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BOS Fluids Version 4.111

September 25, 2003

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Table of Contents

BOS Fluids Version 4.111 Released September 25, 2003

Chapter 1

Section 1 – Installation, Setup and Security Section 2 – Program Overview – Getting Started Section 3 – Running a Test Job Section 4 – Network Installation

Chapter 2

Section 1 – Steady State and Transient Program General Input Section 2 – Program Utilities Section 3 – Valve Closure and Transient Pressure Waves Section 4 – Waterhammer Example Problem Section 5 – Acoustic Frequencies Example Problem Section 6 – Solution Theory Section 7 – Safety Relief Valve Notes and Examples Section 8 – SRG and SHW File Formats

Chapter 3

Section 1 – SPLASH 2D CFD Calculation

Chapter 4

Section 1 –Reciprocating Compressor Pulsation and Mechanical Analysis Section 2 – BOS Fluids and API 618 Section 3 – API 618 Compliance for Reciprocating Compressors - Summary Section 4 – BOS Fluids API 674 Compliance Section 5 – Reciprocating Equipment Notes

Chapter 5

Section 1 – Slugs and Flashing Section 2 – Vortex Shedding at Tees & Control Valves

© Copyright 2003, Paulin Research Group & Dynaflow Engineering

BOS Fluids Version 4.111

September 25, 2003

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Installation and Setup

BOS Fluids 4.110

BOS Fluids is installed with FE/Pipe. BOS Fluids owners will have demo access to FE/Pipe and full access to BOS Fluids. FE/Pipe owners have full access to FE/Pipe and demo access to BOS Fluids.

BOS Fluids is distributed using the standard Microsoft installation program: setup.exe, and can be run on Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT 4+, Windows 2000 Windows XP or Windows ME. The installation path should not contain blank characters. (Certain viewing features requiring DirectX7.0a or later will not be available on Windows NT systems.) The BOS Fluids installation CAB files can be found on the delivered CD in the FPPACKAGE folder. To install BOS Fluids and FE/Pipe (remember, they cannot be installed separately since they use many of the same system data processing components):

1)

Using “Windows Explorer” or “My Computer” navigate to the installation CD.

2)

Open the folder FPPACKAGE.

3)

Double click on the file setup.exe.

4)

Be sure the installation pathname does not contain spaces.

BOS Fluids and FE/Pipe will be installed in the installation path shown in the popup window. Only the start:programs menu options will be modified. If the user wishes to have a shortcut on the desktop, it may be copied from the start:programs menu and pasted on the desktop. No system files will ever be overwritten. Only old FE/Pipe or BOS Fluids files will ever be overwritten by the program installer. It is the users responsibility to be sure that compatible versions of Internet Explorer, directX, video drivers, etc. are installed on the target machine. The installation program requires that read/write access is available for the Windows folder. If problems are experienced during installation it is usually because the installer does not have read/write privledges to the Windows or to the installation folder.

Paulin Research Group and Dynaflow use a software security mechanism based on the user name and computer name. A 7 digit key is provided for each username and computer name pair that should be able to access the software. Each license seat includes a key for one user/computer name. (Any version may be run over a network, but special setup is required for limited seat network access. See Chapter 1, Section 4.)

BOS Fluids and FE/Pipe will always run in a limited DEMONSTRATION mode. The certification is controlled by allowing access for authorized user names and computer names. The user name and corresponding computer name that should have access to BOS Fluids should be emailed to Paulin Research Group at support@paulin.com to obtain the corresponding site key. Remember to include your serial number in the email to get your full authorization. A 7-digit hexidecimal site key for each username/computername combination will be returned by email.

The site key can be entered under program control when the program starts, or the user can enter the site key outside of FE/Pipe by starting the program SECURITY.EXE in the installation directory.

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The file “secure.key” is created in the installation directory when the site keys are entered correctly. The “secure.key” binary file can be moved via a copy command to any computer on a diskette. If one machine is replaced with a newer one, the same site key can be used. It must only be copied from the old computer to the new computer.

When a non-authorized version of BOS Fluids starts the following demonstration prompt will appear.

starts the following demonstration prompt will appear. If you have your site key then press YES

If you have your site key then press YES and follow the instructions to record the site key and unlock the program. If you don’t have a site key then you can continue on in DEMONSTRATION mode until you get one.

Site Keys are based on your username and computername. When you have your site key and press YES in response to the above prompt you will see the following dialog box:

to the above prompt you will see the following dialog box: Press YES, and you will

Press YES, and you will see another dialog box that contains the current user name and computer name:

box that contains the current user name and computer name: If a system administrator is lo

If a system administrator is loading the software for you:

If a system administrator is loading the software for you the current user name and computer name will not be the one that should be authorized. The site key should be generated for the actual user of the program. If you do not know your user name and computer name a program called USERNAME.EXE has been provided that will show it

BOS Fluids Version 4.111

September 25, 2003

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to you. Run the program USERNAME.EXE on the computer that should be authorized to get the appropriate user and computer name.

If you are loading the software yourself:

If you are loading the software yourself then the username and computer name that appears in the screen above should be the one the site key is obtained for. The program USERNAME.EXE is provided that will show the current username and computer name.

You will get a site key for each username/computer name pair for each license you have purchased. Email your company name, user and computer names with your software serial number to support@paulin.com to receive your site keys. Once you have received your returned site key via email press OK when the above screen appears and a site key entry window will be shown:

screen appears and a site key entry window will be shown: Enter your site code(s) and

Enter your site code(s) and press F1 to write the file “secure.key.” (Network licenses can be purchased that allow any number of user name/computer name combinations.) The file “secure.key” will be written in the program directory when the F1 key is entered. The “secure.key” file should be placed in the program directory for any version of the licensed software the user wishes to run. The “secure.key” file may be generated outside of program control by running SECURITY.EXE.

When BOS Fluids is unlocked it will startup without any prompt for licensing information. (When NOT unlocked the word DEMO will appear across the window handle on the top of the screen and input will be limited.)

Starting with Version 4.1006 of FE/Pipe and BOS Fluids, the environment variable or path statement is not required.

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Overview

BOS Fluids is a computer program that models steady state and transient flow in liquid or gas carrying piping systems. The program can input neutral files from the pipe stress programs CAESAR II, PipePlus, Triflex, or from FE/PIpe or the user can enter the piping topology using a standard input modus. A 3d GUI is under development, and is scheduled for release in the second quarter of 2003.

Bos Fluids estimates slugging conditions and has a 2d user-defineable CFD simulator for free surface flow problems such as tank sloshing or slug impacts.

Bos Fluids contains the elements required to model most unsteady flow conditions, and includes the simulation of

1)

Standard Valves,

2)

Relief Valves,

3)

Damped Check Valves,

4)

Air Valves,

5) Pumps,

6) Equipment,

7)

Surge vessels,

8) Orifices,

9)

Tube Ruptures,

10) Long Pipe Boundary Conditions,

11) Two phase – homogeneous flow,

12) Deflagration,

13) Isolated Slug Evaluations,

14) Reciprocating equipment,

15) Pressure Regulator Valves,

16) Relief Valve Gas Transients including Joule Thompson Effects,

17) 2d-CFD Simulations of Free Surface Flows

18) Column Separation

19) Pipe Evacuation Analysis

Graphical 3d output includes pressures, flowrates, velocities and unbalanced forces. The 3d output graphics can be viewed using a DirectX model viewer that allows the user to zoom, cut, slice and interactively rotate the results model. Unbalanced forces can be output in files suitable to be read into pipe stress programs for the calculation of displacements, forces, moments and stresses. The program also includes separate algorithms to compute characteristics of slug flow, gas relief and free surface fluid systems.

The steady state and transient fluid calculations are based on a simplified form of the Navier-Stokes equations.

The assumptions made are:

1. Fluid behavior is one dimensional i.e. fluid properties are constant at any one pipe cross section.

2. Fluid transport velocity is small compared to wave speed.

3. Wave fronts remain plane while propagating.

4. Gas simulations assume that flow velocities are below sonic, and that the total pressure drop through the system is less than 30%.

The friction model used is Colebrook-White. The Darcy-Weisbach flow model is used for steady state pressure drop calculations.

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BOS Fluids is capable of simulating both the steady and transient behavior of closed conduit systems of pipes, valves, pumps and surge relief devices. Rectangular sections can be modeled using a total whetted area approach. Vapor formation models exist that can simulate fully evacuated piping systems.

The following special features are available:

1. Pipe stress neutral files from PipePlus (pnf), Triflex(phb) or CAESAR (CII) can be imported for fluid analysis. Neutral files can also be read or written to FE/Pipe. The user can also setup input in an Excel or other spreadsheet and read it into BOS Fluids using the TEXTIN feature.

2. The user can pick different fluids from a database or add his/her own fluids to the database.

3. Two different models are available to simulate column separation: Concentrated Air Pocket (CAP) model and the Vapor Cavity Model (VCM). (The CAP model supports the large cavity model, i.e. a completely empty pipe section.)

4. Isotropic (Metals) and Orthotropic (FRP) materials are included.

5. Typical pump properties can be automatically generated.

6. Buried and above ground systems can be simulated.

7. The transient responses from multiple sources can be handled simultaneously in both looped and unlooped systems, i.e. Pump starts, Pump Failures, and Valve Operations can occur simultaneously in the transient simulation.

8. Harmonic option allows the user to analyze the occurrence of standing waves AND the effect of reciprocating equipment.

9. Maximum and minimum pressures and velocities occurring during transient and/or harmonics are traced.

10. The force processor allows the user to survey the time history of the unbalanced forces on pipe sections and preprocesses the force time histories to be used in the dynamical module of the pipe stress program.

11. A spectrum breakdown of force time histories is available. The user can see the natural frequencies of the fluid response that will tend to excite the piping system.

12. Metric (SI) or English Units can be selected.

13. Exchanger tube ruptures can be simulated to predict the maximum pressure on the shell side of a heat exchanger to permit lower design pressures for the shell-side thicknesses.

14. Damped check valves can be simulated to estimate the loads and backflows that can occur on pump shutdowns, etc.

15. Mechanical models of relief valves included mass, stiffness and damping can be input, or the user can input the set, full flow and reseat pressures for a relief valve and the program will back compute the properties needed.

16. Air valves (vacuum breakers can be input.)

17. Pressure Regulating valves can be input.

18. Long Pipe (nonreflective element)

19. Simplified models of the effect of two phase flow on the speed of sound and net flow effect on the piping system.

20. Deflagration (explosion) waves and pressures can be simulated.

21. Lumped gas volume simulation that can be used as a compliance element in the discharge of pumping systems to eliminate vapor formation during pump trip, (“large volume surge vessel), or for the simulation of pulsation bottles on the discharge of piston driven pumps, or as any other blatter- filled dampener element, or as the gas charged section of a standpipe, or to assist in the proper simulation of a single or multi-cylinder compressor bottle.

22. Output from long simulations can be isolated either by geometry or time window and long outputs minimized. Maximum pressure trapping can be used to find the maximum pressures in pipe sections with a minimum of output.

