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1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

ATOMIC STRUCTURE • Protons and neutrons are present in the nucleus


and are called nucleons.
SYNOPSIS • Electrons are the negatively charged particles with
• The atomic theory of matter was first proposed unit charge and neglisible mass.
by John Dalton, known as Daltons atomic theory. • Protons are positively charged particles with unit
• Dalton regarded that atom is the ultimate par- mass.
ticle of matter • Neutrons are the neutral particles with unit mass.
MODERN ATOMIC THEORY DISCOVERY OF ELECTRON
• According to Modern atomic theory atoms can • Atomic structure was obtained from the experi-
be further devided in to subatomic particles i.e ments on electrical discharge through gases
electrons, protons and neutrons
• During the discharge tube experiment “Crookes”
1. SUB-ATOMIC PARTICLES :
observed that rays were found to pass from nega-
• Dalton’s Theory is able to explain law of conser- tively charged filament (cathode) to positively
vation of mass, law of constant composition and charged plate (anode)
law of multiple proportions
• Dalton’s law is failed to explain the experiments  Cathode ray tube is made of glass containing
like when glass or ebonite rubbed with silk or fur two thin pieces of metal, called electrodes, sealed
generate electricity in it.
• Above experiment indicates that there is a pres-
ence of subatomic particles like electron, neu-
 The electrical discharge through the gases could
be observed only at very low pressures and at
tron, proton are present in the atom
very high voltages.
FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES
• By maintaining low pressure and high voltage in
discharge tube current or stream of particles mov-
ing in the tube from cathode to anode
• That rays are known as cathode rays or cathode
ray particles
PROPERTIES OF CATHODE RAYS
• Cathode rays starts from cathode and move to-
wards anode

 These rays themselves are not visible but their


behaviour can be observed with the help of certain
kind of materials (fluorsecnt or phosphorescent)
which glow when hit by them
• Rays travel straight lines in the absence of elec-
tric and magnetic field
• In the presence of electric and magnetic field
they are deflected indicates that cathode rays
contain negatively charged particles known as
electrons
• Matter is made up of molecules and molecules
are made up of atoms. • Cathode rays found to be independent of nature
of the cathode material and nature of the gas in
• Dalton’s atomic theory proposed that atoms were
the tube
indivisible.But modern discoveries showed that
atom is not indivisible and has a complex CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF ELECTRON
structure • J.J.Thomson measured e/m ratio of the electron
• Electrons, protons and neutrons are the based on following points
fundamental particles of atom.
2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

• Greater the magnitude of the charge on the par- and mass 1, particles are called protons
ticle greater is the deflection when electric and Neutron: Neutron was discovered by James
magnetic field is applied Chadwick based on nuclear reaction, by
• Lighter the mass of the particle greater will be bomarding a thin layer (sheet) of beryllium by
the deflection particles neutral particles having mass slightly
greater than that of protons was emitted particles
• The deflection of electrons from its original path are named as Neutrons.
increases when voltage increases from the MILLIKAN’S OIL DROP METHOD
above points Thomson was able to determine
the v alue of charge to mass ratio  In this method, oil droplets in the form of mist
as 1.758820  1011 ckg  1 produced by the atomiser, were allowed to enter
CHARGE OF ELECTRON through a tiny hole in the upper plate of electrical
condenser
• Mullikan determined the charge of the electron
by an oil drop experiment  The downward motion of these droplets was
• By carefully measuring the effects of the elec- viewed through the telescope, equipped with a
trical field on the movement of many droplets micrometer eye piece.
• Charge on the oildrops was always an integral  By measuring the rate of fall of these droplets,
 19
multiple of 1.60  10 c Millikan was able to measure the mass of oil
droplets.

