me
spoiled the work. O echar a pique to paguen en efectivo. I want to be paid
sink Los submarinos echaron a pique in cash.
muchos barcos. The submarines sank efecto effect. A impression Su actuación

a lot of ships. O echar de menos to causó mal efecto. His behavior made
miss (notice the lack of) Echa de a bad impression.
menos a sus amigos. He misses his O en efecto in fact ¡En efecto, no
friends. O echar de ver to notice, ob- sabe nada! In fact, he doesn't know
serve No echó de ver el cambio. He anything.
didn't notice the change. O echar en efectuar to carry out, put into effect.
cara to throw in one's teeth, throw up eficaz efficient, effective Tomaron una
to one Sietnpre me echaba en cara sus medida muy eficaz. They took a very
favores. He was always throwing his effective measure.
favors up to me. ° echar la Have to efusión [/] effusion, warmth La efusión
lock the door Eche Ud. la llave al salir. de su acogida le emocionó. The warmth
Lock the door when you go out. of his reception moved him.
O echar por tierra to overthrow, spoil egoísta selfish Es un hombre muy ego-
. Le echaron por tierra sus proyectos. ísta; no piensa en los demás. He's a
They overthrew his plans. O echarse very selfish man; he never thinks of
to lie down Se echó en la arena. He lay others.
down in the sand. O echarse a perder ¡eh! hey! ¡Eh! Aquí estoy. Hey, here I
to spoil La carne se echó a perder. The am!
meat spoiled. O echarse a (reír, llorar) eje [m] axle El eje está roto. The axle's
to begin or start to (laugh, cry). broken. A main point Este es el eje de
O echarse atrás to back out, withdraw la cuestión. That's the crux of the
Cuento con Ud., no se vaya a echar matter.
atrás. I'm counting on you not to ejecución [/] execution Se hará cargo de
back out. la ejecución del proyecto. He'll be in
eclipsar to eclipse. charge of carrying out the plan. A per-
eco echo. formance La ejecución del programa
economía economy. musical fué excelente. The perform-
O economía política economics. ance of the musical program was ex-
O economías savings Perdió todas sus cellent.
economías. He lost all his savings. ejecutar to execute, carry out Se están
económico economical. ejecutando cambios en el Gabinete.
economizar to save Economizaba la mitad They're making changes in the Cabi-
de lo que ganaba. He saved half of net.
what he earned. Por aquel camino ejecutivo [ad;*] executive; efficient.
economizaba tiempo. He saved time ejemplar exemplary Es de una conducta
by taking that road. ejemplar. His conduct is exemplary.
ecuador [m] equator. A [m] copy No pude conseguir otro
edad [/] age. ejemplar del libro. I couldn't get
edificar to build Edificarán una ciudad another copy of the book.
moderna. They'll build a modern city. ejemplo example Sirve de ejemplo a los
edificio building. demás. He sets an example for the
editor [m] publisher Los editores de ese others. Déme Ud. un ejemplo porque
periódico son muy liberales. The pub- no etiendo. Give me an example; I
lishers of that newspaper are very don't understand.
liberal. ejercer to handle, hold, practice Ha ejer-
edredón [m] comforter (cover) ; feather- cido ese cargo por rrnicho tiempo. He's
bed. handled that job for a long time.
educación [/] breeding, upbringing Es un ejercicio exercise, drill.
hombre sin educación. He's ill-bred. ejercitar to exercise, drill Está ejerci-
education (intellectual, physical, and tando su caballo. He's exercising his
moral training) horse.
educar to educate Hay que educar al ejército army.

ejote SPANISH-ENGLISH empapar

ejote [m] string bean [Am]. Though it's the smallest estate, never-
el the. theless it's the most densely populated.
él he El llegó tarde. He arrived late. embarque [m] shipment; boarding (a
elástico [adj; m] elastic. ship).
elección [/] election; choice. embestir [rad-ch III] to attack, charge
electo See elegir. (head first) El enemigo embistió con
electricidad [/] electricity. furia. The enemy attacked furiously.
electricista [m, /] electrician. emblema [w] emblem, insignia.
eléctrico electric. embriagar to make drunk, intoxicate Este
elefante [m] elephant. vino embriaga muy fácilmente. This
elegancia elegance Estaba vestida con wine's very intoxicating. A to over-
elegancia. She was elegantly dressed. come Estaba embriagado por la emo-
elegante stylish, smart. ción. He was overcome with emotion.
elegir [rad-ch III] to choose, select Sabe O embriagarse to get drunk Se em-
elegir sus amigos. He knows how to briagaron en la fiesta. They got drunk
choose his friends. A to elect ¿A quién at the party.
han elegido presidente del club? Who embrollar to muddle, mess up No em-
did they elect president of the club? brolle Ud. las cosas. Don't mess things
elemental elementary. up.
elemento element, factor Es un elemento embrollo muddle, mess ¡Esto es un em-
perturbador. He's a disturbing ele- brollo! This is a mess.
ment. A element Cuando baila está en embromar to play jokes on Se pasa el
su elemento. He's in his element when tiempo embromando a todo el mundo.
he's dancing. He spends his time playing jokes on
elevación [/] elevation, height, altitude. everybody.
elevar to erect Van a elevar un monu- embuste [m] lie Todos creyeron su em-
mento a los héroes. They're going to buste. Everyone believed his lie.
erect a monument to the heroes. embustero, embustera liar.
O elevarse to climb, ascend Los emergencia emergency.
aviones se elevaron a gran altura. The emigración [/] emigration.
airplanes climbed very high. emigrante \m, f; adj] emigrant.
eliminar to eliminate. emigrar to emigrate.
ella she. eminencia summit, top; hill Desde una
ello it, that Hablemos de ello. Let's talk eminencia se divisaba el valle. From
about that. a hill one could see the valley. A out-
ellos [m] they. standing person (in science, letters,
elocuencia eloquence. arts).
elocuente eloquent. eminente famous, eminent Es un escritor
elogiar to praise Nunca elogia a nadie. eminente. He's a famous writer.
He never praises anyone. emoción emotion Me quedé mudo de
elogio praise. la emoción. I was speechless with
elote [m] ear of green corn (for roast- emotion. A feeling El actor hizo su
ing) [Aw]. papel con emoción. The actor- played
emanación [/] fumes. the part with feeling.
embajada embassy; delegation. emocionarse to be moved Se emociona
embajador [m] ambassador. fácilmente. He's easily moved.
embanderar to decorate with banners La empacar to pack.
calle está embanderada. The street's empalizada (wooden) fence.
decorated with banners. empalizar to fence Empalizaron el jar-
embarcar to ship, send by boat Embarcaré din. They fenced the garden.
mi equipaje primero. I'll ship my empalme [m] junction.
baggage first. empañar to blur, dim La humedad em-
O embarcar(se)
to embark Se em- paña los vidrios. Moisture blurs the
para Buenos Aires.
barcó He em- glass.
barked for Buenos Aires. empapar to soak Empape esta esponja
embargar to seize, attach Les embar- en agua. Soak this sponge
in water.
garán todas sus propiedades. They'll O empaparse beto soaked, be
seize all their property. drenched Llueve tanto que me he em-
embargo O sin embargo however, never- papado al cruzar la calle. It's raining
theless Aunque es el estado más pe- so hard I got soaked crossing the
queño, es, sin embargo, el más poblado. street.

emparejar SPANISH-ENGLISH encargar

emparejar to make level, make even project. Acompany Ha quebrado la

[Am]; to match [Sp]. empresa. The company's failed.
empatar to equal. A to tieLos dos empresario manager (theatrical), pro-
equipos empataron en el primer par- moter.
tido. The two teams tied in the .first empujar to push Haga el favor de em-
game. pujar la mesa hacia aquí. Please push
empate [m] tie, draw. the table over this way.
empedrado cobblestone pavement. empujón [w] push Le dieron un empujón.
empedrar to pave with cobblestones. They gave him a push.
empellón [w] push, shove Me dio un em- O a empujones by pushing.
A at La vi en la estación.
pellón y pasó delante de mí. He gave en in. I saw
me a push and got ahead of me. her at the station. A on ¿En cuál tren
O entrar a empellones to push one's vino Ud.? What train did you come
way in La gente entraba a empellones. on?
The people pushed their way in. O en vano in vain Esperé en vano
empeñar to pledge, give Empeñé mi pala- toda la tarde. I waited all afternoon
bra. I gave my word. A to pawn in vain.
Tuvo que empeñar su reloj. He had to enamorado in love. A [n] one in love,
pawn his watch. lover, sweetheart.
O empeñarse en to be bent on Se em- enamorar toflirt with, make love to
peña en hacerlo a pesar de los obstá- Enamora a todas las chicas. He makes
culos. He's bent on doing it in spite love to all the girls.
of all obstacles. O enamorarse de to fall in love with.
empeño determination, firmness Trabajó encadenar to chain.
con tanto empeño que se hizo rico. He encajar to fit La tapa no encaja bien.
worked with such determination that The cover doesn't fit well. A to fit in
he became rich. A pawn; pawning. Ella no encaja bien aquí. She doesn't
O casa de empeños pawnshop. fit in here.
empeorarse to grow worse. encaminar to direct Los encaminamos a
empezar [rad-ch T] to begin ¿A qué hora la estación. We directed them to the
empieza la función? When does the station.
performance begin? O encaminarse to make one's way, go
empinado steep. Se encaminó hacia su casa. He went
empinar O empinar el codo to drink Le toward his house.
gusta empinar el codo. He likes to encantador [adj] charming. A [n]
drink. O empinarse to stand on one's charmer.
toes Tendrá que empinarse para poder encantar to charm, delight Esta escena
ver. You'll have to stand on your toes me encanta. This scene delights me.
to see. encanto charm.
empleado See emplear. A [rc] employee. encarado O mal encarado tough-looking
emplear to use, employ Emplearemos Es un tío muy mal encarado. He's a
otro material. We'll use other mate- very tough -looking guy.
rial. A to employ, hire ¿Van a em- encaramarse to climb Se encaramó al
plear más gente? Are they going to árbol. He climbed the tree.
employ more people? A to invest Em- encarcelar to imprison.
pleó su dinero en negocios. He invested encarecer [-20] to raise, make expensive
his money in business. Han encarecido el precio de la carne.
empleo employment; job Tengo un buen They've raised the price of meat. A to
empleo. I have a good job. A use El beg Le encarezco que lo haga con cui-
empleo de esa palabra no es común. dado. I beg you to do it carefully.
That word isn't in common use. O encarecerse to become more expen-
empobrecerse [-zc-] to become poor. sive, go up Los víveres se han encare-
empolvarse to powder oneself Se empolva cido. The price of food's gone up.
demasiado. She uses too much powder. encargado (see encargar) in charge Está
A to get dusty En este tiempo se em- encargado de la organización de la
polva mucho la carretera. The road fiesta. He's in charge of preparations
gets very dusty in this weather. for the party. A [n] manager, person
emprender to undertake. in charge Hable Ud. con el encargado.
empresa undertaking, project, enterprise Speak to the manager.
Es muy difícil realizar esa empresa. encargar to entrust Le encargaron una
It's very difficult to carry out that misión muy delicada. They entrusted


encargo SPANISH-ENGLISH enfermar

A to enconado (see enconarse) rankling Se

him with a very delicate mission.
ask, urge Me
encargó que no lo dijese. tenían un odio enconado. They had
He urged me not to say it. a rankling hatred for each other.
O encargarse to take charge Me en- enconarse to become infected Se le ha
cargaré del trabajo. I'll take charge enconado la herida. His wound has
of the work. become infected.
encargo job, assignment Me ha dado un encontrar [rad-ch /] to find Encontré este
encargo que no me gusta. He's given reloj en la estación. I found this watch
me an assignment that I don't like. at the station. ¿Cómo encuentra Ud.
A errand Salió a hacer unos encargos. el trabajo? How do you find the work?
A to meet Anoche encontré a mi amigo
He went out on some errands.
encarnado [adj] red. en la biblioteca. I met my friend in
encarnizado cruel, pitiless. the library last night.
encendedor [m] cigarette lighter. O encontrarse to meet Nos encon-
encender [rad-ch /] to light, put on Haga traremos en el teatro. We'll meet in
el favor de encender la luz. Please the theater. A to collide Los dos ca-
put on the light. miones se encontraron con gran estré-
O encenderse to light up, go on Se pito. The two trucks collided with a
encendieron los faroles. The street great crash. A to be Mi mujer se en-
lights went on. contraba allí. My wife was there.
encendido (see encender) bright-colored. A to come upon Al doblar la esquina
O ponerse encendido to blush. nos encontramos con el desfile. We
encerrar [rad-ch /] to lock up Los en- came upon the parade when we turned
cerraron en un calabozo. They locked the corner. A to feel ¿Cómo se en-
them up in a cell. A to include, con- cuentra el enfermo esta mañana?
tain Ese libro encierra ideas útiles. How's the patient feeling this morn-
That book contains useful ideas. ing?
O encerrarse to shut oneself (up), encontronazo bump, collision.
lock oneself (up) Se ha encerrado en encorvar to bend, curve.
su cuarto. He locked himself in his O encorvarse to bend, stoop.
room. encrucijada street or road intersection.
encía gum (of the mouth). encuentro meeting Fué un encuentro muy
encima on ¿Quiere Ud. que ponga esto afortunado. It was a very fortunate
encima de la mesa? Do you want me meeting. A match Después de veneer
to put this on the table? en todos los encuentros, obtuvo el títu-
° por encima superficially, sketchily lo de campeón. After winning all the
He leído el diario por encima. I matches, he got the title of champion.
skimmed through the paper. O por en- O salir al encuentro de to go to meet
cima de above El avión volaba por en- Salió al encuentro de los invitados.
cima de las nubes. The airplane was He went to meet the guests.
flying above the clouds. encurtido pickle [Am].
encina evergreen oak (tree). enderezar to straighten.
encinta pregnant. O enderezarse to straighten up, sit
encoger to shrink Esa tela va a encoger up.
si se lava. That material's going to endiablado devilish, mischievous.
shrink if it's washed. endoso indorsement.
O encogerse de hombros to shrug endulzar to sweeten.
one's shoulders Se encogió de hombros endurecer(se) [-zc-~\ to harden.
por toda contestación. His only answer enemigo [n; adj~\ enemy.
was to shrug his shoulders. enemistad [/] enmity.
encogido (see encoger) bashful Era un energía energy.
chico muy
encogido. He was a very O energía eléctrica electric power.
bashful boy. enérgico energetic.
encolerizar to anger. enero January.
O encolerizarse to become angry. enfadar to anger, annoy.
encomendar to charge with, entrust to O enfadarse to get angry No hay
he encomendarán la ejecución del motivo para enfadarse. There's no
proyecto. They'll entrust the comple- reason to get angry.
tion of the project to him. enfado anger, annoyance.
encomienda O encomienda postal parcel, énfasis [m] emphasis.
package, parcel post [Am]. enfermar(se) to fall ill, to get sick.

