Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

INDEX

............
CTA Company Background.................................................................................................................................................................2
CTA Contact Details...................................................................................................................................................................................3
Antimicrobial Copper...............................................................................................................................................................................4
Health and Disease Control............................................................................................................................................................4
Chemical Composition of CTA tube....................................................................................................................................5
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Technical Data for Copper Tube.................................................................................................................................................6
Specifications for Copper Tube...................................................................................................................................................9
Bending of Half Hard Copper Tube..................................................................................................................................11
Flow and Hydraulic Characteristics.................................................................................................................................12
Holderbats, Supports and Fixings....................................................................................................................................14
Thermal Expansion.................................................................................................................................................................................15
Copper Tube in Chasings and Concrete......................................................................................................................15
Copper Underground & Corrosion.....................................................................................................................................16
Freezing.................................................................................................................................................................................................................16
Compatibility, Insulation & Lagging...............................................................................................................................17
The capillary solder system
Capillary Fittings.......................................................................................................................................................................................18

Copper Tubing Africa Soldering Flux...............................................................................................................................................................................................19


Solder........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Heat Source......................................................................................................................................................................................................20
Guide to Soldering a capillary joint (15mm - 35mm).........................................................................21
Pressure testing / Working Pressures.....................................................................................................................25
Preparation & Jointing (42mm - 108mm)...........................................................................................................26
Recommended Solder Torches...............................................................................................................................................29
Repairing a Nail Hole..........................................................................................................................................................................29
Pressure Ratings.......................................................................................................................................................................................29
Abbreviations and Terminology............................................................................................................................................30
The compression fittings system
Compression Fittings...........................................................................................................................................................................31
Working with Compression Fittings..............................................................................................................................32
CTA CATALOGUE
DZR Compression Fittings.............................................................................................................................................................33
Capillary Fittings............................................................................................................................................................................­...........38
Sundries......................................................................................................................................................................................................­...........42
COMPANY BACKGROUND ............ Copper
Tubing
Copper Tubing Africa (Pty) Ltd dates back to 1953 when copper
tubing was produced from rolled strip. The copper was blanked
Africa
and deep-drawn to form tubes from which solder lugs were manu- MARKETING AND SALES
factured. P O Box 40394, Cleveland,
Johannesburg, South Africa, 2022.
Today, CTA utilises the most advanced techniques of continuous 36 Hospital Street, Cleveland,
casting using only high-grade virgin copper to produce drawing Johannesburg, South Africa, 2094.
billets. Tried and tested methods of cold drawing produces the end Tel: +27 (0)11 615-7193
product. Fax: +27 (0)11 622-2584
Web: www.coppertubing.co.za
The end product is destined not only for the domestic plumbing, e-mail: technical@cta.co.za
info@cta.co.za
refrigeration and medical industry, but is also used extensively in the
electrical and industrial markets.
BRANCHES:
CTA is registered as an ISO 9001 compliant company with the South Cape Town Durban Port Elizabeth
African Bureau of Standards. In addition to this the company also Tel: +27 21 951-8855 +27 31 461-4952 +27 41 486-3589
holds the SABS mark of approval on its Domestic Plumbing Tubing +27 21 951-8685 +27 31 468-9138 +27 41 486-1136
and Medical Grade range. Fax: +27 21 951-8877 +27 31 461-4953 +27 41 486-3148

“A business succeeds not because it is big or This Code of Practice has been compiled for use by Wet Service Engineers involved in designing and
plumbers and contractors installing plumbing systems. However, recognising that each system must be
because it has been long established, designed and installed to meet specific criteria, Copper Tubing Africa (Pty) Ltd assumes no responsibil-
ity or liability of any kind with regard to the use of this booklet by any person or organisation and
but because there are men in it who makes no representation or warranties of any kind hereby.
live it, Copper Tubing Africa (Pty) Ltd acknowledges information courtesy of:
sleep it, ● The Copper Development Association
dream it, ● SANS 10252-1: 2012

and build great future plans for it.” Fifth Edition: September 2010
Sixth Edition: Revised July 2012
Author unknown Seventh Edition: November 2012
2 3
ANTIMICROBIAL COPPER ............ Note: Do not confuse the build-up of copper carbonates with
flux corrosion on the internal or external surfaces. Due to the acid
in the flux, the attack generally also appears green in colour,
The anti-microbial properties of copper have been recognised for however it will not form an equal layer.
centuries. Copper and its alloys can kill harmful bacteria. Laboratory
tests have demonstrated that copper is effective against a number
of disease-causing bacteria. 99% of MRSA, the hospital acquired CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CTA TUBE ............
“superbug”, is killed within minutes when exposed to copper.

Independent studies conducted at the Stellenbosch University, as


Typical chemical composition of CTA domestic
well as further research undertaken by the Council for Scientific and
and industrial plumbing tube:
Industrial research (CSIR) have confirmed these anti-microbial prop-
erties. Water systems using copper are decidedly enhanced by this
ELEMENT SYMBOL PARTS PER MILLION
inherent property.
Archaeologists have recovered a portion of a water plumbing system from the pyramid of Cheops in Phosphor P 275-350
Egypt. The copper tubing used was found in serviceable condition after more than 5000 years!
Silver Ag 5-15

Sulphur S 5-15
HEALTH AND DISEASE CONTROL ............
Copper Cu balance

Copper is biostatic and non-permeable. There is no penetration of


liquids and fuels through its walls. Slime build-up does not occur.
Depending on the water quality in specific geographical areas,
there may be a chemical reaction which will form a green layer on
the inside of the tube. This is called “Uniform Superficial Corrosion”.
The water will still be in contact with the copper and the biostatic
properties will still be effective.

k Copper is an important trace element. The recommended daily allowance


(RDA) should be 2 – 3 mg.
k Copper is completely UV resistant and will not perish or become brittle
over time due to constant sun exposure.

4 5
TECHNICAL DATA ............ TECHNICAL DATA (cont.) ............

