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E. E.

Cummings
Edward Estlin "E. E." Cummings (October 14, 1894 – September 3, 1962), often
[1] was an E. E. Cummings
styled as e e cummings, as he is attributed in many of his published works,
American poet, painter, essayist, author, and playwright. He wrote approximately
2,900 poems, two autobiographical novels, four plays, and several essays.

Cummings is associated with modernist free-form poetry. Much of his work has
original syntax and uses lower case spellings for poetic expression. His use of lower
case extended to rendering even the personal pronoun I as i, as in the phrase "i shall
go". Cummings was politically neutral much of his life until the rise of the Cold War
when he became a Republican and a supporter of Joseph McCarthy. He taught
briefly at Harvard University in the 1950s, before his death in 1962.

Contents
Life
Early years
War years
Post-war years
Final years
Personal life
Marriages Cummings in 1953
Political views Born Edward Estlin
Work Cummings
Poetry October 14, 1894
Controversy Cambridge,
Plays Massachusetts, US
Name and capitalization
Died September 3, 1962
Adaptations
(aged 67)
Awards Madison, New
Books Hampshire, US
Notes
Alma mater Harvard University
References
Occupation Author
External links
Signature

Life

Early years
Edward Estlin Cummings was born on October 14, 1894, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to Edward Cummings and the former
Rebecca Haswell Clarke, a well-known Unitarian couple in the city. His father was a professor at Harvard University and later
became nationally known as the minister of South Congregational Church (Unitarian) in Boston, Massachusetts.[2] His mother, who
loved to spend time with her children, played games with Cummings and his sister, Elizabeth. From an early age, Cummings' parents
supported his creative gifts.[3] Cummings wrote poems and also drew as a child, and he often played outdoors with the many other
children who lived in his neighborhood. He grew up in the company of such family friends as the philosophers William James and
Josiah Royce. Many of Cummings' summers were spent on Silver Lake in Madison, New Hampshire, where his father had built two
houses along the eastern shore. The family ultimately purchased the nearby Joy Farm where Cummings had his primary summer
residence.[4]

He expressed transcendental leanings his entire life. As he matured, Cummings moved to an "I, Thou" relationship with God. His
journals are replete with references to "le bon Dieu", as well as prayers for inspiration in his poetry and artwork (such as "Bon Dieu!
may I some day do something truly great. amen."). Cummings "also prayed for strength to be his essential self ('may I be I is the only
prayer—not may I be great or good or beautiful or wise or strong'), and for relief of spirit in times of depression ('almighty God! I
[5]
thank thee for my soul; & may I never die spiritually into a mere mind through disease of loneliness')."

Cummings wanted to be a poet from childhood and wrote poetry daily from age 8 to 22, exploring assorted forms. He graduated from
Harvard University with a Bachelor of Arts degree magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in 1915 and received a Master of Arts
degree from the university in 1916.[6] In his studies at Harvard, he developed an interest in modern poetry, which ignored
.[7]
conventional grammar and syntax, while aiming for a dynamic use of language. Upon graduating, he worked for a book dealer

War years
In 1917, with the First World War ongoing in Europe, Cummings enlisted in the
Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps. On the boat to France, he met William Slater
Brown. They became fast friends. Due to an administrative mix-up, Cummings and
Masthead from volume 56 ofThe
Brown were not assigned to an ambulance unit for five weeks, during which time the Harvard Monthly; Cummings was an
two of them explored Paris. He fell in love with the city, to which he would return editor and contributor to this literary
throughout his life.[8] journal while at Harvard

During their service in the ambulance corps, the two young writers sent letters home
that drew the attention of the military censors. They were known to prefer the company of French soldiers over fellow ambulance
[9] On September 21, 1917,
drivers. The two openly expressed anti-war views; Cummings spoke of his lack of hatred for the Germans.
five months after starting his belated assignment, Cummings and William Slater Brown were arrested by the French military on
suspicion of espionage and undesirable activities. They were held for three and a half months in a military detention camp at the
Dépôt de Triage, in La Ferté-Macé, Orne, Normandy.[8]