enfermedad SPANISH-ENGLISH ensenada

enfermedad [/] illness, sickness, disease. O enmendarse to mend one's ways,

enfermera nurse. reform Si no no se enmienda, no podrá
enfermo [ad;] sick Ayer operaron al triunfar nunca. If he doesn't mend his
niño enfermo. They operated on the ways, he'll never succeed.
sick child yesterday. A [w] patient El enmohecido rusty.
enfermo está en el hospital. The enojar to anger La suspensión del espec-
patient's in the hospital. táculo enojó al público. The public
enflaquecer(se) [-zc-] to become thin. was angered by the suspension of the
enfrente opposite, across Enfrente hay show.
una casa blanca. Across (the street) ° enojarse to get angry Enojándose
there's a white house. no arreglará nada. Nothing will be
O de enfrente across the street Viven gained by getting angry.
en la casa de enfrente. They live in enojo anger.
the house across the street. O en- enorme enormous.
frente de opposite El auto está parado enormidad [/] outrage Lo que ha hecho
enfrente de aquel edificio. The car's ese hombre es una enormidad. What
parked opposite that building. that man's done is an outrage. A great
enfriamiento [m] cold (illness). number, great quantity En la fiesta
enfriar to cool Debemos enfriar el agua hubo una enormidad de gente. There
en la nevera. We must cool the water was a great crowd at the party.
in the ice box. enredadera climbing vine.
O enfriarse to cool off, become cold enredar to snarl, tangle up El gato en-
Deje el café ahí para que se enfríe. redó todos los hilos. The cat tangled
Leave your coffee there so it can cool up all the threads. A to snarl, mess up
A to get chilled Abrigúese bien, El gerente enredó todos los negocios
no se vaya a enfriar. Dress warmly so de la compañía. The manager messed
you won't get chilled. up all the company's business.
engañar to deceive Engañó a su amigo. O enredarse to get snarled Se enredó
He deceived his friend. la cuerda. The string got snarled.
O engañarse to make a mistake, be O enredarse con to get involved with
wrong Se engañaron a causa de la Se enredó con una mala mujer. He
niebla. They made a mistake because got involved with a bad woman. O en-
of the fog. redarse en to get involved in Se enredó
engaño deceit. en negocios siicios. He got involved
engordar to fatten; to get fat. in shady business affairs.
enhorabuena congratulations. enredo tangle, intrigue.
enjuagar to rinse. enriquecer [-zc-~\ to enrich. A to enhance
enlace [m] marriage Han anunciado su Ese adorno enriquece mucho el traje.
próximo enlace. They've announced That trimming enhances the dress.
their coming marriage. A connec- O enriquecerse to get rich Se enri-
tion (s) El enlace de trenes es excelente queció de repente. He got rich quickly.
en esta estación. The train connec- enrollar to roll up Enrolle Ud. esas re-
tions at this station are excellent. vistas. Roll up those magazines.
enlazar to connect Esos dos trenes en- enronquecer(se) [-zc-~\ to get hoarse Se
lazan en la próxima estación. Those enronqueció de tanto gritar. He got
two trains connect at the next station. hoarse from so much shouting.
enlodarse to get muddy Las ruedas se ensalada salad.
enlodaron completamente. The wheels ensanchar to widen Estaban ensanchando
got all muddy. el camino cuando pasamos. They were
enloquecer [-zc-] to become insane A con- widening the road when we passed.
A to let out, enlarge Tiene Ud.
secuencia del golpe enloqueció. As a que en-
result of the blow he became insane. sancharme la chaqueta. You'll have to
A to drive crazy Este trabajo me está let out my jacket.
enloqueciendo. This work's driving me ensayar to try, test Vamos a ensayar el
crazy. nuevo material. We're going to test
O enloquecerse to get furious or mad the new material. A to rehearse No
Con la discusión se enloqueció. He got han tenido tiempo de ensayar la come-
furious as a result of the argument. dia. They haven't had time to rehearse
enmendar [rad-ch /] to amend, correct the play.
Hágame el favor de enmendar esta ensayo test, trial; rehearsal.
copia. Please correct this copy for me. ensenada cove.


enseñanza SPANISH-ENGLISH entre

enseñanza instruction, teaching. entereza fortitude; presence of mind.

enseñar to teach Un mejicano le enseñó entero entire, whole.
español. A Mexican taught him enterrar [rad-ch I] to bury.
Spanish. A to show Me enseñó el re- entierro burial.
trato de su novia. He showed me a entonación [/] intonation.
A to show, entonar to sing in tune; to begin to sing.
picture of his sweetheart.
A to
point out Enseñe Ud. el camino al harmonize, blend (of colors)
señor. Show this gentleman the way. Estos colores entonan muy bien. These
ensillar to saddle. colors harmonize very well.
ensordecer [-zc-] to deafen. entonces at the time, then Entonces vivía
ensuciar to soil, to dirty. con sus padres. He was living with his
ensueño pipe dream, day dream. parents at the time. A then ¿Entonces
entablar to board up Entablaron las ven- ya no me necesita Ud.? Then you
tanas. They boarded up the windows. don't need me now, do you? ¿Y en-
A to begin, start Han entablado nego- tonces que pasó? And then what hap-
ciaciones. They've started negotia- pened?
tions. ||
¿Entonces? Then what? or And
on Se rompió un
entablillar to put splints then? [Am].
brazo y tuvieron que entablillárselo. entrada entrance Adornaron la entrada
He broke his arm and they had to put con banderas. They decorated the en-
splints on it. trance with flags. A admission La en-
entender [rad-ch 7] to understand Ya en- trada será gratis. Admission will be
tiendo lo que Ud. quiere decir. Now I free. A attendance La función tuvo
understand what you mean. una buena entrada. The show was
O a (or según) mi entender in my well attended. A ticket, seat Debemos
opinion A mi entender es mejor cambiar comprar lasentradas ahora mismo.
de procedimiento. In my opinion it's bet- We have to buy the tickets right now.
ter to change the policy. O entender de A admittance Se prohibe la entrada.

to be familiar with, be good at ¿En- No admittance. A beginning A la en-

tiende Ud. de mecánica? Are you good trada del invierno saldré de viaje. I'm
at mechanics? O entenderse con to leaving on a trip at the beginning of
deal with Tendrán que entenderse con winter. A entrée ¿Qué desea Ud. como
el jefe. They'll have to deal with the entrada? What do you want for an
boss. O entender(se) en to be in entree?
charge of ¿Quién se entiende en este O entradas receding hair at temples A
asunto? Who's in charge of this mat- pesar de su juventud ya tiene entradas.
ter? In spite of his youth his hair's already
entendido (see entender) O estar (or receding at the temples. A income Las
quedar) entendido to be understood entradas superan a las salidas. The
Está entendido que empezaremos ma- income exceeds the outgo.
ñana. It's understood that we'll start \\Entrada pública. Admission free.
tomorrow. O no darse por entendido entrar to enter, come in, go in ¿Se puede
to pretend not to understand No me di entrar? May I come in? A to fit El
por entendido. I pretended I didn't zapato no me entra, es muy chico.
understand. O ser (muy) entendido en The shoe doesn't fit me; it's too small.
to be skilled or informed in Es un obre- A to join Quiero entrar en un club de-
ro muy entendido en su oficio. He's portivo. I want to join an athletic
very skilled in his trade. club.
entendimiento understanding; mind. O entrar a trabajar to go to work,
enterar to inform, report Debemos en- be employed Entraron a trabajar en
terar a la dirección de lo que pasa. una fábrica. They went to work in a
We must inform the management of factory. O
entrar en Cor a) to enter
what's going on. Entrará en la Universidad el año
O enterarse to pay attention No te próximo. He'll enter the University
enteras de lo que te estoy diciendo. next year.
You aren't listening to what I'm say- ||
A este chico no le entra la arit-
ing. O enterarse (de) to learn Acabo mética. This child can't get arithmetic
de enterarme de la noticia. I've just through his head.
learned the news. A to find out, inquire entre between La mujer estaba sentada
Entérese del hotel en que viven. Find entre dos hombres. The woman was
out what hotel they're living at. sitting between two men. A among
—— —
entreabierto SPANISH-ENGLISH equivocar

Repartiremos las ganancias entre to- roiled the water. A to dim La

dos. We'll divide the profits among all fiebre le enturbió la vista. The fever
of us. Es muy alegre la vida entre dimmed his vision.
estudiantes. Life among students is O enturbiarse to become muddy El
very gay. Entre los cuatro levantaron agua se enturbió con la lluvia. The
la carga. Among the four of them, water became muddy because of the
they picked up the load. rain.
entreabierto (see entreabrir) ajar, half- entusiasmar to make enthusiastic Las
open. noticias entusiasmaron al público. The
entreabrir to open halfway, open part news made the public enthusiastic.
way. O entusiasmarse to be enthusiastic
entreacto intermission. Los muchachos se entusiasmaron con
entrega delivery Ud. tendrá que pagar a la música. The boys were enthusiastic
la entrega del paquete. You'll have to about the music.
pay for the package on delivery. entusiasmo enthusiasm.
entregar to deliver, hand over No han entusiasta [m, f] enthusiast.
entregado la mercadería todavía. They envejecer [-zc-] to age, become old.
haven't delivered the goods yet. A to envenenamiento poisoning.
hand Entregúeme la carta. Hand me envenenar to poison.
the letter. A to give up, surrender, turn enviado envoy.
over Lo entregaron a la policía. They enviar to send Envíe Ud. la carta por
turned him over to the police. correo aéreo. Send the letter airmail.
O entregarse to give in, yield Se en- O enviarle a uno a paseo to send one
tregó a la bebida. He gave in to drink. about his business, tell someone to go
A to surrender
El batallón se entregó chase himself.
al enemigo. The battalion surrendered envidia envy.
to the enemy. envidiable enviable.
entrenador [m] trainer, coach. envidiar to envy Envidia a todos sus
entrenamiento training, coaching. amigos. He envies all his friends.
entrenar to train. envidioso envious.
entrepaño shelf. envío shipment.
entretanto meanwhile. envolver [rad-ch 7] to wrap No envol-
entretener \irr\ to entertain, amuse Hay vieron bien la caja. They didn't wrap
que entretener al niño con algo. You the box well.
have to amuse the child with some- envuelto (see envolver) involved Siempre
thing. A to delay, tie up Mis asuntos está envuelto en líos. He's always in-
me entretuvieron hasta muy tarde. My volved in some sort of a mess.
affairs tied me up until very late. epidemia epidemic.
O entretenerse to amuse oneself Nos episodio episode.
entretuvimos jugando a las cartas. We época epoch, time, times, period.
amused ourselves playing cards. A to equilibrio balance.
be tied up, be delayed Me entretuve equipaje [m] baggage, luggage St va Ud.
hasta muy tarde arreglando unas cosas. en avión no podrá llevar mucho equi-
I was tied up until very late getting paje. If you go by plane you won't be
some things in order. able to take much luggage. En la
entretenido (see entretener) entertain- frontera van a registrar el equipaje.
ing, amusing. They're going to examine the baggage
entretenimiento pastime. at the border.
entrevista interview. equipo team; equipment.
entrevistar to interview. equivalencia equivalent Déme Ud. la
entristecer [-zc-] to sadden, be depress- equivalencia en dólares. Give me the
ing Lo negro entristece. Black is de- equivalent in dollars.
pressing. equivocación [/] mistake Se llevó mi
O entristecerse to become sad Se en- abrigo por equivocación. He took my
tristeció mucho al saberlo. He became coat by mistake.
sad when he found out. equivocar to mistake, confuse Equivocó
entumecer to numb El frío entumece los los paquetes. He mixed up the pack-
miembros. Cold numbs the limbs. ages.
O entumecerse [-zc-~\ to become numb. O equivocarse to make a mistake, be
enturbiar to roil, make muddy El tem- wrong Se equivoca Ud. You're wrong.
poral enturbió las aguas. The storm O equivocarse de to .the wrong
. . . . .