CTA 460/0 EXTRA LIGHT - HARD DRAWN CTA 460/2 MEDIUM - HALF HARD (15mm-42mm) HARD DRAWN (54mm-108mm)
(5,5m straight lengths) (5,5m straight lengths)
Identification: Yellow or clear end-caps. Tubing marked “CTA...mm OD SABS 460 class 0 BN......” Identification: Brown end-caps. Tubing marked “CTA..mm OD SABS 460 class 2 BN....”
Tubing Nominal Inside Theoretical Maximum Recommended usage Tubing Nominal Inside Theoretical Maximum Recommended usage
Size Wall Diameter/ Mass Working (all sizes) Size Wall Diameter/ Mass Working (all sizes)
Thickness Bore size Pressure Thickness Bore size Pressure
(mm) (mm) (mm) (kg/m) (Mpa) (mm) (mm) (mm) (kg/m) (Mpa)
15 0.50 14 0.203 4.80 Recommended for above ground use 15 1.00 13 0.392 7.33 Can be used underground with non-ag-
22 0.60 20.8 0.360 3.93 only and should not be bent. 22 1.00 20 0.588 5.00 gressive soil characteristics. Subject
28 0.60 26.8 0.460 3.09 28 1.20 25.6 0.900 4.71 to special conditions. Can be bent with
Local annealing to produce a bend or either a spring or bending tool and
35 0.75 33.5 0.719 3.09 35 1.50 32 1.407 4.71 should be lagged correctly when used
offset is not recommended.
42 0.90 40.2 1.036 3.09 42 1.50 39 1.701 3.93 underground. Tubing is ideally suited for
54 1.20 51.6 1.774 3.20 Tubing is ideally suited for use with 54 2.00 50 2.912 5.33 use with DZR compression and/or sol-
67 1.50 64 2.751 3.22 soldered capillary fittings. 67 2.00 63 3.640 4.30 dered capillary fittings. Care should be
taken when soldering due to the
76 1.70 72.6 3.537 3.22 76 2.00 72 4.150 3.79 increased wall thickness.
108 2.30 103.4 6.807 3.07 108 2.50 103 7.385 3.33

CTA 460/1 LIGHT - HALF HARD (15mm-42mm) HARD DRAWN (54mm-108mm) CTA 460/3 HEAVY - HALF HARD (15mm-42mm) HARD DRAWN (54mm-108mm)
(5,5m straight lengths) (5,5m straight lengths)
Identification: Orange end-caps. Tubing marked “CTA...mm OD SABS 460 class 1 BN......” Identification: No end-caps. Tubing marked “CTA..mm OD SABS 460 class 3 BN...”
Tubing Nominal Inside Theoretical Maximum Recommended usage Tubing Nominal Inside Theoretical Maximum Recommended usage
Size Wall Diameter/ Mass Working (all sizes) Size Wall Diameter/ Mass Working (all sizes)
Thickness Bore size Pressure Thickness Bore size Pressure
(mm) (mm) (mm) (kg/m) (Mpa) (mm) (mm) (mm) (kg/m) (Mpa)
15 0.70 13.6 0.280 5.13 Recommended for above ground use 15 1.20 12.6 0.464 8.80 Designed for use underground. Subject to
22 0.90 20.2 0.532 4.50 only. 22 1.50 19 0.861 7.50 special conditions. Can be bent using a
28 0.90 26.2 0.683 3.54 Should only be bent with a bending 28 1.50 25 1.113 5.89 bending tool and should be lagged.
tool having inner and outer formers. Spring bending is not recommended.
35 1.20 32.6 1.136 3.77 Spring bending is not recommended. 35 2.00 31 1.848 6.29 Tube and DZR compression fittings
42 1.20 39.6 1.371 3.14 Tubing is ideally suited for use with 42 2.00 38 2.240 5.24 ideally suited for underground use.
54 1.20 51.6 1.774 3.20 compression and/or soldered capillary 54 2.50 49 3.605 6.67 When used above ground, special care
67 1.50 64.0 2.751 3.22 fittings. 67 2.50 62 4.515 5.34 should be taken when soldering due to
Care should be taken when soldering the thick wall.
76 1.70 72.6 3.537 3.22 due to the increased wall thickness. 76 2.50 71 5.145 4.74
108 2.30 103.4 6.807 3.07 108 3.20 101.6 9.390 4.27

