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AE6402 AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AND INSTRUMENTS –Two marks

Unit-1
1. List out types of selector valves used in hydraulic systems?
● Rotary valve
● Poppet valve
● Spool or piston selector valve
● Open-center system selector valve
2. Distinguish between hydraulic and pneumatic system.
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
1. It utilizes fluid to transmit force. It utilizes gas (usually air) to transmit force.

2. It has a greater speed of response and These are lighter than hydraulic systems due to
transmits higher force. absence of fluid
3. Eg: Brake system, landing gear, struts Eg: gyroscopic instrument air systems &
&flight control or landing gear actuator. device boot inflation system.

3. What is hydraulic packing ring and why it is used?


The purpose of hydraulic packing rings is to prevent leakage of the hydraulic fluid and
thereby preserve the pressure in the aircraft hydraulic systems. Packing rings are used to provide
a seal between two parts of a unit that move in relation to each other.
4. What is the purpose of shimmy damper in landing gear system?
The shimmy damper is a hydraulic snubbing unit that reduces the tendency of the nose
wheel to oscillate from side to side. Piston type and vane type might be to provide power steering
as well as shimmy damper action.
5. Differentiate between open and closed hydraulic system?
An open system is one having fluid flow but no appreciable pressure in the system whenever the
actuating mechanisms are idle. It’s simple but only one service can be operated by this system at
a time.
(For diagram see notes)
A closed system is one that directs fluid flow to the main system manifold and builds up pressure
in that portion of the system the leads to all the selector values. Its bit complicated but more than
one service can be operated by this system at a time.

6) Differentiate between single disk brake and multiple disk brake?


Single disk brakes are used in smaller aircraft single disk may be conducted with an many
separate pistons and linings as needed for the airplane. Each piston in equipped with separate sets
of linings, which bear against the brake disk when the brake see applied multiple disk brakes are
used in large aircraft. Braking action is produced by hydraulic pressures forcing the pistons
against the pressures plate, which, in turn, forces the disk together and creates friction between
the retreating and stationary disks.
7. What are the advantages of hydraulic system?
Hydraulic system has many advantages as a power for operating various aircraft units.
● Light weight.
● Ease of installation.
● Simplification of inspection.
● Minimum maintenance requirements
● 100% efficient with only a negligible loss due to fluid friction.
8. Write the purpose of accumulator?
Purpose of accumulator: dampens pressure surge, supplement system pr, For emergency
operation, to cater for small leak

9. What is thermal relief value?


A thermal relief value is similar to a regular system relief value bit such values are installed in
parts of the hydraulic system where fluid pressure is trapped and may need to be relieved
because of the increase caused by higher temperatures.

10. What are the types of landing gears?


Types of landing gears: on absorbing: Rigid, shock cord, spring type
Shock absorbing: spring oleo, air oleo

Unit-2
1. What is push pull rod control system in an aircraft?
The push pull rod is used between bell cranks and from bell cranks to torque arms to
transmit the force and motion from one to the other push-pull rods. Which are also called control
rods because they are often used in control systems
2. Define Control Configured Vehicle.
Aircraft are made statically and dynamically stable in other words longitudinally or
laterally stable. Controlling the aircraft becomes difficult. Controlling the aircraft by present day
electronics is called active control technology.
3. Differentiate between power assisted and fully powered control system?
POWER ASSISTED CONTROL FULLY POWERED CONTROL
SYSTEM SYSTEM
1. In this way the movement of the unit is not In this way the movement of the unit is
released to the movement of the cockpit released to the movement of the cockpit
control. control.
2. Majority of the work is done by the Majority of the work is done by pilot as
actuator a small proportion by the pilot. compared to power assisted control system

3.Feedback is required Feedback is not required

4. What are the advantages of fly by wire system?


● Weight saving.
● Reduced maintenance time.
● Gust load alleviation
● Automatic maneuver envelope protection
● Improved handling
● Fuel saving
5. Define fly by wire system
● Fly by wire system in which wire carrying electrical signals from the pilots controls,
replace mechanical linkages entirely .It is powered flight controls system. The movement
of control column is measured by electrical transducers. The amplified signal relayed to
operate the hydraulic actuator connected to control surfaces.
6. Define push pull rod
● Push-Pull rod: no adjustment, no fraying, no slacking, instantaneous response,Occupies
more space and more weight
● Cable-pulley: tension adjustment reqd, slacking, fraying possible, not instantaneous less
space and less weight
7. Name any four modern control systems?
● - Fly by wire (computer):- May be Analog computer or digital computer
● - Fly by optics (light):-
● - Power by size (user electro-hydraulic actuators
● - Intelligent flight control system

8. What do you mean by active control technology? Give at least three examples?
● Activate control technology helps to improve the handling of aircraft and to reduce the
time lag or control delays by increasing the no. of computers, etc., in the aircraft (i.e.
redundancy). This advance concept in applicable to following e.g..
● Examples are:-
● Fly by wire
● Control configured vehicles
● Automatic flight control system.