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The program has been used in the fluid analysis of:

A. Water transmission and distribution systems,

B. Main cooling water systems for chemical plants,

C. Sewage water systems,

D. Combined (power-drinking water) cycle power stations.

E. Oil product transport lines,

F. Tanker loading and unloading systems,

G. Dynamic behavior of chemical liquid transport lines.

H. High Pressure Heat Exchanger Tube Ruptures

I. Vessel Blowdown

J. Triplex pump surge bottles.

K. Compressor Piping Systems

L. Acoustical Natural Frequency Calculations

The basic theory applied in BOS Fluids can be found in Wylie & Streeter's "Fluid Transients" published by FEB Press. Various chapters herein also contain descriptions of the basic theory used in BOS Fluids.

API RP 521 2.3.14.1 Water Hammer states:

“The probability of hydraulic shock waves, or water hammer, occurring in any liquid-filled system should be carefully evaluated. Water hammer is a type of over-pressure that cannot be reasonably controlled by pressure relief valves, since the response time of the valves is normally too slow. The oscillating peak pressures measured in milliseconds, can rise to many times the normal operating pressure. These pressure waves damage the pressure vessels and piping where proper safeguards have not been incorporated. Water hammer is frequently caused by the action of quick-closing valves. Where water hammer can occur, the use of pulsation dampeners should be considered.”

Suggestions:

The fewer nonlinear elements included in a run the easier it will be for the user to intuitively understand how the model is performing. Most startup runs are made to find mistakes in the model coding or in the fluid assumptions and so introducing nonlinearities slowly and methodically is a good practice. Highly nonlinear elements include:

1)

Pumps

2)

Cavity formation

3)

Damped Check valves

4)

Damped Relief Valves

5)

Tube ruptures or air inlet valve elements

6)

Complete line drainage (large cavity formation)

When starting a system analysis the user should probably:

1)

Turn column separation and/or cavity formation off.

2)

Keep check valves and relief valves linear in behavior. (Set the valve exponent to zero for check valves and only use Pset, Prated and Preseat as specifications for the relief valve.)

Once the initial runs are made and the system is performing as expected, the user should introduce column separation and damped check and relief valves to see how they effect the already understood solution.

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Getting Started

BOS Fluids and PRGMAPS.EXE

BOS Fluids is accessed via a program called PRGMaps. PRGMAPS.EXE starts up one of several interfaces for the program. The PRGMAPs main menu can be used to access FE/Pipe or BOS Fluids. The PRGMAPs main menu is shown below:

or BOS Fluids. The PRGMAPs main menu is shown below: Each is BOS Fluids program button

Each is BOS Fluids program button is described briefly below:

is BOS Fluids program button is described briefly below: The steady state and transient gas and

The steady state and transient gas and flow simulator for pipe networks. Used for waterhammer, steamhammer, slug flow, tube ruptures and pump startup or shutdown problems. Handles liquids and gases where some compressibility effects are negligible. Interfaces with CAESAR, Triflex, PIpePlus, FE/Pipe and semicolon delineated text files. Also includes the gas transient option for Joule-Thompson effects in relief lines.

option for Joule-Thompson effects in relief lines. 2D Free Surface CFD modeler. Used for sloshing in

2D Free Surface CFD modeler. Used for sloshing in tanks due to pitch and roll loads or earthquake. Can simulate single slug impacts on elbows and breaker plates.

simulate single slug impacts on elbows and breaker plates. Includes a Slug Velocity and state calculator,

Includes a Slug Velocity and state calculator, and processors for reciprocating pumps and compressors. Also included is an evaluation tool for API 674 for reciprocating pumps and API 618 for compressors.

The Running a Test Job example can be used to become familiar with the “General Liquids and Gases program”. SPLASH and the “Miscellaneous” programs have separate chapters each dedicated to their use. The first time user is encouraged to review these respective chapters before starting the program.

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BOS Fluids runs under the Microsoft operating systems Windows 95, 98, 2000 or XP. The NT operating system is supported, but is being phased out.

All BOS Fluids documentation is delivered in electronic format. Please check for the latest pdf files in the installation folder once the software has been setup. Also please check the downloads area on the Paulin Research Group website at www.paulin.com for the latest document updates and patches.

Windows user's may have to experiment with large or small fonts on the computer via the control panel to be sure that BOS Fluids performs most effectively. User’s are recommended NOT to run out of the installation directory. Right click on your startup icon and change the “start in” subdirectory in the shortcut so that this does not happen.

There cannot be two analyses running simultaneously in a single subdirectory. If two jobs must be run at the same time, they can be run from different subdirectories.

If multiple jobs must be run, then the batch processor can be used, and in this case each job will be run one- after-the-other and the jobs must reside in the same subdirectory.

Numerous input files referenced in this documentation exist in the <installation>\BOSMODELS subdirectory. Most of these models are in a ready to run state for the user to test and explore.

Support

From time-to-time questions will arise while running BOS Fluids, or during the interpretation of output. When this occurs, user’s are encouraged to read through the documentation as every effort has been made to include a discussion of the most commonly encountered problems. If the user is still unsure of confused any questions may be emailed to support@paulin.com. Please include the company name and serial number as part of the support request. Support requests are typically answered in the morning, at noon, and prior to the end of the day, if not more often. Include a copy of the job and any pertinent drawings in the email. Autocad DWG files may be included if they will make understanding the problem easier. The Paulin Research Group or Dynaflow Engineering can also be contracted on a consulting basis to review or setup models for first time users or for more experienced users that simply need additional assistance.

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Running A Test Job

Test Model

The following simple system will be used to demonstrate the use of the Bos Fluids transient flow analyzer. A straight water evacuation system that is 80 meters long has a gate valve at the end that closes in 0.5 seconds. The analysis should predict the pressure rise in the system upon valve closure.

predict the pressure rise in the system upon valve closure. Starting the Program – PRGMAPS.EXE The

Starting the Program – PRGMAPS.EXE

The BOS Fluids program is bundled with FE/Pipe and they are both installed together using the installation routine found in FPPACKAGE. The default folder is FP4109, although the user can change the installation folder to any name desired providing it does not include spaces.

Once the software has been installed the target startup program is PRGMAPS.EXE. This program can be started from the Start button, from a command prompt, or the user can double click on PRGMAPS.EXE while in explorer.

The PRGMAPS main screen appears below:

while in explorer. The PRGMAPS main screen appears below: Select ”File” and choose New FE/Pipe or
while in explorer. The PRGMAPS main screen appears below: Select ”File” and choose New FE/Pipe or

Select ”File” and choose New FE/Pipe or BOS Fluids Job. The menu that appears depends on the operating system, but the Windows XP files menu will appear like the one shown above:

From this menu the user can:

1)

Create a new file in the current working folder.

2)

Navigate to another folder and create a new input file.

3)

Create a new folder, then open that folder and create a new input file.

To create a new folder, right click in the file list window, then select “new” and folder. Give the new folder name, and then double click the folder to open it. To create a new file, type the name in the File name text box and hit the <enter> key or click on the save button. The new filename should appear in the blue

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“jobname” box on the main PRGMAPS menu like the example shown below.

box on the main PRGMAPS menu like the example shown below. Units FE/Pipe and BOS Fluids

Units

FE/Pipe and BOS Fluids have two unit sets – English and Metric.

The units may be set on a program-default basis, or on a job-folder basis. To set the units on a program- default basis, open a new jobname in the installation folder. When the new jobname appears select utilities

folder. When the new jobname appears select utilities Then Configure: And from the Configure options select

Then Configure:

the new jobname appears select utilities Then Configure: And from the Configure options select “Units

And from the Configure options select “Units Specification”

from the Configure options select “Units Specification” Use the arrow keys to select either Metric or

Use the arrow keys to select either Metric or English options and then hit the <enter> key. (The example model will be run in METRIC units.)

key. (The example model will be run in METRIC units.) Then hit the key “K” to

Then hit the key “K” to Save changes and Return. If the user starts the unit setting process when the current working directory is the program installation folder then a new “config.bin” will be written in that folder. The new “config.bin” will set the defaults for every new job that is not in a folder that has a local config.bin file.

If the user starts Configuration process in a working folder, the new “config.bin” file will be written into the local folder, and any job that is started in that folder will use the new config.bin settings. Jobs that were already in the local folder will start with the already established units.

Once the desired unit set has been established, the user is ready to continue on with the model input.

JOB FILES SHOULD NOT BE STORED IN THE INSTALLATION DIRECTORY.

Although many users store their data files in the program installation directory this is not recommended. Please select a new job in a folder that is NOT the installation folder. The new name should appear in the blue Jobname box on the PRGMAPS menu and the working folder name should appear in the window handle at the top. When the jobname is properly established, click on the BOS Fluids button:

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Fluids Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com The button will expand into two buttons: Since a

The button will expand into two buttons:

www.paulin.com The button will expand into two buttons: Since a new job is to be entered,

Since a new job is to be entered, click on the New Job Button.

a new job is to be entered, click on the New Job Button. At this point

At this point the user must decide what type of analysis should be performed:

General Liquids & Gases – Typical waterhammer, steamhammer, gas transient analysis. Choose for API 618, Pumps, Tube rupture, relief valve analysis, rapid valve closure, etc.

SPLASH - CFD-2D Sloshing or slugging local load, pressure, velocity analysis. Free surface, two dimensional, computational fluid dynamics evaluations. Can be used for periodic, or time history loadings, seismic evaluations of liquids in tanks, and vertical, or horizontal vessels.

BOS Fluids Misc. Calcs. – Includes:

1)

Slug Estimator: Determines the tendency for slugs to form in both vertical and horizontal pipe runs, and calculates the maximum slug velocity possible in a close-coupled piping system.

2)

Reciprocating Pumps: Computes the harmonic input frequencies and amplitudes that must be checked for single, duplex or triplex pumps.

3)

Reciprocating Compressors: Evaluates the compressor suction or discharge waveform to determine the fourier coefficients that should be used in a discrete harmonic analysis of the piping system to satisfy an API 618 analysis of the system.

Select the button General Liquids & Gases:

The following screen appears to let the user select the major pressure unit. This is purely a user preference. Some analysts are more comfortable with pressure reported in feet or meters of fluid head, others prefer pressure units in force per area.

fluid head, others prefer pressure units in force per area. At the start of each input

At the start of each input file the user is given the option of selecting the major pressure unit for the job. Once the major pressure unit is selected, it remains fixed for that job.

Most piping and vessel engineers prefer psi or bars as the major pressure unit. For metric applications the example uses bars.

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Once the major pressure unit is selected, the BOS Fluids main input menu is displayed:

is selected, t he BOS Fluids main input menu is displayed: Select 2-Pipe to enter the

Select 2-Pipe to enter the basic model geometry.

displayed: Select 2-Pipe to enter the basic model geometry. Enter the node numbers: 5, 10, 15

Enter the node numbers: 5, 10, 15 in the top data line. Two elements are created. The first element runs from 5-to-10 and the second element runs from 10-to-15. This approach is taken to reduce the number of element data screens.

Each element will be 40 meters long in the X direction. The pipe diameter is 250mm, with a wall thickness of 5mm and a roughness of 0.05mm. The other inputs for steel, the ambient fluid temperature and the fluid name are defaults. The fluid temperature effects the fluid properties extracted from the data base, but otherwise is not used in the analysis.