6 7
TECHNICAL DATA (cont.) ............ TECHNICAL DATA (cont.) ............
MEDICAL TUBE
CTA 460/BLUE HARD DRAWN Half Hard and Hard Drawn Condition
(5,5m straight lengths) Tubing Size Tubing Wall Theoretical Maximum
O.D. Size Thickness Mass Working Pressure
Identification: Blue end-caps. Tubing marked “CTA..mm OD SABS 460 class B BN...”Pressure tested (mm) (inches “) (mm) (kg/length) (Bar)
Tubing Nominal Inside Theoretical Maximum Recommended usage 6.35 (HH) 1/4” 0.71 0.62 123.0
Size Wall Diameter/ Mass Working (all sizes) 9.53 (HH) 3/8” 0.71 0.96 81.95
Thickness Bore size Pressure
(mm) (mm) (mm) (kg/m) (Mpa) 12.70 (HH) 1/2” 0.76 1.4 65.83
15.88 (HH) 5/8” 0.81 1.88 56.11
15 0.70 13.6 0.280 6.72
19.05 (HH) 3/4” 0.89 2.49 51.39
22 0.90 20.2 0.532 5.89
22.23 (HH) 7/8” 1.02 3.33 50.47
28 0.90 26.2 0.683 4.63
28.58 (HD) 1 1/8” 1.02 4.33 51.39
35 1.20 32.6 1.136 4.94 34.93 (HD) 1 3/8” 1.22 6.33 50.30
Tubing is ideally suited for use with
42 1.20 39.6 1.371 4.11 soldered capillary fittings. Care should 41.28 (HD) 1 5/8” 1.40 8.6 48.84
54 1.20 51.6 1.774 3.20 be taken when soldering due to the 53.98 (HD) 2 1/8” 1.65 13.3 44.02
67 1.50 64 2.751 3.22 increased wall thickness. Designed for
above ground use. HIGH PRESSURE:
76 1.70 72.6 3.537 3.22 Hard Drawn Condition
108 2.30 103.4 6.807 3.07 Tubing Size Tubing Theoretical Maximum
O.D. Size Wall Mass Working Pressure
Note: All classes of CTA tube from 54mm to 108mm are hard drawn
(mm) (inches “) Thickness (mm) (kg/length) (Bar)
REFRIGERATION TUBE 7.94 HP 5/16” 1.60 1.56 290.18
Hard Drawn Condition 15.88 HP 5/8” 3.25 6.32 294.71
22.23 HP 7/8” 3.25 9.50 210.53
Tubing Size Tubing Wall Thickness Theoretical Maximum
25.40 HP 1” 3.25 11.09 184.25
O.D. Size Mass Working Pressure
(mm) (inches “) (mm) (kg/length) (Bar)
6.35 1/4” 0.57 0.51 129.26 SPECIFICATIONS FOR COPPER TUBE ............
7.94 5/16” 0.57 0.65 103.38
9.53 3/8” 0.57 0.79 86.13 SANS 460 Class 0:
12.70 1/2” 0.61 1.14 69.17
A hard drawn thin-walled tube for use without bending, and
15.88 5/8” 0.71 1.66 64.38
recommended for above ground use only. Hard drawn tubing is not
19.05 3/4” 0.71 2.01 53.67
recommended for underground use due to its thin wall and lack of
22.23 7/8” 0.81 2.67 52.47
28.58 1 1/8” 0.91 3.88 45.85
flexibility. Any change of direction using SANS 460 Class 0 should
35.93 1 3/8” 1.02 5.33 42.05
be made using capillary fittings.
41.28 1 5/8” 1.22 7.53 42.56 Local annealing in order to produce a bend, offset or crossover is not
53.98 2 1/8” 1.42 11.49 37.88 recommended. Oxyacetylene brazing of SANS 460 Class 0 using
capillary fittings is not recommended.
8 9
SPECIFICATIONS FOR COPPER TUBE (cont.) ............ BENDING OF HALF HARD COPPER TUBE ............
SANS 460 Class 1: SANS 460 Class 1, 2 and 3:
A half hard thin-walled tube for above ground use only. This tube
can be bent using a bending tool with inner and outer formers. CTA SANS 460 Class 1, 2 and 3 tubing has excellent bending
Spring bending is not advised due to the spring being too loose in qualities. There are various bending machines on the market, but
the tube and the walls of the tube collapsing. SABS 460 Class 1 - those with inner and outer formers produce excellent results.
28mm to 108mm is ideally suited for the drawing of “T” joints.
SANS 460 1 and 3 tube should only be bent with the above-
SANS 460 Class 2: mentioned bender.

A half hard, heavy gauge tube with excellent bending qualities. Note: Damaged and worn bending equipment will result in a failure.
This class is also used underground under normal conditions i.e.
non-aggressive soils. This is the only class that can be bent by using
Hand and spring bending performs satisfactorily with SANS 460
an Internal Bending Spring. Care should be taken when installing
tube underground. The tube should be protected against external Class 2. Half hard tubing bent by hand should have a radius of
corrosion using CXP tape. SABS 460 Class 2 - 28mm to 108mm is at least 6 times the outside diameter of the tubing and machine
ideally suited for the drawing of “T” joints. bent tubes should have a radius of not less than 3 times the outside
diameter of the tubing.
SANS 460 Class 3:
Note: Spring bending 15mm tube using SANS 460 Class 0, 1 and
This class is a heavy, thick walled, half hard copper tube with
excellent bending qualities, designed specifically for underground 3 is not recommended.
use where soil movement takes place. Care should be taken when
SANS 460 Class 1 - spring too loose causing ripples in the tube
installing tube underground and it should be protected against
external corrosion using CXP tape. SANS 460 Class 3 - spring too tight to be easily removed.

When working with a spring, it is recommended that you overbend


the tube by a few degrees past the mark before going back to the
CTA Blue Tube: A hard drawn copper marked position. By doing this you will take the tension off the spring
tube for above ground use only. Designed and it will be easier to remove.
for higher chloride-bearing waters and is
used to avoid Type 1 pitting corrosion. Any change of direction
using Blue Tube should be made by using fittings. Blue Tube 28mm - Note: SANS 460 Class 0 (Hard Drawn) copper tubing should not
108mm undergoes a pressure test as well as an additional cleaning be bent.
process before entering the local market.

10 11
FLOW CHARACTERISTICS ............ HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS (cont.) ............

The very smooth bore of copper tubing provides long term and
TABLE 2
Comparison of flow rate using the same pressure drop values for
the same tube size. The values used are those for copper from Table 1.
excellent flow characteristics when compared with traditional
plumbing materials by considerably reducing both the friction losses Nominal Tube Size Pressure drop in kpa per Flow rate (l/m) at 2.5m/sec
(mm) 10m length (mm2)
and the possibility of furring.
PP Cu

HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS ............ 15 55.0 11.5 23.0


22 33.5 24.0 52.0

The hydraulic character of piping material, determined by the size and 28 24.5 39.0 84.5

smoothness of its bore, enables it to deliver water at sufficient pressure to


overcome head pressures enabling fixtures, appliances and equipment Plastic pipes usually have thicker walls than copper tubing. The inter-
to function correctly as per their design. When comparing smooth bore nal diameter is considerably smaller. According to the specification,
materials such as copper and most plastic systems, the internal diameter a stainless steel insert/sheath should be inserted into the pipe to
becomes the critical factor in evaluating hydraulic performance. prevent it from collapsing. This further restricts the flow rate.

Copper tube has a thin wall. The internal diameter of copper tube is The bore size of a tube is important when considering
greater than that of most plastic and multi-composite pipe systems of Copper volumes, flow rates and velocities - not the diameter.
the same size. Hydraulic performance is influenced by the size of the
internal bore. When using plastic it is considered good practice
to select a nominal size larger than that specified
Comparison between SANS 460/0 copper tube (Cu) and Polypropylene (PP) Plastic
for copper or steel. This graphic shows that a 22mm
TABLE 1 showing bore area, percentage difference and comparative flow rates.
copper tube has a 60% greater bore area than the
Nominal Nominal wall Bore area mass Copper’s Flow Rate (l/m) Pressure drop in
Tube Size thickness greater at 2.5m/sec kpa per 10m plastic 22mm pipe.
area length
(mm) (mm) (mm2) (%) (mm2)
To establish the flow rate for copper tube using 2.5 meters/second as the
PP Cu PP Cu PP Cu PP Cu
maximum allowable velocity, the following calculations can be used:
15 1.8 0.5 102 154 50 15.5 23.0 88.0 55.0 Example: Key: B.S. = bore size
22 2.7 0.6 216 346 60 32.5 52.0 56.5 33.5 B.S. × B.S. × 0.1179 14 × 14 × 0.1179
= ……….. litres per minute = 23 litres per minute
28 3.4 0.6 35.3 546 59 53.0 84.5 41.0 24.5
Check technical data on pages 6-8 for nominal bore sizes.
12 13
HOLDERBATS, SUPPORTS & FIXINGS ............ THERMAL EXPANSION OF COPPER TUBING . . . . . . . . . . . .

