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MKE 1083

Advance Optical Communication

Lecture Intro : Introduction to Photonics

Dr Mohammad Faiz Liew Abdullah

Department of Communication
Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Semester II 2009/10 Dr Mohammad Faiz Liew Abdullah


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Reading List

iEssential Reading List


– Keiser G : Optical Fiber Communications,McGraw Hill,
2000, ISBN 0-07-36076-3
– Senior J.M : Optical Fiber Communications : Principles
and Practices, Prentice Hall, 1992, ISBN 0-13-635426-2
– Palais, J.C : Fiber Optic Communications, Prentice Hall,
2005, ISBN 0-13-008510-3
iOptional Reading List
– Agrawal G.P : Fiber Optic Communication Systems,
Wiley Interscience, 2002, ISBN 0-471-21571-6

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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BASIC DEFINITION

What is the Nature of Light?


iEnergy in the form of electromagnetic wave or particle
iLight is refer as “Optic”
What is ‘Photon’?
iParticle form of light
“Photonics to light is like Electronics to current”
What is PHOTONICS technology?
iMaking use of light, controlling, manipulating,
transferring and etc
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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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Photonics and Optical Communication

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

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ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

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FIBER OPTIC TRANSMISSION BAND

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Transmission Media
i Transmission Medium, or channel, is the actual physical path that data
follows from the transmitter to the receiver.

i Copper cable is the oldest, cheapest, and the most common form of
transmission medium to date.

i Optical Fiber is being used increasingly for high-speed applications.

FIBER REPLACES COPPER

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Transmission by Light: why?

iGrowing demand for faster and more efficient


communication systems
iInternet traffic is tripling each year
iIt enables the provision of Ultra-high bandwidth to
meet the growing demand
iIncreased transmission length
iImproved performance
ietc.

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Demand for Bandwidth

Bandwidth
Demand

1990 2000 2010

Typical data bandwidth requirement


• Raw text = 0.0017 Mb
• Word document = 0.023 Mb
• Word document with picture = 0.12 Mb
20,000 x • Radio-quality sound = 0.43 Mb
• Low-grade desktop video = 2.6 Mb
• CD-quality sound = 17 Mb
• Good compressed (MPEG1) video = 38 Mb
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THE OLDEST OPTICAL COMMUNICATION

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OPTICAL COMMUNICATION EXAMPLES
(EAST & WEST)

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Historical Developments
• 800 BC Use of fire signal by the Greeks
• 400 BC Fire relay technique to increase transmission distance
• 150 BC Encoded message
• 1880 Invention of the photophone by Alexander Graham Bell

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SOURCE - LASER

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Historical Developments - contd.
• 1930 Experiments with silica fibres, by Lamb (Germany)
• 1950-55 The birth of clad optical fibre, Kapany et al (USA)
• 1962 The semiconductor laser, by Natan, Holynal et al (USA)
• 1960 Line of sight optical transmission using laser:
- Beam diameter: 5 m
- Temperature change will effect the laser beam
Therefore, not a viable option

•1966- A paper by C K Kao and Hockham (UL) was a break


through
- Loss < 20 dB/km b
- Glass fibre rather than crystal (because of high viscosity)
- Strength: 14000 kg /m2.
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Historical Developments - contd.
• 1970 Low attenuation fibre, by Apron and Keck (USA) from 1000
dB/km - to - 20 dB/km
- Dopent added to the silica to in/decrease fibre refractive index.
• Late 1976 Japan, Graded index multi-mode fibre
- Bandwidth: 20 GHz, but only 2 GHz/km
Start of fibre deployment.

• 1976 800 nm Graded multimode fibre @ 2 Gbps/km.


• 1980’s
- 1300 nm Single mode fibre @ 100 Gbps/km
- 1500 nm Single mode fibre @ 1000 Gbps/km
- Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier
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Historical Developments - contd.
• 1990’s
- Soliton transmission (exp.): 10 Gbps over 106 km with no error
- Optical amplifiers
- Wavelength division multiplexing,
- Optical time division multiplexing (experimental) OTDM

• 2000 and beyond


- Optical Networking
- Dense WDM, @ 40 Gbps/channel, 10 channels
- Hybrid DWDM/OTDM
Š ~ 50 THz transmission window
Š > 1000 Channels WDM
Š > 100 Gbps OTDM
Š Polarisation multiplexing
- Intelligent networks
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SUMMARY OF DEVELOPMENT OF FIBER OPTICS