—— — —
error SPANISH-ENGLISH ese, esa

Me equivoqué de autobús. I took the escape [to] escape.

wrong bus. Me equivoqué de puerta. Oa escape hastily, in a hurry.
I went to the wrong door. escarbar to scratch, dig, pick.
error [to] mistake Esta copia está llena escasear to be scarce La gasolina escasea
de errores. This copy's full of mis- por aquí. Gasoline is scarce around
takes. here.
O error de imprenta typographical escasez [/] shortage, scarcity.
error (in printed matter). O error de escaso scarce, short La carne está escasa.
máquina typographical error (in type- Meat's scarce.
writing). O estar en un error to be escena scene No me hagas escenas. Don't
mistaken Dispénseme, pero está Ud. en make scenes. A stage Al levantarse el
un error. Excuse me, but you're mis- telón, la escena estaba oscura. When
taken. the curtain went up, the stage was
esa (see ese) that. dark.
escabroso rough, uneven Bajamos por un escenario stage (of a theater).
camino muy escabroso. We
went down esclavo, esclava slave.
a very rough road. A off -color, risque escoba broom.
Nos contó un chiste escabroso. He told escoger to choose, take, select Escogimos
us an off -color story. el camino más corto. We took the
escala (rope) ladder Cayó al romperse la shortest road.
escala. He fell when the ladder broke. escolar scholastic. A [n] student.
4 scale ¿A qué escala está este mapa? esconder to hide No sé en dónde escon-
What's the scale of this map? Estaba dieron la llave. I don't know where
haciendo escalas en el piano. He was they hid the key.
playing scales on the piano. escopeta shotgun.
° hacer escala to make a stop El escribiente [to, /] clerk.
barco hará escala en Cádiz. The ship'll escribir [irr~\ to write.
make a stop at Cadiz. O escribir a máquina to type, type-
escalera stair, stairway Subió las esca- write.
leras corriendo. He ran up the stairs. escrito (see escribir) written.
A ladder Apoye la escalera
contra la escritor, escritora writer, author.
pared. Put the ladder against the wall. escritorio desk.
escalón [to] step ¿Cuántos escalones tiene escuadra fleet (naval); carpenter's square.
esta escalera? How many steps has escuchar to listen Escuche Ud. un mo-
this staircase? mento. Listen a minute.
escampar to clear up, stop raining Al escuela school.
escampar podremos seguir. We'll be escultura sculpture.
able to go on when it clears up. escupir to spit Se prohibe escupir. Spit-
escandalizar to shock, scandalize La no- ting prohibited.
ticia escandalizó al público. The news escurrir to wring Escurra bien esa ropa
shocked the public. antes de tenderla. Wring those clothes
escándalo scandal. well before you hang them up. A to
escapada escapade. drain Escurre las espinacas. Drain
O en una escapada in a jiffy Aun no the spinach.
lo he hecho pero lo haré en una esca- O escurrir el bulto to sneak away, to
pada. I haven't done it yet, but I'll make a get-away Escurrió el bulto
do it in a jiffy. cuando menos lo pensábamos. He
escapar to escape Escapamos de un gran sneaked away when we least expected
peligro. We escaped from a great it. O escurrirse to slip Se escurrió en
danger. una. monda de plátano. He slipped on
O escaparse to escape, run away Se a banana peel. El plato se me escurrió
nos escapó el perro. The dog ran away de las manos. The plate slipped out of
from us. Se han escapado unos presos my hands. A to slip away Se escurrió
de la cárcel. Some prisoners have de la reunión sin que lo viesen. He
escaped from the jail. A to slip out slipped away from the meeting without
Siento haberlo dicho, se me escapó. anyone seeing him.
I'm sorry I said it; it slipped out. ese, esa; pi esos, esas [adj] that, those
escapatoria escapade, prank Las escapa- ¿Quién es ese chico? Who's that boy?
torias de ese niño preocupan a sus é9e, ésa; pl ésos, ésas [pron] that, that
padres. That child's pranks worry his one, those Esos no son los míos. Those
parents. aren't mine.

esencia SPANISH-ENGLISH estado

esencia essence. espesor [m] thickness.

esfera sphere. espesura thickness, density; thicket.
esfuerzo effort Haré un esfuerzo para espía [m, /] spy.
terminar el trabajo hoy. I'll make an espiar to spy (on).
effort to complete the work today. espina thorn Tengo una espina en el dedo.
eso [neu pron] that Eso es. That's right. I have a thorn in my finger. A bone
O eso mismo the same Eso mismo Este pescado tiene muchas espinas.
creía yo. That's exactly what I used This fish has a lot of bones.
to think. espinacas [/ pi] spinach.
espacio space El avión se perdió en el espinazo spine.
espacio. The plane disappeared in the espíritu [?«] spirit, soul.
sky. A space, line Escriba Ud. el in- espléndido splendid, wonderful, swell
forme a un espacio. Single-space the Después del baile sirvieron una cena
report. A blank, space Deje Ud. un espléndida. They served a wonderful
espacio. Leave a blank. dinner after the dance. A generous Son
espada sword; spade (cards). espléndidos con sus amigos. They're
espalda back (of the body) Le duele la generous with their friends.
espalda. His back hurts. esponja sponge.
° a espaldas behind one's back ho esposa wife.
hicieron a espaldas de sus padres. They O esposas [/ pi] handcuffs.
did it behind their parents' back. esposo husband.
espantapájaros [m sg~] scarecrow. espuela spur.
espantar to scare, frighten Se espanta espuma foam; lather.
por muy poca cosa. She gets scared esqueleto skeleton. A blank (to be filled
over nothing at all. out) [Am],
espanto fear, fright. esquina corner (outward angle) Viven en
espantoso terrible, frightful. la casa de la esquina. They live in the
espárrago asparagus. house on the corner.
especial [adj~\ special. esquinazo O dar esquinazo to evade,
espectáculo spectacle, show La corrida avoid Le vi venir pero le di esquinazo.
de toros es un espectáculo muy intere- I saw him coming but I avoided him.

sante. Bull fighting's a very interest- establecer [-zc-] to establish Establecie-

ing spectacle. A spectacle, scene No ron un nuevo régimen. They estab-
des un espectáculo llorando en la calle. lished a new regime.
Don't make a spectacle of yourself ° establecerse to settle Se establese-
crying in the street. rán en Méjico. They'll settle in Mexico.
A to set up a business Se establecieron
espectador, espectadora spectator.
O espectadores [m pl~\ audience. en la Quinta Avenida. They set up a
espejo mirror. business on Fifth Avenue.
espera wait Después de una espera larga establecimiento establishment.
pudimos entrar. We got in after a estaca stake (post).
long wait. estacada ° dejarle a uno en la estacada
O estar en {or estar a la) espera de to leave one holding the bag.
to be waiting for Estuvimos en espera estación [/] station Fueron a recibirnos
del barco muchas horas. We were a la estación. They went to the sta-
waiting for the boat for many hours. tion to meet us. A season En los tró-

sala de espera waiting room. picos hay sólo dos estaciones. There
esperanza hope. are only two seasons in the tropics.
O tener (la) esperanza (de) to hope A stop [i4w] Este tren es directo, no
Tengo esperanza de que venga. I hope hará muchas estaciones. This is a
he'll come. through train; it won't make many
esperar to expect Espero una llamada stops.
telefónica esta mañana. I expect a estacionar to park (car, etc).
phone call this morning. A to hope O estacionarse to park ¿Dónde pode-
Esperaban que no muriese. They hoped mos estacionarnos? Where can we
he wouldn't die. A to wait Espero a park? A to station oneself.
mi amiga. I'm waiting for my friend. estadio stadium.
espeso thick No me gtista la sopa espesa. estado condition El camino está en mal
1 don't like thick soup. A heavy Aceite estado. The road's in bad condition.
espeso. Heavy oil.
A status "¿Estado?" "Soltero." "Mar-

estallar SPANISH-ENGLISH estrenar

ital status?" "Single." A state Hizo taría? What style of furniture would
un viaje por todos los estados del país. you like?
He took a trip through all the states estimar to value, respect, hold dear Es-
in the country. A state, government tima mucho a sus amigos. He values
Está al servicio del estado. He works his friends highly.
for the government. estirar to stretch, pull Al estirar la tela
estallar to break out, start Temen que se rompió. The material tore when it
estalle una insurrección. They're afraid was stretched.
a revolt'll break out. A to explode Al O estirarse to stretch (oneself). A to
estallar labomba causó muchos daños. stretch Esta tela se estira mucho al
The bomb caused a lot of damage when lavarla. This cloth stretches a great
it exploded. deal when it's washed.
estampilla postage stamp [Am]. esto \neu pron\ this Esto no lo entiendo.
estanco cigar store. I don't understand this.
estanque [m] pond. O en esto at this point En esto llegó
estanquillo cigar store [Mex]. él. At this point he arrived.
estante [m] shelf. estofado stew.
estar [irr~\ to be (in a place) La casa está estómago stomach.
en la colina. The house is on the hill. estorbar to block, obstruct Este mueble
A to be (in a condition at a given mo-
estorba el paso. This furniture's in the
ment) La sopa está muy caliente. The way. A to bother, be in one's way
A to look, seem Está
soup's very hot. No se vaya Ud., no nos estorba. Don't
Ud. muy linda hoy. You look very go away, you're not bothering us. A to
pretty today. impede, hinder Las huelgas estorban
O estamos a it's (a date or day of the la producción de guerra. Strikes hinder
week) "¿A cuántos estamos?" "Estamos war production.
a 5 de junio." "What's the date?" estornudar to sneeze.
"It's the fifth of June." O estar con estrechar to take in, make narrower Me
to have (an illness) Estoy con dolor tiene Ud. que estrechar la chaqueta.
de cabeza. I have a headache. O estar You have to take in my jacket.
con prisa to be in a hurry No puedo O estrechar la mano (a) to shake
esperar porque estoy con prisa. I hands (with).
can't wait because I'm in a hurry. estrecho narrow Pasamos por un camino
O estar de to act as, act in the capacity estrecho. We went along a narrow
of ¿Quién está de telefonista hoy? road. A tight El traje le está
muy es-
Who's at the switchboard today? trecho. The dress is very tight on her.
estar de acuerdo to agree Estuvieron A close Su amistad es muy estrecha.
de acuerdo en todo. They agreed on Their friendship's very close. O [ m ]
everything. O estar de viaje to be strait (s) ¿Ha pasado Ud. por el es-
traveling Estuvimos de viaje durante trecho de Magallanes? Have you ever
el verano. We were traveling during gone through the Straits of Magellan?
the summer. O estar para to be about estrella star; leading actor or actress.
to Criando llegamos estaban para salir. O cielo es-
estrellado (see estrellar)
When we arrived they were about to trellado starry sky. O hueros estre-
leave. O estar por to be in favor of
llados eggs sunny side up.
Yo estaba por ir y ellos por quedarse. estrellar to smash (up) Cualquier día va
1 was in favor of going and they were
a estrellar el automóvil. He's going
in favor of staying.
to smash up his car any day.
\\¡Está bien! or Está bueno. All ° estrellarse to crash El avión se
estrelló contra la casa. The plane
estatua statue.
crashed against the house.
estatura stature, height,
estremecer [-zc-] to shake La detonación
este [m] east.
estremeció el suelo. The explosion
este, esta; estos, estas [adj] this, these shook the ground.
Este chico nos da mucha guerra. This O estremecerse to start, shudder,
boy gives us a lot of trouble, tremble Se estremeció al oír el ruido.
éste, ésta; éstos, éstas [pron\ this one, He started when he heard the noise.
those Este fué el que llegó primero. He estremecimiento shudder, shuddering.
was the first to arrive. estrenar to open (a play) Mañana estre-
estilo style ¿Qué estilo de muebles le gus- narán una nueva obra en el Teatro Na-.

estropear SPANISH-ENGLISH exponer

donal. Tomorrow they'll open a new todos sms movimientos. He observed

play at the National Theater. A to all his movements closely.
wear for the first time ¿Está Ud. estre- O examinarse to be examined, take
nando ese traje ? Are you wearing that (an) examination (s) Tendrán que ex-
dress for the first time? aminarse de español e inglés. They'll
O estrenarse to open (of a play) Esa have to take examinations in Spanish
obra se estrenó en Broadway la semana and English.
pasada. That play opened on Broad- excelente excellent. A fine ¡Excelente!
way last week. Iremos juntos. Fine We'll go together.

estropear to ruin, damage Los niños han excepción [/] exception.

estropeado el radio. The boys have excursión [/] excursion, picnic.
ruined the radio. A to spoil Su dimi- excusa excuse.
sión estropeó nuestros planes. His excusado washroom, toilet.
resignation spoiled our plans. excusar to excuse, pardon Debe Ud. ex-
O estropearse to be out of order La cusar sus faltas. You should excuse
plancha eléctrica se ha estropeado. his faults. A to decline Excusó la in-

The electric iron's out of order. vitación porque no le gustaba la gente.

estruendo deafening noise. He declined the invitation because he
estudiante [m, /] student. didn't like the people.
estudiar to study. O excusarse to apologize Si no va
estufa stove, heater. tendrá Ud. que excusarse. If you don't
estupendo wonderful Anoche vi una pelí- go you'll have to apologize.
cula estupenda. I saw a wonderful exhibición [/] exhibition, showing [Am].
movie last night. exhibir to exhibit, show.
estupidez [/] stupidity. exigir to require Exigen que se pague
estúpido stupid. A [«] stupid person. por adelantado. Payment is required
etcétera, etc and so forth, etc. in advance. A to demand Le exigieron
éter [m] ether. que declarase. They demanded that he
eterno eternal, endless. testify.
etiqueta label Lea Ud. lo que dice la eti- existencia existence, life Me amarga la
queta. Read what's on the label. existencia. He makes my life miser-
O de etiqueta formal Habrá un baile able. A stock Tenían grandes existen-
de etiqueta en el Casino. There'll be cias de mercadería. They had a large
a formal dance at the Casino. stock of merchandise.
evangelio gospel. éxito success El éxito de la empresa sor-
evitar to avoid Evitaba encontrarse con prendió a todos. The success of the
él. He avoided meeting him. A to pre- enterprise astonished everybody.
vent Lograron evitar la explosión. exótico foreign, exotic.
They succeeded in preventing the ex- experiencia experience No tengo experi-
plosion. encia en este trabajo. I haven't any
exactitud [/] accuracy Este trabajo está experience in this work.
hecho con mucha exactitud. This experto expert, skilled.
work's very accurately done. A punc- expirar to expire El plazo del contrato
tuality La exactitud es su cualidad expira hoy. The contract expires to-
característica. Punctuality is his dis- day.
tinguishing characteristic. explicar to explain ¡Déjeme Ud. que se
exacto exact, correct La cuenta está ex- lo explique! Let me explain it to you!
acta, gracias. The bill's correct, thank O explicarse to understand No puedo
you. A accurate Hizo un relato exacto. explicarme lo ocurñdo. I can't under-
He gave an accurate report. stand what happened.
exagerar to exaggerate No le puedo creer explorador [m] explorer; Boy Scout.
porque siempre exagera. I can't be- explosión [/] explosion, blast.
lieve him because he always exag- explotar to work, exploit Están explotan-
gerates. do una mina de plata. They're work-
examen [m] examination, test. ing a silver mine. A to exploit, use
examinar to inspect No han examinado Explotaba siempre a sus amigos. He
todavía el equipaje. They haven't in- was always using his friends.
spected the baggage yet. A to examine exponer [irr] to expose No hay que ex-
El médico examinó al enfermo. The poner esto al sol. This mustn't be ex-
doctor examined the patient. A to ob- posed to the sun. A to explain Ex-
serve Examinaba con mucha atención ponga Ud. su idea con más claridad.

exportación SPANISH-ENGLISH fácil

Explain your idea more clearly. todo el país. They've expanded their
O exponerse to expose oneself Se ex- business throughout the country.
pone Ud. a que le critiquen mucho. O extenderse to spread, become com-
You're exposing yourself to a lot of mon or widespread Se ha extendido
criticism. mucho esa costumbre. That custom's
exportación [/] export Trabaja en una become very widespread.
oficina de exportación. He works in an exterior \_adj; m\ outside El exterior de
export house. la casa estaba muy deteriorado. The
exportar to export. outside of the house was very run
exposición [/] exhibition; risk. down.
expresar to express. externo external Para uso externo sola-
O expresarse to express oneself, speak mente. For external use only.
Se expresa con mucha corrección. He extra [adv~\ extra El desayuno se paga
expresses himself very correctly. extra. Extra charge for breakfast.
expresión [/] expression. if] extra [.Am] ¿Leyó Ud. la extra de
expresivo affectionate Escribió una carta esta mañana? Did you read this morn-
muy expresiva. He wrote a very affec- ing's extra?
tionate letter. A expressive Tiene fac- extranjero foreign Hablaban una lengua
ciones muy expresivas. She has very extranjera. They spoke a foreign lan-
expressive features. guage. A [n] foreigner El hotel está
expreso O tren expreso express train. lleno de extranjeros. The hotel's full
expuesto (see exponer) exhibited, on dis- of foreigners.
play Esos libros estaban expuestos en ° en extranjero abroad Ha vivido
el escaparate. Those books were on mucho tiempo en el extranjero. He's
display in the window. A dangerous En lived abroad for a long time.
aquel tiempo era muy expuesto viajar. extrañar to miss Extraño mucho a mi
Traveling was very dangerous at that madre. I miss my mother very much.
time. O
extrañarle a uno to seem strange
expulsar to expel. (to) Me extraña que no haya llegado
exquisito delicious El pastel está exqui- aún. It seems strange to me that he
sito. The pie's delicious. A exquisite hasn't arrived yet.
Tiene un gusto exquisito para vestir. extraño strange Tiene un nombre ex-
She has exquisite taste in clothes. traño. He has a strange name. A [n]
extender [rad-ch /] to spread out, extend stranger No lo conozco, es un extraño.
Extendieron el mapa sobre la mesa. I don't know him he's a stranger.