Points to remember when using holderbats to support and affix The co-efficient of linear expansion of copper tubing is:
copper tubing: 0.016mm per m between 0º and 100 ºC.
k Always ensure a constant air gap is maintained between the For example: A temperature increase from 0º to 65 ºC will cause a linear
tube and wall when using holderbats. expansion of 1.04mm per m (i.e. 0.016 X 65 = 1.04 mm expansion per meter.)

k Never over tighten, especially hot water lines. Allow for expansion. Provision for expansion can include the forming of expansion loops
and offsets, as illustrated, and refer to SANS 10252-1: 2012.
k In humid atmospheres or in situations where condensation is Changing direction can also be used to avoid long straight runs.
likely, CTA recommends that the tube be insulated from the
galvanized or steel support brackets and holderbats using Expansion loops and offsets are simple and effective but require
plastic, rubber or wood. space which may not be available.
k Holderbats and support brackets should be fixed at least 100mm away
from a fitting or from a change in direction. This will allow free
movement of the installation when expansion and contraction occurs.

k The use of steel nails, wire or brick force as a fixing alternative


is not recommended as it will lead to eventual failure of the
tube through localised corrosion.
k To avoid swaying, when pipes are fixed in a suspended ceiling
space by hanging brackets, suitable SANS 460 Class 2 and 3: CTA 460/2 Medium and CTA Heavy –
POSITIONING INTERVALS FOR HOLDERBATS Half Hard is recommended for bending expansion loops and offsets
bracing should be used to fix the
Tubing Positioning Intervals
installation to the support brackets i.e. with fittings.
Size Vertical Runs Horizontal
(mm) (m) Runs (m) Tarzan type holder brackets.
15 1.9 1.3
22 2.5 1.9 COPPER TUBING IN CHASINGS & CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . .
28 2.5 1.9
35 2.8 2.5
42 2.8 2.5 CTA recommends lagging all copper tube in walls.
54 3.9 2.8
76 3.9 2.8 For more detail regarding the laying of tube in buildings refer to
108 3.9 2.8
SANS 10252-1: 2012.
14 15
COPPER UNDERGROUND & EXTERNAL CORROSION ......... COMPATIBILITY, INSULATION & LAGGING ............

Tubing laid in contact with bricks, paving bricks, ash bricks or a cinder Copper is compatible with all other types of piping. It is accepted
backfill in humid and moist environments, together with an electrolyte practice to join copper tubing to galvanized piping provided the copper
e.g. water, will cause an electrolytic reaction with the carbons in the tube is downstream from the galvanized pipe. Beware of galvanized
bricks and cinders causing localised external corrosion and eventual fittings downstream! (i.e. galvanized nipples, under wash basins and
failure of the tube. Under such circumstances the tube should be insu- washing machine outlets.)
lated with a barrier of CXP tape. Ref: SANS 10252-1: 2012.
Copper tubing may be used to replace any portion of a failed galva-
The rate of external corrosion is influenced by a combination of factors such as: nized system which has been in service for a number of years. Exposed
k Poor drainage zinc/iron metal is unlikely to be present in the system due to a build up
k Humidity and moisture content of lime and hardened salts in the bore.
k Alkalinity
k Acidity (indicated by the ph value) THERMAL INSULATION
k Soils containing organic matter, peat (compost), muck brick or cinder from open fires and backfills.
1. Using a mitre box offers a more accurate cut, especially 45° and 90° angles.
Combine these factors with aggressive sulphides and chlorides and the
action between the carbon in them and copper, and external corrosion 2. Always use an adhesive to apply insulation and avoid air passages.
will result.
3. T o prevent loss of insulation and possible freezing, do not
FREEZING ............ have exposed joints or tube.

4. It is recommended that


It is recommended that copper tubing not be exposed to the elements external insulation be paint-
when installed in a very cold environment. Tubing should be installed ed using an acrylic PVA.
under ceiling lagging to insulate and protect it from draughts. (The
Ref: SANS 10252-1: 2012 Part 1 See 6.7.5.
wind chill factor is the main cause of failure under these conditions.)
LAGGING OF TUBE
Pipes, fittings and components should, when necessary, be protected
against freezing using thermal insulation. The insulation provided should All hot water piping, including pressure relief and overflow drain pipes,
be appropriate to the minimum temperatures of the geographical area. restricted in movement through encasement in concrete or plaster,
Ref: SANS 10252-1: 2012. should be lagged throughout the encased length with approved flexible
lagging material. Ref: SANS 10252-1 2012.
Special care must be taken when plumbing is installed in a Cold Storage
area. Tube should not come in contact with the wall and floor areas. CXP Tape (copper expansion protective tape) is available on request. For information on the product
please contact CTA. CTA suggests that both hot and cold tubes installed in walls be lagged.
16 17
THE CAPILLARY SOLDER SYSTEM ............ THE CAPILLARY SOLDER SYSTEM (cont.) ............
CAPILLARY FITTINGS SOLDERING FLUX
Ref: SANS 9454-2: 1998 Part 2: Performance Requirements.
Soldered joints depend on capillary action drawing free-flowing molten
solder into the gap between the fitting and the tube. Capillary fittings The functions of the soldering flux are:
soldered correctly with 97/3 soft solder have a shear strength of 60 k To remove residual traces of oxides.
Mpa (600 Bar) and are able to withstand a high degree of vibration, k To promote wetting.

expansion and contraction. k To protect the surface to be soldered from oxidation during heating.