Equipment, valves, pumps, surge vessels, and orifices can be defined for any pipe element. The key F10 can be used to invoke a flow/pressure unit converter.

PgDn and PgUp keys let the user navigate between pages. The F11 function key can be used to search for a particular node or element in the existing data base.

for a particular node or element in the existing data base. Only a single node may

Only a single node may be entered in the search screen, and the first element containing that node will be found.

Using the function keys, boundary conditions at the nodes can be set [F3], or special properties can be

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added to the elements [F4-F8]. Hit the [F3] key to specify the boundary conditions at Node 5. Enter the numbers shown below to define the fixed reservoir pressure of 10 bars at Node 5.

define the fixed re servoir pressure of 10 bars at Node 5. A wide variety of

A wide variety of boundary conditions can be applied to nodes. These include DEADENDS, LONG PIPES, SONIC HEADS, TIME heads or flows, HARMONIC heads or flows, and FIXED heads or flows.

Using the above screens, two pipe elements have been described along with the boundary condition at

node 5.

Escape from the boundary condition screen and hit the PgDn key to get to the next blank pipe element screen and enter the dimensions of the valve from nodes 15 to 20.

Next the valve at the end of the system should be entered so that the flow can be shut down.

system should be entered so that the flow can be shut down. Hit the [F5] key

Hit the [F5] key to define the valve for element 15-20. The valve can also be selected by clicking on the button just to the left of the F5-Valve option on the bottom of the screen. (See the figure above.) The program enters the node numbers automatically on the valve screen. The only inputs required to define the valve will be the Valve Type and Identifier. “Gate” and “v100” are entered for the example below. Hit the ? key to invoke help for any of the data cells. For this small example problem, the gate valve on element 15- 20 will be closed in 1/2 second and the resulting pressure rise will be calculated.

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Fluids Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com Use the <esc> key to exit from the popup

Use the <esc> key to exit from the popup valve window. The ESC key will exit from any BOS Fluids Pop-Up window.

When back on the 15-to-20 element page use the [F3] key again to enter the boundary conditions for the node 20 at the end of the valve. This will be a fixed head and will represent an open end into the atmosphere. Note that the atmospheric pressure in gage is input as zero.

Note that the atmospheric pressure in gage is input as zero. The user must always provide

The user must always provide either pressure or flow at the start and stop of any system to establish a steady state condition. The steady state solution calculates pressure if a flow is given, or flow if a pressure is given. There must be sufficient boundary conditions to establish an initial flow state from which to start the transient. An option exists to start the transient solution from a NOFLOW state, but this is not typical. For pump or pipe sizing, the steady state flow condition is the critical one and is governed by friction and valve loses. For transient flow problems, the steady state condition is not as important since friction losses are of secondary importance. The steady state solution must be generated only to establish the proper initial flow velocities.

Escape back out to the BOS Fluids Input Menu and select the Optional Input screen.

BOS Fluids Input M enu and select the Optional Input screen. Set the Diameter Visualization Multiplier

Set the Diameter Visualization Multiplier to 6 to enhance the 3D display for the test job. This parameter is used whenever long lengths of pipe are modeled which appear as only fine lines when plotted to scale. The Diameter Visualization Multiplier increases the diameter for all pipes in the model, so that each pipe

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may be more easily viewed.

The parameters “Maximum Simulation Time” and “Maximum Timestep” have been left blank. These important parameters are calculated automatically by BOS Fluids to capture the slowest moving transient that may excite the mechanical piping system or that would cause high or low pressure problems with the fluid system.

Escape from the Optional Input screen and select Action.

Escape from the Optional Input screen and select Action. Change the Analysis type to “transient” and

Change the Analysis type to “transient” and the select F2 to enter a description of the valve transient.

the select F2 to enter a description of the valve transient. The valve ID is “v100”

The valve ID is “v100” – the same as was entered when the valve was defined, and the valve will go from 100 % (fully) opened to 0% (fully closed) in 0.5 seconds.

Running the Analysis

Escape (Esc) from each of the input screens until the main BOS Fluids screen is shown below:

screens unt il the main BOS Fluids screen is shown below: This screen has C-Save, D-Plot,

This screen has C-Save, D-Plot, E-PREPARE for Analysis, and F-SUBMIT for Analysis options on the bottom:

C-Save – updates or creates a jobname.ifu file with the job input data. This is the file that contains the job

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database in binary format that can be read to start the model analysis session. Job files are automatically saved each time Save, Plot, Prepare, or Submit is executed.

D-Plot – creates a plot of the geometry, but does not prepare the model for analysis. Plot is used to check that the geometry is entered correctly. The input file will be “saved” prior to plotting.

E-Prepare for Analysis – creates a plot, and also prepares files needed for the steady state and transient analysis of the system.

F-Submit for Analysis – creates a plot and prepares files needed for analysis, but also starts the analysis requested if there are no errors in the model.

At this point the user can “prepare for analysis” from the BOS Fluids menu, interrogate the resulting graphic image to be sure that it is correct, and then start the run from the PRGMAPS, “Old Job”, Analysis menu selection; or the user can “Submit for Analysis” from the BOS Fluids menu to go directly into job analysis. Users are encouraged to experiment with both approaches to determine which one is most useful for a given situation and problem.

When a transient run is started, the steady state module is first invoked to solve for the steady state pressures and flows. When the steady state module completes, the transient module is started and the screen below is displayed counting through the time steps needed for the transient solution.

through the time steps needed for the transient solution. Graphical, animated, and tabular reporting options are

Graphical, animated, and tabular reporting options are available once a run has completed. Several plots and a summary of the tabular listing for this simple run are included and discussed on the following pages.

ru n are included and discussed on the following pages. 2D Plots – Pressure, Flow, Velocity,
ru n are included and discussed on the following pages. 2D Plots – Pressure, Flow, Velocity,

2D Plots – Pressure, Flow, Velocity, Force time history or frequency plots for single nodes in the piping system or for valves, pumpts, etc. Plots are generated in a 2D – XY format with time or frequency along the range and pressure, force, velocity, or flowrate along the ordinate.

3D Plots – Allow the user to plot pressure, flow, velocity and forces on a three-dimensional rendering of the model. The maximum results from transient analyses can be plotted along with animated views of pressure wave movements, etc.

Reports – Tabular summaries of the steady state and transient calculation are included.

The system acoustic response time can be found from the approximate expression:

2L/c

where L is the distance from the source of the disturbance to the point in the piping system where the disturbance will be reflected, and "c" is the speed of sound in the fluid. For rough estimates of the response time in liquid filled pipes c may be taken as 1000 meters/second (approximately 3000 feet

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per second), and the basic system acoustic response time can be found from:

[L(in meters)] / 500] (sec.)

<or>

[L(in feet) / 1500] (sec.)

When the duration of the transient event is much larger than the response time estimated above the system will respond in a "slow" or pseudo-static mode. When the transient event duration is less than the response time estimated above the system will respond in a "fast" or dynamic mode.

The system acoustic response time for the example can be found from:

time = (80 meters) / (500) = 0.16 seconds.

The transient event duration is 0.5 seconds which is larger than the system response time, and so "slow" responses will be observed. The increasing pressure wave will return to the source and begin canceling further increases before the full value of the unbalanced pressure will be applied to the system.

This phenomenon is experienced in the plant, and in many households. When valves are shut quickly there is often a resounding "water hammer" through the pipes. When the valves are closed slowly there is hardly a whisper. BOS Fluids helps the user know where these breakpoints are, and more importantly, aids in quantitatively assessing the magnitudes of pressure rises and unbalanced loads that result.

The maximum pressure rise that could occur in any system due to a theoretical "instantaneous" valve closure is:

pressure rise = (fluid density)(c)(V)

where (c) is the speed of sound in the fluid, and (V) is the initial velocity of the fluid.

BOS Fluid calculates the initial velocity of the fluid and makes this available for plotting. For the system analyzed above the initial velocity is 18 meters/sec. (An artificially high flow velocity because of the extreme pressure drop used in the input.)

Instantly stopping this flow would produce pressure rises on the order of:

pressure rise = (1000 kg./cu.m)(9.8)(1000)(18) = 176,000,000 N/sq.m.

This is equivalent to 1700 bars. The BOS Fluids calculations shows that the pressure rise is only about 25 bars as seen from the plots on the following pages. Designing for the actual pressure rise of 25 bars will be a considerably simpler task.

Bos Fluids includes the effect of vapor formation when the line pressure drops below the vapor pressure. This effect will be a part of the solution to this problem because when the fluid attempts to “bounce back” from the fully compressed column state, the pressure will drop to below the vapor pressure for water. The Concentrated Air Pocket column separation model is "on" by default for BOS Fluids runs but may be turned off if the user wants to allow negative pressures. The column separation effect can be seen in the transient solution when pressures begin to go negative. This occurs in the 2D pressure plot below at around 0.6 seconds. At this point a rarefaction or negative pressure wave exists. The curve is flattened out because the lowest pressure possible is the vapor pressure of the fluid. The pressure during the simulation can never drop below this value when a column separation option is activated. Once vapor is formed it remains in place until the line pressure returns. When this happens the bubble can collapse and produce positive pressure spikes in the system.

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Results

Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com Results When the user clicks on the 2D Plot s

When the user clicks on the 2D Plots button the following screen appears:

clicks on the 2D Plot s button the following screen appears: Under the 2D menu option

Under the 2D menu option the user may select:

Pipe 2d

Non-Pipe 2d

The “Pipe 2d” option menu is shown below:

2d Non-Pipe 2d The “Pipe 2d” option menu is shown below: From this panel the user

From this panel the user can select the quantity to plot and the type of plot to display. A node number is required because the pressure, flowrate, velocity or unbalanced force for a single node will be plotted. The pressure at nodes 5, 10 and 15 for the example problem is shown below:

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Fluids Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com Node 5 Node 10 Node 15 The flowrate and

Node 5

Node 10

4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com Node 5 Node 10 Node 15 The flowrate and nodes 5,

Node 15

The flowrate and nodes 5, 10 are shown in the plots below:

The flowrate and nodes 5, 10 are shown in the plots below: 3D Plots When the

3D Plots

and nodes 5, 10 are shown in the plots below: 3D Plots When the user on

When the user on 3D Plots a three-dimensional line-figure of the piping system appears as shown below. The plot options can be found under the Transient/Steady menu option:

can be found under the Transient/Steady menu option: © Copyright 2003, Paulin Researc h Group &

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The following four options are available from the Transient/Steady menu:

Steady State Options

Transient Options

Animate

Time

The steady state option selection can be used to superimpose the steady state pressure or flow solution on the three dimension plot. A steady state pressure plot for the example system is shown below.

state pressure plot for the example system is shown below. Varieties of transient and animation options

Varieties of transient and animation options are available from the 3D plotting menus. These plots can also be transformed into the 3D viewer and rotated, zoomed, panned, ect. in real time. The user is encouraged to experiment with these options to find those that best suit the current output review needs.

Tabular report data is also available. The tabular reports contain an echo of the input in a more readable format, and various warning and parameter reports.