9. What is aileron differential control system?


● Movement of control stick moves one ailerons up greater than the other down words.

10. What is the use of yaw dampers in rudder control system?


● Yaw damper systems operate continuously in flight to improve the airplane’s directional
stability and turn coordination. Dampers actuators are powered hydraulically.

Unit-3

1. Difference in lubrication system of piston engine and jet engine?


Piston engine: No magnetic chip detector mostly wet sump, no fuel oil heat exchanger low oil
pressure in the lubrication system.
2. Difference between piston and jet engine fuel system:
Piston engine fuel system: AVGAS is used, altitude limitation, vapour lock, more fire hazard, no
relighting ,mixing efficient, carburetor is complex and ice formation possible, Spark plug is used.

3) What is fuel cross feed system?


On most multiengine air craft, the fuel manifolds are connected in such a manner that any fuel
tank may supply fuel to any engine; any tank can transfer fuel to other tank for balancing.
(for diagram see notes)

4) What is fuel Jettison or dumping system?


In this system fuel from the tanks is continuous from using tip to using tip, with each end
terminating at a fixed fuel jettison nozzle. The nozzle value is an electrically ape rated value
controlled from the cockpit. After fuel passer through the nozzle value, it flows into the jettison
nozzle to be discharged in to the air the jettison nozzle to be discharged in to the air.
(for diagram see notes)

5. What are the differences between the fuel system of piston and jet engines?
PISTON ENGINE. JET ENGINE.
1. Low thrust/weight ratio. 1. High thrust/weight ratio.

2. Large number of moving parts. 2.Less number of moving parts

3. Not fuel efficient. 3.Fuel efficient


4.High noise level 4.Low noise level

6. Name the types of starters used in a gas turbine engine.


● Electric starter or starter motor.
● Starter generator
● Hydraulic starter
● Pneumatic starter
● Cartridge starter.
● Turbo starter
● Gas turbine starter

7. What is vapour lock?


Vapour lock occurs in piston engine fuel pipe line. It is due to fuel vapour and air collecting in
various sections of the fuel system. The gasoline (AVGAS) evaporates due to rise in temperature
in the pipe line and this vapour blocs free flow fuel to the engine. It is due to low atm pr at high
altitude, excessive fuel temp,and turbulence in the fuel.

8. Write the requirements of jet engine ignition system?


Requirement of jet engine ignition system: High energy discharge, to operate at all
altitude/attitude, relighting of engine, easy to install and maintain.

9. Write the types of jet engine ignition system?


Types of jet engine ignition system: continuous or low intensity, glow plug ignition, auto
ignition.

10. What are the types of piston engine ignition?


Types of piston engine ignition; battery ignition, magneto ignition (rotary,single or double
magneto, LT or HT magneto ,flange mounted)

Unit-4
1. What is the function of piccolo or spray tube in thermal anti-icing?
The heat source for prevention operation normally comes from combustion heaters in
reciprocating-engine-powered aircraft &from engine bleed air in turbine-powered aircraft. From
the heat source the hot air is distributed along the loading edge of the item being anti-iced by the
use of a perforated air duct called a piccolo or spray tube.
2. What are cooling packs?
The cooling of air for this model of Boeing 727 airplane is provided by means of two
cooling packs. These packs also remove excess moisture from air. All cooling equipment is
contained inside the centers of the fuselage fairing. The cooling device is used in the cooling
packs consists of a primary heat exchanger, a secondary heat exchanger & an air-cycle machine.
3. What are the functions of mach meter and airspeed indicator?
An airspeed indicator is required on all centrificated aircraft except free balloons. The
purpose of the airspeed indicator is to show the speed of the aircraft through the air.
Mach meter Is essential that such aircraft be equipped with an instrument that will compare the
speed of the with the speed of sound.
4. What is the need of cabin air pressurization system?
The control of the cabin pressurization is through various valves, has already been
mentioned. these valves are operated by differences in air pressure in order to achieve the desired
level of pressurization or to prevent over stressing the aircraft structure.