me 
e

1.60 10 19
e / me 1.758820 1011 ckg 1
 9.1094 10 31 kg  The air inside the chamber was ionized by passing
a beam of X-rays through it.
DISCOVERY OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS
• Proton: Discovered by Gold Stein, he used
 The electrical charge on these oil droplets was
perforated cathode in the discharge tube and acquired by collisions with gaseous ions.
repeated Thomson experiment and observed the
formation of anode rays. These rays also termed
 The fall of these charged oil droplets can be
as positive or Canal rays retarded, accelerated or made stationary
depending upon the charge on the droplets and
PROPERTIES
the polarity and strength of the voltage applied to
• Anode rays travel in straight line, and these are the plate.
material particles
• Anode rays are positively charged, and get de-
 By carefully measuring the effects of electrical
flected by external magnetic field and affect the field strength on the motion of oil droplets.
photographic plate  Millikan concluded that the magnitude of electrical
e charge, q, on the droplets is always an integral
• value of these rays is smaller than that of multiple of the electrical charge, e, that is q=ne,
m
where n = 1,2,3......
electrons 2. ISOTOPES AND ISOBARS
e Isotopes : Atoms with identical atomic number but
• value of anode rays depends upon nature of different mass numbers are known as isotopes.
m Isotopes exhibit similar chemical properties
the gas

e Eg 1) Isotopes of hydrogen : Protium  1 H1


• value of anode rays is maximum when the
m
gas present in the tube is hydrogen
Deuterium  1 H 2  or 1 D 2

• By the dissociation and ionisation of hydrogen


under low pressure discovered with charge +1
Tritium  1 H 3  or 1T 3

2) Isotopes of chlorine 17 Cl 35 and 17 Cl 37


3 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

 It is evident that difference between the isotopes  X-rays have a very high penetrating power through
is due to the presence of different number of the matter so these are used to study the interior
neutrons present in the nucleus. of the objects

 For example, considering of hydrogen atom  X-rays have very short wavelengths   0.1nm
again, 99.985% of hydrogen atoms contain only
 Henri Becqueral observed that there are certain
one proton. This isotope is called protium  H .
1
1
elements which emit radiation  ,  ,   on their
Rest of the percentage of hydrogen atom
contains two other isotopes, the one containing own and named this phenomenon as a
radioactiv ity and the elements knwon as
1 proton and 1 neutron is called deuterium( 12 D radioactive elements.
, 0.015%) and the other one possessing 1 proton
   rays consists of high energy particles carrying
and 2 neutrons is called tritium  T  . The latter
3
1 two units positive charge and four units of atomic
isotope is found in trace amounts on the earth. mass (Helium nuclei)

Isobars : Atoms with same mass number with


   ray are negatively charged particles similar
to electrons.
different atomic number are known as isobars

Eg : 6 C 14 , 7 N 14    rays are high energy radiations like X-rays


3. ATOMIC MODELS  Penetrating power order of these radiation is
THOMSON MODEL
   
 J.J.Thomson, in 1898, proposed that an atom • RUTHERFORDS MODEL OF ATOM
possesses a spherical shape radius) Rutherford proposed atomic model based on
approximately10-10m) in which the positive  - ray scattering experiment
charge is uniformly distributed .
Scattering of a narrow beam of  - particles as
According to Thomson atom is like water melon
and electron’s are embeded like seeds in water they passed through a thin gold foil and it is cov-
melon. ered with fluorescent ZnS screen. When  -
particles struck the screen then flash of light was
The positive charge is distributes like fibrous
produced at that point.
material of water melon
FOLLOWING OBSERVATION ARE GIVEN BY
 An important feature of this model is that the RUTHERFORD
mass of the atom is assumed to be uniformly • Most of the  - particles passes through the foil
distributed over the atom. undeflected
It can not explain electrical neutrality of the • A small fraction of  - particles were deflected
atom. by small angles
X-Rays,   rays,   rays,   rays • A very few  - particles bounced back were de-
flected by 180o
 Roentgen in 1895 showed that when electrons Rutherford conclusions from the above ob-
strike a material in the cathode ray tubes servation
produce rays which can cause fluorescence in
• Most of the space in the atom is empty
the fluorescent materials placed outside the
cathode ray tube. Since Roentgen did not know • A few positive charges were deflected the deflec-
the nature of the radiation he name then x-rays. tion must be due to enornmous repulsive forces
showing that the positive charge of the atom is
 X-rays are not deflected by the electric and non spread out the atom.
magnetic fields • Main postulates in Rutherford’s model
4 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

