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Submitted by:
Anecito Tubog Jr.
Submitted to:
Mrs. Cynthia Bandola
Igneous rock
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire) is one of the three main rock types, the
others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification
of magma or lava.

Obsidian -Obsidian is an igneous rock that forms when molten rock material cools so rapidly that
atoms are unable to arrange themselves into a crystalline structure. It is an amorphous material known as
a "mineraloid."

Where Does Obsidian Form?

Obsidian is usually an extrusive rock - one that solidifies above Earth's surface. However, it can form in a
variety of cooling environments:

 along the edges of a lava flow (extrusive)

 along the edges of a volcanic dome (extrusive)
 around the edges of a sill or a dike (intrusive)
 where lava contacts water (extrusive)
 where lava cools while airborne (extrusive)

Obsidian is found in many locations worldwide. It is confined to areas of geologically recent

volcanic activity. Obsidian older than a few million years is rare because the glassy rock is rapidly
destroyed or altered by weathering, heat, or other processes.

The result is a volcanic glass with a smooth uniform texture that breaks with a conchoidal

Uses of Obsidian
A Cutting Tool, Jewelry, Making arrowheads, spear points, knife blades, and scrapers from
obsidian, chert, or flint might have been the world's first “manufacturing industry.”
Sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of
that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the collective name for
processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place.

COAL -Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation and
preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment. Coal is a combustible rock
and, along with oil and natural gas, it is one of the three most important fossil fuels. Coal has a
wide range of uses; the most important use is for the generation of electricity.

Coal forms from the accumulation of plant debris, usually in a swamp environment.

The Texture of a coal is Amorphous, Glassy.

Coal has many other uses. It is used as a source of heat for

manufacturing processes. For example, bricks and cement are
produced in kilns heated by the combustion of a jet of powdered
coal. Coal is also used as a power source for factories. There it is
used to heat steam, and the steam is used to drive mechanical
devices. A few decades ago most coal was used for space heating.
Some coal is still used that way, but other fuels and coal-produced
electricity are now used instead.

Coke production remains an important use of coal. Coke is produced by heating coal under
controlled conditions in the absence of air. This drives off some of the volatile materials and
concentrates the carbon content. Coke is then used as a high-carbon fuel for metal processing
and other uses where an especially hot-burning flame is needed.

Coal is also used in manufacturing. If coal is heated the gases, tars, and residues produced can be
used in a number of manufacturing processes. Plastics, roofing, linoleum, synthetic rubber,
insecticides, paint products, medicines, solvents, and synthetic fibers all include some coal-
derived compounds. Coal can also be converted into liquid and gaseous fuels; however, these
uses of coal are mainly experimental and done on a small scale.
Metamorphic rock
Metamorphic rocks have been modified by heat, pressure, and chemical processes, usually while buried
deep below Earth's surface. Exposure to these extreme conditions has altered the mineralogy, texture, and
chemical composition of the rocks.

Marble-Marble is a metamorphic rock that forms when limestone is subjected to the heat and
pressure of metamorphism. It is composed primarily of the mineral calcite (CaCO3) and usually
contains other minerals, such as clay minerals, micas, quartz, pyrite, iron oxides, and graphite.
Under the conditions of metamorphism, the calcite in the limestone recrystallizes to form a rock
that is a mass of interlocking calcite crystals. A related rock, dolomitic marble, is produced
when dolostone is subjected to heat and pressure.

Most marble forms at convergent plate boundaries where large areas of Earth's crust are
exposed to regional metamorphism. Some marble also forms by contact metamorphism when a
hot magma body heats adjacent limestone or dolostone.

The texture of a Marble: Medium to coarse grained, often

showing a sugary texture.


It is used for its beauty in architecture and sculpture. It is used for its
chemical properties in pharmaceuticals and agriculture. It is used for
its optical properties in cosmetics, paint and paper. It is used because
it is an abundant, low-cost commodity in crushed stone prepared for
construction projects. Marble has many unique properties that make
it a valuable rock in many different industries.

Interior Uses: Bathrooms, Countertops, Decorative

Aggregates, Entryways, Floor Tiles, Homes, Hotels, Interior Decoration, Kitchens and Stair

Exterior Uses: As Building Stone, As Facing Stone, Garden Decoration, Office

Buildings and Paving Stone

Commercial Uses: Cemetery Markers, Commemorative Tablets, Creating

Artwork, Curling, Laboratory bench tops, Paper Industry, Tombstones, Used in
aquariums, Whiting material in toothpaste, paint and paper.