They were imprisoned with other detainees in a large room. Cummings' father failed to obtain his son's release through diplomatic
channels, and in December 1917 he wrote a letter to PresidentWoodrow Wilson. Cummings was released on December 19, 1917, and
Brown was released two months later. Cummings used his prison experience as the basis for his novel, The Enormous Room (1922),
about which F. Scott Fitzgerald said, "Of all the work by young men who have sprung up since 1920 one book survives—The
Enormous Room by e e cummings... Those few who cause books to live have not been able to endure the thought of its mortality."[10]

Cummings returned to the United States on New Year's Day 1918. Later in 1918 he was drafted into the army. He served in the 12th
Division at Camp Devens, Massachusetts, until November 1918.[11][12]

Post-war years Buffalo Bill's


Cummings returned to Paris in 1921 and had lived there for two years defunct
before returning to New York. His collection Tulips and Chimneys was who used to
published in 1923 and his inventive use of grammar and syntax is ride a watersmooth-silver
evident. The book was heavily cut by his editor. XLI Poems was stallion
published in 1925. With these collections, Cummings made his and break onetwothreefourfive pigeonsjustlikethat
reputation as an avant garde poet.[7] Jesus

he was a handsome man


During the rest of the 1920s and 1930s, Cummings returned to Paris a and what i want to know is
number of times, and traveled throughout Europe, meeting, among how do you like your blueeyed boy
others, artist Pablo Picasso. In 1931 Cummings traveled to the Soviet Mister Death
Union, recounting his experiences in Eimi, published two years later.
"Buffalo Bill's" (1920)
During these years Cummings also traveled to Northern Africa and
Mexico. He worked as an essayist and portrait artist for Vanity Fair
magazine (1924–1927).

In 1926, Cummings' parents were in a car crash; only his mother survived, although she was severely injured. Cummings later
described the crash in the following passage from his i: six nonlectures series given at Harvard (as part of the Charles Eliot Norton
Lectures) in 1952 and 1953:

A locomotive cut the car in half, killing my father instantly. When two brakemen jumped from the halted train, they
saw a woman standing – dazed but erect – beside a mangled machine; with blood spouting (as the older said to me)
out of her head. One of her hands (the younger added) kept feeling her dress, as if trying to discover why it was wet.
These men took my sixty-six-year old mother by the arms and tried to lead her toward a nearby farmhouse; but she
threw them off, strode straight to my father's body, and directed a group of scared spectators to cover him. When this
had been done (and only then) she let them lead her away
.

His father's death had a profound effect on Cummings, who entered a new period in his artistic life. He began to focus on more
important aspects of life in his poetry. He started this new period by paying homage to his father in the poem "my father moved
through dooms of love".[13][14]

In the 1930s Samuel Aiwaz Jacobs was Cummings' publisher; he had started the Golden Eagle Press after working as a typographer
and publisher.

Final years
In 1952, his alma mater, Harvard University, awarded Cummings an honorary seat
as a guest professor. The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures he gave in 1952 and 1955
were later collected asi: six nonlectures.

i thank You God for most this amazing


day:for the leaping greenly spirits of trees
and a blue true dream of sky; and for everything
which is natural which is infinite which is yes
Grave of E. E. Cummings
From "i thank You God for most this amazing"
(1950) Cummings spent the last decade of his life traveling, fulfilling speaking
engagements, and spending time at his summer home, Joy Farm, in
Silver Lake, New Hampshire. He died of a stroke on September 3,
1962, at the age of 67 in North Conway, New Hampshire at the Memorial Hospital.[15] Cummings was buried at Forest Hills
Cemetery in Boston, Massachusetts. At the time of his death, Cummings was recognized as the second most read author in the United
States, behind Robert Frost.[16] Even after his death in 1962, his work continues to be published. Some recent poems include:

Chansons Innocentes: I(1976)


Buffalo Bill's (1976)
any one lived in a pretty how town(1976)
my father moved through dooms of love(1991)
9. (2010)
Summer Silence (2017)
Cummings' papers are held at theHoughton Library at Harvard University and the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at
Austin.[8]

Personal life

Marriages
Cummings was married briefly twice, first to Elaine Orr, then to Anne Minnerly Barton. His
longest relationship lasted more than three decades, a common-law marriage to Marion
Morehouse.