They spread the map out on the table. extraordinario extraordinary.

A to issue La biblioteca le extenderá extravagante queer, unusual.
una tarjeta de lector. The library will extraviarse to be off course, get lost or
issue you a reader's card. A to enlarge misplaced Los aviadores se extravia-
Extenderán el campo de aterrizaje. ron. The aviators were off their course.
They'll enlarge the landing field. A to
. extremo end Siéntese Ud. al extremo de
expand Han extendido sus negocios por la mesa. Sit at the end of the table.

fábrica factory. la facha que tenía aquel hombre. I

fabricación [/] manufacture. didn't like that man's looks. A sight,
fabricante [m] manufacturer. mess Vestido de aquella manera, era
fabricar to manufacture. una facha. He was a sight, dressed
fábula fable. A fabrication, lies Todo lo that way.
que nos contó es una fábula. Every- fachada front (of a building).
thing he told us was pure fabrication. fácil easy. A loose Aquella mujer era
fabuloso fabulous. muy fácil. She was a loose woman.
facción [/] faction. A probable, likely Es muy fácil que
O facciones features (of the face) vaya el domingo. It's very likely hell
Tiene las facciones muy correctas. He go Sunday.
has very regular features. O fácil de easy to Eso es muy fácil de
facha appearance, looks No me gustaba hacer. That's very easy to do.

facilidad SPANISH-ENGLISH familia

facilidad facility, ease. A aptitude de que ha dicho una falsedad. I'm sure
Mostró gran facilidad para aprender he's told a lie.
música. He showed great aptitude for falsificar to forge, counterfeit.
music. falso false, untrue. A forgedLa firma
O con facilidad with ease, fluently era falsa. The signature was forged.
Hablaba inglés con mucha facilidad. A counterfeit Me dieron un peso falso.
He speaks English very fluently. O dar They gave me a counterfeit peso.
facilidades to facilitate; to offer assist- A imitationUsaba joyas falsas. She
ance El gobierno nos dio toda clase de was wearing imitation jewelry. A dis-
facilidades para la investigación. Th~ honest Fué muy falso conmigo. He was
government offered us every assistance dishonest with me.
in the investigation. O dar un paso en falso to make a
facilitar to supply Facilitó los fondos misstep. O en falso falsely Juró en
necesarios para aquel negocio. He sup- falso. He swore falsely.
plied the necessary funds for that deal. falta error, mistake Hay muchas faltos
A to facilitate, make easier Estos libros en esta traducción. There are a lot of
facilitarán su trabajo. These books mistakes in this translation. A fault
will make your work easier. Todos tenemos nuestras faltas. We all
factor [»;] factor, element; baggageman. have our faults. A misdemeanor, petty
factoría trading post; [Mex] factory. crime.
factura bill, invoice Mándeme la factura O a falta de for lack of Tomaremos
a casa. Send the bill to my house. esto a falta de cosa mejor. We'll take
facturar to check (baggage). this for lack of something better.
facultad [/] faculty No tenía completas ° hacer falta to be necessary, be
sus facultades. He didn't have all his needed Hace falta dinero. Money is
faculties. A authority Se le dio facul- needed. O hacerle falta a uno to need
tad para resolver la cuestión. He was Me hace falta un lápiz. I need a pen-
A to
miss Ud. me hace mucha fal-
given authority to settle the dispute. cil.
A branch of a university, school
Se li- ta. miss you very much. O sin falta

cenció en la Facultad de Derecho. He without fail Venga Ud. sin falta a las
graduated from Law School. once. Come at eleven without fail.
faena work, task Se dedicaban a las fae- faltar to lack Le faltan condiciones para
nas del campo. They were engaged in tener éxito en el teatro. He lacks the
farm work. A trick Me hizo una mala qualifications for success in the thea-
A to be missing ¿Le falta a Ud.
faena. He played a dirty trick on me. ter.
faja sash (worn around waist); girdle algo en su cartera? Is anything miss-
(underwear). ing from your pocketbook? A to be
falda skirt Lleva la falda muy corta. needed Faltan cuatro para completar
She's wearing a very short skirt. los cincuenta. Four more are needed
A slope, side El pueblo está en la to make fifty. A to be lacking Faltan
de la colina. The village is on the side diez minutos para las dos. It's ten

of the hill. A lap Tenía el niño en la minutes to two. A to offend No le he

falda. She had the child on her lap. querido faltar. I didn't want to of-

fallar to pass sentence El juez está dis- fend him.

puesto a fallar. The judge is ready to
O faltar a to be absent from Faltó
pass sentence. A to fail Me ha fallado a la clase el lunes. He was absent
imo de mis mejores amigos. One of from class Monday. A to break, ig-
my best friends has failed me. A to nore No puede Ud. faltar a la cita. You
miss, fail El motor falla siempre al can't break the appointment. O ¡No
subir las cuestas. The motor always faltaba más! Of course; by all means
misses going uphill. "¿Va Ud. a quedarse?" "¡No faltaba
fallecer [-zc-~\ to die, pass away. más!" "Are you going to stay?" "Of
fallo verdict, decision. course!"
falsear to falsify Ha falseado los hechos. fama fame. A reputation Ese hombre
He's falsified the facts. A to open with tiene mala fama. That man has a bad
a skeleton key or pass key [Am] Los reputation.
ladrones falsearon la puerta. The O tener fama de to have the reputa-
thieves opened the door with a pass tion of Tiene fama de sabio. He has
key. the reputation of being very wise.
falsedad [/] falsehood, lie Estoy seguro familia family.


familiar SPANISH-ENGLISH feliz

familiar familiar Su apellido me es fa- fatuo pompous, vain.

miliar. His name's familiar to me. favor [m] favor Le hicieron muchos
[w] relative Invitaron solaviente a favores. They did him many favors.
los familiares. They invited only their ° a favor de with, aided by Remaba
relatives. a favor de la. corriente. He rowed with
famoso famous. the current. A on behalf of, for, in
fanático [ad;] fanatic, fanatical. A
[«] favor of Hizo testamento a favor de
fanatic. S7is hijos. He made his will in favor
fango mud. of his children. O en favor in behalf
fantasia imagination Toda esa historia (of someone) Fué el único que habló en
es un producto de su fantasia. That su favor. He was the only one who
whole story's a product of his imagina- spoke in his behalf. O favor de please
A whim No debe Ud. consentirle
tion. [Am] Favor de pasarme el azúcar.
todas sus fantasías. You shouldn't Please pass me the sugar. O hacer el
give in to all her whims. A fantasy, favor de please ¿Quiere Ud. hacer el
fairy tale No le crea, todo eso es una favor de pasarme su plato? Will you
fantasía. Don't believe that; it's all please pass me your plate? O por
a fairy tale.
favor please Por favor, ¿Quiere de-
fantasma [m~\ ghost.
cirme qué hora es? Would you tell
fantástico fantastic, unbelievable Explicó
de una manera fantástica su retraso.
me the time, please?
favorable favorable.
He told a fantastic story to explain
A extravagant Daba unas favorecer [-zc-] to grant favors to, help
his delay.
propinas fantásticas. He gave ex- Ese hombre ha favorecido mucha a mi
familia. That man's helped my family
travagant tips.
fardo big bundle, bale. a lot. A to flatter Ud. me favorece.
farmacéutico pharmacist. You flatter me. A to become No creo
farmacia pharmacy. que ese color le favorezca a Ud. I
don't think that color becomes you.
faro beacon, lighthouse; headlight.
farol [m] lantern Encienda Ud. el farol favorito [adj; n] favorite.
para que veamos. Light the lantern fe [/] faith.
so we can see. A street lamp A la luz ° de buena fe, de mala fe in good

del farol de la calle leyó la carta. He faith, inbad faith Lo hizo de buena fe.
read the letter by the light of the street He did it in good faith. O tener fe en
lamp. A bluff Se echó un farol diciendo to believe in, have faith in Tengo
que le conocía. He was bluffing when mucha, fe en él. I have great faith in
he said he knew him. him.
farola street lamp. fealdad [/] ugliness.
farra O i r de farra to paint the town red, febrero February.
to go on a spree. febril feverish.
fascinar to fascinate. fecha date ¿Qué fecha tiene la carta?
fastidiar to annoy, bother ¡Hombre, no What's the date on the letter?
fastidies con esas bromas! Don't an- fechar to date (a letter, etc).
noy me with those jokes. fecundo prolific, fruitful.
fastidioso annoying, tiresome. federación [/] federation.
fatal fatal. federal federal.
fatalidad [/] fate. felicidad [/] happiness Es difícil conse-
fatiga fatigue, tiredness El trabajo pro- guir la felicidad. It's hard to achieve
duce fatiga. Work produces fatigue. happiness. A safety Salió de aquella
A hardship
No hay vida sin fatigas. prueba con toda felicidad. He carne
There's no life without hardships. through that experience safely.
O pasar fatigas to have a hard time felicitación [/] congratulations Cuando
Pasaba fatigas para ganarse la vida. le escriba envíele mi felicitación por su
He had a hard time making a living. éxito. When you write to him, send my
fatigar to tire Fatigó al caballo de tanto congratulations on his success.
galopar. He tired the horse with so felicitar to congratulate.
much galloping. feliz happy No creo que será muy feliz
O fatigarse to get tired ¡Se fatiga viviendo con su suegra. I don't think
Ud. demasiado con este trabajo! You're she'll be happy living with her mother-
getting too tired doing this work. in-law. Deseamos a Ud. Feliz Año

femenino SPANISH-ENGLISH fijo

Nuevo. We wish you a Happy New era fiel. The account he gave was
Year. correct.
femenino feminine. O estar en el fiel to balance, be bal-
fenómeno phenomenon; freak. A prodigy anced La balanza estaba en el fiel. The
Era un fenómeno en las matemáticas. scales were balanced.
He was a prodigy in mathematics. fieltro felt (material).
feo homely, ugly Era un hombre muy fiera wild animal En el circo tienen una
feo. He was a very homely man. magnífica colección de fieras. The cir-
A serious El asunto tomó un cariz muy cus has a wonderful collection of wild
feo. The matter took a serious turn. animals.
O hacer un feo to be impolite to, to O como una fiera furious, like a
slight Vaya Ud. a visitarlo, no le haga wild beast Se puso como una fiera. He
Ud. un feo. Go and visit him; don't became furious. O trabajar como una
slight him. fiera to work like a horse.
feria country market, fair Compró dos fiesta holiday El lunes es día de fiesta.
caballos en la feria. He bought two Monday's a holiday. A party Hubo una
horses 'at the fair. A small change gran fiesta en su casa. There was a
[Mex] ¿Tiene Ud. feria? Do you have big party at his house.
any small change? O hacerle fiestas a uno to play with
feriado Odia feriado holiday [Aw]. (an infant) Le hizo fiestas al niño. He
fermentar to ferment, sour. played with the child.
feroz ferocious. figura figure, build Ese hombre tiene muy
ferretería hardware store. buena* figura. That man has a very
ferrocarril [rn] railroad, railway. good build.
fértil fertile. figurar to figure, be Entre los concu-
festivo humorous. rrentes figuraba el Duque de X. The
O día festivo holiday. Duke of X
was among those present.
fiado (see fiar) O a l fiado on credit. A to be in the limelight, be conspicuous

fiambre cold, served cold (of food). Le gustaba mucho figurar. He liked to
O fiambres [m pi] cold meat, cold be in the limelight.
cuts. O figurarse to imagine, think Se
fiambrera lunch pail. figura que puede hacer todo lo que
fianza bail, bond. quiere. She imagines she can get
O bajo fianza on bail Le han puesto away with anything.
en libertad bajo fianza. They've freed fijar to drive in Fijaron estacas para
him on bail. asegurar la tienda. They drove in
fiar to give creditEl Banco le fio hasta stakes to hold the tent down. A to
cien mil pesetas. The bank gave him a post Se prohibe fijar carteles. Post no
hundred thousand pesetas' credit. A to A to establish Han
bills. fijado su re-
sell on trust, sell on credit Hoy no se sidencia en Paris. They've established
mañana Cash today, credit to- their residence in Paris. A to fix, set
fia sí.
morrow. Fijaron la fecha de la boda. They set
O fiarse de to trust, rely on No me the date for the wedding.
fío de lo que dice. I don't trust what ° fijar los ojos en to stare at.
he says. O S er de fiar to be trust- O fijarse to imagine ¡Fíjate (en) lo
worthy Ese hombre no es de fiar. That que me pasó! Imagine what happened
man's not to be trusted. to me! O fijarse en to pay attention
fibra fiber. A stamina, energy Es un to Fíjese Ud. en lo que le digo. Pay
hombre de mucha fibra. He's a man close attention to what I'm telling you.
of great energy. fijo permanent Su puesto no es fijo. His
ficha chip (card games); domino; filing job isn't permanent. A fixed, set No
card. hacemos rebajas, nuestros precios son
fidelidad [/] loyalty, faithfulness La fijos. We
don't make reductions; our
A fast No se puede
fidelidad es una virtud. Faithfulness prices are fixed.
is a virtue.
A exactness El documento quitar. Está fijo. It can't be removed.
se copió con toda fidelidad. The docu- It's fast.
ment was copied exactly. Oa fijo exactly No lo sé a
fiebre [/] fever. punto don't know exactly. O de
fijo. I
fiel faithful Le era fiel como un perro. fijo surely De fijo llueve hoy. It'll sure-
He was as faithful to him as a dog. ly rain today. O hora fija exact time,
A correct, accurate El relato que hizo time agreed upon.