Output reports can be edited by the user and saved or printed. This facility allows the user to choose only those results that are pertinent to an analysis, while deleting or omitting others. The user can also add discussion of results directly into the body of the BOS Fluids report for improved discussion and readability. The delete key deletes any line and the insert key inserts one or more lines into the body of the report for additional comments. Any request from the output processor to send tabular results to a printer writes a <jobname>.lis file. This file (which many users employ for the start of their documentation) may also be written directly from the output processor. If the user outputs a <>.lis file, and then subsequently sends a report to the printer. The printer report .lis file will overwrite the previously written .lis file.

Several different report types are shown below.

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Fluids Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com Input Echo The steady state report shows that the

Input Echo

4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com Input Echo The steady state report shows that the linear iteration

The steady state report shows that the linear iteration to solution took five iterations. BOS Fluids also supports an Intelligent System Reduction Mechanism that remeshes the structural geometry so that a more efficient fluid system results.

geometry so that a more efficient fluid system results. The steady state solution gives the pressures

The steady state solution gives the pressures and flowrates from the steady state solution. These are the pressures and flows that are used to start the transient analysis.

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Fluids Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com The Transient Warnings and Messages report gives the us

The Transient Warnings and Messages report gives the user a variety of useful information about the transient analysis. In particular any unusual events that occurred during the transient analysis are reported here.

occu rred during the transient analysis are reported here. The “Pipe Parameters” report is used to

The “Pipe Parameters” report is used to check the calculated wavespeed for the system. In this case the calculated wavespeed is 1240 m./s. The # of reaches reported in the far right column is the number of internal system nodes that have to be created to trap the correct maximum pressure at any point in the pipe length.

correct maximum pressure at any point in the pipe length. The maximum and minimum Transient report

The maximum and minimum Transient report gives the maximum and minimum values of pressures, flowrates, forces and cavity sizes that occur at any point in the transient. The values printed on the far right of the report tell when in the element the maximum occurred. For example in the report above, the maximum pressure occurred at a distance of 40 meters from node 5. The maximum cavity size at any node is reported in percent of total cross section. The cavity size is that amount of the local pipe section that is completely filled with vapor. When the value reaches 100% then the pipe is completely empty. When extremely large areas of the pipe will be exposed to void sections, the user should activate the large cavity model to properly track the void movement.

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Network Versions of Paulin Research Group Software

What is a Network Version?

A network version of PRG software has the following characteristics:

1) The software MUST be loaded on a remote server. 2) Many users will have access to the program, but simultaneous use is limited to the

number of licenses purchased. 3) A network administrator must be available to maintain the account.

Network Versions require:

1) All users must have read/write/create access to all files in the installation subdirectory on the server, including the secure.key file. 2) The server drive id cannot change. If the server drive id changes, then the software must be reinstalled. The encryption algorithm uses the server drive. This number must be available to the OS via the Windows API procedure: “GetVolumeInformation.” 4) The startup program for BOS Fluids is PRGMAPS.EXE. Shortcuts or batch files should point to this executable to start BOS Fluids. 5) The network administrator must collect the username/computername pairs for all users that will possibly want access to the system. The username/computername pairs must be entered into an ascii file named username.txt in the installation subdirectory on the server. The network administrator can change this file at any time.

Network Version Pricing:

1) Network versions require some setup fee depending on the number of users that will have access to the system and the number of licenses supported. Contact sales@paulin.com for more information on network pricing for each PRG product.

To Install a network version:

1) First you must decide which of the PRG products should be available in a network serviced format. BOS Fluids, FE/Pipe and ALLPRO can all be networked apart or together. Just about any configuration can be designed to suit the users needs. For each product purchased, the user must decide the number of simultaneous users, and the maximum number of users that will want to have access to the program.

If the user access to BOS Fluids, ALLPRO, NozzlePRO, AxiPRO, or FE/Pipe will be

different then the programs will have to be loaded into separate installation directories. If they are to have identical user access then they may be loaded in the same subdirectory. Either program can be loaded first.

The network delivery version is no different from the standard demonstration version of the program delivered on all CD’s.

Be sure that read/write access is available for the Windows folder on the machine used for the installation. The Microsoft setup.exe program uses this folder to store temporary files.

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2) Run the program NETDRIVE.EXE from a command prompt to determine the installed drive id of the server! Include the root path in the program invocation, i.e.

NETDRIVE C:\

The message box that appears should give the network installed drive identifier. An example is shown below:

installed dr ive identifier. An example is shown below: The ID number, (in the exam ple

The ID number, (in the example –1124132195), must be returned to Paulin Research Group along with the other network setup parameters, i.e.

1) Maximum possible number of users. 2) Number of simultaneous users per program.

3) Collect from each user their login username and computername. The base security system used at Paulin Research Group identifies users based on these two identifiers. Users may determine their own username and computername by running the delivered program USERNAME.EXE. Example output from the program appears below:

Example output from the program appears below: 4) Return the server ID number to the Paulin

4) Return the server ID number to the Paulin Research Group. One “secure.key” file will be returned for each separate network installation required. The email address at Paulin Research Group is “support@paulin.com”

5) Enter the username and computernames into a single ascii file named:

USERNAME.TXT. Do not include any spaces in either usernames or computernames. For example, if a username is “Bill Smith,” the entry into the USERNAME.TXT file

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should be “BillSmith”. The username should be first. And any number of spaces can be used to separate the username from the computername An example few lines from a USERNAME.TXT file are shown below:

administrator HP-0013A

BillSmith

HP-0012B

PipeStress

HP-00132B

Each user must have read/write access to this file to be able to use the program. The network administrator can change the entries in this file as needed when users or computers enter and leave the network.

To maintain a network version:

Inevitably users will be logged into the system when other users want to run the software. When this happens the following message will appear on the user’s screen that is trying to run the software:

on the user’s sc reen that is trying to run the software: If users that are

If users that are “logged in” do not get “logged out” when they leave the software either because of system crashes, dropped network connections, etc. the security system will believe that a license is still in use that should be available. When this happens the system administrator can run the program:

NETRESET.EXE from the installation directory on the server machine. This program will reset the security system, logging out all users.

Additionally, if a user suspects that he/she may be logged in, and wants to be sure to “log out” of the system, the program LOGOUT.EXE can be run from the user’s machine to logout only a single user. (The user logged out will be the one identified by the username/computername combination where the program LOGOUT.EXE is run.) The file NETUSE.TXT contains each login to the system. NETUSE.TXT is an ascii text file that contains the time of login and the username/computername combination. Only successful logins are recorded.

The file secure.key that was originially transmitted from Paulin Research Group can be reloaded at any time and the entire security system will be reset.

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There should only be one copy of secure.key on the server drive for each network setup established.

Summary:

There is considerable flexibility in how the network installations can be configured. The user must decide how many people should have access to each software program, and how many will ever need to use it simultaneously.

The simplest configuration would allow the same number of users to access all PRG programs installed. In this case, the network administrator should load all programs in the same installation subdirectory on the server. (Either can be loaded first.) Alternatively, each program can be kept in a separate subdirectory.

Each user must have read/write access to the installation directory.

The network administrator should run the program NETDRIVE from the server with the argument pointing to the root of the drive where the program will be loaded, i.e.

NETDRIVE C:\

The drive id returned should be transmitted to the Paulin Research Group.

The administrator should collect the username and computername combinations that should be able to access the system. These should be entered into a single ascii file and placed in the installation subdirectory on the server. There should be no spaces in either the username or the computername. When entering usernames and computernames in the USERNAME.TXT file, just ignore spaces in the names. Do use spaces to separate the username from the computername.

Paulin Research Group will provide a file: secure.key for each network installation. Copy this file to the program installation directory on the server and the system should be ready to use.

Any number of username/computername combinations can be entered into the USERNAME.TXT file, but only the first <n> will be used, where <n> is the maximum the user has requested for his license.

Network Checklist:

1) Make sure that the USERNAME.TXT file is in the application directory on the server.

2) There should not be spaces in either the username or computername. The only space(s) should be to separate the username from the computername on a single line. If the username or computername has spaces in it, then ignore them when entering the username and computername into the USERNAME.TXT file.

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3) Be sure that any shortcuts to the programs point to PRGMAPS.EXE for BOS Fluids and FE/Pipe, and to STARTNP.EXE for NozzlePRO, and to STARTAXI.EXE for AxiPRO.

4) Make sure that the user has read/write/create priveledges to all files in the installation directory. Insert a username/computername for the network administrator in the USERNAME.TXT file and see if the network administrator can start BOS Fluids in a non-DEMO mode.

5) Be sure that the secure.key file is copied into the program installation directory on the network.

6) If one secure.key file is returned, then all PRG programs must reside in a single installation directory. If two or more secure.key files are returned, then be sure not to confuse the files. (Each secure.key file will have a different program setting in this case.)

7) Rerun the program NETDRIVE.EXE on the server drive and make sure that the number (drive ID) returned is the same one that was sent to PRG.

8) PRG Network protected software will not run in DEMO mode. If the program starts in DEMO mode, then most likely either:

a) A shortcut is incorrect and the wrong program is being started.

b) The secure.key file is corrupted or in the wrong place.

Problems with network versions should manifest themselves with network-related error messages.

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General Liquids & Gases

25, 2003 www.paulin.com General Liquids & Gases Each of the BOS Fluids, “General Liquids & Gases”

Each of the BOS Fluids, “General Liquids & Gases” input screens are described in this section. The input for each cell is described in detail and numerous reference suggestions are given. In all cases the “?” key can be entered when the cursor is in a data cell to bring up help for the data cell. TextIN, TextOUT, and TextADD options appear across the top of each input window. These features allow the user to write out, or read in a text file that contains the basic screen data. Writing out a text file is useful when the user wants to perform an operation on the data in excel, notepad, or some other program that is more suitable for the type of change required than the BOS Fluids editor. User’s can also use these files to create BOS Fluids input from a spreadsheet. Input and output is to the standard text file TEXTIO.TXT. The TextIN, TextOUT and TextADD commands all read or write to the file TEXTIO.TXT. Semicolons are used as cell delimiters in TEXTIO.TXT. This is because some cells in BOS Fluids (the coordinate cell for example) permit the entry of commas to delineate entries. The user wishing to use these features are encouraged to experiment writing, viewing and modifying existing example files to gain an understanding of how these alternate input features can be used.

The Gas Transient module is used to assess the temperature drop downstream of control or relief valves. These temperature drops can drop the line temperature below the nil ductility temperature for the pipe producing a potential for brittle failure. Superheated steam systems can also be analyzed and the drop in temperature checked to be sure that excess condensate does not form in the outlet flow. This module and its input is described at the end of this section.

The following flow tolerance exists on the optional data form:

following flow tolerance exists on the optional data form: For small diameter pipe systems, or for

For small diameter pipe systems, or for systems where very small flows are expected the flow tolerance should be set accordingly. Previous versions defaulted this tolerance to 0.1, and for certain sized piping or tubing systems this tolerance may not be sufficiently accurate.

Input Menu

this tolerance may not be sufficiently accurate. Input Menu Save Saves all inputs and/or changes made

Save

Saves all inputs and/or changes made to the job, without having to plot the model. Plot, Prepares and Submit always “Saves” first before continuing. “Save” does not prepare the model for analysis. A “saved” model should not be analyzed. The “save” feature is intended to update the image of the input on the hard disk so that work is not lost in the event of a power failure or system crash.