Cummings' first marriage, to Elaine Orr, began as a love affair in 1918 while she was still
married to Scofield Thayer, one of Cummings' friends from Harvard. During this time he
wrote a good deal of his erotic poetry.[17] After divorcing Thayer, Orr married Cummings on
March 19, 1924. The couple had a daughter together out of wedlock. However, the couple
separated after two months of marriage and divorced less than nine months later
.

Cummings married his second wife Anne Minnerly Barton on May 1, 1929, and they
separated three years later in 1932. That same year, Minnerly obtained a Mexican divorce; it
Sketched self-portrait circa
was not officially recognized in the United States until August 1934. Anne died in 1970 aged
1920
72.

In 1934, after his separation from his second wife, Cummings met Marion Morehouse, a
fashion model and photographer. Although it is not clear whether the two were ever formally married, Morehouse lived with
Cummings in a common-law marriage until his death in 1962. She died on May 18, 1969,[18] while living at 4 Patchin Place,
Greenwich Village, New York City, where Cummings had resided since September 1924.[19]

Political views
According to his testimony in EIMI, Cummings had little interest in politics until his trip to the Soviet Union in 1931,[20] after which
[21] Despite his radical andbohemian public image, he was aRepublican, and
he shifted rightward on many political and social issues.
later, an ardent supporter ofJoseph McCarthy.[22]

Work

Poetry
Despite Cummings' familiarity with avant-garde styles (likely affected by the Calligrammes of French poet Apollinaire, according to
a contemporary observation[23] ), much of his work is quite traditional. Many of his poems are sonnets, albeit often with a modern
twist. He occasionally used theblues form and acrostics. Cummings' poetry often deals with themes of love and nature, as well as the
relationship of the individual to the masses and to the world. His poems are also often rife with satire.

While his poetic forms and themes share an affinity with the Romantic tradition, Cummings' work universally shows a particular
idiosyncrasy of syntax, or way of arranging individual words into larger phrases and sentences. Many of his most striking poems do
not involve any typographical or punctuation innovations at all, but purely syntactic ones.

As well as being influenced by notable modernists, including


Gertrude Stein and Ezra Pound, Cummings in his early work
drew upon the imagist experiments of Amy Lowell. Later, his
visits to Paris exposed him to Dada and Surrealism, which he i carry your heart with me(i carry it in
reflected in his work. He began to rely on symbolism and my heart)i am never without it(anywhere
allegory, where he once had used simile and metaphor. In his i go you go,my dear;and whatever is done
later work, he rarely used comparisons that required objects by only me is your doing,my darling)
that were not previously mentioned in the poem, choosing to i fear
use a symbol instead. Due to this, his later poetry is no fate(for you are my fate,my sweet)i want
"frequently more lucid, more moving, and more profound than no world(for beautiful you are my world,my true)
his earlier."[25] Cummings also liked to incorporate imagery of and it's you are whatever a moon has always meant
nature and death into much of his poetry. and whatever a sun will always sing is you

While some of his poetry is free verse (with no concern for


here is the deepest secret nobody knows
rhyme or meter), many have a recognizable sonnet structure of
(here is the root of the root and the bud of the bud
14 lines, with an intricate rhyme scheme. A number of his
and the sky of the sky of a tree called life;which grows
poems feature a typographically exuberant style, with words,
higher than soul can hope or mind can hide)
parts of words, or punctuation symbols scattered across the
and this is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart
page, often making little sense until read aloud, at which point
the meaning and emotion become clear. Cummings, who was
i carry your heart(i carry it in my heart)
also a painter, understood the importance of presentation, and
used typography to "paint a picture" with some of his [24]
From "i carry your heart with me(i carry it in" (1952)
poems.[26]

The seeds of Cummings' unconventional style appear well


established even in his earliest work. At age six, he wrote to his father:

FATHER DEAR. BE, YOUR FATHER-GOOD AND GOOD,

HE IS GOOD NOW, IT IS NOT GOOD TO SEE IT RAIN,


FATHER DEAR IS, IT, DEAR, NO FATHER DEAR,
LOVE, YOU DEAR,

ESTLIN.[27]

Following his autobiographical novel, The Enormous Room, Cummings' first published work was a collection of poems titled Tulips
and Chimneys (1923). This work was the public's first encounter with his characteristic eccentric use of grammar and punctuation.