fila SPANISH-ENGLISH llorido

A courteous Era un hombre muy

fila row Déme una butaca de primera fino.
He was a very courteous man. A sheer,
fila. Give me a seat in the first row,
orchestra. A line, rank Había dos filas thin Llevaba unas medias muy finas.
de soldados. There were two lines of She wore very sheer hose.
soldiers. finura courtesy.
O en fila in (a) line Los niños esta- firma signature Escriba Ud. la firma al
ban en fila. The children were stand- pie. Sign it at the bottom.
ing in line. O buena firma reliable firm or house
filete [m~\ steak Comió un filete con papas Trabajaba para una buena firma. He
fritas. He had steak and fried pota- worked for a reliable firm.
toes. firmar to sign.
filial filial. firme firm, steady, sturdy Tome esta silla
filo (cutting) edge. que es muy firme. Take this chair;
filosofía philosophy. it's sturdy.
filtrar to filter. O en firme definite, firm Hicieron una
fin [m] end ¿Llegaremos antes del fin de oferta en firme. They made a definite
la película? Will we get there before offer. O estar en lo firme to be in the
the end of the movie? A purpose No right Creo que estoy en lo firme. I be-
sé con qué fin lo dice. I don't know lieve I'm in the right. O firmes [mpl]
what his purpose is in saying it. roadbed La carretera se hizo con firmes
O a fin de que so (that) A fin de que especiales. The road was built with a
pudiera volver le mandé dinero. I special roadbed.
sent him money so he'd be able to firmeza firmness.
come back. O a fines de toward the fiscal fiscal. A [m] attorney-general; dis-
end of, late in (the week, etc) A fines trict attorney.
de mes volveré a mi casa. I'll be back física physics.
A [n] physicist.
home toward the end of the month. físico physical.
O al fin at last, finally Al fin se que- fisonomía physiognomy, countenance,
daron solos. They were alone at last. looks.
° al fin y al cabo after all Al fin y al flaco thin, lean Cada día se le veía más
cabo no era tan mala la comedia. After flaco. He appeared thinner every day.
O en fin A weak Encontré su punto flaco. I dis-
all the play wasn't so bad.
in short En fin, ella no le quería. In covered his weak spot.
short, she didn't love him. A well En O hacerle a uno un flaco servicio to
fin, ya veremos. Well, we'll see. O por play a dirty trick on one Le hizo un
fin at last Por fin pude encontrarle. flaco servicio. He played a dirty trick
At last I managed to find him. O sin on him.
fin (de) endless, no end (of), number- flamenco flamingo; flamenco (type of
less Tenía un sin fin de cosas que hacer. Spanish songs and dances).
He had no end of things to do. flan [m] custard.
final [adj] final. A [m] end, conclusion. flaqueza failing, weakness.
O punto final period (punctuation). flauta flute.
financiar to finance [Aw]. flecha arrow.
finca country estate, property, farm. flete [m\ freight; freight rate.
fineza courtesy, politeness, kindness Me flexibilidad [/] flexibility.
hizo muchas finezas. He extended many flexible flexible. A [w] electric cord [Sp] ;
courtesies to me. soft hat.
fingir to pretend ¡No finja Ud. lo que no flirtear to flirt.
siente! Don't pretend what you don't flojo lazy, slack Es muy flojo para el tra-
feel. bajo. He's very slack about his work.
fingirse to feign, pretend Se fingió A loose Ese nudo
está flojo. That knot's
enfermo para no trabajar. He feigned loose.
illness to get out of working. A compliment Al verla
flor [/] flower.
fino thin, fine, sharp Me gusta una pluma pasar le echó una flor. When he saw
fina. I like a pen with a fine point. her pass, he paid her a compliment.
A fine, delicate
(of features, etc) Esa florecer [-zc-] to bloom No creo que flo-
muchacha tiene las facciones muy rezcan tan pronto los rosales. I don't
finas. That girl has very delicate think the roses will bloom so soon.
A refined, fine
features. La pulsera es florero flower vase.
de oro fino. The bracelet's of fine gold. florido florid, flowery. A in bloom Los


flota SPANISH-ENGLISH forzoso

almendros están floridos. The almond pasaporte estaba en forma. The pass-
trees are in bloom. port was in order.
flota fleet (of ships). formación [/] formation.
flotación [/] buoyancy. O en formación in formation.
O línea de flotación waterline. formal reliable Es un hombre muy for-
flotar to float. mal. He's a very reliable man.
A serious, sedate, settled Desde que se
foco focus; headlight.
fogón [m] fire box (of locomotive, etc) casó se ha vuelto muy formal. He's
stove, cooking range. become very settled since his marriage.
fogonero stoker, fireman. formalidad [/] earnestness, seriousness
folleto pamphlet. Hablemos con formalidad. Let's talk
fomentar to foment, promote El gobierno seriously.
debe fomentar las artes. The govern-
O formalidades red tape Perdieron
ment ought to promote the arts. A to mucho tiempo en todas las formali-

foment, instigate Los agitadores fo- dades. They lost a lot of time, with all
mentaban la rebelión. The agitators the red tape.
instigated the rebellion. formalizar to arrange, legalize Formali-
fomento encouragement, promotion El zaron el contrato. They legalized the
fomento de las artes. Promotion of contract.
the arts. formar to form, make, be Formaban un
fonda inn. grupo muy alegre. They made a very
fondo bottom Lo guardaba en el fondo merry group.
del cajón. He kept it in the bottom of O formar parte de to be a member or
the drawer. A background El retrato part of Formó parte de esa organiza-
tenia un fondo oscuro. The portrait ción. He was a member of that or-
had a dark background. A back El ganization.
fondo de la casa. The back of the formidable formidable Se enfrentaban con
house. una competición formidable. They
O a fondo thoroughly Era necesario were up against some very formidable
estudiar el asunto a fondo. It was competition.
necessary to study the matter thor- fórmula formula. A solution Había que
oughly. O andar mal de fondos to be encontrar una fórmula. A solution had
O artículo de fondo to be found.
short of money.
editorial Esc7-ibió un buen artículo de
O por fórmula as a matter of form
fondo. He wrote a good editorial. O en Le saludó por fórmula. He greeted him
el fondo at bottom, at heart En el
as a matter of form.
fondo era una excelente persona. He formular to draw up, formulate Formuló
was an excellent person at heart. sus ideas en una memoria. He formu-
O fondos funds No tengo fondos en el lated his ideas in a report,
banco. have no funds in the bank.
forro lining (in clothing).
fonógrafo phonograph. fortaleza fortitude, strength Su forta-
forastero, forastera stranger (from an-
leza era notable. His fortitude was
other city or town). remarkable. A fortress.
forjado (see forjar) O hierro forjado fortuna fortune Hizo una fortuna especu-
wrought iron. lando en la bolsa. He made a fortune
forjar to forge, hammer. playing the stock market. A luck Tuve
O forjarse ilusiones to delude one- la fortuna de encontrarle. I had the

self, build castles in the air. luck to find him.

forma shape, form No me gusta la forma O por fortuna fortunately Por for-
de este sombrero. I don't like the tuna pudieron escapar. Fortunately,
shape of this hat. A way, manner No they were able to escape.
había forma de entenderlo. There was forzado See forzar. A [?n] convict.
no way of understanding it. O trabajo forzado forced labor.
O con buenas (or malas) formas forzar [rad-ch I] to force, compel; to
politely (or impolitely) Lo dijo con rape. A to break down Forzaron la

muy buenas formas. He said it very puerta. They broke down the door,
politely. O dar forma a to put in final forzoso compulsory, unavoidable La deci-
form or shape Había que dar forma al sión era forzosa. The decision was
artículo. The article had to be put in unavoidable.
final form. O en forma in order El O paro forzoso unemployment.

fosa grave Lo llevaron a la fosa. They O frente a in front of El coche paró

took him to the grave. frente a la puerta. The coach stopped
fósforo match ¿Tiene Ud. fósforos? Have in front of the door. O frente a frente
you any matches? face to face Los dos enemigos estaban
fotografía photography; photograph. frente a frente. The two enemies were
fracasar to fail La comedia fracasó. The face to face. O hacer frente to face
play failed. Había que hacer frente a aquel con-
fracaso failure, flop El negocio fué un flicto. The problem had to be faced.
fracaso. The business was a failure. fresa strawberry.
fracción [/] fraction; fragment. fresco cool (of weather, wind, etc) La
fragancia fragrance. noche estaba fresca. The night was
A fresh (of food)
frágil fragile. cool. El pescado es-
fragmento fragment. taba muy fresco. The fish was very
fraile [m] monk, friar. fresh. A fresh, cheeky, nervy Ese
franco free, exempt Se estableció un es muy fresco. That guy has a lot of
puerto franco. A free port was estab- nerve. A [m\ cooling drink
[Am] ¿Le
lished. A frank ¡Sea Ud. franco con- gusta el fresco de pina? Do you like
migo! Be frank with me! pineapple drinks? A fresco Los fres-
O franco de porte prepaid Envió la cos de la catedral son muy interesantes.
mercancía franco de porte. He sent The frescoes of the cathedral are very
the merchandise prepaid. interesting.
franqueo postage, amount of postage O quedarse tan fresco to show no
¿Cuánto es el franqueo de esta carta? concern, to remain unmoved ¡Y se que-
What's the postage on this letter? dó tan fresco! He was completely un-
franqueza frankness Me gusta la fran- concerned O tomar el fresco to get

queza de Ud. I like your frankness. some fresh air Estaban en el jardín
O con franqueza frankly ¿Habla Ud. tomando el fresco. They were in the
con franqueza? Are you speaking garden getting some fresh air.
frankly? frescura coolness Notamos frescura al
frasco bottle, flask. llegar al río. We felt the coolness when
frase [/] phrase. we arrived at the river. A nerve, cheek
fraternal brotherly, fraternal. La frescura de aquel hombre indig-
frazada blanket Ponga Ud. dos frazadas
naba. The nerve of that man was
en la cama. Put two blankets on the
frialdad [/] coldness (of weather) ; cool-
frecuencia frequency.
ness, unconcern.
frecuente frequent.
frijol [m] bean.
fregadero or fregadera kitchen sink.
frío [adj] cold La sopa está fría. The
fregar [rad-ch I] to scour, scrub Hace >
A cold,
soup's cold. unemotional Era
falta que frieguen este piso. The floor
de temperamento muy frío. He was a
has to be scrubbed. A to wash (dishes)
No me gusta fregar los platos. I don't very cold person.
like towash dishes. A to annoy [Am]
O hacer frío to be cold (of weather)
¡Hombre no friegues más! Stop an- Aquel invierno hizo mucho frío. It was
noying me! very cold that winter. O no darle a
freír [rad-ch III~\ to fry Fríe el pescado uno frío ni calor to leave one indif-
con aceite. He's frying the fish in oil. ferent No me daba frío ni calor. It
frenar to (put on the) brake; to restrain. left me indifferent. O tener frío to
frenesí [m~\ madness; frenzy. feel (or be) cold Tengo mucho frío.
frenético very angry; frenzied. I'm very cold.
freno bit (for horses); brake. friolento sensitive to cold.
frente [/] forehead. A [m] front, battle- friolera trifle, something unimportant
field Los soldados marcharon al frente. Eso es una friolera. That's a trifle.
The soldiers left for the front. friolero chilly, sensitive to cold Es muy
O al frente de in charge of No sé friolero. He's very sensitive to cold.
quien está al frente del negocio. A (ironically)
I extremely important.
don't know who's in charge of the busi- frito (see freír) fried.
ness. O en
frente de opposite Vive en O estar frito to be annoyed Estaba
la casa que está en frente de la nuestra. fritocon esas preguntas. He was an-
He lives in the house opposite ours. noyed by those questions. O traerle a