5). what is an air cycle and vapor cycle machine?


Air cycle machine:- The turbine, compressor unit by which air is cooled is called air cycle
machine(ACM) The ACM user compression and expansion of air to lower the temp. of cabin air.
Vapor cycle machine: - User refrigerant instead of air The vapor cycle machine in a closed
system usury the evaporation and condensation of Freon to remove heat from the cabin interior

6. What is shirt sleeve environment?


Shirt sleeve environment: At altitude less than 8000ft the crew and passenger can function
without use of supplemental oxygen and with adjustment of the cabin air temp which allows
them to be in shirt sleeve environment.
7. What do you mean by environmental system?
. Environmental systems are there aircraft systems used to make they interior environment of the
aircraft comfortable and/or habitable for human beings.

8. What is bleed air?


When a compressor, compresses air price the directory it the engine combustion chamber, it
gets heated up. This heat compressed air is called bleed air, which can be driven to a cabin
heating system.

9. What are A/C cooling system or air conditioning systems?


Air craft cooling system are used to reduce the temperature inside and aircraft for crew and
passenger comfort. The two basic methods of reducing the temperature are the vapor. Cycle
machine and the air cycle machine.

10. Classify oxygen system?


– Continuous flow oxygen system.
- Diluter Demand system
- Pressure Demand system
- Stored gas system
- Chemical oxygen Generator or solid state generator system
- Liquid oxygen system (LOX)

Unit-5
1. What is the principle involved in accelerometer?
The accelerometer is frequently used on new airplane during test flights to measure the
acceleration loads on the aircraft structures .it serves as a basic for stress analysis because it
gives an accurate indication of stress imposed on the airplane during flights.

2. List down the flight instruments in an aircraft?


● Altimeter
1. Sensitive Altimeter
2. Compensated Altimeter
3. Encoding Altimeter
● Airspeed indicator
● Airspeed Angle of attack indicator
● Mach meter
● magnetic compass
● Heading indicator
● Vertical speed indicator
● Accelerometer
● Turn and bank indicator
● Turn coordinator

3. What are TAS & EAS?


EAS (equivalent air speed): It is defined as the speed at sea level that would produce the same
dynamic
Pressure as a true air speed at the attitude the aircraft is flying.
TAS (true air speed): it is the equivalent air speed corrected for compressibility effect.
4. What are the properties of gyroscope?
● RIGIDITY: the axis of rotation of the gyro wheel tends to remain in a fixed direction in
space if no force is applied to it.
● PRECESSION: the axis of rotation has a tendency to turn at a right angle to the direction
of an applied force.
5. What is the function of a thermal relief valve?
A thermal works by releasing heat when it becomes too much. It is designed to relieve too
much pressure that is caused by high temperature from fluid in the hydraulic system.
6. What are the sensing devices used for measuring temperature and pressure?
To measure pressure:
● Hydraulic pressure gauges.
● Vacuum pressure gauges
● Diaphragm type pressure gauges.
To measure temperature:
● Oil temperature gauge
● Carburetor air temperature
● Cylinder head temperature gauge
● Outside air temperature gauge
7. What is the necessity of pressurizing an aircraft?
Pressurizing is required on aircraft that fly for extended periods at altitudes substantially
above 10000ft.although the normal human body can survive without a special supply of oxygen
at altitudes of over 15000ft, the mental and physical capacities of a human being are reduced
when the capacities of a human being are reduced when the usual supply of oxygen is not
available in the air.
8. Which parts of an airplane are likely to be affected bye ice formation? What are the methods
used in removing/eliminating ice formation?
● Leading edge of the wings
● Stauts
● Stabilizers
● Coulings.
● Empennage
Methods used:
● Thermal anti-icing.
● Anti-icing using combustion heaters.
● Pneumatic deicing system.

9).Name any three electronic display systems?


–Electronic height Instrument system (EFIS)
- EICAS (Engine indicating and crew alerting system)
-ECAM. (Electronic centralized air self monitoring)
(For details see notes)

10) How can use measure RPM of engine?


- By Electronic Tachometer
- By electrical Tachometer
- By Magnetic Tachometer