Some of Cummings' most famous poems do not involve much, if any, odd typography or punctuation, but still carry his unmistakable
style, particularly in unusual and impressionistic word order
.

Cummings' work often does not proceed in accordance with the


conventional combinatorial rules that generate typical English sentences anyone lived in a pretty how town
(for example, "they sowed their isn't"). In addition, a number of (with up so floating many bells down)
Cummings' poems feature, in part or in whole, intentional misspellings, spring summer autumn winter
and several incorporate phonetic spellings intended to represent he sang his didn't he danced his did
particular dialects. Cummings also made use of inventive formations of
compound words, as in "in Just"[29] which features words such as Women and men (both little and small)
"mud-luscious", "puddle-wonderful", and "eddieandbill." This poem is cared for anyone not at all
part of a sequence of poems titled Chansons Innocentes;[30] it has many they sowed their isn't they reaped their same
references comparing the "balloonman" to Pan, the mythical creature sun moon stars rain
that is half-goat and half-man. Literary critic R.P. Blackmur has
From "anyone lived in a pretty how town"
(1940)[28]
commented that this use of language is "frequently unintelligible
because [Cummings] disregards the historical accumulation of meaning in words in favour of merely private and personal
associations."[31]

Many of Cummings' poems are satirical and address social issues[32] but have an equal or even stronger bias toward romanticism:
[33]
time and again his poems celebrate love, sex, and the season of rebirth.

Cummings also wrote children's books and novels. A notable example of his versatility is an introduction he wrote for a collection of
the comic strip Krazy Kat.

Controversy
Cummings is known for controversial subject matter, as he wrote numerous erotic poems. He also sometimes included ethnic slurs in
his writing. For instance, in his 1950 collection Xaipe: Seventy-One Poems, Cummings published two poems containing words that
caused outrage in some quarters.[34]

one day a nigger


caught in his hand
a little star no bigger
than not to understand

i'll never let you go


until you've made me white"
so she did and now
stars shine at night.[35]

and

a kike is the most dangerous


machine as yet invented
by even yankee ingenu
ity(out of a jew a few
dead dollars and some twisted laws)
it comes both prigged and canted[35]

Cummings biographer Catherine Reef notes of the controversy:

Friends begged Cummings to reconsider publishing these poems, and the book's editor pleaded with him to withdraw
them, but he insisted that they stay. All the fuss perplexed him. The poems were commenting on prejudice, he pointed
out, and not condoning it. He intended to show how derogatory words cause people to see others in terms of
stereotypes rather than as individuals. "America (which turns Hungarian into 'hunky' & Irishman into 'mick' and
[36]
Norwegian into 'square- head') is to blame for 'kike,'" he said.

William Carlos Williams spoke out in his defense.[36]

Plays
During his lifetime, Cummings published four plays. HIM, a three-act play, was first produced in 1928 by the Provincetown Players
in New York City. The production was directed by James Light. The play's main characters are "Him", a playwright, portrayed by
William Johnstone, and "Me", his girlfriend, portrayed byErin O'Brien-Moore.

Cummings said of the unorthodox play:


Relax and give the play a chance to strut its stuff—relax, stop wondering what it is all 'about'—like many strange and
familiar things, Life included, this play isn't 'about,' it simply is. . . . Don't try to enjoy it, let it try to enjoy you. DON'T
TRY TO UNDERSTAND IT, LET IT TRY TO UNDERSTAND YOU."[37]

Anthropos, or the Future of Art is a short, one-act play that Cummings contributed to the anthology Whither, Whither or After Sex,
What? A Symposium to End Symposium. The play consists of dialogue between Man, the main character, and three "infrahumans", or
inferior beings. The wordanthropos is the Greek word for "man", in the sense of "mankind".

Tom, A Ballet is a ballet based on Uncle Tom's Cabin. The ballet is detailed in a "synopsis" as well as descriptions of four "episodes",
[38]
which were published by Cummings in 1935. It has never been performed.

