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1.

a) find the point estimate and the 95% confidence interval estimate of the mean scores in the
pretest of the population of students. Interpret your answer.

Descriptive statistics

Std.Error
N minimum maximum Mean Mean
score 9 38 81 56.44 4.540

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean


score 9 56.4444 13.62086 4.54029

One-Sample Test
Test Value = 0
95% Confidence Interval of the
Difference
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Lower Upper
score 12.432 8 .000 56.444 45.97 66.91

b. Test whether the mean scores of the population is less than 70 at 0.01 level of singnificant.

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One-Sample Statistics

Std. Error
N Mean Std. Deviation Mean
score 9 56.4444 13.62086 4.54029

One-Sample Test

Test Value =70


95% Confidence Interval of the
Difference
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Lower Upper
score -2.986 8 .017 -13.556 -24.03 -3.09

c. Test at 5% significance level whether this special course makes any statistically significant
improvement in the memory retention ability of the population of students.

(5 marks)

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d. Construct a 95% confidence interval for mean difference of the scores of the students before
and after the memory improvement course

(3 marks)

c)

One- Sample Statistic

Std. Error
N Mean Std. Deviation Mean
SCORE 9 61.3333 15.64449 5.21483

One- Sample Test


Paired Differences
95% Confidence Interval of the
Difference
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Lower Upper
SCORE -1.662 8 .135 08.66667 -20.6921 3.3588

d)
Paired Sample Statistic

Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean


Pair 1 BEFORE 56.4444 9 13.62086 4.54029
AFTER 61.3333 9 15.64449 5.21483

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Paired Sample Correlation

N Correlation Sig.
Pair 1 BEFORE 9 61.3333 .000
AFTER

Paired Sample Test

Paired differences

95% Confidence Interval


Of the Differences
Std. Error
T df Sig. (2 tail
Mean Std. Deviation Mean Lower Upper
Pair 1 BEFORE- -4.88889 6.05071 2.01690 -9.53988 -.23790 -2.424 8 .0
AFTER

Another similar study on memory retention ability of a different sample of students is


done where the difference in scores between Pretest and Post-Test (PerformanceScore) and the
initial level of memory retention (PreTestLevel) are given in File memory.sav. Use the data
given in the file to form four improvement levels of memory retention (PerformanceLevel) as
follows:

PerformanceLevel 1 if PerformanceScore < -1

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PerformanceLevel 2 if -1 ≤ PerformanceScore < 2

PerformanceLevel 3 if 2 ≤ PerformanceScore < 8

PerformanceLevel 4 if PerformanceScore ≥ 8

Where level 1 indicates “Noticeable confusion”, level 2 indicates “No improvement”,

level 3 indicates “Noticeable improvement” and level 4 indicates “Vast improvement”.

e) How many students belong to each initial level of memory retention? Then, present this
information using a suitable graphical description.

(4 marks)

f) Is the initial level of memory retention related to the level of improvement of memory
retention? Test at 5% significance level.

(5 marks)

e)

Between –Subject Factors

N
Pre Test Level 1.00 78
2.00 110
3.00 73
4.00 56

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Pre TestLevel
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 1.00 78 24.6 24.6 24.6
2.00 110 34.7 34.7 59.3
3.00 73 23.0 23.0 82.3
4.00 56 17.7 17.7 100.0
Total 317 100.0 100.0

f) Is the initial level of memory retention related to the level of improvement of memory
retention? Test at 5% significance level.

(5 marks)

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent variable: improvescore

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Type III Sum of
Source Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model 682.398(a) 3 227.466 8.319 .000
Intercept 9104.011 1 9104.011 332.954 .000
Pre TestLevel 682.398 3 227.466 8.319 .000
Error 8558.404 313 27.343
Total 20014.000 317
Corrected Total 9240.801 316

a R Squared = .074 (Adjusted R Squared = .065)

g) Determine whether there is significant difference in the mean of performance scores of the
methods at 5% significance level.

(5 marks)

ANOVA

MemoryImprove

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Type III Sum of
Source Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 305.100 3 101.700 4.515 .011
Within Groups 585.700 26 22.527
Total 890.800 29

h) Is thereva different effect on performance scores between Method 2 and Method 3? Discuss
the effect on performance scores of the methods. (Use 5% significance level)

(5 marks)

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Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable: MemoryImprove
Bonferroni
(I) time (Binned) (J) time (Binned) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval
(I-J) Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound
1

-4.20000 2.70578 .796 -11.9264 3.5264


1.00 2.00
1.80000 2.77912 1.000 -6.1358 9.7358
3.00
3.90000 2.59963 .874 -3.5233 11.3233
4.00
4.20000 2.70578 .796 -3.5264 11.9264
2.00 1.00
6.00000 2.45642 .130 -1.0144 13.0144
3.00
8.10000(*) 2.25135 .008 1.6712 14.5288
4.00
-1.80000 2.77912 1.000 -9.7358 6.1358
3.00 1.00
-6.20000 2.45642 .130 -13.0144 1.0144
2.00
2.10000 2.33898 1.000 -4.5790 8.7790
4.00
-3.90000 2.59963 .874 -11.3233 3.5233
4.00 1.00
-8.10000(*) 2.25135 .008 -14.5288 -1.6712
2.00
-2.10000 2.33898 1.000 -8.7790 4.5790
3.00

*. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.