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Plot

Generate a plot of the model. Only a graphical image will be generated. Solution files are not written. This is a model check feature only. To plot and prepare the model for analysis, use the “Prepare for Analysis” feature. The Plot feature will generate plots when there are fatal errors in the model if possible so that the user can interrogate the plot to try to find any mistakes. “Prepare” often will not generate the plot of a model if fatal errors in the model are detected.

Prepare for Analysis

“Prepare for Analysis,” plots the model, and writes all necessary data files to run BOS Fluids. After the “prepare” step, the user can go straight to Analysis from the main menu. A “Prepare for analysis” will check for fatal errors, exit the input program, write all data files needed for the solution requested and generate a plotted model of the geometry for interrogation. When the plot session is ended control is returned to the PRGMAPS main menu where the user can “ANALYZE” the BOS Fluids model.

Submit for Analysis

Submit for Analysis plots the model, performs all fatal error checking, prepares the job for analysis, writes all necessary data files for analysis and starts the analysis directly. There is no need to return to the PRGMAPS main menu to start the analysis. This option should be used only when the user does not need any preview of the model geometry before running.

Pipe Elements

preview of the model geometry before running. Pipe Elements Start, Middle, End Nodes Enter two or

Start, Middle, End Nodes

Enter two or three node numbers. Two node numbers are entered to define a single element, and three nodes are entered to define two elements.

If three node numbers are entered, i.e. 5, 10, 15, the first element goes from 5-to -10, and the second element goes from 10-to-15. If two elements are defined by this screen then enter two sets of delta coordinates (dx, dy, dz) in the coordinate data cells.

Any defined nodes may go to the tangent intersection points (TIPT's) of bends. The two pipe segments may be co-linear to define a straight run of pipe or at any angle. Bends may be placed at either end, or at the middle node of the segments. Separate the node numbers by spaces or commas.

Several node numbering examples are shown below:

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Fluids Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com Bend Tangent Node Enter up to three node numbers.

Bend Tangent Node

Enter up to three node numbers. The node numbers should be nodes that are located at tangent intersection points on bends. (In the two examples on the right above, node 10 is a tangent intersection point for bends. In the far right example, 15 is a tangent intersection also.

Tangent intersection points only have to be defined once, and may be defined on any element on which they appear. The bend radius is inserted automatically by BOS Fluids. The user can run from tangent intersection-to-tangent intersection as shown in the far right sketch above.

Separate node numbers by spaces or commas.

dx, dy, dz

Enter the delta coordinates to define the length and orientation of the pipe elements.

For example, if the node numbers entered are: 5, 10, 15, the first set of delta coordinates would be entered to describe the element from 5-to-10, and the second set of delta coordinates would be entered to describe the elements from 10-to-15. In English units a feet-inch format can be used, i.e. 5 feet, 10 inches can be entered as 5-10. In Metric units the exponential format is most useful for entering dimensions in meters, for example 80 meters is entered 80E3.

Separate numbers by spaces or commas.

Pipe Diameter, Thickness and Roughness

Enter the actual outside diameter of the pipe followed by the pipe thickness, followed by the pipe roughness. The roughness may be omitted and will default to 0.05mm.

There is no provision for converting nominal pipe sizes to actual.

Bend Radii

Enter the radii for the bend tangent nodes given. If there are three bend tangent nodes then enter three radii.

If left blank or zero the radii will default to 1.5 times the nominal diameter of the pipe.

For example, if the data sheet defines the two elements from 10 to 15, and from 15 to 20; and the nodes 15 and 20 are bend tangent nodes and the bends are short radius bends, i.e. 14in. then a part of the input data sheet would appear:

10, 15, 20

Start, Middle, End Nodes

15, 20

Bend tangent Node(s)

14, 14

Radius (Bends Only)

If 10, 15 and 20 are ALL bend tangent points that define 14" short radius bends, then the input data sheet would look:

10, 15, 20

Start, Middle, End Nodes

10, 15, 20

Bend Tangent Node(s)

14,14,14

Radius (Bends Only)

If 15 and 20 are bend tangent points, and only at point 20 does the bend have a short radius the input data sheet would look:

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10, 15, 20

Start, Middle, End Nodes

15, 20

Bend Tangent Node(s)

DEFAULT, 14

Radius(Bends Only)

The word "DEFAULT" implies that the first bend should have the default long radius, and the second bend should have a 14" radius. (The words DEFAULT or NONE may be used synonymously.) Note that bend tangent nodes and bend radii only need to be defined ONCE, on any data sheet where the bend tangent node appears on an element segment.

Pipe Material

Enter either of:

STEEL for all low carbon and alloy steel materials (E=210,000 MPa, u(xy)=0.3, u(yx)=0

GRE55 for 55 degree wound Glass Reinforced Epoxy (22,775, 0.65, 0.38)

GRE63 for 63 degree wound Glass Reinforced Epoxy (24,515, 0.62, 0.26)

GRE73 for 73 degree wound Glass Reinforced Epoxy (26,965, 047, 0.15)

GRP00 for continuous wound Glass Reinforced Polyester (17,715, 0.3, 0.25)

FUJIK Helical Wound GRP (18,091, 0.69, 0.39)

UPVCO (2,757, 0.4, 0)

PVC (2,895, 0.15, 0)

Other materials as needed can be added on request.

Pipe Restraint Description

Enter any of:

STD

Above ground, typically supported piping.

BURIED

Below ground pipe, axially restrained due to the restraining friction action of the soil.

BELLOWS Pipe, of expansion joint, or bell and spigot construction that cannot support axial loads without separating.

IGNORE

Pipe elements that are NOT A PART OF THE FLUID MODEL. This option is used most often when piping systems are brought into BOS Fluids from an external source. These models often contain constructions required for mechanical analyses that have no meaning for the fluid simulation. These elements MUST be ignored, or BOS Fluids will try to find a flow path through the collective element system.

LUMP

Used for very short pipe segments to set the speed of sound in the element to infinity and to eliminate the element from the time stepping determination.

The different element types determine how the speed of sound is calculated for the segment. STD elements will dilate radially and contract axially. Buried elements can dilate radially, but cannot contract axially. Bellows elements have essentially no pipe stiffness and plastic pipe elements have an interaction requiring the assumed winding angle and Poisson’s ratio. The LUMP element is used when there is a short crossover between two piping systems and the length of the crossover is not important. For large systems, the maximum time step allowed can be controlled by the smallest required element in the system. If the smallest element in the system is a short crossover, the time stepping can get quite small and solution times can become excessive. In these cases the user can change any pipe length not connecting to a valve or other NON-Pipe element to a LUMP to speed the solution.

Temperature (Deg)

Enter the temperature of the fluid in the pipe. In English units this is in Degrees Fahrenheit, and in SI units this is in Degrees Celsius. Enter this value anywhere in the fluid where the temperature changes. Multiple temperatures are used to describe the effect of chillers or other heating or cooling equipment on the properties of the fluid downstream of the equipment.

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Description:

Enter any two lines of text to describe the element. The text cells are used only for element identification purposes and are not included in listings or printouts at this time.

Fluid Name (F9)

Hit the key F9 or click on the small button just opposite the Fluid Name. The following fluid data screen will appear:

Fluid Name. The following fluid data screen will appear: The above list contains the choices cu

The above list contains the choices currently available for fluid properties stored in the program. The option for steam is for slightly superheated steam at 750 deg. F. Wherever there is any question about the fluid properties the user is encouraged to enter the fluid properties directly by selected the USER option.

Liquids or gases can be added into the BOS Fluids data base if desired. The fluid data base resides in a file named liquid.dat in the BOS Fluids installation directory. This file may be modified using Notepad or any other compatible ascii editor. There are (6) columns of data in liquid.dat. A part of the entry for water is shown below.

WATER

24

0.0

999.8

1.781e-3

2020.0

0.61e3

0.0

5.0

1000.0

1.518e-3

2060.0

0.87e3

0.0

10.0

999.7

1.307e-3

2100.0

1.23e3

0.0

15.0

999.1

1.139e-3

2140.0

1.70e3

0.0

20.0

998.2

1.002e-3

2180.0

2.34e3

0.0

The name of the fluid is on the first line followed by the number of data lines used to define the fluid. There are 24 lines to define the fluid water. Each data line describes the properties at a different temperature. Each column in the file is defined below:

Column 1 – Temperature in deg. C Column 2 – Density in kg/cu.m. Column 3 – Viscosity in Newton Seconds / sq.meter. Column 4 – Bulk Modulus in MPa Column 5 – Vapor Pressure in Pascals Column 6 – Saturation Pressure in Pascals (Not Used)

If the user selects the “user” fluid property, the following data screen appears:

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Fluids Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com The Fluid Types available in BOS Fluids are: GAS

The Fluid Types available in BOS Fluids are:

GAS – Non-choked gas flows where the pressure drop is less than 30% of mean line pressure. LIQUID – Newtonian Liquid Flow BOTH – Homogenous two phase flow of liquid and gas. DEFLAGRATION – Explosion wave front simulation.

Each of the items will be discussed below:

Speed of Sound – Optional input. If the user knows the speed of sound for a particular gas, liquid or combination then its value should be entered. In general this field is left blank and the program calculates the speed of sound based on fluid properties.

Gas Volume / Total Volume @ mean line pressure – Required input if BOTH is entered for the fluid type. This input determines the volume ratios of gas to liquid. The speed of sound of two phase mixtures can be significantly reduced by the introduction of small amounts of gas into the fluid. Slower speeds of sound will drop response times and lower acoustic natural frequencies. The lowest acoustic natural frequency of a liquid-gas system is often between the all gas and all liquid states.

Properties for Gases or the Flow Gas Component:

Estimated Mean Line Pressure (gage) – This is the estimated average pressure in the line. Typically some pressure between the inlet and the outlet. This pressure is used to determine the speed of sound in the gas. The effective bulk modulus of the gas is estimated as the entered mean line pressure times the ratio of the specific heats. Cp/Cv (Ratio of Specific Heats) – Enter this value for the gas. Viscosity (cp) – Enter the viscosity of the gas in centipoises. Values on the order of 0.02 cp are typical. Weight Density – Enter the weight density of the gas at the mean line pressure. Note that this value is a typically English Units measure. For Metric users this is the mass of the gas multiplied by the gravitational constant “g,” typically taken as 9.81 m./sq.sec.

Properties for Deflagration:

Cp – Specific Heat – Enter the specific heat of the reactant. Input should be in TU/mass unit/deg., where TU is the thermal unit of choice. Typically BTU’s for English units and Joules for Metric units. The mass unit is kg for Metric units and lbm for English units. H(Enthalpy Increase per mole of Product) – Enter the enthalpy increase per mole of product expected during the deflagration event. M(Avg Molecular Wgt of Reactants) M(Avg Molecular Wgt of Reaction Products)

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Ti(abs) Initial Temperature of Reactants (deg.)

The difference between a deflagration event and an explosion, is that the explosion wave front has a reaction driving the pressure front at a speed determined by the thermodynamics of the reaction and the fluid properties. The deflagration tends to be a slower event, and the wave front is driven by an essentially static reaction source.

