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From BIM to iBIM

Dr. Jack C.P. CHENG


Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Director, RFID Center
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST)
Chairman, Autodesk Industry Advisory Board (AIAB)

HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017


22 November 2017
From BIM to iBIM

Dr. Jack C.P. CHENG I-Beam


Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Director, RFID Center
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST)
Chairman, Autodesk Industry Advisory Board (AIAB)

HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017


22 November 2017
Dr. Jack C.P. CHENG
• Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST)
• Research areas include BIM, 3D GIS, Internet of Things (IoTs), AR/VR, data
mining, construction informatics and management, smart city, green buildings,
and sustainable construction
• Received PhD from Stanford University
• Chairman, Autodesk Industry Advisory Board (AIAB)
• Director and Treasurer, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) HK Section
• Committee Member, Hong Kong Construction Industry Council BIM Committee
• Chair, Global Center for Excellence in Computing, ASCE Technical Council on
Computing and Information Technology (TCCIT)
• Professional Member of HKIBIM,
Founding Member of buildingSMART Hong Kong,
Member of Association of Energy Engineers,
Certified Carbon Auditor Professional, etc.
• Young BIMer of the Year 2014, awarded by
Hong Kong Construction Industry Council
From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
What Are We Missing?
• Virtual Design Construction (VDC) Scorecard

??

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
BIM Implementation
BIM:
Information Hub
BIM is NOT
only about
Technology People
or Tools

Information
Technology
Process
/ Tools

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Soldier

Did We Make
Use of WW2 (~1945) Current
Technologies?

Construction
Worker /
Engineers

1950s Current 6
From CAD to BIM to iBIM
Information Hub
Hand Drawn
iBIM

Integrated BIM
CAD

Intelligent BIM

Information-rich BIM
BIM
Clash detection
Generate drawings Interoperable BIM
Quantity takeoff
Visualization
Etc.

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Future Impact and Likelihood of New Technologies in
Construction
Integrated BIM…

Internet of
Things
(IoT)

For FM, AM
and O&M
Integrated
BIM

Building
Facility
Management
Management
Systems
(FM) Systems
(BMS)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Using BIM and Wireless Sensor Network for
Building/Facility Life Cycle Management
Sensors integrated
with Bluetooth
BIM model with Component DB Mesh
ACS-MEP attribute
matching 3D BIM
Layout Info

Return sensor
info

Local Sensor information read by


mobile on 3D Model layout portal

Knowledge-based BIM database Local Facility Management

Remote Sites Monitoring and Control


From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Pilot Site – Hong Kong Film Archive
• Environment Temperature: 0-4℃
• Humidity: ~ 20-30% RH
• Confined space
• Strong acidic environment
• Hard wire not possible
 Wireless Bluetooth Mesh

(Courtesy: EMSD)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
User Interface

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
BIM with Sensors/RFID/IoT
• Types of sensors
7.
1.

①Component ③Space
1.Current sensors 7.Occupancy sensors
Monitoring Monitoring

2.Humidity sensors
3.Temperature sensors ④Safety 8.CO sensors
②Human
4.Sound sensors Management 9.Smoke sensors
Comfort
5.Light sensors
6.CO2 sensors

8 9.
2. 3. 4. .

5. 6.
(Cheng, Chen and Chen, 2016)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
BIM with Sensors/RFID/IoT
• BIM object families of sensors

A temperature sensor in bedroom A CO2 sensor in dining room A current sensor in the lift

An occupancy sensor in the tutor room Smoke sensors on the ceiling of each Sensor tracking via ID in the Revit model
room and corridor (Cheng, Chen and Chen, 2016)
From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
BIM with Sensors/RFID/IoT
• Integrate BIM and IoT technology to improve the operation efficiency of
building facilities considering building energy consumption as well as
indoor human comfort.