teristics and no medium is required for


• All the positive charge and mass of the atom is
their propagation. They can travel through the
present in a very small region at the centre of
vacuum.
the atom. It is called nucleus.
• The size of the nucleus is very small in com-  All electro magnetic radiations have same veloc-
parison of the size of the atom. ity.
• Most of the space outside the nucleus is empty. • WAVE LENGTH (  ): The distance between two
• The electrons revolve round the nucleus like neighbouring troughs or crests in wave is known
planets revolve round the sun. as wave length.
• The centrifugal force arising due to fast moving • The units of wave length are m, cm, A 0 , nm,
electrons balances the coulombic force of at-
m .
traction of the nucleus and the electrons.
• Rutherford’s atomic model is comparable 1A 0  108 cm  1010 m
with the solar system. So it is called planetary
model. 1nm  109 m  107 cm
DEFECTS OF RUTHERFORD’S ATOMIC MODEL
1nm  1m  10 A 0
• It is against to law of electrodynamics.
• It fails to explain the atomic spectrum or • FREQUENCY    : The number of waves that
line spectrum.
pass through a given point in one second is called
ATOMIC NUMBER AND MASS NUMBER frequency.
• A neutral atom contains equal number of
• The units of frequency are sec 1 , cycles
electrons and protons.
per second (cps) or Hertz (Hz).
• The number of electrons or protons present in
an atom of an element is called its atomic 1cps = 1 Hz= sec 1
number.
• Atomic number is denoted by Z. • WAVE NUMBER    : The number of wave
• Atomic number is equal to the nuclear positive lengths per centimetre or the reciprocal wave
charge of an element. length is called wave number.
• The sum of protons and neutrons in the atom of • The unit of wave number is cm 1 .or m 1
an element is called its mass number.
• AMPLITUDE (a): The height of the crest or depth
• It is denoted by A. of the trough of a wave is called amplitude.
• Number of neutrons = A  Z . • Amplitude is a measure of the intensity or
• Mass number is always a whole number. brightness of a beam of light.
• Atoms of elements having the same atomic • VELOCITY (C): The distance travelled by a wave
number but different mass numbers are called in one second is called its velocity.
isotopes. • The units of velocity are m/sec or cm/sec.
• Isotopes of an element have the same number • All types of electromagnetic radiations have the
of protons and electrons but differ in the number same velocity which is equal to
of neutrons.
4. NATURE OF ELECTRO MAGNETIC RADIATION 3 1010 cm / sec or 3 108 m / sec
• Cosmic rays,  - rays, X - rays, UV light, • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WAVE
visible light, Infrared light, micro waves, TV CHARACTERISTICS
waves and radio waves are called electromag-
netic radiation because they are made up of
C C
 or   ...... 1
electric and magnetic fields propagating in per-  
pendicular directions in one another.
• Electromagnetic radiations have wave charac-
5 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