A full range of capillary fittings is readily available in all sizes to fit Standard practice calls for cleaning the tube and fittings by mechani-
SANS 460 Classes 0, 1, 2, 3 and CTA Blue Tube. cal means. Cleaning by mechanical means is also required if residues
of cement, paint or tape gum are found on the surface to be joined.
Capillary fittings used with water-based self-cleaning flux with no The use of steel wool is not recommended for cleaning. Use a CTA cleaning pad
ammonia and 97/3 solder, make a strong and lasting joint. or sandpaper.
(97% Tin/3% Copper). Soldering flux should only be applied to a clean surface. Lightly coat
the surface to be joined. An oxide film may re-form quickly on the
Care should be taken to not use too much flux. The cleaning agents in the copper tube after it has been cleaned, therefore the flux should be
flux can be harmful to the copper system if not cleaned off properly. applied as soon as possible after cleaning. Any excess flux should be
wiped off before soldering.
Caution should be taken when choosing fittings:
Once the joint has been soldered, the flux residue should be removed
Oversized: Tolerance between fitting and tube is too great and capillary with a damp cloth. At no time should the soldered joint be shock-cooled
action will not occur. with water or a wet rag as this may cause the joint to fracture. Wipe
Undersized: Tolerance between fitting and tube is too little and solder will only with a damp cloth.
not be able to enter the joint.
The type of flux required is self-cleaning, water-based, contains NO
ammonia and is able to withstand temperatures in excess of 240°C.
In both cases the joint will lead to failure.
Note: The term “water-based” means that the flux is soluble in water
and should rinse out of the system once flushed.
CTA recommends water-based self-cleaning flux for use with lead-free solder.
Note: Joint must be soldered on the same day. If not, flux will harden
and capillary action will not occur, causing joint failure.
18 19
THE CAPILLARY SOLDER SYSTEM (cont.) ............ GUIDE TO SOLDERING A CAPILLARY JOINT ............
SOLDER 15mm to 35mm
Refer: SANS 24:2008 - Sn 19 Solder wire. Refer: SANS 1067-2: 2005: Capillary Solder Fittings.

It is extremely important to use only the recommended solder. Any


solder containing lead or having either a resin or acid core should
be avoided at all times. Not only is there the obvious health hazard,
but there is also the risk of mechanical failure of the joint.

CTA recommends 97/3 (97% tin; 3% copper) lead-free solder.

HEAT SOURCE 1. Measure and mark the tube length 2. Cut the tube square so that the tubing
required before cutting. will seat flush in the socket of the fit-
A soft non-localised flame such as that produced by LPG/Propane/ ting. Take care not to deform the tube
Butane mix is required. The use of oxy-acetylene is not recommended while cutting.
as the flame is too concentrated and severe. This causes overheating
of the tube, leading to burning and drying out of the flux, annealing
of the tube and melting of the tube and fitting.

Note: The selection of gas torches is very important. 35mm-108mm


require different size torches. 3. Remove all burrs as this could cause
water turbulence leading to erosion corro-
sion. A properly cleaned and reamed tube
4. The surfaces of both the tube and the
provides a stronger joint as well as a bet-
fitting to be joined should be cleaned
ter flow.
with either a CTA cleaning pad or sand-
paper. Care should be taken not to
remove too much material from either
the tube or fitting as this could interfere
Tip: Clean tube
with the capillary action taking place
end slightly more
during soldering. Mechanical cleaning is
than fitting cup
recommended on all sizes of tubing and
depth to improve capillary
fittings.
action and ease of jointing.
20 21
GUIDE TO SOLDERING A CAPILLARY JOINT (cont.) ........ GUIDE TO SOLDERING A CAPILLARY JOINT (cont.) ........
15mm to 35mm 15mm to 35mm

5. Apply flux to both the tube and the inside 6. Assembly: Ensure the tube end is 8. Apply flame to the assembly. 9. Apply the solder to the mouth of the
of the fitting. Care should be taken not to seated against the base of the fitting. Concentrate on the centre of the fitting fitting to see if it is drawn in. i.e. Keep
over-flux. For the best results use a small Support the tube and fitting to ensure and not the mouth of the fitting. Slowly testing with solder until solder is drawn
paint brush to apply the flux. Wipe off uniformity of the capillary gap. move the flame from the fitting to the in.
excess where possible. Excessive joint clearance could lead to tube. Remove flame.
an incomplete soldered joint resulting in
Warning: Careless workmanship can joint failure. Note: It is the heat of the fitting and tube that melts the solder, not the
cause problems after the system has been flame.
installed. If excessive amounts of flux are
used, the flux residue can cause corrosion Take care not to overheat the assembly. Overheating could burn the flux
and in extreme cases could lead to which will destroy its effectiveness. The solder will not enter the mouth
failure of the tube and fittings. of the joint properly, causing joint failure and unwanted leaks.
R emove excess flux from the exterior of
the joint where possible. Joints prepared Capillary fittings with short sockets i.e. Brazing type, should not be
and ready for soldering must be soldered the same day. used for soft soldering. Standards laid down by SANS 1067- 2:
They must not be left overnight. 2005, equivalent to international standards are as follows:

7. Bend sufficient length of solder at right angles Solder joints depend on capillary action drawing free-flowing
(measured according to Table 1 Pg 24). This table is molten solder into the narrow clearance between the fitting and
a guideline only and shows the amount of solder the tube. Molten solder is drawn into the joint by capillary action
required for each joint to ensure that sufficient regardless of whether the solder flow is upward, downward or
solder is applied without unnecessary wastage. horizontal.

22 23
GUIDE TO SOLDERING A CAPILLARY JOINT (cont.) ........ PRESSURE TESTING/WORKING PRESSURES ............
15mm to 35mm The complete system should always be pressure tested as per SANS
10. After a short cooling period, wipe the 10252-12: 2012. An installation should be subjected to a pressure
assembly with a damp cloth to remove excess test of at least 1500kPa, but not less than 1.5 times the maximum
flux. This prevents the assembly from turning working pressure of the installation. This test should be maintained
green. for at least an hour.