Santa Claus: A Moralitywas probably Cummings' most successful play. It is an allegorical Christmas fantasy presented in one act of
five scenes. The play was inspired by his daughter Nancy, with whom he was reunited in 1946. It was first published in the Harvard
College magazine, Wake. The play's main characters are Santa Claus, his family (Woman and Child), Death, and Mob. At the outset
of the play, Santa Claus' family has disintegrated due to their lust for knowledge (Science). After a series of events, however, Santa
Claus' faith in love and his rejection of the materialism and disappointment he associates with Science are reaffirmed, and he is
reunited with Woman and Child.

Name and capitalization


Cummings' publishers and others have often echoed the unconventional orthography in his poetry by writing his name in lowercase
and without periods (full stops), but normal orthography for his name (uppercase and periods) is supported by scholarship and
preferred by publishers today.[39] Cummings himself used both the lowercase and capitalized versions, though he most often signed
his name with capitals.[39]

The use of lowercase for his initials was popularized in part by the title of some books, particularly in the 1960s, printing his name in
lower case on the cover and spine. In the preface to E. E. Cummings: The Growth of a Writer by Norman Friedman, critic Harry T.
Moore notes Cummings "had his name put legally into lower case, and in his later books the titles and his name were always in lower
case."[40] According to Cummings' widow, however, this is incorrect.[39] She wrote to Friedman: "You should not have allowed H.
Moore to make such a stupid & childish statement about Cummings & his signature." On February 27, 1951, Cummings wrote to his
French translator D. Jon Grossman that he preferred the use of upper case for the particular edition they were working on.[41] One
Cummings scholar believes that on the rare occasions that Cummings signed his name in all lowercase, he may have intended it as a
gesture of humility, not as an indication that it was the preferred orthography for others to use.[39] Additionally, the Chicago Manual
of Style, which prescribes favoring non-standard capitalizion of names in accordance with the bearer's strongly stated preference,
[1]
notes "E. E. Cummings can be safely capitalized; it was one of his publishers, not he himself, who lowercased his name."

Adaptations
In 1943, modern dancer and choreographer Jean Erdman presented "The Transformations of Medusa, Forever and Sunsmell" with a
commissioned score byJohn Cage and a spoken text from the title poem by E. E. Cummings, sponsored by the Arts Club of Chicago.
Erdman also choreographed "Twenty Poems" (1960), a cycle of E. E. Cummings' poems for eight dancers and one actor, with a
commissioned score byTeiji Ito. It was performed in the round at theCircle in the Square Theatrein Greenwich Village.

Numerous composers have set Cummings' poems to music:

[42]
In 1961, Pierre Boulez composed "Cummings ist der dichter" from poems by E.E. Cummings.
Aribert Reimann set Cummings to music in "Impression IV" (1961) for soprano and piano. [43]

Morton Feldman (1926-1987) in 1951 composed "4 Songs to e.e. cummings" for soprano, piano and cello, using
material from Cummings' "50 poems" of 1940: "!Blac", "Air", "(Sitting In A ree-)"
T and "(Moan)".
The Icelandic singer Björk used lines from Cummings's poem "I Will W ade Out" for the lyrics of "Sun in My Mouth" on
her 2001 album Vespertine. On her next album, Medúlla (2004), Björk used his poem "It May Not Always Be So" as
the lyrics for the song "Sonnets/Unrealities XI."
The American composerEric Whitacre wrote a cycle of works for choir titled The City and the Sea, which consists of
five poems by Cummings set to music.
Others who have composed settings for his poems includeDominic Argento, William Bergsma, Leonard Bernstein,
Marc Blitzstein, John Cage, Romeo Cascarino, Aaron Copland, Serge de Gastyne, David Diamond, John Duke,
Margaret Garwood, Daron Hagen, Michael Hedges, Richard Hundley, Barbara Kolb, Leonard Lehrman, Robert
Manno, Salvatore Martirano, William Mayer, John Musto, Paul Nordoff, Tobias Picker, Vincent Persichetti, Ned
Rorem, Peter Schickele, Elie Siegmeister, Aki Takase, Hugo Weisgall, Dan Welcher, and James Yannatos, among
many others.[44]

