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Madhusudan R.S.

Fl ow Pumpen pro fi le

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Madhusudan R.S. Fl ow Pumpen pro fi le + Fo llow Hydraulic Design of Centrifugal Pumps
Madhusudan R.S. Fl ow Pumpen pro fi le + Fo llow Hydraulic Design of Centrifugal Pumps

Hydraulic Design of Centrifugal Pumps

Published on June 19, 2018

This article is continuation of the previous article on this same topic in my linkedin wherein a Video was shown demonstrating the Excel Calculation with a Picture of the impeller generated from the Excel for a quick check.

These are typical real time calculations done for the design of#lmpeller and Volute for pumps. After the design calculations the Pump was also prototyped, tested and launched.

1n the previous article the equations could not be published due to memory space issue. Hence the equations are presented here in the logical sequence in which design calculations are to be done.

Classification of Pumps

R.S .Mad hu su dan

APPROXiNATE

I

,:-;-;-

~ ~i-

:c:~~.

l> •f.il~

su dan APPROXiNATE I ,:-;-;- ~ ~i- :c:~~. l> •f.il~ ~·· ,_ PISTON N,- 27 o,;

~··

,_

PISTON

N,- 27

o,; 0.01

GEAR +

~

YANEt

(Roell')' Pos.

DisplKfflltfll)

i

ORAG t-CENTRIFUGAL

SCREW

273

0.1

Specific Speed, Os -

4,,

0

(£All)

CENTRIFUGAL SCREW 273 0.1 Specific Speed, Os - 4,, 0 (£All) MIXED FLOW l7JJ AXlAL FLOW

MIXED FLOW

l7JJ

AXlAL FLOW

(A pp,oxim•W

Domains of

Rotor typN

ahown)

27,JJO

10

FLOW (A pp,oxim•W Domains of Rotor typN ahown) 27,JJO 10 FIGURE 8 { ' OTE ,

FIGURE 8

{

' OTE , Ns. ( US.) -

N{1J>m) • 4Q(p}

r~ n ( !t.) J' / '

-n, x 2733

}

Optimmn geometry as a fu nction of BEP s peci fi c s 1>eed Ifor s ingl e s tage roLOrs t.

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Specific Speed

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Madhusudan R.S.

Flow Pumpen profile

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Madhusudan R.S. Flow Pumpen profile + Fo llow Pumps of the same Ns but of different

Pumps of the same Ns but of different si ze are considered to be geometrically simila r, one pump being a size-factor of

the other.

Spec ific speed Calculation :

The following formula is used to determ ine

Ns = N' Q•0 .51H• (S/4) Where a is the Volume flow rate at the Best Efficiency point H is the Head per stage at the same Best Efficiency Point at the Maximum impeller dia at the same speed N is the Impeller rotation speed

specific speed :

A s per the above formula , it is defined as the spee d in revolutions per minute at which a geometricall y s imil ar impe ller would operate if it were of such a size as to deliver one gallon per minute flow aga in st one-foot head .

T he understand ing o f th is definition is

should be thought of only as an index used to predict certain pump cha racteristics .

Specific speed as a measure of the shape or class of the impellers The specific speed determines the general s hape or c lass of the impellers . As the specific speed increases, the ratio of the impeller outlet diameter, D2, to the inlet or eye diameter, D 1, decreases. Th is ratio becomes 1.0 for a true axial f low impeller. Radia l flow impellers develop head principally through cen trifugal force . Radial impellers are generally low fl ow high head designs.

Pu mps of higher speci fic speeds develop head partly by centrifugal force and pa rtly by

specific speed indicates a pump design with head generation more by axial forces and less by centrifugal forces. An axial flow or propeller pump with a specific speed of 10,000 or greater generates its head exclusively through axial forces. Axial flow impellers are high flow low head designs.

of

design engineering s ignificance on ly , however, and speci fic speed

axial fo rce . A higher

Specific speed identifies the approximate acceptable ratio of the impeller eye diameter (01 ) to the impeller maximum diameter (02) in designing a good impeller.

Ns: 500

to 5000 ; 01 / 02 > 1.5 - radia l flow pump

• Ns: 5000 to 10000; 01 /02 < 1.5 - mixed flow pump Ns: 10000 to 15000; 01 / 02 = 1 - axial flow pump Specific speed is also used in designing a new pump by size-factoring a smaller pump of the same specific speed. The performance and construction of the smaller pump are used to predict the performance and model the construction of the new pump.