The deflagration analysis proceeds as follows:

1)

Build the BOS Fluids model of the vessel and attached pipe model. (Typically the deflagration source

2)

will be a concentration of product in a vessel or other container volume.) Enter the Deflagration data as described above.

3)

Run a “Prepare for Analysis” and review the plot for accuracy.

4)

Check the Tabular listings that describe the run to extract the calculated deflagration pressure multiplier.

5)

Ramp the pressure in the vessel from the startup pressure to the product of the pressure and pressure

6)

multiplier in 5-to-10 ms. Make sure the deflagration model type is selected so that BOS Fluids knows to use the traveling deflagration front celerity as the system speed of sound. The results from the transient are maximum pressures and forces and moments on the piping system.

Properties for Liquids or the Flow Liquid Component:

Weight Density – Enter the weight density of the liquid or liquid component of a two phase flow. Note that this is an essentially density measure and is the equivalent of the mass multiplied by the acceleration of gravity. For water this value is approximately: (1000 kg/cu.m )(9.81 m/sq.sec) = 9810 N/cu.m. in metric units and 62.4 lb./cu.ft. in English units. Viscosity –(cp) Enter the viscosity of the fluid in centipoises. Water is about 1cp. Bulk Modulus – This is the elastic modulus of the fluid. Typical values are:

Liquid

psi

MPa

Water

286,000

2000

Kerosene

204,000

1430

Benzene

147,000

1030

Ammonia

305,000

2135

Vapor Pressure (ABS) – Enter the absolute measure of the vapor pressure for the fluid. Typically this is a value that is looked up in a table for a given temperature of the fluid. This value is only used for certain slugging simulations and if the user wants to permit column separation of the fluid. Column separation occurs when a low pressure is developed in the fluid and vapor may come out of solution and form an air pocket in the line. These air pockets can potentially cause pressure spikes when they implode, and if the large cavity model is activated they can travel down the pipe in a “slug-like” manner. The vapor pressure is an input that has a special purpose when modeling traveling slugs. The user should review the section on slug simulation for more on the use of this input in that instance.

The user can always edit the user data screen by entering 8-Flow Elements

edit the user dat a screen by entering 8-Flow Elements And then F9-User Fluid Properties to

And then F9-User Fluid Properties

entering 8-Flow Elements And then F9-User Fluid Properties to bring up the fluid properties data sheet

to bring up the fluid properties data sheet whenever it should be reviewed or changed. Any of the individual user data can be edited or changed via the 8-Flow Elements data screen.

Search (Hit F11 from the Pipe Element menu)

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Fluids Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com The search menu window allows searching through the elem

The search menu window allows searching through the element list for single nodes or for elements that contain at least two nodes. Repeated searching for a node or element will find the next occurrence of that node or element. The user can also employ the TextOUT feature to write out a TEXTIO.TXT file in the current work folder that contains a semicolon delimited file of the screen input data. From this file the user can also do a variety of searches or changes. Once the TEXTIO.TXT file is modified the user can read it back in to replace the current input or add it to the end of the already current input. The semicolon delimited fields were setup to work with excel.

Multiplier (Hit F1 from the Pipe Element Screen)

The multiplier screen shown below allows the user to enter the resistance of affixed number of 45, 90 or 30 degree elbows to any particular straight section of pipe. This input is used to let the user enter a single long straight section of pipe and the approximate number of fittings to get a reasonable resistance model of a section of the flow network that is not important to model. Often a long straight section with a number of bends will be entered followed by a long pipe boundary condition. The long pipe boundary condition prevents the reflection of pressure or flow waves, and the long straight section with fittings provides for a proper flow resistance for other parts of the model, i.e. pumps or relief valves.

for other parts of the model, i.e. pumps or relief valves. Enter the number of 90,

Enter the number of 90, 45 or 30 degree bends on the respective straight section of pipe. Note that the node numbers for the possibly two sections of straight pipe that can be defined on each pipe data screen are given at the top of the “Multiplier” form.

Unit Converter

at the top of the “Multiplier” form. Unit Converter The unit converter screen can be accessed

The unit converter screen can be accessed from most of the BOS Fluids screens. This screen is intended to help the user convert from metric to English units, or from one set of units to another when preparing input. The user can change any of the data cells. All items on the screen are updated when one value is changed.

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Fluid Boundary Conditions

(F3 from the Pipe Element data Screen or F3 from the Flow Elements Data Listing Screen.)

Screen or F3 fr om the Flow Elements Data Listing Screen.) Boundary Condition Node Specify the

Boundary Condition Node

Specify the point in the model of the piping system where fluid boundary condition applies. These are typically points of specified head(pressure) or flowrate. (See F4-Equipment for alternative methods of specifying equipment-type fluid boundary conditions.)

Dead ends are found and applied automatically by BOS Fluids to any node in the model connected only to a single element that does not already have any other fluid boundary condition defined.

BE SURE TO SPECIFY FLUID BOUNDARY CONDITIONS WHERE YOU KNOW THEM!!

Only a single boundary condition is allowed per node, i.e. either the flow or the head may be specified. If the pressure is specified at a node then the program will calculate the flow required to support that pressure. If a flow is specified at a node then the program will back-calculate the pressure to support that flow.

Usually at least two boundary conditions must be specified for each model, and one of those boundary conditions must be a pressure. BOS Fluids can solve for the flows from pressures, but it must have at least one pressure at a boundary condition to solve for the surrounding flows. This is demonstrated in the sketch below.

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Fluids Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com Boundary Action A fluid node can be of the

Boundary Action

A fluid node can be of the following different types:

FIXFLOW

The flow into OR out-of the system at the specified node is fixed at a given value for all time. When FIXFLOW is specified the flowrate is fixed BOTH for steady state and for transient calculations. A FIXFLOW of 0.0 is the same as a DEADEND. A positive value of the flow for a FIXFLOW boundary puts fluid into the system, and a negative value of the flow for a FIXFLOW boundary withdraws fluid from the system. (For conditions where the user knows the flow in the steady state condition through a piece-of-equipment, but is not certain that the flow will be maintained during the pressure buildup of a transient, then the EQUIPMENT element model can be used to provide a fixed resistance, but variable flow boundary condition.)

FIXHEAD

The head (or pressure) at a particular node in the system is fixed for BOTH the steady state and transient conditions. The pressure specified at the FIXHEAD point should NOT include any pressure head due to the elevation of the fluid. The pressure specified is the so-called “static-head,” the pressure measured by a Pitot tube that is held at right angles to the flow. The total energy of the flow is equal to this entered pressure head plus the flow velocity squared divided by the acceleration due to gravity (the dynamic head). (The sum of the static head and the dynamic head equal the total pressure – which is measured by a Pitot tube that is turned into the flow, i.e. that measures line pressure and the component of the flow that brings the fluid to a rest.)

DEADEND

There is no flowrate past this point. DEADENDs are assumed at each node in the piping system where only a single element is attached that is not predefined by some other nodal entity.

LONGPIPE

A long pipe connection is a boundary condition that does not reflect either pressure or flow waves. This connection simulates the attachment of an infinite amount of straight pipe. Any wave passing this boundary is assumed to continue on forever without returning. LONGPIPE boundary conditions can use a linear or second order approximation of the incoming flow properties to keep the wave from reflecting.

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LONGPIPE is used for the LINEAR approximation (2 terms), and LONG2PIPE is used for the second order approximation, (3 terms). When using LONG2PIPE the user should only be sure that the attached pipe has at least two reaches. (See the Pipe parameters report for how many reaches are in a single pipe length.)

The LONGPIPE boundary condition is used when the user is concerned with local disturbances and does not want to be concerned with reflections from far-away locations. LONGPIPE is neither a FIXHEAD or a FIXFLOW type boundary although the user can specify either the initial pressure or flow at the boundary node. (If both pressure and flow are specified then the flow will be ignored.) The pressure or flow is used in the steady state solution to establish the basic flow pattern. Once the transient begins, both the pressure and the flow can change at the LONGPIPE boundary condition to accommodate the incoming pressure or flow wave without reflecting it.

The longpipe boundary condition requires a few time steps to establish the state of the transient flow. During this time there may be small perturbations in the flow. The user should check for the presence of these disturbances and start any transient of concern after these perturbations have dissipated.

LONG2PIPE

Second order LONGPIPE approximation of the incoming waveform. The user must make sure that there is at least two reaches in the attached pipe when LONG2PIPE is used.

SONICHEAD

Used to allow the user to specify the sonic FLOWRATE at a choked location. The steady state solution will calculate the resulting pressure to support the specified flow, and then apply that pressure as a constant during the transient solution. Used to specify the boundary condition at a high-pressure gas letdown station.

TIMEHEAD

The head at the node varies with time during the transient analysis. The head as a function of time should be specified in the field given for it below. When entering a TIMEHEAD boundary specification, the steady state value of the pressure should be entered in the FIXHEAD field, and the pressure-time history should be entered in the TIMEHEAD field. Up to 10 different pressure vs. time curve points may be entered.

Up to 500 pressure or flow vs. time points may be entered for an individual time or flow head in an optional text input file. The user should imitate a shorter TIMEHEAD, or TIMEFLOW history generated by the program and then add the additional points using an ascii editor such as notepad. Up to 500 points may be added in this way. The ascii text input should be stored in the model data base in a file with a .TXT extension. BOS Fluids is instructed to read this file on the Optional data form.

BOS Fluids will linearly ramp the head or time between changing times. For example in the input below:

Time

Head

0.0

sec

100 psig

1.0

sec

100 psig

2.0

sec

200 psig

3.0

sec

200 psig

The pressure will remain constant up until 1.0 seconds. Then it will linearly increase to 2.0 seconds where it will remain constant for the next second at 200 psig.

TIMEFLOW

The flowrate "to" or "from" the node varies with time. The flowrate as a function of time should be specified in the field available for it below. The steady state flowrate should be entered in the FIXFLOW field.

HARMONICHEAD

HARMONICFLOW

The head at the node oscillates in a periodic way during the transient. The mean head of the flow should be given below along with the frequency of the oscillation and the percentage of the mean value of the head that is varying. The flow may also be started up over some period, (ramped), and shutdown over a different period.

The flowrate at the node oscillates in a periodic way during the transient. The mean value of the flowrate should be given below along with the frequency of the oscillation and the percentage of the mean value of the flow that is varying.

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Flowrates are positive if TOWARDS the node, i.e. into the system, and negative if AWAY from the node, i.e. OUT of the system.

and negative if AWAY from the node, i.e. OUT of the system. Harmonic Pressure/Flow Time Waveform

Harmonic Pressure/Flow Time Waveform Filter

Flowrate (Volumetric) (cu.ft./sec.)

or (cu.m/sec)

Enter the desired fluid flowrate for FIXFLOW, HARMONICFLOW, TIMEFLOW, SONICHEAD or LONGPIPE

For a node in the piping system this is the supply of fluid ADDED to the system if positive, and TAKEN FROM the piping system if negative. For LONGPIPE either the flowrate or head may be entered. If both the head and the flowrate are given then the head will be used and the flowrate will be ignored.)

Head (Height of Liquid Column or Force-per-Area)

Enter the desired system pressure in the appropriate units.