Awards
During his lifetime, Cummings received numerous awards in recognition of his work, including:

Dial Award (1925)[45]


Guggenheim Fellowship(1933)[46]
Shelley Memorial Award for Poetry (1945)[47]
Harriet Monroe Prize fromPoetry magazine (1950)[48]
Fellowship of American Academy of Poets(1950)[49]
Guggenheim Fellowship (1951)[46]
Charles Eliot Norton Professorship at Harvard (1952–1953)[49]
Special citation from theNational Book Award Committee for his Poems, 1923–1954 (1957)
Bollingen Prize in Poetry (1958)[49]
Boston Arts Festival Award (1957)
Two-year Ford Foundation grant of $15,000 (1959)[49]

Books
The Enormous Room (1922)
Tulips and Chimneys (1923)
& (1925) (self-published)
XLI Poems (1925)
is 5 (1926)
HIM (1927) (a play)
ViVa (1931)
CIOPW (1931) (art works)
EIMI (1933) (Soviet travelogue)
No Thanks (1935)
Collected Poems (1938)
50 Poems (1940)
1 × 1 (1944)
Santa Claus: A Morality(1946)
XAIPE: Seventy-One Poems(1950)
i—six nonlectures (1953) Harvard University Press
Poems, 1923–1954 (1954)
95 Poems (1958)
73 Poems (1963) (posthumous)
Fairy Tales (1965)
Etcetera: The Unpublished Poems(1983)
Complete Poems, 1904–1962, edited by George James
Firmage, Liveright 2008