Maximum Efficiency of Pump

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• Better efficiency will reduce Carbon Foot Print

I:

/

r

/

"'

n.ow

,

~

/

_/

./

~-

,-

·-

,,,,,--

---

,,,,,.,-- ,00 ,

,

uoo

--

--

----

-- ,

,.,

•.ooo l.000

Mll<tD

n.ow

,_ ;:,,.

- ·-

R.0W

SP£CIFIC SPEED N 1 RP~fr

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Efficiencies for different Specific speeds

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R.S.Madhu sudan

Ma dhu sudan R.S. + Fo ll ow Flow Pumpen profile • • • •
Ma dhu sudan R.S.
+ Fo ll ow
Flow Pumpen profile
-
,

Non Dimensional Parameters of Pump

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VOL UM E !'LO W RA TE ,Q g. ; \H

}

11 '

'

U, 2 .
U, 2
.

~ .m

ijl =-- ~ -~--

11 ~ r /

.

IIEAD

CO E FFIC IE NT

EFF I C IENC Y} 11

POWER

}

COEFFI CIENT p~

FLOW

(b) COEH ICI ENT

}

0 5

,

Q

/

n r !

1

Overall Efficiency

R.S.Madhusudan

---------------------------

TJ

=

P,

p

s

j, H

X 6.H

I

Q

X Q + Q

L

=

1'/ m X

1'/ HY X TJ ,

"Mechanical"}

T/ ,,.

=

P,

= P

-

Po

Effici e n cy

P

P

 

Hydra ulic}

=

6.H

=

6.H, -

"i.HL

Efficiency

T/ HY

j, H ;

 

j, H,

Voltunetric}

T/ v =

 

Q

Effi cien cy

Q +

Q L

  j, H, Voltunetric} T/ v =   Q Effi cien cy Q + Q L
  j, H, Voltunetric} T/ v =   Q Effi cien cy Q + Q L

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Flow through a Radial flow Impeller

Flow through a Radial flow Impeller Madhusudan R.S. Fl ow Pu mpen pro file + Follow

Madhusudan R.S. Fl ow Pu mpen pro file

+ Follow

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R.S. Fl ow Pu mpen pro file + Follow R.S.Madhusudan Eulers Equation for Energy Transfer R.S.Madhusudan
R.S. Fl ow Pu mpen pro file + Follow R.S.Madhusudan Eulers Equation for Energy Transfer R.S.Madhusudan

Eulers Equation for Energy Transfer

R.S.Madhusudan

Eulers Equation for Energy Transfer R.S.Madhusudan P 1 = (m + rhL) x (U 2 V

P 1 = (m + rhL) x (U 2 V 0 , 2 -

g

t).H <

i

( UVo)

g

i

H , =

i

( UVo)

< i ( UVo) g i H , = i ( UVo) Continuity: w h e

Continuity:

w h e r e lV = V,,/s in f3r

Kinematics:

U 1 V 0 , 1 )

Q = 27Tl·bV,,.

V 0 = U -

ll' cos f3r

Euler's Equation for Head and Power output

R.S.Madhusudan

• The Euler's equation for Head is as following

H, uiec = ( U2 Cu2- U1

Cu 1)I g

(Eq .1)

For entry without prewhirl U1 Cu1= 0 ,

• Therefore for such cases

• H,uie, = U2 Cu2 I g (Eq.2)

Powe r

Su bstit ut ing Q = TT D 2 b 2 Cm 2

p Eu

=

p

Q gH Eu

and als o H Eu f rom Eq.2 we get

H Eu = U 2 ( U 2 Cm 2 Cot 13 2 ) I g P Eu = TT D , b , c m, ( u, -C m2 Cot 13,) u,

) I g P Eu = TT D , b , c m, ( u, -C

•UI

Inlet velocity Triangle with zero pre whirl

, c m, ( u, -C m2 Cot 13,) u, •UI Inlet velocity Triangle with zero

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SLIP FACTOR

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µ=1- .a_sinBl

Z . [ 1- (Cm--/ u,) Sin 13, J

A

True Posibon

The number of blades can be taken between 6 to 8.

With this the slip factor can be calculated.