fritura SPANISH-ENGLISH fundición

A severe, intense Hace un

uno frito to pester or annoy Aquel frío muy
hombre me traía frito. That man was fuerte. The cold's intense. A heavy,
pestering me. warm, thick Lleve calzado fuerte para
fritura fritter. la excursión. Wear heavy shoes for
frivolo frivolous. the outing. A heavy La lluvia era muy
frontera frontier, boundary. fuerte. The rainfall was very heavy.
frotación [/] rub, rubbing. A harsh, unbearable Lo que le dijo fué
frotar to rub Le frotó la espalda con demasiado fuerte. What she told him
alcohol. She rubbed his back with al- was too harsh. A [adv] loud Habla
cohol. demasiado fuerte. He speaks too loud.
A [m] fort.
fruncir to shir, gather (material).
O fruncir el ceño or entrecejo to fuerza power Ese motor no tiene fuerza
frown. suficiente. That motor doesn't have
frustrar to thwart, frustrate. enough power.
fruta (edible) fruit De postre siempre O a fuerza de by dint of Lo consiguió
tomaba fruta. He always ate fruit for a fuerza de trabajo. He got it by dint
dessert. of hard work. O a la fuerza forcibly
frutal [m], árbol frutal fruit tree. Habrá que hacerlo a la fuerza. It'll
frutero greengrocer; fruit bowl. have to be done forcibly. O fuerza (s)
fruto fruit (edible or inedible) El fruto strength. O fuerzas forces Nuestras
de ese arbusto es venenoso. The fruit fuerzas ocuparon la ciudad. Our forces
of that shrub's poisonous. A fruit, re- occupied the city. O por (la) fuerza by
ward Aquel esfuerzo no dio fruto. force, forcibly Lo metieron al automó-
That effort bore no fruit. A profit El vil por la fuerza. They put him into
negocio no dio fruto. The business the car forcibly.
didn't produce a profit. fuete [m~\ quirt, riding whip [Am].
O frutos produce Inglaterra importa fuga flight, escape.
frutos españoles. England imports fugarse to run away, flee, escape.
Spanish produce. fullero shady, not on the level Su juego es
fuego fire Atice Ud. el fuego que se un poco fullero. He plays a shady
apaga. Poke the fire; it's going out. game. A stuck-up, conceited, pompous
O hacer fuego to fire (a weapon) Los [Am] Es un tipo muy fullero. He's a
soldados hicieron fuego. The soldiers pompous ass.
fired. fumar to smoke Se prohibe fumar. No
fuente [/] fountain El agua de esta fu- smoking.
ente está muy fría. The water of this función [/] function, duty, position
fountain's very cold. A source Su in- ¿Cuáles son sxis funciones? What are
formación es de buena fuente. His your duties? A show, performance ¿A
information comes from a reliable qué hora empieza la función? What
A dish,
platter Sirva Ud. el
source. time does the show start?
pescado en esa fuente. Serve the fish funcionamiento [w] working, function-
on that platter. ing.
fuera out, outside Los enviaron fuera. funcionar to work, function, run (of
They sent them out. A out ¡Fuera de machines) El ascensor no funciona.
aquí! Get out! The elevator isn't running.
O desde fuera from the outside funcionario public official, public servant.
Desde fuera no se ve el jardín. The funda case, pillowcase; slipcover; sheath.
garden can't be seen from the outside. fundación [/] foundation, founding Hoy
O fuera de out of Estará tres días se celebra la fundación de la ciudad.
fuera de la ciudad. He'll be out of the Today they're celebrating the found-
city for three days. O fuera de sí ing of the city.
beside oneself Estaba fuera de sí de fundamental [adj] fundamental.
cólera. He was beside himself with fundamento basis Sus ideas no tienen
anger. O por fuera on the outside Por fundamento. His ideas have no basis.
fuera la casa es muy bonita. On the fundar to found, establish.
outside the house is very pretty. O fundarse to base oneself En eso
fuerte strong Era un hombre muy fuerte. me fundo para decirlo. That's my
He was a very strong man. A bad, basis for saying so.
severe Ha cogido un catarro muy fundición [/] melting; foundry. A cast-
fuerte. He's caught a very bad cold. ing La fundición de la estatua se re-


trasó. The casting of the statue was furioso furious.

delayed. furor [m] fury, anger; rage, fashion.
fundir to smelt Fundieron todo el hierro. fusil [m] army rifle.
They smelted all the iron. fusilar to shoot (execute by shooting).
O fundirse to combine, merge Se fuste [m] substance, importance Una
fundieron los dos negocios en uno. dama de alto fuste. A lady of great
They merged the two businesses into importance.
one. A to be ruined [Am]. fútbol [m] soccer, football (game).
funeral(es) [m] funeral service Los futuro \_adj; m] future.
funerales se celebrarán en la catedral. O en lo futuro in (the) future, here-
Funeral services will take place in the after Procure Ud. en lo futuro venir
cathedral. puntualmente a la oficina. In the fu-
furia fury. ture, try to get to the office on time.

gabán [m] coat, overcoat. galería gallery (art) La galería de pin-

gabinete [m] cabinet Se han encargado tura estaba muy concurrida. The art
de formar gabinete. They've undertaken gallery was very crowded. A gallery
to form a cabinet. A study, small liv- (theater) Los espectadores de la ga-
ing room La casa tiene comedor, alcoba lería hacían mucho ruido. The specta-
y gabinete. The house has a dining tors in the gallery were making a lot
room, a bedroom, and a study. of noise. A glass-covered sun porch
gaceta gazette, newspaper; record. Vamos a tomar el sol en la galería.
gacho slouched, turned down, stooped Let's sun ourselves on the sun porch.
Lleva el sombrero gacho. He wears A underground passageway, gallery
his hat turned down. Abrieron otra galería en la mina. They
gachupín, gachupina Spaniard who set- opened another passageway in the
tles in Mexico. mine.
gafas [/ pi] eye-glasses, spectacles. galgo greyhound.
gajo small bunch [Am] Quiero un gajo gallardía fine bearing Los soldados
de uvas. I want a small bunch of mostraban gran gallardía. The soldiers
grapes. A section, piece Pele la naranja had a very fine bearing.
y déme un gajo. Peel the orange and gallego, gallega Spaniard [Am].
give me a piece. galleta cookie ¿Quiere Ud. galletas con el
gala ° función de gala gala performance. té? Would you like cookies with your
O tener a gala to be proud Tenia a tea? A slap Le dio una galleta. She
gala ser inglés. He was proud to be gave him a slap.
an Englishman. O traje de gala dress gallina [/] hen. A [m] coward ¡Es Ud.
suit (uniform). un gallina! You're a coward!
galán juvenile lead (in a movie or the- gallinero hen coop; top gallery.
atrical performance) El galán de esa gallo cock, rooster. A bully [Sp~\ A match,

compañía es muy malo. The juvenile equal [Aw] Ese no es gallo para él.
lead of that company is very bad. That fellow's no match for him.
O galán, galán easily, without effort O llevar un gallo to serenade [Mex] .

[Mex] Galán, galán subió las escaleras. galón [ni] gallon.

He climbed the stairs easily. galope [m] gallop, canter.
galante attentive Sea Ud. galante con galpón [m] toolshed [Arg].
ella. Be attentive to her. gana O dar ganas to feel like No me dan
galantear to court, make love to. ganas de trabajar. I don't feel like
galantería compliment Me dijo una ga- working. O darle a uno la gana [Fam]
lantería. He paid me a compliment. to feel like, want to Me da la gana de
A courtesy.
ir. I'm going because I want to. O de
galápago fresh-water tortoise. A side
buena gana willingly Lo hizo de buena
saddle [Am]. gana. He did it willingly. O de mala
galera shed [Am] El carro estaba debajo gana unwillingly. O n o darle a uno
de la galera. The cart was under the la gana to refuse to, not to feel like
shed. A wagon van.
; No me da la gana de hacerlo. I refuse
ganado SPANISH-ENGLISH generalidad

to doit. O tener ganas de to feel like vil. That automobile was going very
Tengo ganas de pasear. I feel like fast.
taking a walk. gasa gauze.
ganado cattle, livestock Tenía doscientas gasolina gasoline.
cabezas de ganado. He had two hun- gastar to spend Gastó casi todo su sueldo.
dred head of cattle. He spent almost all his salary. A to
ganador, ganadora winner. waste Me está Ud. haciendo gastar el
ganancia profit, gain. tiempo. You're making me waste time.
ganar to win ¿No ganó Ud. la apuesta? A to wear, use Nunca gasta sombrero.
Didn't you win the bet? A to gain No He never wears a hat.
ganó nada con decirme eso. He gained O gastar bromas pesadas to play
nothing by telling me that. A to earn practical jokes Siempre está gastando
¿Cuánto gana Ud. a la semana? How bromas pesadas. He is always playing
much do you earn per week? practical jokes. O gastarse to wear out
O ganar de mano to beat (someone) Se ha gastado muy pronto esa tela.
to it [Ar^] Los dos queríamos com- That cloth has worn out very rapidly.
prar el caballo pero él me ganó de gasto expense Cuando pagó los gastos
mano. We both wanted to buy the quedó limpio. When he paid the ex-
horse but he beat me to it. O ganarse penses, he had nothing left.
la vida to earn a living Me gano la O hacer el gasto to be the life of the
vida como puedo. I earn my living as party Fué él quien hizo el gasto de la
best I can. O ganar tiempo to save fiesta. He was the life of the party.
time. O pagar los gastos to pay the expenses,
ganchada O hacer una ganchada to do a foot the bill.
favor [Arg~\. gata cat, she-cat.
gancho hook Colgó la chaqueta en un O andar a gatas to walk on all fours,
gancho. He hung his jacket on a hook. creep.
O gancho de cabeza hairpin [Aw]. gatillo trigger.
O tener gancho to be attractive, gato cat, tom-cat. A jack Nos hace falta
charming Esa muchacha tiene mucho el gato para cambiar la rueda. We
gancho. That girl is very attractive. need a jack to change the wheel.
ganga bargain Estos calcetines son una O dar gato por liebre to cheat, to
ganga. These socks are a bargain. deceive.
ganso goose, gander. Aquí hay gato encerrado. There is

garaje [w] garage. more here than meets the eye.

garantía security Antes de prestarle el gaucho gaucho, man of the pampas, cow-
dinero pidió garantía. Before lending boy [Aw].
him the money he asked for security. gaveta drawer [Aw] Los pañuelos están
garantizar to guarantee El reloj estaba en la gaveta. The handkerchiefs are in
garantizado. The watch was guaran- the drawer.
A to vouch for Quiero que Ud.
teed. gemelo twin Parecían gemelos. They
le garantice. I want you to vouch for looked like twins. A cuff link.
him. O gemelos binoculars, opera glasses
garbanzo chickpea. Préstame los gemelos para verlo mejor.
garbo grace Baila con garbo. He dances Lend me the binoculars so I can see it
gracefully. better.
garfio hook, gaff. gemido moan, whine.
garganta throat. general [adj] general Tomaron billetes
gárgaras [/ pi] gargle (act of gargling). de entrada general. They bought gen-
O hacer gárgaras to gargle. eral admission tickets. A [w] general

garra claw. [Mil].

O caer en las garras de to fall into O en general usually, generally En
the clutches of. general se va a casa a las cinco. He
garrafa decanter; straw-covered bottle. generally goes home at five o'clock.
garrote [w] club (weapon) ; gallows. ° por lo general usually ¿Que bebe
garúa drizzle [Arg~\. Ud. por lo general, vino o cerveza?
gas [w] gas (vapor) Encienda Ud. el gas. What do you usually drink, wine or
Turn on the gas. beer? O por regla general as a general
° llevar gas to go at high speed, go rule.
fast Llevaba mucho gas aquel automó- generalidad [/] greatest part, majority

generalizar SPANISH-ENGLISH gordo

La generalidad de los niños son jugue- Llegando a la esquina el coche giró a

tones. Most children are playful. la derecha. The car turned right when
generalizar to generalize Generaliza al it reached the corner.
A to draw Puede
hablar de los norteamericanos. He Ud. girar contra mí cuenta. You can
generalizes when he speaks of Ameri- draw against my account.
cans. giro turn El asunto ha tomado un nuevo
O generalizarse to become general El giro. The matter has taken a new
uso del chicle se ha generalizado. The A draft Ayer le mandamos
turn. un
use of chewing gum has become gen- giro de veinte dólares. We sent him a
eral. draft yesterday for fifty dollars.
género cloth Ese sastre usa siempre muy giro (postal) money order Mán-
buenos géneros. That tailor always deme la cantidad por giro (postal).
i uses very good material. A kind ¿Qué Send me the amount by money order.
género de trabajo le gusta? What kind gitano, gitana gypsy.
of work do you like? glacial icy El frío es glacial en este pais:
O género humano mankind. O género It's freezing cold in this country.
masculino, género femenino masculine globo globe, sphere, balloon.
gender, feminine gender. gloria glory En la batalla el general se
Sin ningún género de duda. With- cubrió de gloria. In the battle the
out any doubt, or Beyond a shadow of general covered himself with glory.
a doubt. A heaven.
generosidad [/] generosity. O saber a gloria to be delicious Comi-
genial brilliant Es un músico genial. He mos un pastel que sabía a gloria. We
is a brilliant musician. ate a very delicious pie.
genio genius Es un hombre de genio. glotón [adj; n] gluttonous; glutton.
He's a genius. gobernador [m] governor (political).
O buen genio good nature Tiene buen gobernar to govern Es un pueblo difícil
genio. He's good-natured. O mal de gobernar. It is a difficult country
genio bad temper. to govern.
gente [/] people ¿Cuánta gente hay en O gobernarse to manage Se gobierna
esta oficina? How many people are muy bien. He manages his affairs
there in this office? A folks ¿Cómo está very well.
su gente? How are your folks? gobierno cabinet El primer ministro está
° gente bien upper class. O gente formando un nuevo gobierno. The pre-
de bien honest people. O gente me- mier is forming a new cabinet. A gov-
nuda children, small fry. ernment Es un gobierno democrático.
gentil gracious, kind. It's a democratic government. A con-
gentileza graciousness, kindness. trol Perdió el gobierno del volante. He
geografía geography. lost control of the steering wheel.
geográfico geographical. golfo gulf.
gerencia management Mudaron la geren- golondrina swallow (bird).
cia de la fábrica. They changed the golpe [m] blow El golpe no le hizo daño.
management of the factory. The blow didn't harm him.
gerente [m] manager. O al primer golpe de vista at first
germen [m] germ. sight Al primer golpe de vista me
gesto gesture; expression of the face pareció más grande. At first sight it
Tenía mal gesto. He had an unpleasant seemed larger to me. O dar golpes to
expression on his face. A gesture Su knock, pound Dio varios golpes en la
dimisión fué un gesto muy noble. His puerta. He knocked on the door sev-
resignation was a very noble gesture. eral times. O de golpe suddenly, all of
O hacer gestos to make gestures, to a sudden Me lo dijo de golpe. He told
signal, make (a) sign(s) Hizo gestos me all of a sudden. O golpe de estado
de aprobación. He made signs of ap- coup d'état.
proval. golpear to pound Estaba golpeando con
giganta giantess. el martillo. He was pounding with the
gigante huge, gigantic. A [vi] giant. hammer.
gimnasia physical exercise, calisthenics. goma glue; rubber, eraser. A hang-over
gimnasio gymnasium. [Am] ¡Qué goma tengo! What a hang-
gimotear to whine. over I have!
girar to revolve, turn La rueda no gira. gordo fat Era demasiado gordo. He was
The wheel doesn't turn. A to turn too fat.