Notes
the hours rise up on a wall in Leiden

1. "Captalization of Personal Names".Chicago Manual of


Style (16 ed.). Chicago University Press. 2010. p. 388.
2. Collins, Leo W. This is Our Church. Boston,
Massachusetts: Society of the First Church in Boston,
2005: 104.
3. "E. E. Cummings' Life"(http://www.english.illinois.edu/m
aps/poets/a_f/cummings/cummings_life.htm).
english.illinois.edu. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
4. Sawyer-Lauçanno, Christopher (January 1, 2004)."E.E.
Cummings: A Biography"(https://books.google.com/boo
ks?id=wpkDRPueLiMC&printsec=frontcover&source=gb
s_atb#v=onepage&q&f=false). Sourcebooks, Inc. – via
Google Books.
5. "E. E. Cummings: Poet And Painter"(https://web.archiv
e.org/web/20060902151619/http://www.harvardsquarelib
rary.org/unitarians/cummings.html). Archived from the
original (http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/c
ummings.html) on September 2, 2006.
6. "E. E. Cummings Biography – life, family , children, story,
death, wife, mother, book, old, information, born" (http://
www.notablebiographies.com/Co-Da/Cummings-E-E.ht
ml). Notablebiographies.com. September 3, 1962 .
Retrieved 24 December 2015.
7. "E. E. Cummings" (http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/e
-e-cummings). November 21, 2016.
8. "E. E. Cummings: An Inventory of His Collection at the
Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center"(http://rese
arch.hrc.utexas.edu:8080/hrcxtf/view?docId=ead/00030.
xml). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center.
Retrieved May 9, 2010.
9. Friedman, Norman "Cummings, E[dward] E[stlin]", in
Steven Serafin, The Continuum Encyclopedia of
American Literature, 2003, Continuum, p. 244.
10. Bloom, p. 1814.
11. Kennedy, p. 186.
12. "Data on U.S. Army Divisions during World War I, WWI,
The Great War" (http://freepages.military.rootsweb.ances
try.com/~worldwarone/WWI/divisions.html#T welfth).
13. "My father moved through dooms of love"(https://web.ar
chive.org/web/20050315070117/http://www .cs.berkeley.
edu/~richie/poetry/html/aupoem114.html). Archived from
the original (http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~richie/poetry/ht
ml/aupoem114.html) on March 15, 2005.
14. Lane, Gary (1976). I Am: A Study of E. E. Cummings'
Poems. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas.
pp. 41–43. ISBN 0-7006-0144-9.
15. "E. E. Cummings Dies of Stroke. Poet Stood for Stylistic
Liberty" (https://www.nytimes.com/1962/09/04/archives/e
e-cummings-dies-of-stroke-poet-stood-for-stylistic-liberty
-unusual.html). The New York Times. September 4,
1962.
16. Cummings, E. E. (February 4, 2014)."E. E. Cummings"
(https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/e-e-cummings). E.
E. Cummings. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
17. Selected Poems, Ed. Richard S. Kennedy, Liveright,
1994.
18. Marion Morehouse Cummings, Poet's Widow, Top
Model, Dies, The New York Times, May 19, 1969.
19. Sawyer-Lauçanno, p. 255.
20. Carla Blumenkranz, "The Enormous Poem: When E.E.
Cummings Repunctuated Stalinism."(http://www.poetryf
oundation.org/article/180437)Poetry Foundation.
www.poetryfoundation.org/
21. "Heath Anthology of American Literature E.E. cummings
– Author Page" (http://college.cengage.com/english/laut
er/heath/4e/students/author_pages/modern/cummings_e
e.html).
22. Wetzsteon, Ross. 'Republic of Dreams: Greenwich
Village: The American Bohemia, 1910–1960', pp. 449
Google Books (https://books.google.com/books?id=o2D
B77ccf9sC&pg=PA449)
23. Taupin, Rene, The Influence of French Symbolism on
Modern American Poetry 1927(Trans. William Pratt),
AMS Inc, New York 1985 ISBN 0404615791
24. "i carry your heart with me(i carry it in"(http://www.poetry
foundation.org/poem/179622)at the Poetry Foundation.
25. Friedman, Norman. E. E. Cummings the Art of His
Poetry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1967. p. 89.
26. Landles, Iain (2001). "An Analysis of Two Poems by E.
E. Cummings". SPRING, the Journal of the E. E.
Cummings Society. 10: 31–43.
27. Selected letters of E. E. Cummings, (1972) Edward
Estlin Cummings, Frederick Wilcox Dupee, George
Stade. University of Michigan p. 3ISBN 978-0-233-
95637-4
28. "anyone lived in a pretty how town" at the Poetry
Foundation (http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poetrymag
azine/poem/11856)
29. "in Just" (http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/images/modeng/publ
ic/Cum2Dia/CumDi580.jpg).
30. "Chansons Innocentes" (https://web.archive.org/web/200
51227115128/http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prm
MID/15398). Archived from the original (http://www.poet
s.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15398)on December 27,
2005. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
31. Friedman, Norman. E. E. Cummings the Art of His
Poetry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,
1967. pp. 61–62.
32. " "why must itself up every of a park" " (https://web.archiv
e.org/web/20100813233241/http://poets.org/viewmedia.
php/prmMID/15404). Archived from the original (http://w
ww.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15404)on August
13, 2010. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
33. " "anyone lived in a pretty how town" " (https://web.archiv