Pfleiderer 's correction for correcting the Hlh ·inf to H 1 h is done using CPwhich is calculated as following CP = 2. 'l'/ [Z .{1-(r1/r2) 2 }] Where 'I'= 1 to 1.2. [ 1+ sinl3 2 ] . (r1/r2) higher value is to be used for impeller without guide vanes .

Incidentally it may be noted that the Slip factor given by Stodola can be approximately related to Pfleiderer's coefficient as

µ= 1/(1 + CP) Typically for Z=7, 13 2 =27 , Cm2=3.36, U2=28.3 we get µ=0.78 whereas Cp=0 .33 and the RHS of above Eq comes to 0.75

R.S.Madhusudan

.33 and the RHS of above Eq comes to 0.75 R.S.Madhusudan o Earth Dipole movement of

o

Earth

and the RHS of above Eq comes to 0.75 R.S.Madhusudan o Earth Dipole movement of Ethanol

Dipole movement of Ethanol

Calculating Actual Head from Euler Head using Slip factor and Impeller efficiency

H actual = ll h µ HEuler

Substituting HEule,

we get

' (U , - Cm, I Tan 13,, )

HAotual = 'l h µ (U , .lg) .

Then the following velocities are calculated

cm1 = Kcm1 ·-,/ ( 2-9- Hduty)

Cm2 = Kcm2

·

-,/ ( 2-9·

Hduty )

R.S.Madhu sudan

Hduty) Cm2 = Kcm2 · -,/ ( 2-9· Hduty ) R.S.Madhu sudan EntryTa.x • The velocity

EntryTa.x

• The velocity just before entry to the impeller may be taken as

co= 0 .8 to

0 .9 c m1

From the above D 1 is fixed higher than the D 0

• U 1 = TT D 1 N / 60

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Madhusudan R.S. Flow Pum pen pro file

I a1 I P1-

\

m1

'u 1

+ Fo llow

• the actual value of 13 1 is made higher by 2 to 6° as it is known to improve the Suction capacity and the Efficiency.

opposite

Side

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capacity and the Efficiency. opposite Side R.S.Madhusudan Adjacent Side For this number of blade Z is

Adjacent

Side

For this number of blade Z is calculated using the equat ion by

Pfleiderer in his paper in Die Krieselpumpen is used,

13m

The blade thickness 't' is taken depending on the size of the pump

Pitch S 1 = TT. 0 1 ./ Z

Z = 6.5 ( 02+01) / (02-01)* Sin

The vane contraction factor is calculated as q, = S 1 / (S 1 -t / Sin . j3 1 )

This is the factor (q, > 1 ) by which the inlet passage width is to be increased to account for reduction in flow passage due to the vane width .

With this b 1 = q> . Q/[C m,· TT. 0 1 ]

. With this b 1 = q> . Q/[C m,· TT. 0 1 ] Calculation of

Calculation of outlet vane angle

• Tan 13 2 = Cm 2 / (U 2 - Cu 2 ) " H Eu= Hdevp X (1+Cp)/l")h

Eq.4

• But H Eu, = U2 cu2 Eu, in/g

• and Hdevp= U2 Cu2dev/g

• From the above equations we get

" C u2 Eu,= C u2devpX ( 1 +C p)/1") h

• Using the value of C in

the Eq.4 we can

R.S.Madhusuda n

Exits~

calculate the Vane o~\f~t angle required for best efficiency.

On ly fluid exit from pump, not Peop le

for best efficiency. On ly fluid exit from pump, not Peop le Calculation of Impeller outlet

Calculation of Impeller outlet dimensions

R.S.Madhusudan

In the method of Hydraulic design as described

in the Pump

edition) the worked out example therein selects a value of [3 2 as 22.5 deg

Hand book by Karassik et. al. (3 rd

U 2 = Cm/(2. Tanj3 2 ) +

[{Cm/(2. Tanj3 2 )} 2 +g.H,h x(1+C.)]°" 5

Where H,h= Hi 11" Initially • 13, is assumed around 22

With the above equations the U2 is calculated .

• With the value of U2 the D2 is calculated

• Then the ljJ , Cp , Z

U2 and

and in turn

D2 are

recalculated

till we get the same value of U2 and D2.

D2 are recalculated till we get the same value of U2 and D2. • An improvisation

• An improvisation to the above procedure proposed in this paper is to recalculate every time the value of 13 2 ,as per the condition of best efficiency i.e. using the equation

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