Note: Shock cooling with WORKING PRESSURES:


water will stress the joint. (As determined from the chart)

It is essential that after completion, the complete system be flushed to 460/Hard Drawn = 72 MPa
remove any excess flux and debris, as per SANS 10252-1: 2012. 460/Half Hard = 55MPa
If a system is to be inoperative for any extended period after instal-
lation, it is recommended that it be completely drained after flushing
and testing and left empty of water.

TABLE 1: SOLDER LENGTH PER JOINT SIZE TABLE 2: GUIDE TO SOCKET DEPTH
Use the following formula to calculate working pressures for tubes
of specific dimensions:
Nominal Tube Solder Length Solder Length Tubing Size Socket Tolerance ±
Size (mm) (2mm dia) (3mm dia) (mm) Depth
15 15 - 15 12 ±1.4
22 40 - 22 17 ±1.6
28 50 25 28 20 ±1.6
35 100 50 35 25 ±2.0
42 160 75 42 29 ±2.0
54 230 105 54 34 ±2.0
76 - 195 76 36 ±2.5
Example:
108 - 455 108 50 ±2.5
The safe working stress (f) for a hard drawn tube at 65°C is charted at 72 MPa. For a tube of
NB: 3mm dia solder recommended for 35mm upwards this quality 15mm O.D. x 0,50mm thick, the safe working pressure is thus:

24 25
PREPARATION AND JOINTING: 42MM TO 108MM ........ PREPARATION AND JOINTING: 42MM TO 108MM (cont.) . . . . . . . .

1. Measure and mark the required tube length before cutting. 7. After assembly and support of the system, check the tolerance in the joint. Do not use
2. Use a three or four-wheel tube cutter to cut the measured tube. rattle fit fittings. Good practice dictates that what is cleaned, fluxed and assembled during the work-
The cut should be square to the run of the tube so that the tube will seat ing period should be soldered during that same period. If the joint is allowed to stand overnight without
fully in the fitting socket. being soldered, it should be taken apart, recleaned and refluxed prior to soldering. (Oxy-acetylene is not
recommended for making a joint).
3. After cutting, the tube should be deburred with a half-round file. If a tube cutter is used, it is
recommended that the rolled burr on the I.D. be removed by filing. Failure to ream the tube 8. Commence by pre-heating the tube to some degree to start conduction of heat into the solder
may result in system failure due to erosion corrosion adjacent to the unreamed tube ends. cup. When the flux at the rim of the solder cup begins turning a brown colour, transfer the
source onto the fitting and bring the heat up evenly and uniformly around the entire fitting with
the residual heat from the torch playing out onto the surface of the tube.
9a. Now bring the torch to the bottom and concentrate the heat on the fitting at the base of the
solder cup and check with the solder at about “7 ‘o clock” position. When the solder begins to
melt from the heat of the tube and fitting, push the solder straight into the joint meanwhile
pulling the torch back to the base of the fitting on the same line with the solder. The same
technique is used for up or down vertical joints. Continue this technique
4. Following deburring, the tube should be cleaned with a CTA cleaning pad or sandpaper. Care
across the bottom to the “5 ‘o clock” position. Now with the solder, check the area previously
should be taken not to remove excessive metal from either the tube or fitting. This will interfere
soldered and make sure that is has solidified and is not still a liquid.The solidified solder has
with satisfactory capillary action when making the joint.
created an effective “dam” that will prevent the solder from running out of the joint as the sides
5. After the surfaces have been thoroughly cleaned, the tube and fittings should be fluxed with and top are being filled.
a light, even coating of flux applied with a soft brush prior to assembly.
A common mistake is to start feeding the solder in at the top of a horizontal joint,
6. Seat the tube fully into the fitting socket. Note: When using large diameters, the weight relying completely on capillary action. In a horizontal joint, especially in the large
of the fitting hanging on the tube or tube resting on the fitting surface can eliminate capillary diameters, gravity tends to pull the solder down to the bottom of the joint. The
space in that portion of the joint. The result: Poor solder distribution and subsequent leakage. procedure described of building a “dam” by applying the solder first at the bottom
of the joint prevents solder from being pulled to the bottom of the joint by gravity
(Refer to : The Solder of a capillary joint, step 6, page 22) and allows capillary action to function properly to fill the joint with solder.
26 27
PREPARATION AND JOINTING: 42MM TO 108MM (cont.) . . . . . . . . RECOMMENDED SOLDER TORCHES ............

9b. Continuing up from the “5 ‘o clock” position, the torch is Please contact the CTA technical department to discuss the recom-
slightly ahead of the solder being applied and small drops mended available options.
will appear behind the point of solder application, indicating
the joint is full to that point and will take no more solder.

REPAIRING A NAIL HOLE ............


9c. Continue this technique to the “12 o’ clock” position and then move the torch down the
opposite side. Apply the solder to the point of beginning, overlapping approximately 20mm,
again checking with the solder at the bottom of the joint to assure that the “dam” is still in the
solid condition. ● C ut a slip coupling in half
(lengthwise).
9d. Now, move up the side of the joint, using the same technique keeping complete control of ● C lean off burrs, apply flux
the heat and applying the solder slightly behind the source of heat. Continue up to the top of and place over hole.
the joint and lap over the top at the “12 o’ clock” position. 
● Hold in place with thin
wire.
9e. Remove the heat 
● Heat and apply solder,
source and continue feeding around the full
applying the solder perimeter.
wire into the joint 
● Remove holding wire.
until it is completely
filled and will accept
no more solder. Soldering this way ensures a sound joint. At no time is the entire assembly
at the melting or liquidus point of the solder. The joint is being made with the solder in the PRESSURE RATINGS ............
solid, pasty and liquid state in 50mm to 70mm sections of the joint.
To calculate MPa to BAR: MPa x 9.67 = BAR pressure
i.e. 15/0 maximum working pressure is 4.80 MPa
10. When the solder has solidified, the joint should be wiped
4.80 MPa x 9.67 = 46.42 BAR
free from excess flux on the exterior of the tube and
1 MPa = 1000 KPa
fitting to leave a neat appearing, workman-like joint.
1 BAR = 100 KPa
10 METER. Tank height = 1 BAR
Note: Never shock cool the joint with water.
28 29
ABBREVIATIONS & TERMINOLOGY ............ COMPRESSION FITTINGS ............