1 
  ......  2 
 C

Where   frequency in sec 1

  wavelength in cm
C  velocity of light  31010 cm / sec

  wave number in cm 1
• The wave length of UV light is
1800  3800 A 0
• The wave length of visible light is
3800  7600 A 0
• The wave length of IR radiation is
7600  3  106 A 0 • At a given temperature the intensity of radiation
increases with wavelength reaches a maximum
and then decreases.
CORPUSCULAR THEORY OF LIGHT :
• When the temperature increases, the intensity
 Some of the experimental phenomenon such as of radiation will be more towards the lower wave-
lengths.
diffraction and interference can be explained by
the wave nature of the electromagnetic radiation • Max planck proposed quantum theory to ex -
plain the black body radiations.
• A body which is capable of absorbing all
types of radiations and emits completely the ab-  Diffraction is the bending of wave around an
sorbed radiations is called a black body. obstacle
• Black body is perfect absorber and perfect emit-  Interference is the combination of two waves of
ter of radiant of energy. the same or different frequencies to give a wave
whose distribution at each point in space is the
• When a black body is heated it emits thermal
algebric or vector sum of disturbances at that
radiation of different wave lengths or frequencies. point resulting from each interfering wave.
• A hollow metallic sphere coated inside with plati-  When solids are heated they emit radiation over
num black and having a small hole in its wall a wide range of wavelength
acts as a black body. 5. PLANCK’S QUANTUM THEORY :
Substances absorb or emit light discontinuously
diagram in the form of small packets or bundles.
The smallest packet of energy is called quan-
tum.
The radiation is propagated in the form of waves.
The energy of a quantum is directly proportional
to the frequency of the radiation. E 
The energy of a quantum is
hc
E  h   hc 

6 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Where E = Energy in ergs light beam and the ejection.


h = Planck’s constant • Ejection of electrons from the surface of a metal
by irradiating it with light of suitable frequency.
= 6.625 1027 erg  sec
• The photo electric effect is readily exhibited by
= 6.625  10 34
Joule  sec alkali metals like K and Cs.
• A part of the energy of photon is used to e s -
C = Velocity of light = 3 1010 cm / sec cape the electron from the attractive forces
and the remaining energy is used in in-
= 3 108 m / sec creasing the kinetic energy of electron.

 = Frequency of radiation in sec 1 h  W  KE

  Wave length in cm 1
K.E = me v 2 , w  hvo
1
2
  Wave number in cm
A body can absorb or emit in whole 1
 hv  hvo  meV 2
2
number of quantum  E  n  h   . me = mass of the electron, V = velocity of the
6. PHOTO ELECTRIC EFFECT : ejected electron

 In 1887, H.Hertz performed a very interesting vo = Threshold frequency


experiment that is photo electric effect • In photo electric effect the number of photo elec-
Substances absorb or emit light discontinuously trons emitted is proportional to intensity of inci-
in the form of small particles of energy. dent light.
The smallest particle of energy is called photon. • Kinetic energy of photo electrons depends only
The energy of a photon is directly on the frequency of incident light and not on the
proportional to frequency of the radiation. intensity of light.
The energy of a photon is • The minimum energy required for emission of
photo electrons is called threshold energy or work
hc function.
E  h   hc 

 For each metal, there is a characteristic minimum
12375 frequency v0 (also known as threshold frequency)
E Where E  Energy in eV
 below which photoelectric effect is not observed.
0
  wavelength in A At a frequency v  v0 then photoelectric effect
The radiation is propagated in the form is observed
of photons. 7. SPECTRA :
• Planck’s equation determines both wave nature • Sun light or light from an incandescent filament
and particle nature of light. lamp gives a continuous spectrum.
• When a gas or a vapour of a metal is kept in a
• The increase in wave length or decrease in en-
discharge tube and higher potential is applied a
ergy of the X - rays after scattering from an ob-
line spectrum is formed.
ject is called the compton effect.
• Each element has its own characteristic line
• When light is exposed to clean metallic surface, spectrum.
electrons are ejected from the surface. This ef-
fect is called photo electric effect.  The characteristic lines in atomic spectra can be

