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Dec, 7, 2018

Boonsita Poungkulab
Fasai Sae-Tae
Krit Yingchanakiate
Sirawit Pachiyanukoon


Mahidol University International Demonstration School 
Semester 1 Academic year 2018-2019
    In this lab experiment, the problem we faced is
the size of filter paper, we use the wrong size of
the filter which is smaller than we should use, so
this made the filtration step finish slower than it
should be. The methods we have used are synthesis
and filtration. The purpose of this lab was to find
the percent yield of the product.
 The chemical reaction is the change in the substances
which result in the new different substances. There
must be formed from the reactants react with each
other then become a new substance called a product.
In chemistry, they came up with the chemical
equation to indicate how reactants and product that is
used up and made in particular reaction. The number
in front of each element or compound that represents
the specific number and ratios of reactants and
product is defined as a coefficient number. Certainly,
the tip of an arrow in the chemical equation points
toward one side to show which one is the product. If
there is only one tip of the arrow pointing to either
side, that means it is the non-reversible reaction. In
addition, letters in parentheses written on the back of
the substance corresponds to the properties of a
substance including s—solid, l—liquid, g—gas, and aq
—aqueous solution. Typically, there were 4 types of
chemical reactions. The one that we are going to
mention is the combination or the synthesis reaction.
The synthesis reaction contains at least 2 substances
that are combined and formed as a new substance. To
manipulate the chemical equation, we need to learn
about Stoichiometry first.
 Stoichiometry is basically composed of 2 words which
are stoicheion that means element and metron that
means measurement. (Sawatruksa, 2011) It is the
study on the amount of substances in the chemical
reaction. It includes both of the substrate and product
substance including the amount of energy of the
substance changes in the chemical reaction. For
stoichiometric calculation, the equation need to be
balance by adjust the coefficient on both side of the
equation to be exactly relate. Next step, we need to
convert the given substances from gram to moles.
Mole is a fundamental unit of particle. One mole is
equal to 6.02 x 1023 which is also known as
Avogadro’s number. (n.d.) In order to convert the
unit, the molar mass is the conversion factor between
gram and mole. The given number in grams divided by
its molar mass is the number of moles of substance
provided. On the other hand, you can convert the
moles back in grams by multiply it with molar mass.
Then, times the moles that you got with the mole
ratio which you can get from the balanced equation to
proceed the yield. According to the synthesis reaction
theorem, there could be many reactants that brings
two sorts of reactants. When substances stop reacting
means one of the substances is run out.
(cchieh@uwaterloo.ca, n.d.)
   The reactant that is entirely used up first is the one
that determine the quantity of the product of the
resulting yield called limiting reagent. In contrast,
excess reagent is the reactant that is not completely
used up before the cease of reaction. To point out
which one is limiting reagent, you can take a look
from the product that you obtain from calculation.
The maximum amount of product which results from
the limiting reagent is called theoretical yield.
Whereas, the actual yield is yield that you actually
gain from the experiment which is usually given in
the problem. For the percent yield, we use this
formula to calculate how much theoretical yield that
we gain, (actual yield/theoretical yield) ×100%.
(Juncker, n.d.)
   In the experiment, we are going to synthesize the
copper hydroxide. The reactants are copper sulfate
considered as solution A combining with 2 dissimilar
number of reactants which is NaOH as solution B and
C. Copper Sulfate, CuSO4.5H2O, that we used is in
hydrated form. It has blue color. It is used for
analytical reagent. (pubchem, 2018) We are going to
apply the stoichiometry to calculate the theoretical
yield from the reaction and find out which one is the
limiting reagent. Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH, also
known as caustic soda is a white solid substance used
in several manufacturing processes. It is great water
soluble. (sigmaaldrich, n.d.)
     The main purpose of this experiment is to
calculate the amount of reactant and determine
the actual yield, theoretical yield, limiting reagent
to calculate the percent yield. 
1) CuSO4 solution
(Solution A 2.5 g of CuSO4 in 50 ml of water)
2) NaOH solution
(Solution B 0.2 g of NaOH in 25 ml of water)
3) NaOH solution
(Solution C 0.6 g of NaOH in 25 ml of water)

4) 100 mL beaker

5) 50 mL graduated cylinder

6) Stirring rod                                  13) Mass scale 

7) Filter paper

8) Weighing paper

9) Spatula

10) Watch glass

11) Funnel

12) Ring stand & clamp 

1. Weight 2.5 g of CuSO4
2. Dissolve in 50 mL of
water in 100 mL beaker
3. Stir well by using
the stirring rod for
2-3 minutes 


1. Weight 0.2 g of NaOH dissolve in 25 mL of
water in 100 mL beaker
2. Stir well by using stirring rod for 2-3 mins.
 rod for 2-3 minutes 


1. Weight 0.6 g of NaOH dissolved in 25 mL of
water in 100 mL beaker
2. Stir well by using the stirring rod for 2-3 mins.
Divide solution A in half (25mL)
Mix Solution A (25mL) + Solution B (25mL) 
Stir 2-3 minutes
weight filter paper (set zero), record data
Separate solid by filtration using the funnels,
folded filter papers, beaker, ring stand, camp  

rinse the solid product that left on the beaker

with 10 mL distilled water ( 3 times ) to remove
clean filtered solid with 10 mL ethanol to
remove water
remove filter paper to watch glass
dry it overnight in the oven

repeat the steps with Solution A (25mL) +

Solution C (25mL)
Weight mass of filter paper and solid product
that obtained  
Calculate % yield