2a) List down the value of the mean and standard deviation of time-length of self-treatment for
age, where age can be group as
Compare the means of age group.

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Group Statistics
age group N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
time 1.00 107 23.25 13.062 1.263
2.00 338 29.11 19.961 1.086

b. is there significant difference in time-length of self-treatment between age


group?

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of
Variances t-test for Equality of Means
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Sig. (2- Mean Std. Error Difference
F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper
time Equal 45.666 .000 -2.849 443 .005 -5.860 2.057 -9.903 -1.817
variances
assumed
Equal -3.519 273.617 .001 -5.860 1.665 -9.139 -2.582
variances
not assumed

c. Give a comment on the means regarding to your answer in (a) and (b).

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d. obtain the 95% confidence interval for the means difference in time-length of self-treatment
between age group. Interpret the obtained value.

Test of homogeneity of variances


age
Levene statistic df1 df2 Sig.
2.996 2 442 .051

ANOVA

age

Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 3055.760 2 1527.880 23.810 .000
Within Groups 28362.568 442 64.169
Total 31418.328 444

e. Related your result in (b) and (d). Does you result in (d) support the answer in (b)? What
is your reason?

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f. Code the time-length of self-treatment (timegroup) as

Thus, determine whether there is enough evidence to conclude that there is significant difference
in the mean age between different categories of time-length of self-treatment. Check the equality
of the variances assumption and do the necessary multiple comparison tests if applicable.

Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable: Age
Bonferroni
(I) time group (J)timegroup Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval
(I-J) Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound
1.00 11 - 50
dimension3
2.801 1.312 .100 -.35 5.95
>50 -4.357* 1.563 .017 -8.11 -.60
2.00 <=10
dimension3
-2.801 1.312 .100 -5.95 .35
>50 -7.158* 1.053 .000 -9.69 -4.63
3.00 <=10
dimension3
4.357* 1.563 .017 .60 8.11
11 - 50 7.158* 1.053 .000 4.63 9.69
*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

g. From the past studies, the research believes that the average of blood sugar
reading was at most 5 mmo1/L. Test the claim.

One-Sample Statistics
N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
blood_sugar 445 5.69 3.202 .152

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One-Sample Test
Test Value = 30
95% Confidence Interval of the
Difference
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Lower Upper
Blood_sugar 4.545 444 .000 .690 .39 .99

h. Recode the blood sugar reading as followa:

the blood sugar reading (blood_sugar group) as

Test whether the blood sugar reading (blood_sugar group) are equally likely
distributed.

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bsugargrp

Observed N Expected N Residual


1.00 290 148.3 141.7
2.00 135 148.3 -13.3
3.00 20 148.3 -128.3
Total 445

Test Statistic

bsugargrp
Chi- Squareª 247.528
Df 2
Asymp.Sig. .000

a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than


5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 148.3

I.Is there enough evidence to conclude that the blood pressure (bpressgrp) is
related to the
blood sugar reading (bsugargrp)?

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Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid Missing Total

N Percent N Percent N Percent

bpressgrp* bsugargrp 445 100.0% 0 .0% 445 100.0%

Bpressgrp* bsugargrp Crosstabulation

count

bsugargrp

1.00 2.00 3.00 total

bpressgrp normal 290 0 0 290

prehypertens 0 135 0 135


ion
0 0 20 20
hypertension
290 135 20 445
Total

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Chi- Square Tests

Asymp. Sig.
Value df (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-square 890.000ª 4 .000
Likelihood Ratio 694.502 4 .000
Linear-by-Linear 444.000 1 .000
Association
N of Valid Cases 445

a. 1 cells (11.1%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .
90.

j. Another experiment using completely Random Block design to study the effect of time length
of self-treatment on systolic blood pressure with the existence of gender as block has been done.
The result of systolic reading are given in the following table:

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Systolic pressure Reading

Time-length of
self-treatment (in
minutes/ day)

0- 31- >
31 60 30

Men 13 125 115


0

Women 12 122 110


5

Draw your conclusion based on the analysis.

Between-Subject Factors

N
Gender 1.00 3
2.00 3
Timelenght 1.00 2
2.00 2
3.00 2

Test of Between- Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: pressuread

Type III Sum of


Source Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model 253.500ª 3 84.500 31.688 .031
Intercept 87604.167 1 87604.167 32851.563 .000
Gender 20.167 1 20.167 7.563 .111
Timelenght 233.333 2 116.667 43.750 .022
Error 5.333 2 2.667
Total 87863.000 6
Corrected Total 258.833 5

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REFERENCE

Fathilah Binti Mohd Alipiah , Rohaiza Binti Zakaria (2010). Applied Statistic. By The McGraw-
Hill Companies

Yuhaniz Haji Ahmad, Shamshuritawati Sharif, Zahayu Md. Yusof (2010). SQQS 2013 Applied
Statistics.

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