Height of Fluid Column:

SI=meters

English=feet

Force per Unit Area

SI=bar

English=psi

The head SHOULD be entered if the boundary condition type is FIXHEAD, HARMONICHEAD OR TIMEHEAD. For HARMONICHEAD or TIMEHEAD the head or pressure value entered into this column is used to establish the steady state value of the system flows. For LONGPIPE either the flowrate or the head may be entered. If both the head and the flowrate are given then the head will be used and the flowrate ignored.

The pressure specified in BOS Fluids is the so-called “static” pressure. The “dynamic” pressure is found by BOS Fluids when the velocities are computed, and the so-called, “total pressure” is the sum of the static and dynamic pressures.

Time for TIMEHEAD (sec)

Enter the INCREASING times in the head vs. time curve.

Input in the TIMEHEAD, Time field will only be used if the Boundary Action specified above is TIMEHEAD. The time starts from 0.0, and this point can be omitted if desired. (The zero time head is taken from the FIXHEAD input above.) There is a maximum of 10 time history data points available from the input screens although up to 500 may be entered using the text input file method described above. Times entered do not need to start at 0.0 seconds. The steady state solution is assumed to exist at 0.0 seconds and the user only needs to enter changes from that condition. If there are questions about data entry formats, the user is suggested to build a small test model and apply the time history in question. In the output the time history for that particular node can be plotted and the user can see exactly how the program interpreted the particular input data set. BE SURE TO DEACTIVATE MAXIMUM PRESSURE TRAPPING when checking boundary condition inputs. To produce readable reports the pressure is only reported at the user input nodes. Internally the maximum pressure may occur at some other point in the pipe however, and if this happens then the maximum pressure will be reported at the node closest to the point where the actual maximum pressure occurred. This maximum pressure trapping can disturb the maximums reported for a boundary condition point and so should be turned off to see just the pressures at the nodes. THIS IS TRUE

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WHENEVER THE USER IS ONLY INTERESTED IN PRESSURE AT A SINGULAR POINT AND NOT THE MAXIMUM PRESSURE AT ANY POINT IN THE CONNECTED PIPE SEGMENT

Head for TIMEHEAD

Enter the head values that correspond on a 1-to-1 basis with the times entered above. (These two sets of values define the time history of the nodal boundary pressures.)

This input will only be used if the Boundary Action specified above is TIMEHEAD.

Time for TIMEFLOW

Enter the INCREASING times to describe the flow vs. time boundary condition. Up to 10 points in the flow vs. time history may be entered. Up to 500 may be entered in the ascii format input file mode. This input will only be used if the Boundary Action specified above is TIMEFLOW.

Flow for TIMEFLOW

Enter the flowrate values that correspond on a 1-to-1 basis with the times entered above. (These two sets of values define the time history of the nodal boundary flowrates.)

This input will only be used if the Boundary Action specified above is TIMEFLOW.

HARMONICFLOW OR HARMONICHEAD

For HARMONICFLOW or HARMONICHEAD boundary conditions enter the frequency of the flow or head oscillation and optionally the phase angle on the first line in the text cell, and the amplitude of the oscillation as a percentage of the mean flow or head on the second line. To minimize transient effects the harmonic flow or head boundary can have a ramp superimposed on the sinusoidal excitation during startup and can have a specified stop time and shutdown duration. These inputs are shown schematically on the figure below:

These inputs are shown schematically on the figure below: HARMONICFLOW or HARMONICHEAD Startup Duration (sec) –

HARMONICFLOW or HARMONICHEAD Startup Duration (sec) – See the figure above. This is the linear startup time for HARMONICFLOW or HARMONICHEAD boundary conditions. This specification is used to soften the startup transient.

HARMONICFLOW or HARMONICHEAD Stop Time (sec) – See the figure above. This is the total time for the steady state portion of the harmonic oscillation. The total constant amplitude harmonic oscillation will occur for [(stop time) – (startup duration)] seconds.

HARMONICFLOW or HARMONICHEAD ShutDown Duration (sec) – See the figure above. This is the rampdown time after the stop time has been encountered during the transient. Used to simulate reciprocating pump rundown.

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Equipment Data –The equipment element description is accessed from the pipe element form by hitting F4 or from the 8-Flow Elements menu by hitting F4. The equipment data form is shown below.

menu by hitting F4. The equipment data form is shown below. The Equipment Element feature is

The Equipment Element feature is allows the user to simulate the transient effect of heat exchangers, coolers or similar equipment that has a known flow rate in the steady state condition, but a fixed resistance to flow in the transient condition that is not known a priori.

It is not unusual to know the flowrate of cooling water through a heat exchanger, but to be unsure of the exact pressure drop given other system conditions. The Equipment Model lets the user specify the flowrate for the steady state condition, and then finds the required pressure drop that can be accommodated by the remainder of the piping system that to provide that flowrate. From this calculation, the net resistance to flow is determined and used in the transient simulation to interact with the changing pressures and temperatures. Equipment Nodes

Enter the nodes on the equipment in the steady state flow direction. The equipment model is used most often to describe large boundary conditions, i.e. heat exchangers, condensers, plant connections, etc. that will be used in the transient simulation where a FIXFLOW boundary condition is too restrictive in terms of transient pressure wave evaluations. (See sketch below.)

transient pressure wave eval uations. (See sketch below.) From the steady state solution the friction characteri

From the steady state solution the friction characteristics (flow resistance) of the equipment are determined and used in the transient solution to properly consider the effect fluctuations in head and flowrate on the system performance.

Equipment Identifier

Enter an up to 10 character alphanumeric identifier for the piece of equipment being modeled.

Output for the equipment will be reported on a component identifier basis. 2D plots of the flow, velocity and pressure drop will also be available based on the equipment identifier entered.

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DO NOT USE SPACES OR COMMAS IN THE EQUIPMENT NAME.

Flowrate (Volumetric) (cu.ft./sec)

or

(cu.m./sec.)

Enter the flowrate through the equipment that should be established in the steady state condition. This is the steady state fixed flow from the first node to the second node. (THE ORDER OF THE NODE DESCRIPTIONS ON THE EQUIPMENT DATA SCREEN DETERMINE THE DIRECTION OF FLOW.) From the steady state solution a global friction factor for the equipment will be determined and used in the transient solution. For the transient calculation the equipment is modeled as a constant flow resistance.

Valve Data – The valve data screen allows for a variety of in-line flow restriction devices. Common BUTTERFLY, BALL, GATE and GLOBE valves can be modeled along with damped or undamped CHECK valves, damped or undamped RELIEF valves, vacuum breakers (AIR), pressure REGULATOR valves, and exchanger tube RUPTURE components. The component is identified by entering the starting and stopping node for the valve. The Valve Data screen can be accessed from the Pipe Element screen by hitting the key F5, or from the 8-Flow Elements menu by hitting the key F5. Each of the available valve types and a discussion of the input for each is given below.

and a discussion of the input for each is given below. Valve Type Available Valve Types

Valve Type

Available Valve Types are:

BUTTERFLY – Wafer type butterfly valve that provides a resistance to flow as a function of opening position.

BALL – Full or partial port valve that provides a resistance to flow as a function of opening position.

GATE – Common valve that provides a resistance to flow as a function of opening position.

GLOBE – Moving spherical valve that provides a resistance to flow as a function of opening position.

RELIEF – Valve that permits flow once a set pressure is exceeded. Relief valves can be theoretically instant open devices, or may incorporate the effects of mass, stiffness and damping. Additionally the user may specify the set, rated and reseat pressures and omit the mass stiffness and damping values. If the set, rated and reseat pressures are entered, the valve performance will be adjusted to satisfy these settings and in so doing will simulate the effect of mass, stiffness, and damping. See the section on the relief valve model below. BOS Fluids may be used for safety relief valves – used for compressible and incompressible fluid surface, and relief valves used in incompressible fluid service. The methods in BOS Fluids may not be well suited where incompressible service is to be simulated and the results should be checked carefully. There are two capabilities in BOS Fluids that can be used to simulate safety relief valve gas behavior. The

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method described in this section employs the method of characteristics, constant density and restrictions on flow velocity to simulate gas flows. The BOS Fluids Gas Transient module described elsewhere incorporates a thermodynamic model of the gas be exhausted and will predict Joule-Thompson cooling effects in the relief piping. The user should review this and other documentation carefully when addressing problems involving safety relief systems.

CHECK – Valve that permits flow in only one direction that is a function of valve opening position. The

check valve can be instant open and instant close, which is the ideal check valve, or the user may enter mass, stiffness and damping to simulate the effect of real check valves. Mass, stiffness and damping slow

the performance of the valve and in some cases allow for excessive backflow through the valve which can

then result in large waterhammer loads when the valve finally closes. See the section on check valve

modeling below.

AIR – Valve that permits a local air pocket to be collected at the valve location when a low pressure is experienced in the pipeline. The air is later expelled when the line pressure returns.

REGULATOR – Valve that opens and closes based on a sensor node at some other point in the system, in

an attempt to maintain a set pressure at the sensor node. The response time of the regulator can

determine how effectively the valve can interact with the system to control the transient. A regulator response time is determined by the properties of the valve. See the section below on pressure regulators.

RUPTURE – Valve type that simulates a single or multiple tube rupture in a heat exchanger. See the section on tube rupture simulations below.

Currently all of the types BUTTERFLY -through- GLOBE

BUTTERFLY, BALL, GATE or GLOBE valve types all support transient position control, and all have the same ability to provide fluid resistance characteristics. The inputs described below apply to each valve type unless specifically stated otherwise.

Valve Identifier

Enter an up to 10 character alphanumeric identifier for the valve. DO NOT USE SPACES OR COMMAS IN THE IDENTIFIER.

This identifier will be used to cross reference the valve transient characteristics with its steady state parameters. 2d plots are also available based on the valve type and all tabular report is given using the Valve Identifier.

Valve Discharge Coefficient

(Default = 0.5)

This is a measure of the friction loss across the valve. Typical values are between 0.0 and 1.8. Examples

are given below:

values are between 0.0 and 1.8. Examples are given below: The user is cautioned that should

The user is cautioned that should the major head loss in the system be attributable to this valve, and therefore be greatly affected by the magnitude of the discharge coefficient, then a range of values should

be studied unless test, or other data is available.

If a resistance coefficient "K" is given, then the relationship between Cd and K is given by: Cd = 1/sqrt(K).

If a Cv is given, then the Cv must be converted into the appropriate dimensionless Cd or K values. Cv is

defined in terms of volume per minute, typically U.S. Gallons per minute. The relationship between Cv and

Cd is:

Cv = (58,880) (Cd)(A) … A in sq.meters.

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Cv

Cv

= (38.0) (Cd(A) … A in sq.inches

<or>

= (29.9) d 2 / (K) 0.5 … d in inches.

For example, a 12” full bore valve with a Cd of 0.3 has a K value of 11.1 and a Cv of 1248. gallons/minute/psi.

Valve Bore

Largest inside diameter of the valve measured normal to the flow cross section. If omitted, the valve bore (id) will default to the inside diameter of the pipe.

This is the inside diameter associated with the effective flow area for relief valves and should not be defaulted to the ID of the incoming pipe. The user should get this value from the manufacturer and enter it for the valve!