S.A.B.S. South African Bureau Compression fittings are available in sizes from 15mm to 54mm,
of Standards complying with SANS 1067-1: 2005.
BSEN British Standard European Norm Imported fittings should comply with BS EN 1254 part 2-3-4 of
BSP British Standard Pipe Thread 1998, which has replaced BS 864.
C Copper
CxC Copper to copper Note: Soldering, the use of putty, hemp, P.T.F.E. tape, silicone, stag, liquid
F.I. Female iron Teflon and other sealants is not recommended and is bad practice.
M.I. Male iron
MPa Megapascal Note: Use of compression fittings with brass rings/olives is not
kPa Kilopascal recommended for Class 0 tube. Over-tightening of the capnut causes the
ø Diameter brass ring to bite into the copper resulting in stress of the joint and the
°C Degree Celsius possibility of failure.
mm Millimeter
m Metre
DZR Dezincification Resistant Brass TABLE 1 TABLE 2
Indicative traction for compression Maximum working temperatures and pressures
B.S.P. TO MM - NOMINAL EQUIVALENTS fittings:
°C BAR
B.S.P. Copper Tube Diameter Traction 30 16
TERMINOLOGY
Turns 65 10
Local Annealing: 1/2” 15mm 8mm 1.1/4 turn 110 6
Applying heat to a specific 3/4” 22mm 10mm 1.1/4 turn 120 5
area only.
1” 28mm 12mm 1 turn
Erosion Corrosion: 1 1/4” 35mm 15mm 1 turn
Where surface metal has been 18mm 1 turn
gradually destroyed by the flow 1 1/2” 42mm
22mm 1 turn
of water. 2” 54mm
28mm 1 turn
Furring:
2 1/2” 67mm 35mm 3/4 turn
A deposit build-up e.g. lime, 3” 76mm 42mm 3/4 turn
in the bore of the tube.
4” 108mm 54mm 3/4 turn
30 31
WORKING WITH COMPRESSION FITTINGS ............ DZR COMPRESSION FITTINGS ............
CTA suggests the use of Dezincification Brass (DZR) in South Africa and neighbouring countries, due
to the water quality. DZR brass has added chemicals to prevent the zinc from being leached from the
fitting or valve.

CC
Straight Coupler
Copper to Copper
STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3
Carefully measure and Cut tube ends square using De-burr and clean tube 15mm; 22mm; 28mm; 35mm; 42mm; 54mm.
mark the tube to the a tube cutter or hacksaw ends using a reamer or file
required length. (32TPI fine tooth blade is as well as a CTA cleaning CCMI
best). Do not use too much pad. Straight Coupler
pressure. Copper to Male Iron
15mm x 1/2; 22mm x 3/4; 28mm x 1;
35mm x 1 1/4; 42mm x 1 1/2; 54mm x 2.
CCFI
Straight Coupler
Copper to Female Iron
15mm x 1/2; 22mm x 3/4; 28mm x 1;
STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 35mm x 1 1/4; 42mm x 1 1/2; 54mm x 2.
With the fitting disassem- Push tube with ring and Hand fasten the nut ensur-
bled, first place the nut nut into the fittings body ing that the tube stays CCR
and then the ring onto the right up to the fittings firmly against the inner
tube. inner shoulder. shoulder of the fitting. Reducing Straight Coupler
Copper to Copper

22mm x 15mm; 28mm x 22mm.


STEP 7
After fastening the nut by hand, use a suitable spanner to
CCMIR
fasten the fitting till the tube cannot move. Turn the nut Reducing Straight Coupler
Copper to Male Iron
another half turn to make it seal. Tighten the nut as per
recommended traction turns : (Table 1 on page 31.) 15mm x 3/4” 22mm x 1”.

32 33
DZR COMPRESSION FITTINGS (cont.) ............ DZR COMPRESSION FITTINGS (cont.) ............

CCFIRE
CCFIR Reducing Elbow 90º
Reducing Straight Coupler Copper to Female Iron
Copper to Female Iron 15mm x 3/4”.
15mm x 3/4”; 15mm x 1”; 22mm x 1”.
CCT
CCE Equal Tee
Copper to Copper to Copper
Elbow 90º
Copper to Copper 15mm ; 22mm ; 28mm; 35mm; 42mm; 54mm.
15mm; 22mm; 28mm; 35mm; 42mm; 54mm.
1 CCFIT
CCMIE Tee
Elbow 90º Copper to Copper to Female Iron
Note: All unequal ends of tees are sized according to the numbers
Copper to Male Iron featured on the pictures
15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 3/4”; 28mm x 1”; 3 2 15mm x 15mm x 1/2” ; 22mm x 22mm x 3/4”.
35mm x 1 1/4”; 42mm x 1 1/2”; 54mm x 2”.
1 CCTR
CCFIE Reducing Tee
Copper to Copper to Copper
Elbow 90º Note: All unequal ends of tees are sized according to the numbers
Copper to Female Iron featured on the picture
2 15mm x 15mm x 22mm; 22mm x 15mm x 15mm;
15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 3/4”; 28mm x 1”; 3 22mm x 15mm x 22mm; 22mm x 22mm x 15mm;
35mm x 1 1/4”; 42mm x 1 1/2”; 54mm x 2”. 22mm x 22mm x 28mm; 28mm x 28mm x 22mm;
28mm x 28mm x 15mm; 28mm x 22mm x 28mm.
CCRE
Reducing Elbow 90º CCFIWPE
Copper to Copper Wallplate elbow 90º
Copper to Female Iron
22mm x 15mm.
15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 3/4”.
CCMIRE CPTA
Reducing Elbow 90º
Copper to Male Iron Pillartap Adaptor
Copper to Female Iron
15mm x 3/4”. 15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 3/4”.
34 35
DZR COMPRESSION FITTINGS (cont.) ............ DZR COMPRESSION FITTINGS (cont.) ............

CVSS
CCSE Valve swivel straight
Stop end Nickel plated
15mm; 22mm; 28mm. 15mm.

CRS1P CVSA
Single Step Reducer Valve swivel angle
(for adapting a fitting) Nickel plated
22mm x 15mm; 28mm x 15mm;
28mm x 22mm. 15mm.