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Applications
¾Electronics and Computers
¾ Broad Optoelectronic
¾ Medical Application
¾ Instrumentation
¾ Optical Communication Systems
à High Speed Long Haul Networks 9

r
fo
e. ay
(Challenges are transmission type)

tim st
g to
à Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 9?

on re
a l he
à Access Network (AN)?

is
ics
Challenges are:

pt
- Protocol

O
- Multi-service capability
- Cost
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Optical Technology - Advantages
• High data rate, low transmission loss and low bit error rates
• High immunity from electromagnetic interference
• Bi-directional signal transmission
• High temperature capability, and high reliability
• Avoidance of ground loop
• Electrical isolation
• Signal security
• Small size, light weight, and stronger

62 mm

21mm
648 optical fibres
448 copper pairs
363 kg/km
5500 kg/km
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Digital Transmission Hierarchy

Called Telephony or T-Networks


Uses Copper
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First Generation Fiber Optic Systems

Purpose:
i Eliminate repeaters in T-1 systems used in inter-office trunk lines
Technology:
i 0.8 µm GaAs semiconductor lasers
i Multimode silica fibers
Limitations:
i Fiber attenuation
i Intermodal dispersion
Deployed since 1974

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Second Generation Systems

Opportunity:
i Development of low-attenuation fiber (removal of H2O and other
impurities)
i Eliminate repeaters in long-distance lines
Technology:
i 1.3 µm multi-mode semiconductor lasers
i Single-mode, low-attenuation silica fibers
i DS-3 signal: 28 multiplexed DS-1 signals carried at 44.736 Mbits/s
Limitation:
i Fiber attenuation (repeater spacing ≈ 6 km)
Deployed since 1978

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Third Generation Systems
Opportunity:
i Deregulation of long-distance market
Technology:
i 1.55 µm single-mode semiconductor lasers
i Single-mode, low-attenuation silica fibers
i OC-48 signal: 810 multiplexed 64-kb/s voice channels carried at 2.488
Gbits/s
Limitations:
i Fiber attenuation (repeater spacing ≈ 40 km)
i Fiber dispersion
Deployed since 1982

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Fourth Generation Systems

Opportunity:
i Development of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA)
Technology (deployment began in 1994):
i 1.55 µm single-mode, narrow-band semiconductor lasers
i Single-mode, low-attenuation, dispersion-shifted silica fibers
i Wavelength-division multiplexing of 2.5 Gb/s or 10 Gb/s signals
Nonlinear effects limit the following system parameters:
i Signal launch power
i Propagation distance without regeneration/re-clocking
i WDM channel separation
i Maximum number of WDM channels per fiber
Polarization-mode dispersion limits the following parameters:
i Propagation distance without regeneration/re-clocking

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Communications Technologies
Year Service Bandwidth distance product

1900 Open wire telegraph 500 Hz-km


1940 Coaxial cable 60 kHz-km
1950 Microwave 400 kHz-km
1976 Optical fibre 700 MHz-km
1993 Erbium doped fibre amplifier 1 GHz-km
1998 EDFA + DWDM > 20 GHz-km
2001- EDFA + DWDM > 80 GHz-km
2001- OTDM > 100 GHz-km
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FIVE GENERATIONS OF
OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

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System Evolution

10000

1000
Capacity (Gb/s)

100 Optical networking


Research Systems
Wavelength Switching
TOTDM
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Commercial Systems

1 SONET rings and


Fiberization DWDM linear
Digitization systems
0.1
1985 1990 1995 2000 2004
Yea
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Dr Mohammad Faiz Liew Abdullah
cisco
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BANDWIDTH EVOLUTION LANDMARKS

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BANDWIDTH AND CAPACITY

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Existing Systems - 1.2 Tbps WDM
DWDM
• Typical bit rate 40 Gbps / channel
• ~ 8 THz (or 60 nm) Amplifier bandwidth
• 32 channels (commercial) with 0.4 nm (50 GHz) spacing
• 2400 km, no regeneration (Alcatel)
Total bandwidth = (Number of channels) x (bit-rate/channel)
OTDM