 The electrons are ejected from the metal surface


used in chemical analysis to identify unknown
atoms in the same way as finger prints are used
as soon as the beam of light strikes the surface, to identify people.
i.e., there is no time lag between the striking of • The spectra obtained by the emission of energy
7 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

by the excited atoms are called emission spectra. R is Rydberg constant and its value for hydrogen
• These spectra consist of bright lines on the dark is 1,09,677 cm 1 ( or )
background.
• When white light is passed through a gas and 1.09677 x 105 cm 1
the emergent beam of light is allowed to fall on a
photographic plate, the spectrum obtained is  Ryedberg constant value is not same for all the
called absorption spectrum. elements.
• As the substance absorbs certain portion of white
light dark lines appear on bright background. • The first line in Balmer series is called H  line
• For a given element dark lines in the absorption and its wavelength is 6563 A0.
spectrum coincides with the bright lines in the • The second line is called H  line and its
emission spectrum.
wavelength is 4861 A0.
 An absorption spectrum is like the photographic • The spectral lines get closer when the n2 value is
negative of an emission spectrum. increased.
If n2 is taken as infinity the wavelength of the
 German chemist, Robert Bunsen(1811-1899) was limiting line in the series is obtained.
one of the first investigators to use line spectra
to identify elements. 1 1 1  R
   R  2  2    27,419cm1
 2   4
8. HYDROGEN SPECTRUM :
• The source of radiation here is a hydrogen
• The other series in the hydrogen spectrum are
invisible.
discharge tube.
• The discharge tube contains hydrogen gas at low
• The wavelength or wave numbers of all the lines
in all the series can be calculated by using
pressure and high potential difference
Rydberg’s equation
• The bright light emitted from the discharge tube
is passed through a prism to cause dispersion. 1 1 1
• The emergent beam of light f alls on a   1,09,678  2  2 
  n1 n2 
photographic plate and is recorded as the atomic
spectrum of hydrogen. • Maximum number of lines produced when
• The hydrogen spectrum is the simplest of all the an electron jumps from nth level to ground
atomic spectra. level
• It contains a number of groups of lines.
n  n  1
• They can be classified into various series.  .
2
• Only one such series is visible to the naked eye
SERIES OF HYDROGEN SPECTRUM:
and is termed as the visible region of hydrogen
spectrum. NAME OF SERIES N1N2 SPECTRAL REGION
Lyman series 1 2, 3, 4, 5.. ultraviolet
• As it was discovered by Balmer it is called Balmer
series. Balmer series 2 3, 4, 5, 6.. visible
Paschen series 3 4, 5, 6. 7 near infrared
• The wavelength or wave number of various lines
in the visible region can be expressed by an Brackett series 4 5, 6, 7 8.. infrared
equation. Pfund series 5 6, 7, 8. 9 far infrared
• The value of R = 1,09,678 cm 1 is valid only for
11 1
   R 2  2  the lines in the hydrogen spectrum.
  n1 n2  • For a spectral line of any one electron species
where n1 = 2 which is constant for all the lines in like He+, Li2+ the value of R  RH  Z 2
Balmer series.
n2 = 3, 4, 5......
8 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

9. BOHR’S MODEL • The force of attraction between the nucleus and


• Postulates of Bohr’s atomic model.
Ze 2
The electrons in an atom revolve round the the electron  2
nucleus in definite circular orbits or shells or en- r
ergy levels. • The centrifugal force of the electron due to revolv-
So far an electron revolves in a certain orbit,
its energy remains constant and does not radi- mV 2
ing round the nucleus 
ate energy. These orbits are called stationary or- r
bits or stationary states.
Electrons can revolve only in those stationary
• Expression for the radius of Bohr’s orbit
orbits in which their angular momentum is equal
n2h 2
h r 2
to integral multiple of . 4 m Ze2
2
h where r = radius of orbit
mvr  n
2 n = 1, 2, 3, 4 ......
where m = mass of electron h = Plank’s constant
v = velocity of electron m = mass of electron
r = radius of orbit Z = atomic number
n = 1 , 2 , 3 ,4 ...... e = charge of electron
h = Planck’s constant r  0.529 108  n 2 cm
 Just as linear momentum is the product of  0.529  n 2 A 0
mass(m) and linear v elocity(v), angular
momentum is the product of moment of inertia(I)
• Radius of orbits in H atom like ions
and angular velocity(  ), For an electron of mass
0.529  n 2 0
m, moving in a circular path of radius r around r A
Z
the nucleus, angular momentum = I 
2
Since I  me r , and  v/r where v is the
linear velocity 1
• Kinetic energy of electron  m V2
angular momentum = mr 2  v / r  mvr 2
When an electron drops from a higher orbit to
a lower orbit, energy is released. when an elec- Ze 2