e.org/web/20100726121247/http://www.poets.org/viewm
edia.php/prmMID/15403). Archived from the original (htt
p://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15403) on
July 26, 2010. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
34. Friedman, Norman, and Harry Thornton Moore.E. E.
Cummings the Growth of a Writer. Carbondale:
Southern Illinois UP, 1964. pp. 153–54.
35. Cummings, Xaipe, Seventy-one Poems. New York:
Oxford UP, 1950.
36. E. Cummings (2006) by Catherine Reef, Houghton
Mifflin Harcourt p. 115 ISBN 978-0-618-56849-9
37. Kennedy, p. 295.
38. GVSU.edu The E. E. Cummings Society(http://www.gvs
u.edu/english/cummings/Tom.html) Archived (https://we
b.archive.org/web/20050423191607/http://www .gvsu.ed
u/english/cummings/Tom.html) April 23, 2005, at the
Wayback Machine..
39. Friedman, Norman (1992)."Not "e. e. cummings" " (htt
p://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/cummings/caps.htm).
Spring. 1: 114–21. Retrieved December 13, 2005.
40. Friedman, Norman (1964).E. E. Cummings: The Growth
of a Writer. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University
Press. ISBN 0-8093-0978-5.
41. Friedman, Norman (1995)."Not "e. e. cummings"
Revisited" (http://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/cummings/c
aps2.html). Spring. 5: 41–43. Retrieved May 12, 2007.
42. "cummings ist der dichter, Pierre Boulez" (http://brahms.i
rcam.fr/works/work/6957/).
43. Reimann, Aribert; Cummings, E. E. (Edward Estlin).
"Impression IV : nach einem Gedicht von E.E.
Cummings : four Singstimme und Klavier (1961) / Aribert
Reimann. music" (http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/27
43128) – via National Library of Australia.
44. "E.E. Cummings settings"(http://www.lieder.net/lieder/c/
cummings/), RecMusic
45. "E. E. Cummings" (https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poe
ts/e-e-cummings). Poetry Foundation. Poetry
Foundation. April 19, 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
46. "John Simon Guggenheim Foundation | E. E.
Cummings" (https://www.gf.org/fellows/all-fellows/e-e-cu
mmings/).
47. "Shelley Winners – Poetry Society of America"(https://w
ww.poetrysociety.org/psa/awards/frost_and_shelley/shell
ey_winners/). poetrysociety.org. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
48. "POETRY AWARD IS MADE; E.E. Cummings Wins the
1950 Harriet Monroe Prize"(https://www.nytimes.com/19
50/06/11/archives/poetry-award-is-made-ee-cummings-
wins-the-1950-harriet-monroe-prize.html). The New York
Times. June 11, 1950. ISSN 0362-4331 (https://www.wo
rldcat.org/issn/0362-4331). Retrieved 20 April 2018.
(Subscription required (help)).
49. Cummings, E. E. (February 4, 2014)."E. E. Cummings"
(https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/e-e-cummings). E.
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References
Bloom, Harold, Twentieth-century American Literature, New York : Chelsea House Publishers, 1985–1988.
ISBN 978-0-87754-802-7.
Cohen, Milton A. (1987).Poet and Painter: The Aesthetics of E. E. Cummings' Early Work . Wayne State University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-1845-4.
Friedman, Norman (editor),E. E. Cummings: A Collection of Critical Essays. ISBN 978-0-9829733-0-1
Friedman, Norman, E. E. Cummings: The Art of his Poetry.
Galgano, Andrea, La furiosa ricerca di Edward E. Cummings, in Mosaico, Roma, Aracne, 2013, pp. 441–44
ISBN 978-88-548-6705-5
Heusser, Martin. I Am My Writing: The Poetry of E.E. Cummings.Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 1997.
Hutchinson, Hazel. The War That Used Up Words: American Writers and the First World War. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press, 2015.
James, George, E. E. Cummings: A Bibliography.
Kennedy, Richard S. (October 17, 1994) [1980]. Dreams in the Mirror (2nd ed.). New York: Liveright. ISBN 0-87140-
155-X.
McBride, Katharine, A Concordance to the Complete Poems of E.E.Cummings .
Mott, Christopher. "The Cummings Line on Race", Spring: The Journal of the E. E. Cummings Society , vol. 4,
pp. 71–75, Fall 1995.
Norman, Charles, E. E. Cummings: The Magic-Maker, Boston, Little Brown, 1972.
Sawyer-Lauçanno, Christopher, E. E. Cummings: A Biography, Sourcebooks, Inc. (2004)ISBN 978-1-57071-775-8.

External links
Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article:E. E. Cummings (in the public domain in South Korea)
Works by E. E. Cummingsat Project Gutenberg
Works by or about E. E. Cummingsat Internet Archive
Works by E. E. Cummingsat LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
E. E. Cummings, Lifelong UnitarianBiography of Cummings and his relationship with Unitarianism
E.E. Cummings Personal Libraryat LibraryThing
Papers of E. E. Cummingsat the Houghton Library at Harvard University
E. E. Cummings Collectionat the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin
Poems by E. E. Cummings at PoetryFoundation.org
Jonathan Yardley, E. E. Cummings: A Biography, Sunday, October 17, 2004, Page BW02,The Washington Post
Book Review
SPRING:The Journal of the E. E. Cummings Society
Modern American Poetry
E. E. Cummings at Library of Congress Authorities – with 202 catalog records
Biography and poems of E. E. Cummings at Poets.org

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