   The lab was about the synthesis of Cu(OH)2. There
were 3 solutions which were solution A, solution B
and solution C. Solution A contained 1.25 g of CuSo4
dissolved in 50 mL of water. Solution B contained
0.2 g of NaOH dissolved in 25 mL of water. Solution
C contained 0.6 g of NaOH dissolved in 25 mL of
water. Solution B and C were different in just the
amount of NaOH which solution C had 3 times of
NaOH more than in the solution B. We then mixed
solution A and B as the first reaction and solution A
and C as the second reaction. We would then record
data, find Actual Yield, find Theoretical Yield and
Percent Yield. This lab demonstrated the use of
Stoichiometry in real life experiment. The reaction
A+B gave out the lighter color of product than the
reaction A+C. The colors of both reactions were
different because the amount of reactant which was
the NaOH in the reaction A+C was greater than the
amount of NaOH in the reaction A+B. The larger
amount of NaOH on the reaction like the reaction
A+C, the darker or stronger color of the filtrate
would appear because CuSo4 which had a color of
blue would be able to react more with NaOH and
gave out more product which also affected the color.
   For reaction A+B, the limiting reagent was NaOH
because it gave out 0.2 g of Cu(OH)2 which was
lesser than the CuSo4 one that gave out 0.49 g of
Cu(OH)2. For reaction A+C, the limiting reagent was
CuSo4 because it gave out only 0.49 g of Cu(OH)2
while NaOH gave out 0.7 g of Cu(OH)2. The limiting
reagent of the reaction A+C was different from A+B
because the amount of NaOH was different in each
of the reaction. For reaction A+B, we could find the
Theoretical Yield by finding the least amount of the
products formed by both CuSo4 and NaOH. The
Theoretical Yield was 0.2 g of Cu(OH)2 which was
formed by the reactant 0.2 g of NaOH. For reaction
A+C, we could find the Theoretical Yield by also
finding the least amount of products produced by
reactants. The Theoretical Yield was 0.49 g of
Cu(OH)2 which was formed by the reactant 1.25 g of
CuSo4. To find the percent yield for reaction A+B,
we needed to divide Actual yield (0.67 g) which we
obtained by subtracting total weight of filter paper
by the product weight by Theoretical Yield (0.2 g)
and we multiply by 100. We would get the percent
yield of 335%. To find the percent yield of A+C, we
needed to divide Actual yield (0.61 g) which we got
from subtracting total weight of paper by the
product weight by Theoretical Yield (0.49 g) and
multiply by 100. We would get the percent yield of
   Percent yield was basically the ratio between Actual
yield and Theoretical Yield. We could find Percent
Yield by dividing Actual Yield by Theoretical Yield
and times by 100. The percent yield could be lesser or
greater than 100% depending on the conditions of the
experiment. If the percent yield exceeds 100%, it
means that the Actual yield is more than the
Theoretical Yield and it may occur by contamination
of reactants in the reaction or water gets added or
removed incompletely so the amount of Actual
product was greater than the predicted one. There
might be also a few reactions occurred unexpectedly
during the experiment. If the percent yield is lower
than 100%, it means that the Actual yield or the exact
amount of product is less than the Theoretical Yield
which was the predicted one. It may occur by
incomplete or loss of reaction of the reactants so the
product was formed lesser than the predicted one.
Usually, the percent yield will be lower than 100%
because there may be problems occurred during the
experiment so it affects the Actual yield and causes it
to be lesser. For both reactions, the Percent Yield
exceeds 100% because there was a contamination in
the reaction and there were also few other reactions
occurred in both reactions. We learned that the
percent yield would vary due to Actual Yield and it
was affected by the process in the lab experiment. We
also learned how to find Actual Yield, Theoretical
Yield, and Percent Yield in a real-life experiment.



Product weight = 1.86

Filter paper weight = 0.57 + 0.62
Actual yield (A+B)  = 1.86 - (0.57+0.62)  
                               = 0.67 g
Percent yield = (0.67/ 0.20) x 100
                      = 335%


Product weight = 1.78

Filter paper weight = 0.55 + 0.62
Actual yield (A+C)  = 1.86 - (0.55+0.62)  
                               = 0.61 g
Percent yield = (0.61/ 0.49) x 100
                      = 124.5%
     The difference of amounts of reactants in both
reactions led to the difference in colors and the
amount of the products. We can work out in
numbers by determining the limiting reagent and
find Actual and Theoretical Yield. Percent Yield
can also be used to calculate the ratio of real
products with the expected products.
Copper Sulfate [Online] / auth. pubchem // pubchem. -
12 6, 2018. - 12 8, 2018. -
Excess and Limiting Reagents [Online] / auth.
cchieh@uwaterloo.ca // science.uwaterloo.ca. - n.d. n.d.,
n.d.. - 12 8, 2018. -
How to Calculate Percent Yield in Chemistry [Online] /
auth. Juncker Meredith // wikihow. - n.d. n.d., n.d.. - 12 8,
2018. - https://www.wikihow.com/Calculate-Percent-
Sodium hydroxide [Online] / auth. sigmaaldrich //
sigmaaldrich. - n.d. n.d., n.d.. - 12 8, 2018. -
stochiometry [Online] / auth. Sawatruksa Chatuporn //
www.mwit.ac.th. - 9 11, 2011. - 12 8, 2018. -
The Mole [Online] // chemistry.bd.psu.edu. - n.d. n.d.,
n.d.. - 12 8, 2018. -