Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

Defect and Limitation

Sand Casting Process Defect for Engine Blok and Flywheel

1. Unfilled sections
Molten metal is not fully occupy the section in the mold cause by a few reason such as
Insufficient of material so that it cannot fully filled the space. Another reason is the molten
metal temperature is low so that it being cooled before it occupy the space in the mold.

2. Porosity
Porosity means that a material with small holes that allow liquid or air to pass through it and
it occur on some reason such as melt temperature is too high non-uniform cooling rate
and sand has low permeability.
3. Hot tearing
Hot tearing can happen in manufacturing of engine block and flywheel due to non-uniform
cooling rate.
4. Surface projections
Surface projection can occur due to erosion of sand mold interior, crack in the sand mold
and mold halves shift.

Limitations of Engine Block and flywheel casting process:

1. With normal sand casting process, the dimensional accuracies and surface finish is less.

2. Defects are unavoidable.

3. Sand casting is labor intensive

Engine Head and Brake Disc Die Casing Defect

1. Flash

Injection pressure too high

Clamp force too low

2. Unfilled sections

Insufficient shot volume

Slow injection

Low pouring temperature

Injection temperature too high

Non-uniform cooling rate

3. Hot tearing

Non-uniform cooling rate

4. Ejector marks

Cooling time too short

Ejection force too high


 Only materials with lower melting temperatures can be used in the process.

 While cast iron parts are manufactured using this process, the high melting point of cast iron
does have a negative (or ‘wearing’) effect on the mold used.

 Part geometry is limited with this process as the mold needs to open and close.

 This particular casting process becomes a less viable option when compared to sand
casting in cases where three or more sand cores are required.

Defect of Crankshaft in forging process

 Exterior/ Interior Cracking: Cracking is caused by excessive stress, or improper stress

distribution during forging. Cracking of a forged material can be a result of poorly designed
forging die or excess material in the job piece. They can also be caused by high thermal
gradients during the manufacturing operation.

 Laps/ Folds: This forging defect occurs in a metal forging due to buckling of the part, or too
little material in the work piece.

 Cold shuts: When metal flows of different temperatures meet, they do not weld completely,
i.e., they do not combine smoothly, a boundary layer known as cold shut, forms at their
intersection. It can also occur due to sharp corners or high friction. It indicates that there is a
problem with the metal flow in the mold.

 Improper Grain Flow: Crack propagation highly depends on grain flow and thereby
properties like fatigue strength, ductility and impact toughness. This forging defect is due to
improper die design. Here, the flow-lines are not close end type and are non-uniform.

 Warping: This type of forging defect occurs when thinner sections cool faster than the rest
of the forging. The forged material is distorted when warpage occurs.

Limitation of Forging Process in Crankshaft

 Higher initial cost for big forging presses.

 Secondary finishing process required in hot forging.

 It cannot produce complex shapes.

 Size is limited due to size of press.

 Brittle metal cannot be forged.

Defect of piston in investment casting

efect 1--sand hole Defect 2--gas cavity Defect 3--shrinkage cavity

smooth and unequal-sized irregular holes,rough hole wall

filled with sand in the surface holes are exsited in the with dendrite shape.Often
or internal of investment surface or internal.Normally appear in the final
castings are spherical pores,looks like solidification of investment
round balls or smilar. castings.
Defect 4--sand burning Defect 5--cold shut Defect 6--sand cut

colls shut is imcomplete

syncretic cracks ir hollow pit
It is often covered with a a rought and irregular metal
of castings,which edge of
mixture of metal and sand in tumor of casting surface,often
handover is round.More
the surface or inside of near the sprue gate of
appear on the positions
castings,or a layer of sintering castings.Other positions often
of surface,thin wall,metal flow
sand. appear sand holes.
conflunce or chiling
of investment castings.
Defect 8--insufficient
Defect 7--burrs Defect 9--damage
Spiny metal lumps in the Some position is lacked as completeness is damaged
casting surface,which are the liquid metal is nor when moving or clearing
especially irregular. completed filled with cavity. investment castings.
Defect 10--casting fin Defect 11--drop sand Defect 12--deformation

shape and sizes do not

Sheet metal bumps,which massive metal lumps in the accord with drawingsshape
thickness is not uniform.More surface of castings,which and size does not accord with
appear in the parting surface shape is similar as the drawings,caused by shrinkage
and core head position. dropped sand lump. stress or wall deformation and
cracking of the casting.

Limitation of Investment casting

1. This process is expensive, is usually limited to small casting, and presents some difficulties
where cores are involved.

2. Holes cannot be smaller than 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) and should be no deeper than about 1.5 times
the diameter.

3. Investment castings require very long production-cycle times versus other casting processes.

4. This process is practically infeasible for high-volume manufacturing, due to its high cost and
long cycle times.

5. Many of the advantages of the investment casting process can be achieved through other
casting techniques if principles of thermal design and control are applied appropriately to
existing processes that do not involve the shortcomings of investment ca