Energy
Consumption

Human Comfort
Management

(Cheng, Chen and Chen, 2017)


From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
BIM with Sensors/RFID/IoT
• Revit Plug-in for Sensor Management

Plug-in interface (Cheng, Chen and Chen, 2016)


From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Integration of BIM and IoT Sensor Network

Sensor model

Operation
state

Real time data window

The condition monitoring and operation status of HVAC system

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Integration of BIM, BMS and FM System

BMS
BIM COBie FM Software

Using Autodesk
COBie Extension for
Revit
COBie framework is COBie data is exported from Revit COBie data is
set up in Revit and aggregated through imported to
construction CMMS/FM Software

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Integration between FM System (Archibus) and BIM

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Illustrative Scenario-HKUST library
• Check maintenance work orders and broken components in BIM model

(Cheng et al. 2016)


From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Integrated BIM…
For FM, AM
Internet of
Things and O&M
(IoT)

Augmented Geographic
Reality (AR) / Information
Mixed Reality Systems
(MR) (GIS)

Integrated
BIM

Building
Facility
Management
Management
Systems
(FM) Systems
(BMS)

Indoor
Localization /
Positioning
(Mobile)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
• Macroscopic
BIM-GIS Integration • Information hub of geospatial data
Theatre / World

Country Geospatial Information


(Geographic Information System)
Installation /
Region

State / Province
Natural Asset
County
Air / Space
City
Underground
Site
Water / Sea
Real
Property Asset
Land / Parcel

Facility / Built
Building
System
Sub-Systems
Space Components
Level
Overlay
Room
Structure

System
Sub-Systems
Space Components
Level
Building information Overlay Room
(Building Information Models) Linear Structure
• Microscopic Node

• Information hub of building component data Segment


From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
BIM-3D GIS Integration Framework

(Deng and Cheng 2016)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Comparison of Evolution Progresses of GIS, BIM and
Integrated BIM-GIS

Spatial-temporal
analysis

(Song, Tan, Cheng, et al. 2017)


From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Augmented Reality – Mobile Devices (Marker-based)

(Chen, Chen and Cheng, 2017)


From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Mixed Reality – Hololens (Marker-less)

(Chen, Chen and Cheng, 2017)


From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
AR Collaboration – Mobile Devices (Marker-less)

PC

Phone

(Chen, Chen and Cheng, 2017)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Location-Aware BIM Framework
• Idea of Wi-Fi fingerprinting
- As the existence of wireless access points (WAPs) have become
prevalent, the propagation of different Wi-Fi signals forms unique
“fingerprints” at different positions in an indoor area.

• Assumptions
- Availability of multiple fixed WAPs indoor
- Signal strength levels are steady at each particular point indoor

WAP 4
WAP 1 WAP 5

WAP 2 WAP 3

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Location-Aware BIM Framework – Example

(Li, Chen, Chen and Cheng, 2017)


From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Integrated BIM…
Engineering
For Design Simulation For
Augmented
Reality (AR) /
and
Analyses 3D Printing
Fabrication
Mixed Reality (Machinery)
(MR)

Drones Internet of
Things
(UAV) (IoT)

Integrated
BIM

Geographic
Laser Information
Scanning Systems
(GIS)

For Construction
For FM, AM
Building
Facility
Management
Planning and
Management
Systems
(FM) Systems
Indoor (BMS)
and O&M
Monitoring
Localization /
Positioning
(Mobile)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Integrated Building Design

Structural design Energy simulation


& operational carbon

Building
Information
Modelling
Computational fluid (BIM)
dynamics (CFD) Embodied carbon
& construction materials

Impact of external wind on


indoor thermal environment
(Gan et al., 2017)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Green/Sustainable Building Design Optimization
• Low carbon, energy efficiency, human comfort

Revit
BIM Model

gbXML
Unconditioned

Energy Simulation Software (eQUEST)


Consider different
• Insulation options
• Building configurations
• Construction materials
Inside Face
0, 50, 100 and 150 mm
• Etc.
Thermal Insulation
Concrete 200 mm
Outside Face (Gan et al., 2017)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Integration of BIM Models and Structural Analysis

3D Arch BIM Structural Analysis Optimized Rebar Detailing Drawings


Design

Automated Optimization + 3D Spatial Information = Automated Clash


Resolution
Automated Construction Drawing
Detailing
(Cheng and Mangal, 2017)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Integration of BIM Models and Structural Analysis
BIM model

Geometric, Loading and


End-Support Information
Automated calculation of:
1. Number of reinforcement
bars
2. Diameter of reinforcement
Structural Analysis

bars
Structural Analysis
3. Layout for reinforcement
detailing

(Cheng and Mangal, 2017)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Developed Plugin
• Use IFC as exported file

(Cheng and Mangal, 2017)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Automated Quality Assessment of Precast Bridge Decks