CCFISE CN
Swivel elbow 90º Spare capnut
Copper to Female Iron
15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 3/4”. 10mm; 15mm; 22mm; 28mm; 35mm; 42mm;
54mm.

HB Holderbats CR
Brass plated
15mm; 22mm.
Spare ring
CFW Fibre washer 10mm; 15mm; 22mm; 28mm; 35mm; 42mm;
15mm; 22mm. 54mm.

CIVWH CWMTA
Isolating valve with handle Washing machine tap angle
Nickel plated Nickel plated
15mm. 15mm x 3/4”.

CIV CWMTS
Isolating valve Washing machine tap straight
Nickel plated Nickel plated
15mm; 22mm. 15mm x 3/4.
36 37
CAPILLARY FITTINGS ............ CAPILLARY FITTINGS (cont.) ............

SSL
Slip Coupler SCFIR
Copper to Copper Reducing straight coupler
15mm; 22mm; 28mm. Female Iron to Copper
15mm x 3/4”.
SSC
Straight Coupler
Copper to Copper SCE
15mm; 22mm; 28mm; 35mm; 42mm; 54mm; Elbow 90º
76mm; 108mm. Copper to Copper
15mm; 22mm; 28mm; 35mm; 42mm; 54mm;
SCMI 76mm; 108mm.
Straight Coupler
Male Iron to Copper
15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 3/4”; 28mm x 1”; 35mm x 1
SCE45
1/4”; 42mm x 1 1/2”; 54mm x 2”; 76mm x 3”; Elbow 45º
Copper to Copper
108mm x 4”.
15mm; 22mm; 28mm; 35mm; 42mm; 54mm;
SCFI 76mm; 108mm.
Straight coupler
Female Iron to Copper SFRM
15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 3/4”; 28mm x 1”; Fitting reducer
35mm x 1 1/4”; 42mm x 1 1/2”; 54mm x 2”; Male Copper to Copper
76mm x 3”; 108mm x 4”. 22mm x 15mm; 28mm x 15mm; 28mm x 22mm; 35mm x 15mm;
SRSCF 35mm x 22mm; 35mm x 28mm; 42mm x 15mm; 42mm x 22mm;
42mm x 28mm; 42mm x 35mm; 54mm x 15mm; 54mm x 22mm;
Pipe reducer 54mm x 28mm; 54mm x 35mm; 54mm x 42mm; 76mm x 35mm;
Copper to Copper 76mm x 42mm; 76mm x 54mm; 108mm x 54mm;
22mm x 15mm; 28mm x 15mm; 28mm x 22mm; 108mm x 76mm.
35mm x 28mm; 42mm x 35mm; 54mm x 42mm;
76mm x 35mm; 76mm x 42mm; 76mm x 54mm. SCMIE
SCMIR Elbow 90º
Male Iron to Copper
Reducing straight coupler
Male Iron to Copper 15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 3/4”; 28mm x 1”; 35mm
15mm x 3/4”. x 1 1/4”; 42mm x 1 1/2”; 54mm x 2”.

38 39
CAPILLARY FITTINGS (cont.) ............ CAPILLARY FITTINGS (cont.) ............

SCFIE 1 SCFIT
Elbow 90º Tee
Female Iron to Copper Copper to Copper to Female Iron
Note: All unequal ends of tees are sized according to the numbers featured on the pictures
15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 3/4”; 28mm x 1”; 35mm 2
3 15mm x 15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 22mm x 3/4”.
x 1 1/4”; 42mm x 1 1/2”; 54mm x 2”.

SCMIRE SCRT
Reducing Tee
Reducing Elbow 90º Copper to Copper to Copper
Male Iron to Copper 1
15mm x 15mm x 22mm; 22mm x 15mm x 15mm; 22mm
15mm x 3/4”. x 15mm x 22mm; 22mm x 22mm x 15mm; 22mm x
22mm x 28mm; 28mm x 22mm x 22mm; 28mm x 22mm
2 x 28mm; 28mm x 28mm x 15mm; 28mm x 28mm x
SCFIRE 22mm; 35mm x 35mm x 15mm; 35mm x 35mm x 22mm;
Reducing Elbow 90º 3 35mm x 35mm x 28mm; 42mm x 42mm x 15mm; 42mm
Female Iron to Copper x 42mm x 22mm; 42mm x 42mm x 28mm; 42mm x
42mm x 35mm; 54mm x 54mm x 22mm; 54mm x 54mm
15mm x 3/4”. x 28mm; 54mm x 54mm x 35mm; 54mm x 54mm x
42mm; 76mm x 76mm x 22mm; 76mm x 76mm x 35mm;
76mm x 76mm x 42mm; 76mm x 76mm x 54mm.
SFC
Full crossover STEC
Copper to Copper
Tube end cap
15mm; 22mm. 15mm; 22mm; 28mm; 35mm; 42mm; 54mm.

SCWPE
Wallplate elbow
SCCU
Female Iron to Copper Union coupler
Copper to Copper
15mm x 1/2”; 22mm X 3/4”. 15mm; 22mm.
SCT
Equal Tee SCMIU
Copper to Copper to Copper Union coupler
15mm; 22mm; 28mm; 35mm; 42mm; 54mm; Copper to Male Iron
76mm; 108mm. 15mm x 1/2”; 22mm x 3/4”.
40 41
CAPILLARY FITTINGS (cont.) ............ SUNDRIES (cont.) ............

STC
Straight tap connector CLEANING PADS
Copper to Female Iron
CTA pads
15mm x 1/2”; 15mm x 3/4”; 22mm x 3/4”.
abrasive pads for cleaning tube
TS
Tube strap PLUMBERS’ RULE
Copper
16cm aluminium ruler
15mm; 22mm.
Easy-measure solder lengths; socket depth table

SUNDRIES ............
PLUMBERS’ POUCH
Handy pouch
FLUX / FB Belt loops; zip
Water soluble flux / flux brush
75g; 200g; 500g.
PLUMBERS’ KIT
Pouch; rule; flux brush; Code of Practice;
cleaning pad

SOLD
CTA soft solder
97% tin; 3% copper
2mm x 250g; 2mm x 500g; 3mm x 500g

CXP TAPE
Flexible lagging and insulation tape
200m x 70mm.

42 43
NOTES ............

44