gordura SPANISH-ENGLISH grano

O agua hard water [Sp]

gorda .
¡Qué gracia! How swell! or How
O hacer gorda to pretend not
la vista funny! (Ironical)
to see, wink at Los niños robaban la gradas wide steps leading to the entrance
fruta pero el guarda hacía la vista of a building; bleachers.
gorda. The children were stealing the grado degree Obtuvo el grado de doctor
fruit but the keeper pretended not to en filosofía. He got his doctor's degree.
see. O llevarse un susto gordo to get —La temperatura bajó tres grados.
a bad scare. The temperature went down three de-
gordura stoutness, fatness. grees.
gorro cap (for head). O de mal grado unwillingly, reluc-
° ir de gorra to sponge Le gustaba tantly Aceptó de mal grado. He ac-
ir de gorra. He liked to sponge on cepted reluctantly.
people. graduar to set Había que graduar la
gorrión [w] sparrow. espoleta. It was necessary to set the
gorro cap (for head). fuse.
gota drop No dejó gota en el vaso. He O graduarse to graduate, be gradu-
didn't leave a drop in the glass. A gout. ated Se graduó en la Universidad de
O gota a gota drop by drop. O sudar Harvard. He was graduated from
la gota gorda to sweat blood. Harvard University.
gotear to rain, to drizzle. A to leak Esa gráfico [adj] graphic Habla de una ma-
cañería gotea. That water pipe leaks. nera gráfica. He speaks very graphi-
gotera leak (in roof, wall) ¡Tape Ud. esa cally. A pictorial, picture ¿Hay aquí
gotera! Plug up that leak! revistas gráficas? Are there any pic-
gótico Gothic. ture magazines here ? A [w] time table
gozar to enjoy oneself, have a good time Ese gráfico marca las horas de entrada
[Am] Gozamos mucho en la fiesta. We y salida. That time table gives the
had a very good time at the party. hours of arrival and departure.
° gozar de to enjoy ¿Goza Ud. de grama lawn (grass) [Am].
buena salud? Are you enjoying good gramática grammar.
health? gramo gram (weight).
gozo joy. gran (see grande) great Ha tenido Ud.
grabado (see grabar) engraved Sus ini- una gran idea. You've had a great
ciales están grabados en la pulsera. idea. A fine, good, grand Es una gran

Her initials are engraved on the brace- persona. He is a fine person.

A fixed La idea quedó grabado en granada grenade; pomegranate.
su imaginación. The idea became fixed granado ripe, mature Es un hombre gra-
A [m] engraving, etch-
in his mind. nado. He's a mature man. A [m]
ing Era un experto en el grabado en pomegranate tree.
cobre. He was an expert in copper en- grande large Un cigarro grande. A large
graving. A picture (illustration) El cigar. A tall Es un hombre grande.
periódico tenía muy buenos grabados. He's a big man. A old [Am] Es el más
The newspaper had very good pictures. grande de los tres. He is the oldest of
grabar to engrave; to cut (a record). the three.
gracejada crude joke. O a lo grande in (great) style Le
gracia wit, charm, grace. A mercy El gustaba vivir a lo grande. He liked to
abogado defensor pidió gracia para el live in style. O en grande on a large
condenado. The defense attorney asked scale Las fábricas están produciendo en
mercy for the condemned man. A joke grande. The factories are producing
Se reía de todas sus gracias. He on a large scale.
A name ¿Cual grandeza greatness.
laughed atall her jokes.
es su gracia de Ud.? What is your grandioso grandiose, magnificent.
name? granero granary.
Ogracias thanks Estoy bien, muchas granito granite; pimple.
gracias. I am well, thank you. ° gra- granizo hail.
cias a thanks to Gracias a Ud. llegué granja farm.
a tiempo. Thanks to you I arrived on grano grain El grano maduró bien aquel
time. O hacer gracia to strike one año. The grain ripened well that year,
(as) funny Me hace gracia lo que dice. A pimple Tiene la cara llena de granos.
What he says strikes me (as) funny. His face is covered with pimples.
O tener gracia to be funny, be witty. O ir al grano to get to the point

grasa SPANISH-ENGLISH guasón

¡Vamos al grano! Let's get to the is very thick. A [m] main body (of
point troops) El grueso del ejército atravesó
grasa grease Una mancha de grasa. A el río. The main body of the army
grease spot. A fat La carne de cerdo crossed the river.
tiene mucha grasa. Pork has a lot of gruñido growl; grunt.
fat. gruñir to growl El perro gruñó cuando
grasiento greasy, oily Tiene el pelo muy nos acercamos. The dog growled when
grasicnto. Her hair is very oily. we approached. A to grunt. A to grumble
gratificar to reward ho gratificaron Gruñía porque no le pagaban bastante.
espléndidamente. They rewarded him He grumbled because they didn't pay
generously. him enough.
gratis gratis, free La entrada es gratis. gruñón cranky, irritable.
Admission free. grupo group ¿En qué grupo está su
gratitud [/] gratitude. amigo? Which group is your friend in?
gratuito free La entrada es gratuita. A clump En lo alto había un grupo de
Admission free. árboles. At the top there was a clump
grave grave, serious El estado de mi of trees.
amigo es muy grave. My friend's con- guacho odd (only one of a pair) [Chile]
dition is very grave. A deep Tiene la
Tengo un guante guacho. I have an
voz grave. He has a deep voice. odd glove.
gravedad [/] seriousness, gravity. guagua bus [Awí] ¿Para dónde va eso
grieta crack La pared tenia una grieta. guagua? Where does that bus go to?
The wall had a crack in it. A baby [Am] La guagua lloró toda la
O grietas en las manos chapped noche. The baby cried all night.
hands Tengo grietas en las manos. My guajolote [m] turkey [Mex].
hands are chapped. guante [w] glove.
grifo having hair or fur bristling or guapo handsome Era un hombre guapo.
standing on end El gato está grifo. He was a handsome man. A brave Se
The cat's fur is bristling. A [m\ fau- las da de guapo. He acts like a tough
cet El grifo del baño está estropeado. guy.
The faucet in the bathroom's out of guarango rough, vulgar [Arg].
order. guarda [m\ guard ;[Arj(] conductor.
grillo cricket (insect). guardar to keep Guarde Ud. copia de ese
O grillos fetters (for prisoners) Le documento. Keep a copy of that docu-
pusieron grillos en los pies. They put ment. A to guard Guardaba la entrada.
fetters on his feet. He was guarding the entrance.
grima O darle grima a uno to set one's O guardarse de to avoid Guárdese de
teeth on edge, get on one's nerves El las malas compañías. Avoid bad com-
chirrido de la puerta me da grima. pany. O guardar silencio to keep quiet.
The squeaking of the door gets on my guardarropa [m] wardrobe, clothes closet,
nerves. checkroom.
gringo gringo, American [Am] ; for- guardia [w] policeman Llame Ud. a un
eigner [Aw]. guardia. Call a policeman. A [/] guard,
gripa grippe, influenza [MexJ. guard duty Le tocó hacer la guardia.
gripe [/] grippe, influenza. It was his turn for guard duty.
gris gray. ° en guardia on guard Ante el peli-
gritar to shout, scream. gro me pongo en guardia. I put myself
grito scream, shout. on guard against the danger. O estar
O a grito pelado at the top of one's de guardia to be on guard duty.
lungs Nos llamó a grito pelado. He O guardia-civil [/] civil guard (body of
called us at the top of his lungs. O al- rural police). A [m] member of civil
zar el grito to raise the voice, shout. guard [Sp].
O poner el grito en el cielo to hit the guardián [m] watchman.
ceiling, make a great fuss. guarida den.
grosero rude, coarse Era un hombre gro- guarnición [/] garrison; trimming, edg-
sero. He was a coarse man. ing.
grotesco grotesque. guasa kidding, joking A los andaluces les
gruesa gross (twelve dozen). gusta la guasa. Andalusians are fond
grueso [adj] stout, heavy set Era dema- of kidding.
siado grueso. He was too stout. A thick ° de guasa jokingly.
Esta tela es muy gruesa. This cloth guasón [m] wag, joker.

— — — —— — —
guerra SPANISH-ENGLISH hablar

guerra war. guillotina guillotine.

O dar guerra to cause trouble Ese guisante [»i] pea [Sp].
niño da mucha guerra. That child guisar to cook.
caused a lot of trouble. O Departa- gustar to like, be fond of Le gustaba
mento de (or Ministerio de la) Guerra mucho viajar. He was very fond of
War Department. traveling. Como Ud. guste. As you
guía [m, /] guide Hubo que buscar un like.
guía para el viaje. It was necessary gusto taste Esto tiene buen gusto. This
to find a guide for the trip. A tastes good. Viste con muy buen gusto.
guide (book), directory. O guía de fe- She dresses in very good taste. A lik-
rrocarriles railroad guide. O guía de ing Eso ne es de mi gusto. That isn't
turismo tourists' guide book. O guía to my liking.
telefónica telephone directory. °agusto comfortable ¿Esta Ud. a
guiar to guide Iba delante para guiar a gusto? Are you comfortable? O con
los soldados. He went ahead to guide mucho gusto gladly, willingly, with
the soldiers. A to drive Aprendió a much pleasure Lo haré con mucho
guiar un automóvil. He learned to drive gusto. I shall do it gladly. O dar
a car. gusto a to please Mi deseo es darles
O guiarse por to follow Quiso guiarse gusto a Uds. My wish is to please you.
por los consejos de su amigo. He Tengo mucho gusto en conocerle.

wanted to follow his friend's advice. I'm very glad to meet you.

haba Lima bean. habitante [???, /] inhabitant Es un pueble-
haber to have (auxiliary). A [w] credit cito de doscientos habitantes. It is a
Asiente Ud. esa cantidad en el haber. village of two hundred inhabitants.
Enter that amount on the credit side. habitar to inhabit.
O haber de to be to He de salir hábito habit (of a religious). A habit,
mañana. I'm to leave tomorrow. custom Tenía por hábito levantarse
O hay there is, there are. Hay uno. temprano. It was his custom to get up
There's one. Ayer hubo un acci- early.
dente en la Quinta Avenida. There O tomar el hábito to become a monk
was an accident on Fifth Avenue yes- or nun.
terday. Habrá tres. There'll be three. habitual habitual.
O hay que it's necessary Hay que ha- habituarse to become accustomed Se ha-
cerlo. It has to be done. Habrá que bituó a trabajar en la oficina. He be-
hacerlo mañana. It'll have to be done came accustomed to working in the
tomorrow. O no hay de qué you're wel- office.

come, don't mention it "¡Muchas gra- habla speech Su habla es clara y precisa.
!" His speech is clear and precise. Ese
cias!" "No hay de qué." "Thank you
"You're welcome." hombre no es de habla española. That
man's not of Spanish speech. El mun-
W ¿Qué hubo? How goes it? [Mex]
habichuela kidney bean. do de habla española. The Spanish-
O habichuela verde (green) string speaking world.
° perder el habla to be speechless
Con la emoción perdió el habla. He was
hábil skillful Era muy hábil como mecá-
speechless with emotion.
nico. He was a very skillful mechanic.
hablador [adj~\ talkative Es muy habla-
O día work day ¿Cuántos días
dor. He's very talkative.
hábiles hay mes? How many work
hablar to speak ¿Habla Ud. inglés? Do
days are there this month? you speak English? A to talk Habla,
habilidad [/] ability. pero no sabe lo que dice. He talks, but
habilitado paymaster, he doesn't know what he's saying.
habitación [/] room Mi habitación es el O hablar (hasta) por los codos to chat-
número catorce del tercer piso. My ter Ese muchacho habla por los codos.
room is number fourteen on the third That boy is a chatterbox. O hablar
floor. por hablar to be just talking Ne le

— !

hacendado SPANISH-ENGLISH hasta

creas, habla por hablar. Don't believe Let's not fool ourselves about that
him, he's just talking (to hear himself project. O hacerse rogar to be coaxed
talk). O hablarse to speak to each Le gusta hacerse rogar. He likes to
other, be on speaking terms Hace dos be coaxed. O hacer un barro to make
días que no se hablan. They haven't a break, to put one's foot in it [Arg],
been speaking to each other for two ° hacer un paréntesis to digress Des-
days. Aunque eran hermanos no se pués de hacer un paréntesis, volvió al
hablaban. Although they were brothers tema. After digressing, he returned
they were not on speaking terms. to the subject. O tener (algo) que
hacendado rancher; landowner [Aw] Su hacer to have (something) to do ¿Tiene
padre es un rico hacendado. His fa- Ud. algo que hacer hoy? Have you
ther's a wealthy rancher. anything to do today?
hacendoso industrious. No le hace. Never mind, or Skip it.

hacer [rrr] to make Le han hecho un traje hacha ax.