Dimensional Quality Rebar Positioning Quality

BIM
Surface Quality

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
As-built BIM Model Reconstruction

Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications


with Noise (DBSCAN)
Valid points
Cluster 1
Mixed pixels
DBSCAN Noise

Background points
Cluster 2

• Approach: Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)


– Challenge: complex geometries
– Solution: IfcBooleanResult

(IfcBooleanResult)
Resulting IFC model

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Automated Rebar Position Estimation
 Reinforced precast concrete panel with 44 rebars on each long side

Over-segmentation

Outliers

Incomplete scanning

 Average difference from manual inspection: 0.8 mm


 Automatic and accurate extraction, recognition, and position
estimation of rebars on reinforced precast concrete elements
38
From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Scan-to-BIM for Structures

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Scan-to-BIM for Structures
– Find all points near the centerline within its
radius (84mm) from the whole structure

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST) 40
X-Y
Site Environment Capturing Using UAV

(https://youtu.be/R7S1xXr3VMM)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Integrated BIM…
Engineering
For Design Simulation For
Augmented
Reality (AR)
and
Analyses 3D Printing
Fabrication
/ Mixed
Reality (Machinery)
(MR) Artificial Intelligence
Big Data
Computer Vision
Internet 3D Printing
Drones
of Things
(UAV) Etc.
(IoT)

Integrated
BIM

Geographic
Laser Information
Scanning Systems
(GIS)

For Construction Building


Facility
Management For FM, AM
Planning and
Management
(FM) Systems
Systems
Indoor (BMS)
and O&M
Monitoring
Localization
/ Positioning
(Mobile)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Relationship Among iBIM

iBIM
Integrated BIM

Supports Requires
Generates

Intelligent Information-rich Interoperable


BIM BIM BIM

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(a) Intelligent BIM – Parametric Modeling
• BIM by default should be intelligent in the way that elements have
their own type-specific behaviors and are linked with logics.

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(a) Intelligent BIM – Parametric Modeling and Generative
Design

(https://youtu.be/FS5fJRsqC8U)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(a) Intelligent BIM – Parametric Modeling and Updating

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(b) BIM-IoT for Indoor Human Comfort Monitoring and Control

The BIM model of New Sports


Center at HKUST

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(b) BIM-IoT for Indoor Human Comfort Monitoring and Control

Air Quality Grade Plugin in Revit

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(b) BIM-IoT for Indoor Human Comfort Monitoring and Control
HKUST Sports Hall

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(c) Intelligent BIM – Automated Maintenance Work Order Scheduling
Table : Campus Case Information
Tasks Emergency Location Type Working
notation Level Time (min)
A FMO Office, Lift 15 5/F
X Warehouse 5
B I(high) Library G/F female toilet Water leakage 120
C I Library LG3 Electric wire burnt 60
D I Room 5619, Lift 31 5/F Electric wire burnt 60
Window
E II Library LC Glass broken 45
F II LT-A Light bulb burnt 15
G II LT-D Light bulb burnt 15
H III(low) Bridge Link Repair 20
I III(low) UG Hall 2 Repair 20
J III(low) Library Entrance Repair 20

E C
J

I
H

X A

Result: A  B  X  C  D  X  G
G
FXEXJHI
D Total time: 450

Location of the sites Walking time (in minutes) between


different locations in the example
From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(d) Intelligent BIM – Automatic Generation of Fabrication Drawings

Fully Automatic

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(d) Intelligent BIM – Automatic Generation of Fabrication Drawings
• Extraction of non-graphical information from BIM models

Non-graphical
information in
Revit

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(d) Intelligent BIM – Automatic Generation of Fabrication Drawings
• Integration of graphical and non-graphical information using
SolidWorks API

Material

Auto-filling of non-graphical
information from neutral
database (E.g. Excel)

(Deng, Singh and Cheng, 2017)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(d) Intelligent BIM – Automatic Generation of Fabrication Drawings

(Deng, Singh and Cheng, 2017)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(e) Intelligent BIM – Generate Machine Codes for Fabrication
• Connecting between BIM models and fabrication machines
• E.g. Generation of G-code program for CNC machines