Valve Closure Exponent

Used only for transient solutions.

For GATE, GLOBE, BUTTERFLY and BALL valves, this value determines how the valve flow area varies with amount of valve closure as a function of time.

Typical values range from 0.15 -to- 1.0. Values for the closure exponent that are less than 1.0 cause the majority of the flow cutoff to occur at the beginning of closure, while closure exponents larger than 1.0 cause the majority of flow cutoff to occur at the end of closure. (See the figures below.) The default value of 0.2 simulates a wide variety of typical gate or swing valve closure behavior since the flow will tend to slow the closing as the flow area decreases, and will tend to speed the opening as the opening starts. The user should either check the behavior for a particular valve, or make sure, using a sensitivity study, that the valve exponent entered will not significantly affect results.

Many valve manufacturers will provide Cv values for a range of valve opening conditions. The Cv constant is the number of gallons per minute for a one psi pressure drop across the valve. From above the basic equation relating Cv and CdA is:

[Cv] Full = (c o )[(Cd)(A)] Full

And for the case where the valve is half opened:

[Cv] half = (c o )[TAU] half [(Cd)(A)] Full

TAU at half opened during a full valve cycle is (t/T c ) em so that the ratio of [Cv] half over [Cv] full is:

[Cv] half / [Cv] full = (0.5) em

This can be solved for em from the manufacturer’s values for Cv:

em = (-3.322) log 10 ( [Cv] half / [Cv] full )

The steps for entering accurate valve data from manufacturers Cv data is as follows:

Step 1: Find Cd for the full flow case from Cd = (Cv /[ (58,880)(A) ]) where A is in meters squared, or from Cd = ( Cv / [(29.9)(d 2 )] where d is the inside diameter in inches. This is the value of Cd that should be entered into BOS Fluids.

Step 2: Find the closure exponent by the equation: em = (-3.322) log 10 ( [Cv] half / [Cv] full )

Basic Valve or Non-Pipe Flow Equation:

The flow through the valve is related to the pressure drop across the valve by the equation:

where

Q = (Cd)(A)[2gH] 0.5

Q – flow through the valve. (cu.ft./sec) or (cu.m./sec)

Cd – valve discharge coefficient (unitless)

A – Cross section inside area of the valve.

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g

– gravitational constant

H

– Pressure drop across the valve measured in fluid head.

As the valve is opened or closed, the value of the (Cd)(A) product varies and can be expressed:

(Cd)(A) = (TAU)[(Cd)(A)] @100% OPEN

The variation of Tau with time during opening or closing is calculated during the transient by:

where

TAU = TAUI – (TAUI – TAUF)(t/Tc) em

t – is the time from the start of the change of state of the valve.

Tc - is the total time for the change of state.

em – is the valve coefficient

TAUI - %Opening at the beginning of the change of state

TAUF - %Opening at the end of the change of state.

TAU for three different values of “em” is plotted below for a valve closing and opening. (100% -to- 0%)

below for a valve closing and opening. (100% -to- 0%) (Closing) em = 0.2 (Closing) em

(Closing) em = 0.2

(Closing) em = 1.0

(Closing) em = 2.2

When em=0.2 the valve change of state starts rapidly, but ends slowly. For em=1.0 the change of state is linear, and for em=2.2 the change starts slowly but finishes rapidly.

for em=2.2 the change starts slowly but finishes rapidly. (Opening) em = 0.2 (Opening) em =

(Opening) em = 0.2

(Opening) em = 1.0

(Opening) em = 2.2

On opening (the same as for closing), small values of “em” cause the change to start rapidly and end more slowly. To summarize

Value of em

Opening

Closing

Small

Start Fast – End Slowly

Start Fast – End Slowly

1.0

Linear

Linear

Large

Start Slow – End Quickly

Start Slow – End Quickly

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The user can specify up to 10 valve change states in the standard input data screen, or up to 20 may be entered in an ascii data file. (See Chapter 2 Section 8 the ACTION command and the bottom of the OPTION form for ascii file input.) Each state change that represents a different opening for the valve will invoke the TAU calculation described above to compute the (Cd)(A) product for the valve. An example is given below:

Time

ValveOpening

TAUI

TAUF

Duration

0.0

100.

100

50

0.25

0.25

50

1.4

50

50

20

0.55

1.95

20

20

0

1.35

Most typical BOS Fluids applications involve the full opening or closing of a valve at a particular point in time, and for generic valves an em=0.2 value most closely resembles their opening and closing characteristics.

For check valves the closure exponent is used to determine if the user wants a theoretically instant-open, instant-close check valve or a more realistic one. If em=0, or blank, then an instant open valve will be modeled. For any value greater than zero, a damped value will be simulated.

value greater than zero, a damped value will be simulated. Instant Opening Non-Instant (em= 0.2) Non-Instant

Instant Opening

than zero, a damped value will be simulated. Instant Opening Non-Instant (em= 0.2) Non-Instant (c1=0.1 ft.lb.sec/rad,

Non-Instant (em=0.2)

Non-Instant (c1=0.1 ft.lb.sec/rad, em=0.2)

When a CHECK valve is instant opening (or closing), the direction of flow is used to determine the state of the valve. When a check-valve is Non-Instant Opening, the mass, stiffness and damping of the valve are used in addition to the flow state surrounding the valve. A positive flowrate calculated will force the check valve opened. (Although the check valve may close of its own accord if the pressure holding the valve open is less than the set pressure for the valve plus the weight of the disk. The equation to be satisfied is:

(I)d 2 a/dt 2 + (c)da/dt + Tarm - (Kdi 2 /4)(cos a+da/2) = (dp)(Ai)(di/2) + w(di/2)cos( a ) + (pset)(Ai)di/2

where Tarm is the torque due to a lever arm and external damper, and the flow area Ai is raised to the power (em.) The angle (a) is zero when the valve is fully opened, and 90 deg. when the valve is fully closed. (This is what produces the minus sign in front of the stiffness term in the equation above.)

User’s can estimate check valve damping using a part of the equation above:

(c)da/dt = (dp)(Ai)(di/2)

If a valve should close (or open) in one second, then da/dt = 90 deg./1 second. Calculations are in radians so da/dt = 1.5708 rad/sec to close or open the check valve with a constant angular velocity in one second. If the approximate “average” pressure across the valve will be 5 psi, then the damping constant can be

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calculated from:

C

= (dp)(Ai)(di/2) / (da/dt)

The example problem in the \bosmodles directory chk3 demonstrates this calculation. Note that the valve does not open in 1.0 seconds because the pressure across the valve is not a constant 5.0 psi. For the “chk3” model, Ai=132.7 sq.in., di=13 in. and the pressure drop driving the valve closure is 5.0 psi. The valve damping coefficient is then:

C = (5)(132.7)(13/2) / 1.5708) = 2745.6 lbf.in.sec./radian.

BOS Fluids uses the damping coefficient in terms of lbf.ft.sec./radian, so to use the value for c, it must be divided by 12. (See chk3 for this input, i.e. 2745.6/12 = 228 lbf.sec.ft./radian.)

User’s may be given coefficients for hydraulic arms, etc, but typically the user must experiment with a range of damping values to determine which value causes the valve to close in the period anticipated. If only the nonzero valve exponent is entered, BOS Fluids will enter a mass for the valve if the flow is reversing direction. This will close the valve. Also a small rotational damping amount is entered if the user has not entered one. The default values used are calculated by the program and are printed in the transient message section of the output.

If damping and mass is not provided the program will select small values that may result in valve flutter. The user is encouraged to try to estimate reasonable values for the mass of the disk or ball and the the damping coefficient (c1).

The “pset” value for check valves is only applied to initiate opening of the valve. Once the valve is open and moving in a further open or further closed position, “pset” is not used.

For Pressure Safety Valves the valve exponent is used only when the mass, stiffness, or damping is greater than zero. Typically the user will not have the mass, stiffness or damping of the valve, but will have the set, full flow and reseat pressure. When the set, full-flow and reseat pressures are given, the flow through the valve will be calculated using the following equation which does NOT include the valve exponent.

flow = (C) [(P-Pset)/(Pfull-Pset)]

where:

flow-

is the flow through the PSV.

C-

is a constant

P-

is the line pressure

Pset-

is the valve set pressure

Pfull-

is the full flow pressure for the valve

em-

is the valve coefficient.

When the stiffness, mass or damping of the valve is entered then the linear displacement of the valve seat is multiplied by the opening of the valve raised to the (1/em) power.

Valve Opening Percent

Enter values between 0.0 and 100. This is the starting position for the valve. The value entered here will be used in the steady state solution unchanged and then will be the initial value taken in the transient solution.

This percentage is the ratio of the open flow area to the total flow area for the valve.

Transient changes to a valves position can be input in the "ACTION" screen under the "Transient Valve Data" section by hitting the F2 key, or the user can enter the 8-Flow Elements screen and use the F6-Valve Transients selection.

The valve opening percent is the initial value of TAU for the valve. This input is not used for CHECK, RELIEF, AIR INLET OR TUBE RUPTURE valves. The initial steady state opening for PRV valves is determined in an iterative calculation during the steady state solution. The initial value entered by the user is used as a starting guess for the iteration.

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CHECK Valve Direction (PLUS/MINUS)

This input is required for CHECK valves and defines the direction of allowed unrestricted flow.

Enter "PLUS" if the allowed direction of flow is from the FROM node on the element to the TO node on the element.

Enter "MINUS" if the allowed direction of flow is from the TO node on the element to the FROM node on the element.

This input item is not used for any other valve type.

Safety Valve Set Pressure

Enter the value of the set pressure for the relief valve. The set pressure is the pressure at which the valve begins to open. This is a required input for the relief valve and is the point where the valve just begins to life.

Safety Valve Full Flow Pressure

Enter the value of the differential line pressure that will support full flow through the relief valve. The pressure safety valve will only be partially open when the driving line pressure is between the set and full flow pressures.

GAS APPLICATIONS ABOVE 14 psi or 1 bar, TYPICALLY REQUIRE SONIC MODELING TECHNIQUES. BOS Fluids includes a choked flow reduction to satisfy the sonic flow requirements at the valve orifice but the user should be sure that the model is sufficiently accurate for the intended purpose.

Safety Valve ReSeat Pressure

When a safety valve closes, the pressure at which the valve shuts is typically different from the opening pressure, and is typically about 10% lower. Enter the reseat pressure with the full flow pressure and BOS Fluids will operate the relief valve within these ranges. The difference between the set and reseat pressure is often called the blowdown pressure.

Special Valve Types

There are several special valve types that require or allow added inputs and considerations, and they are listed and described below:

RELIEF VALVES CHECK VALVES RUPTURE MODELS PRESSURE REGULATOR AIR VALVE

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Fluids Version 4.111 September 25, 2003 www.paulin.com SAFETY-RELIEF VALVES The amount of mass produced and the

SAFETY-RELIEF VALVES

The amount of mass produced and the ability of the relief valve to exhaust that mass are hand or simple programmatically problems that should be addressed outside of BOS Fluids. Many of the peculiar problems associated with relief valve flow that can be analyzed by a method-of-characteristics solution can be analyzed by the BOS Fluids Liquids and Gases Model. A special steady-state Gas Transient model