nuevo. They have made him a new hacia toward Iba hacia su casa. He was
suit. A to have Hágales entrar ahora going toward his house.
mismo. Have them come in right now. O hacia acá this way ¡Mire Ud. hacia
A to do ¿Qué hace Ud. para ganar tanto acá! Look this way! O hacia adelante
dinero? What do you do to make so forward El coche iba hacia adelante.
much money? A to be Hace un buen The car was going forward. O hacia
día. It is a beautiful day. allá that way ¡Mire hacia allá, a la
O hacer alarde to boast, brag Hizo derecha! Look that way, to the right!
alarde de valor. He boasted of his O hacia atrás backward (s) Remaban
courage. O hacer caso a to pay atten- hacia atrás. They rowed backwards.
tion to No le haga caso. Don't pay any hacienda fortune Perdió toda su hacienda.
attention to him. O hacer de cuenta to He lost his whole fortune. A ranch,
pretend, act [Aw] Haga de cuenta que large estate [Am]. A Treasury (gov-
nada ha ocurrido. Just act as if noth- ernment) Ministro (or Secretario) de
ing has happened, or Think nothing of Hacienda. Secretary of the Treas-
it. O hacer de las suyas to be up to ury.
one's old tricks Otra vez está haciendo halagar to flatter.
de las suyas. He's up to his old tricks halagüeño promising, bright Las perspec-
again. O hacer el amor to pay court tivas no son halagüeñas. The prospects
to, make love to he estuvo haciendo aren't very bright.
el amor durante la fiesta. He was mak- halar [today usually written jalar] to
ing love to her during the party. pull [Aw] Halaban la cuerda con
O hacer el favor please ¿Quiere hacer fuerza. They pulled hard on the rope.
el favor de acompañarme? Will you hallar to find Se registró los bolsillos y
please come with me? O hacer el honor halló un peso. He searched his pockets
de to do the honor of ¿Me hará Ud. el and found one peso.
honor de comer conmigo? Will you do O hallarse to be No ha podido venir
me the honor of dining with me? porque se halla enfermo. He hasn't
O hacer frío or calor to be cold or hot been able to come because he is sick.
(of weather) Hoy hace mucho calor. hallazgo thing found Entre los hallazgos
It's very hot today. O hacer furor to hubo paraguas, zapatos y pañuelos.
make a hit Está haciendo furor esta Among the things found were umbrel-
nueva canción. This new song is mak- las, shoes, and handkerchiefs.
ing a big hit. O hacer gimnasia to do hamaca hammock [Aw].
exercises (calisthenics)Hago gimnasia hambre [/] hunger Tenía mucha hambre.
por la mañana. I do exercises in the He was very hungry.
morning. O hacer los honores to play hambriento hungry, starved.
or act as host (ess) Nos hizo honores harapo rag Iba vestido de harapos. He
de la casa. She played hostess to us. went around dressed in rags.
O hacerse to become Se ha hecho muy harina flour, meal.
famoso. He's become very famous. hartarse to gorge, stuff oneself Tomó
O hacerse el sueco to pretend not to helado hasta hartarse. He gorged him-
understand. O hacerse el tonto to play self on ice cream.
dumb No te hagas el tonto, que te co- harto full, stuffed; fed up ¡Estoy harto de
nozco. Don't play dumb; I know you. sus cuentos! I'm fed up with your
O hacerse ilusiones to fool oneself No stories
nos hagamos ilusiones con ese proyecto. hasta until No regresarán hasta después



de las They won't return until

seis. herejía heresy.
after Hasta mañana. Until to-
six. herencia inheritance.
morrow, or See you tomorrow. A as far herida wound La herida se curó. The
as Fueron hasta la última calle del wound healed.
pueblo. They went as far as the last herido wounded man El herido se curó en
street in town. tres días. The wounded man recovered
Ohasta aquí so far Hasta aquí todo in three days.
está bien. So far everything is all right. herir[rad-ch II] to wound, hurt Fué
Hasta la vista. So long. J[
Hasta herido en la guerra. He was wounded
luego. So long. in the war.
hay See haber. hermana sister. A nun, sister Una her-
haya beech tree. mana de la caridad le cuidaba. A Sis-
hazaña feat, exploit, deed El soldado fué ter of Charity took care of him.
condecorado por st(s hazañas. The sol- hermano brother.
dier was decorated for his deeds. hermoso beautiful, handsome Es una mu-
hebilla buckle (fastener). jer muy hermosa. She's a very beauti-
hebra thread. ful woman.
hechicero bewitching Tiene una cara he- hermosura beauty, handsomeness.
chicera. She has a bewitching face. héroe [m] hero.
hechizo domestic, made in (a given coun- heroico heroic.
try) [Am]. heroína heroine.
hecho (see hacer) done. A ready-made heroísmo heroism.
Prefiero un traje hecho. I prefer a herrador [m] horseshoer.
ready-made suit. A [m] deed Fué re- herradura horseshoe Le pusieron la her-
cordado por sus nobles hechos. He was radura al caballo. They shod the horse.
remembered for his noble deeds. A fact herramienta tool; set of tools.
El periódico publica los hechos más herrar [rad-ch I] to shoe (horses) to;

importantes. The newspaper publishes brand (cattle).

the most important facts. herrería iron works, blacksmith's shop.
O de hecho in fact, as a matter of fact herrero blacksmith.
De hecho quedó convencido. As a mat- herrumbre [/] rust.
was convinced.
ter of fact he hervir [rad-ch III] to boil El agua em-
hechura workmanship, making No me pezó a hervir. The water began to boil.
gusta la hechura de ese traje. I don't híbrido [adj; n] hybrid.
like the workmanship of that suit. hidalga noble(woman) lady. ;

A style. hidalgo noble(man); gentleman.

hectárea hectare (10,000 sq. meters). hidrógeno hydrogen.
hediondo foul, stinking. hiel [/] gall ; bitterness, malice.
hedor [m] stench, stink. hielo ice Haga el favor de darme hielo
helado (see helar) frozen El estanque para el agua. Please give me some ice
amaneció completamente helado. The for the water.
pond was completely frozen in the hiena hyena.
morning. A shocked La noticia me dejó hierba grass.
helado. The news shocked me. A [m] O mala hierba weed La dehesa está
ice cream Me gusta el helado de choco- llena de mala hierba. The pasture is
late. I like chocolate ice cream. full of weeds. A bad influence Ese
helar [rad-ch T] to freeze. niño es mala hierba. That boy is a bad
helécho fern. influence.
hélice [/] (screw) propeller (of ship). hierro ironToda el armazón era de hierro.
hembra female No es macho, es hembra. The whole framework was made of
It's not a male, it's a female. iron.
hemisferio hemisphere. O machacar en hierro frío to work in
heredad [/] (inherited) country estate or vain, be useless Tratar de corregir a
farm Mi padre me dejó una heredad. ese niño es machacar en hierro frío.
My father left me some property. Trying to correct that boy is useless.
heredar to inherit A la muerte de sus hígado liver.
padres heredó una gran fortuna. He higiene [/] hygiene.
inherited a large fortune when his par- higo fig.
ents died. hija daughter.
heredero, heredera heir. hijo son.
hereditario hereditary. hila row, line.
hereje [m, f] heretic. hilar to spin (wool, silk, etc)'.


hilera SPANISH-ENGLISH honradez

hilera row, line. afilada. The blade was very sharp.

hilo thread Cuidado no se rompa el hilo.
A page ¿En qué hoja está Ud.? What
Be careful that the thread doesn't page are you on? A record ¿Presentó
break. Me hace falta hilo para coser Ud. su hoja de servicios? Did you show
este botón. I need thread to sew on your record of service?
this button. A linen Me regaló media O hoja de lata tin plate. O poner le a
docena de pañuelos de hilo. He gave uno como hoja de perejil to give one a
me a half dozen linen handkerchiefs. tongue lashing Le puso como hoja de
hilvanar to baste (in sewing). perejil. He gave him a tongue lashing.
himno hymn. O tener hoja to be counterfeit (have
hincar to drive Hincaron en el suelo esta- more than legal proportion of tin)
cas para asegurar la tienda. They drove Esta plata tiene hoja. That coin is
stakes into the ground to make the counterfeit.
tent secure. A to sink El perro me || Doblemos la hoja. Let's change
hincó los dientes en el brazo. The dog the subject.
sank his teeth into my arm. hojear to thumb through, glance (or
O hincarse de rodillas to kneel down skim) through (a book, etc).
Lo primero que hizo fué hincarse de ¡hola! Hello! (informal) ¡Hola! ¿Cómo
rodillas. The first thing he did was estás? Hello, how are you?
to kneel down. holgazán lazy.
hincha [/] fan Es una hincha del equipo hombre [ni] man Vino a buscarle un
argentino. He's a fan of the Argentine hombre. A man came to see him.
team. (When referring to a sport as O ¡hombre! man! man alive! ¡Hombre,
a whole, the word used in aficionado). no digas eso! Man, don't say that!
hinchar to swell Se le hinchó la pierna. O hombre de Estado statesman.
His leg swelled up. hombría manliness, courage En la lucha
hinchazón [w] swelling (lump). demostró su hombría. He showed his
hipocresía hypocrisy. courage in the fight.
A O hombría (de bien) honesty Todos
hipócrita hypocritical. [ñ] hypocrite.
hipoteca mortgage. lo estimaban por su hombría. They all
hipótesis [/] hypothesis. esteemed him for his honesty.
hispanoamericano [adj; n\ Spanish-Amer- hombro shoulder Cargó el equipaje al
ican. hombro. He loaded the baggage on his
histérico hysterical. shoulder.
historia history, story Conocía a fonda la O encogerse de hombros to shrug the
historia de América. He knew the shoulders Por toda contestación se en-
history of America thoroughly. A tale cogió de hombros. The only answer he
No me vengas con historias. Don't tome gave was a shrug of his shoulders.
to me with tales. homenaje [m] homage Han venido a
historiador [m] historian. rendirle homenaje al autor. They have
histórico historic (al) Visitamos los lu- come to pay homage to the author.
gares históricos del país. We visited homicida [m, /] killer, slayer El homicida
the historie sites of the country. se refugió en la montaña. The slayer
historieta short story; the comics [Sp]. hid in the mountains. A [adj] homi-
hocico muzzle, snout, nose El gato metió cidal El arma homicida no fué hallada.
el hocico en el puchero. The cat put The homicidal weapon wasn't found.
its nose in the pot. homogéneo homogeneous.
O estar de hocicos con to be on the honda sling (for hurling stones).
outs with Estaba de hocicos con su hondo deep Este pozo es muy hondo. This
novia. He was on the outs with his well is very deep.
sweetheart. honestidad [/] modesty, decorum Se ena-
hogar [ni] fireplace ¿Tiene Ud. un hogar moró de ella por su honestidad. He fell
en su casa? Do you have a fireplace in love with her for her modesty.
in your home? A home Abandonó el honesto decent, honest El cajero era un
hogar cuando era muy joven. He left hombre muy honesto. The cashier was
home when he was very young. a very honest man.
hogaza (large) loaf of bread. honor [m] honor Era un hombre de honor.
hoguera bonfire Encendieron una hoguera. He was a man of honor.
They lit a bonfire. O honores honors Al morir le hicieron
hoja leaf El suelo estaba cubierto de honores militares. When he died he
hojas. The ground was covered with was given military honors.
leaves. k blade La hoja estaba muy honradez honesty, integrity.

honrado SPANISH-ENGLISH huye

honrado (see honrar) honest Es un hom- lares. The assassin was arrested
bre honrado. He's an honest man. through his fingerprints.
honrar to honor Nos honra mucho su huérfano, huérfana orphan.
presencia. We're very much honored huerta large vegetable garden.
by your presence. huerto orchard.
hora hour Empezó la fiesta a la hora en hueso bone.
punto. The party began exactly on O estar en los huesos to be nothing
the hour. A time ¿Qué hora es? What but skin and bones.
time is it? ¡A otro perro con ese hueso! Tell

O a primeras horas de la mañana in it to the Marines!

the early morning. O a última hora huésped [m] guest.
at the last moment A última hora todo huevo egg /Cómo quiere Ud. los huevos,
se solucionó. Everything was solved fritos o revueltos? How do you like
at the last moment. ° a últimas horas your eggs, fried or scrambled?
de la tarde in the late afternoon. huida flight, escape.
horca gallows. huir to flee Los prisioneros huyeron del
horizontal horizontal. campo de concentración. The prisoners
horizonte [m] horizon. fled from the concentration camp.
hormiga ant. humanidad [/] humanity. A humaneness
horno oven. La humanidad de sus sentimientos era
horrible horrid, horrible Hizo una escena bien conocida. The humaneness of his
horrible. She made a horrible scene. sentiments was well known.
horror [ni] horror Tiene horror a la humano [adj] human. A humane Era
guerra. He has a horror of war. una persona muy humana. He was a
horroroso horrible, frightful Fué una very humane person.
escena horrorosa. It was a horrible humear to smoke, give off smoke Las
scene. cenizas todavía humeaban. The cin-
hortalizas [/ pl] vegetables. ders were still smoking.
hospital [m] hospital. humedad [/] dampness, humidity, mois-
hospitalidad [/] hospitality. ture La humedad del tiempo me hace
hostilidad [/] hostility. daño a la salud. The dampness of the
hotel [m] hotel. weather is bad for my health.
hoy today Hoy empezamos a trabajar. humedecer [-zc-] to moisten.
We're starting to work today. húmedo damp, humid.
O hoy por hoy for the time being, humilde poor; humble, unaffected.
under present circumstances Hoy por humillar to humiliate.
hoy no pienso regresar a mi pais. humo smoke Por la ventana se veía salir
Under present circumstances I don't elIkimo. Smoke could be seen pouring
intend to return to my country. ° por out of the window.
hoy for the present Por hoy lo dejare- O
darse humos de grandeza to put on
mos pasar. We'll let it go for the airs of grandeur. O humos airs, af-
present. fected manner Lo dijo con muchos
hoyo hole, depression; ditch. humos. He said it in an affected man-
hoyuelo dimple. ner.
hoz [/] sickle. humor [m] humor, mood Está siempre de
hueco [adj] hollow, empty El tronco del buen humor. He's always in good hu-
árbol estaba hueco. The tree trunk was mor. A humor, wit.
hollow. A [?n] hole Cuidado, hay un hundirse to sink Se hundió en el barro
hueco en el piso. Be careful, there's a hasta las rodillas. He sank in mud up
hole in the floor. to his knees. A to cave in La casa sc
huelga strike (of workers). hundió. The house caved in. A to fall
huella track Siguieron las huellas del otro off, diminish Empezó a hundirse su
automóvil. They followed the tracks of negocio por no atenderlo. ^lis business
the other car. A trace,sign En la began to fall off because he didn't take
América del Sur hay muchas huellas de care of it.

la cultura india. In South America huracán [m] hurricane.

there are many traces of Indian cul- hurtar to steal, pilfer.
ture. A footprint, fingerprint Aquí están O hurtar el cuerpo to shy away, dodge
sus huellas. Here are his footprints. Hurtó el cuerpo al toro. He dodged
O huella dactilar fingerprint Se de- the bull.
tuvo el asesino por sus huellas dacti- huye See huir.

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iberoamericano SPANISH-ENGLISH imaginar

iberoamericano [adj;n\ Latin American. The road hasn't been leveled.

ida leaving, going, trip out A la ida, el ° igualar con or a to put oneself on
viaje fué mas agradable que a la vuelta. the same plane as, compare oneself
The trip out was more pleasant than with No te iguales a tu hermano porque
the return. vale más que tú. Don't compare your-
O billete de ida y vuelta round-trip self with your brother because he's a
ticket. better man than you. O igualarse to be
idea idea. equal, to be tied (score) Los dos equi-
ideal [adj~\ ideal, perfect. A [m] ideal, pos se igualaron al final. The two
principie. teams were tied at the