% Program name

O10000
G00 G90 G80 G28 G17 G20 G40 G49
T01 M06 Tool change
Tool G00 Z0.5 F70
name
G00 X5 Y15 F70 ------- point 5
G01 Z-1 F50
G01 X5 Y30 F50 -------- point 6
Linear Cut
G01 X25 Y30 ------------ point 7
 a = 15, b = 20, G01 X25 Y15 ------------ point 8
G01 X5 Y15 -------------- point 5
 Xc =5, Yc = 15; G00 Z0.5 F70
 Depth of cutting = 1.00 G00 X0 Y0 F70 ------ point 1
M30
 Point 1 origin (0, 0)
% Back to origin

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(f) Intelligent BIM – Lean and SCM
• Supply chain management & lean construction supported by BIM

(Sacks et al. 2014)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(3) Information-rich BIM
4D Modeling (3D + Time)
5D Modeling (3D + Time + Cost)

6D Modeling (Sustainability)
7D Modeling (Facility Management)
8D Modeling (Safety)
nD Modeling

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(3) Information-rich BIM • Data  Information  Knowledge
• Not every piece of information is
important
• How to facilitate reuse of past
information?

(NBIMS 2011)

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
(4) Interoperable BIM 2016 UK

(PAS 1192)
From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Example: Schematic Integration Between BIM and 3D GIS
• Challenge: Need for mutual interoperability/compatibility
KML
BIM IFC GIS GML
RVT m+n+1 mappings Schemas
Schemas DXF CityGML
FBX XML
Schema 1 NWD Schema 1 SDF
PLN 1. Neutral SHP
Etc. 2. Commonly used LandXML
Etc.
3. Open schema
Schema 2 Schema 2

Schema 3 Schema 3

IFC CityGML

….
….

Schema n Schema m

(Deng and Cheng, 2015)


From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Mutual understanding of terminology

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Interoperability Issue: Smart City Supported by BIM
Common Spatial Data Infrastructure

 Which platform (e.g. BIM vs GIS)?


 Can the information still be read decades later?
 How to integrate data of different disciplines with
different terminology?

Data Fusion and Management

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
HVACie
Interoperable BIM – Neutral File Standard?? WALLie
Wsie
• Must we use neutral file formats like IFC or COBie? Etc.

• Ideally, maybe yes…


• But depends on the scope and purposes:
– Across stakeholders in a project? Across software in a project?
Across projects in an organization?
• And need to consider support of tools depending on applications
• In a project, the main objective is to avoid unnecessary checking
and re-inputting data.

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
BIM Implementation

People

Information
Technology
Process
/ Tools

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
BIM: Integrating Multi-disciplinary and Full Lifecycle
Detailed Engineering
Challenges:
Design Analysis - Different interests
- Different applications

Conceptual Architect Documentation


Design
Structural
Contractor Engineer

Mechanical
Owner / HVAC
Engineer

Programming BIM Fabrication

Project Electrical
Manager Engineer

Protocols
Plumbing,
Water Infrastructures
Supply,
Quantity
Surveyors Fire Services
Sewerage
Construction
Guidelines
Engineer
Renovation Engineer 4D/5D Standards
Etc.

Operation and Construction


Maintenance Logistics

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
From CAD to BIM to iBIM
Hand Drawn
iBIM

Integrated BIM
CAD

Intelligent BIM

Information-rich BIM
BIM
Clash detection
Generate drawings Interoperable BIM
Quantity takeoff
4D Simulation
Etc.

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Purpose Driven BIM
BIM: 3D digital representation is the basis, but NOT the END.

iBIM To Do What? For What?


Integrated BIM
Virtually Construct Productivity
Simulate Sustainability
Intelligent BIM Analyze
Safety Profit
Generate
Information-rich BIM Plan Reduced Rework
Calculate Decision Making
Interoperable BIM Monitor
Manage Understanding
Visualize Reduced Duration
Is What?
Identify
Technology Satisfaction
Predict
Model
Approach Communicate
Process
Tool Collaborate VALUE
Digital representation Evaluate
From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST)
Acknowledgement

• I would like to acknowledge the support from the Hong Kong


Research Grants Council (RGC), Innovation and Technology Fund
(ITF) and the collaborating parties.

• Thanks also go to the research group members who work hard at


the behind.

From BIM to iBIM – HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017 – Jack Cheng (HKUST) 68
From BIM to iBIM
THANK YOU!
Dr. Jack C.P. CHENG
Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Director, RFID Center
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST)
Chairman, Autodesk Industry Advisory Board (AIAB)

HKIBIM Annual Conference 2017


22 November 2017