• Typical bit rate 6.3 Gbps / channel


• ~ 400 Amplifier bandwidth
• 16 channels with 1 ps pulse width

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Commercial Systems

WDM Voice
Bit rate/ Bit rate/ Regen
System Year chan - channels
channel Fibre spans
nels per fibre
FT3 1980 1 45 Mb/s 45 Mb/s 672 7 km
1.7
FTG -1.7 1987 1 1.7 Gb/s 24,192 50 km
Gb/s
2.5
FT -2000 1992 1 2.5 Gb/s 32,256 50 km
Gb/s
2.5
NGLN 1995 8 20 Gb/s 258,000 360 km
Gb/s
TM 2.5
WaveStar 80 200 Gb/s 2,580,000 640 km
1999 Gb/s
400G 40 400 Gb/s 5,160,000 640 km
10 Gb/s
TM
WaveStar
2001 160 10 Gb/s 1.6 Tb/s 20,640,000 640 km
1.6T
128 10 Gb/s 1.28 Tb/s 16,512,000 4000 km
LambdaXtreme 2003
64 40 Gb/s 2.56 Tb/s 33,0 24,000 1000 km

H. Kogelnik, ECOC 2004


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Major elements of an optical fiber link

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Source

Source
Modulation Multiplexing Modulation
coding
• Frequency
• Analogue
• Time
• Digital

External Internal

• Pulse shaping
• Channel coding
• Encryption
• etc.

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Receiver
Sampler
1stst-stage 2nd
nd-stage Pre-detection
&
amplifier amplifier filtering
detector

Demultiplexer

• Equalizer Demodulator

Decoder
Decryption

Output signal
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System Block Diagram

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Photonics Institute
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Optical fiber cable installations

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FIBER OPTIC LAYOUT

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All Optical Network
IP IP

ATM ATM SDH ATM IP Other

SDH SDH Open Optical Interface

All Optical Networks


Challenges ahead:
• Network protection • Network routing • True IP-over-optics

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Optical Transport Network

Global Network < 10000 km


< 10 Tbit/s

Wide Area
Network < 100 km
< 1 Tbit/s
Metropolitan/Regional
Area Optical Network

Client/Access FTTB
ATM < 20 km
Networks SDH/ ISP
Gigabit
Cable modem
SONET Ethernet
100M - 10 Gbit/s
Networks
ATM

FTTH Corporate/
Cable PSTN/IP Mobile Enterprise Clients

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FIBER OPTIC LAYOUT

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SingTel has major stakes in the
two Asia Pacific Cable Network
cables. The 12,000 km APCN
network links Korea, Japan, Hong
Kong, Taiwan, the Philippines,
Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and
Indonesia.

Commissioned in January 1997, it


provides a direct optical link
between Australia and the rest of
Asia. APCN which costs US$640
million to build, has a design
capacity of 10 Gbps .

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Undersea Cables

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Challenges Ahead
à Modulation and detection and associated high speed electronics
à Multiplexer and demultiplexer
à Fibre impairments:
. Loss
. Chromatic dispersion
. Polarization mode dispersion
. Optical non-linearity
. etc. à Dedicated active and passive
à Optical amplifier components
. Low noise à Optical switches
. High power à All optical regenerators
. Wide bandwidth à Network protection
. Longer wavelength band S à Instrumentation to monitor QoS

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POWER CALCULATIONS
i Systems design in Optical Communication System monitors
optical power on links to ensure wave incident on detector has
sufficient strengths.
i Relative power levels in communication system is measure in
decibel (dB)
i Efficiency of transmission between two points : P
2
P1
P2
dB = 10 log 10
P1

Where P2 is the received power and P1 is the transmitter power

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POWER CALCULATIONS
P2 P3

P1 P4

P4 P4 P3 P2
= X X
P1 P3 P2 P1

P4 P P
dB = 10 log 10 + 10 log 10 3 + 10 log 10 2
P3 P2 P1

For Power gains P4/P1 > 1 (positive) and Lose P4/P1 < 1 (negative)

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REVISION QUESTIONS

i1. A system has -45dB loss. Compute its efficiency.

i2. A laser diode radiates 5mW. Compute the dBm


value of this radiated power. This power travels
through a group of optical components having a
combined loss of 30dB. Compute the output power.

i3. A photodetector requires 10mW as input power. If


all the system losses add up to 50dB, then how much
power is required from the source?
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