tron jumps from a lower orbit to a higher orbit, 2r
energy is absorbed. The absorbed or evolved
energy is equal to the difference in energies of Ze 2
two orbits, which is equal to quanta. • Potential energy of electron 
r
 E  E 2  E 1  h • Total energy of electron
where E 2 = Energy of higher orbit Ze 2 Ze 2  Ze 2
 KE  PE   
E 1 = Energy of lower orbit 2r r 2r
• Expression for the energy of Bohr’s orbit
h = Plank’s constant
 = Frequency of radiation
• The line spectrum is obtained due to the electronic 22 m Z2 e 4
E
transition from one orbit to another orbit n 2 h2
9 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

where E = energy of orbit


m = mass of electron
E1 = Energy of first orbit in hydrogen atom
e = charge of electron • Rydberg’s constant
n = 1, 2, 3, 4 ........
h = Plank’s constant 2 2 m Z2 e4
R 109680cm1
• As we go to higher orbits, kinetic energy h3 C
decreases, potential energy increases and Difference of energy between two Bohr orbits of
the total energy increases. hydrogen atom
• Energy of orbits in hydrogen atom ( Z = 1 )
 1 1 
2.179 1011  E  Rhc  2  2 
E ergs  n1 n 2 
n2
where  E = Energy difference
2.179 1018 R = Rydberg constant
 Joules
n2 h = Planck’s constant
c = Velocity of light
13.6 313.6 n1 = lower orbit, n 2 = higher orbit
 2
eV 2 K.cal/mole
n n • As the value of n increases, the difference of
1312 energy becomes smaller. After a certain stage
 KJ / mole the energy becomes nearly equal and this posi-
n2 tion of continuum is called critical energy. If en-
ergy is slightly greater than this value is given
1eV  1.602 10 19 J the electron will be completely removed from the
atom.
• Difference of energy between two orbits in H atom
 The energy of the electron in a hydrogen atom like ions.
has a negative sign for all possible otbitals
because the energy of the electrons in the atom  1 1 
 E  Z2 Rhc  2  2 
is lower than the energy of a free electron at rest.
 n1 n 2 
• Energy of orbits in H atom like ions where Z = atomic number.
• Velocity of electron in hydrogen atom
2.179 1011
E  Z2 ergs
n 2
2 Ze 2 2.188 108
V  cm / sec
E1 nh n
• En  where V = velocity of electron
n2
e = charge of electron
where En = Energy of nth orbit in n = 1, 2, 3, 4 .......
hydrogen atom . h = planck’s constant
E1 = Energy of first orbit in hydrogen atom
V1
n = 1, 2, 3, 4 ......... • For hydrogen atom atom Vn 
• For Hydrogen atom like ions.
n
where Vn = Velocity of electron in nth orbit
Z2
E n  2  E1 V1 = Velocity of electron in first orbit
n
n = 1, 2, 3, 4 ........
where En = Energy of nth orbit in other ions like • For H atom like ions.
H - atom
Z = Atomic number V1
Vn  Z
n = 1, 2, 3, 4 ........ n
10 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

BOHR’S EXPLANATION OF HYDROGEN SPECTRUM:


where Vn = Velocity of electron in nth orbit
• When hydrogen gas is heated or exposed to light
V1 = Velocity of electron in first orbit energy or subjected to electric discharge different
of H-atom atoms absorb different amounts of energy and
n = 1, 2, 3, 4 ....... are excited to different higher energy levels.
Z = Atomic number • The electrons in the excited atoms may be
• For hydrogen atom, ionization completely knocked out of the atom if the
absorbed energy is greater than or equal to 13.6
 E1
potential  . eV which is the ionization potential of hydrogen
n2 atom.
• For H atom, like ions, Ionisation • If the energy available is less than 13.6 eV the
electron absorbs only a certain quantum of energy
E1  Z2 which causes electronic transition.
potential  .
n2 • The electron in higher quantum state tends to
• Ionisation potential of an atom or emit energy and come back to the lower energy
level.
 Z2 
ion  13.6  n 2  eV • This may happen in a single step or in multiple
  steps.
• Merits of Bohr’s model • When an electron is present in the fourth orbit in
• It successfully explains the hydrogen spectrum the excited state, it may directly come back to
and spectra of ions having one electron. the first orbit which gives one line in Lyman series.
• The experimental values of the energies and • Otherwise the electron may drop from n = 4 to n
radii of possible orbits in hydrogen atom are in = 3 and then n = 3 to n = 2 and finally n = 2 to
good agreement with that calculated on the ba- n = 1.
sis of Bohr’s theory. • These transitions result in the formation of one
•The experiment value of Rydberg constant for line each in Paschen series (infrared region)
hydrogen is in good agreement with that calcu- Balmer series (visible region) and Lyman series
lated from Bohr’s theory. (ultraviolet region).
The calculated value of ionisation energy of hy- • Depending on the type and number of transitions,
drogen using Bohr’s theory is very close to the the electron in the excited state may give number
experimental value. of lines and number of series in atomic spectrum.
• LIMITATIONS OF BOHR’S MODEL • As the value of the principal quantum number
It failed to explain the spectra of atoms or ions increases, the distance between adjacent orbits
having more than one electron. increases and the energy difference decreases.
The fine structure of spectral lines cannot be • For a given series the frequency and the energy
explained by Bohr’s theory. of the line increases with the increase in the value
It failed to explain Zeeman effect and Stark ef- of n2.
fect.
• For lines of different series the energy and
It is against to Heisenberg’s uncertainty prin-
frequency of the line increases with the decreases
ciple.
of n1.
• The splitting of spectral lines of an atom into a 10. DE BROGLIE’S WAVE THEORY
group of fine lines under the influence of a
magnetic field is called Zeeman effect.
• The wave nature of electron was first proposed
by de Broglie.
• The splitting of spectral lines of an atom into group
of fine lines under the influence of an electric field
• According to de Broglie theory all moving par-
is called Stark effect. ticles have wave properties.
• Wave properties are important only for particles
 Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, not only of small mass and high velocity.
ignores dual behaviour of matter but also
contradicts Heisenberg uncertainity principle.
11 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

h h • Such an orbit cannot possibly exist.


• de Broglie’s equation is λ  
mν p  The wavelengths associated with ordinary objects
where λ = wave length are so short(because of their large masses) that
their wave properties cannot be detected.
h = Planck’s constant  6.625  10 34 J .sec 10. HEISENBERG’S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
ν = Velocity of the particle • It is impossible to determine accurately and si-
multaneously the position and momentum of a
mν = p = Momentum of the particle particle in an atom. It is called
• According to de Broglie’s theory, electrons re- Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
volve around the nucleus in atomic orbits with • The uncertainty principle equation is
stationary waves.
• Electrons revolves in those orbits, whose circum- h
 x . p 
ference must be equal to integral multiple of 4π
wave length 2πr  nλ
h
where r = radius of the orbit  x .m  v 
n = 1, 2, 3, 4 .....

λ = wave length where  x = uncertainty in position


• Number of waves in an orbit = n  p = uncertainty in momentum
• Number of revolutions of an electron per
 v = uncertainty in velocity
Velocity of electron m = mass of the particle
second in an orbit 
circumference h = Planck’s constant
BOHR’S THEORY AND • The uncertainty principle is mainly applicable for
DE BROGLIE CONCEPT: microscopic particles.
• According to de Broglie, an electron behaves as
a standing or stationary wave which extends round
 To observe an electron we can illuminate it with
the nucleus in a circular orbit. “light” or electromagnetic radiation. The “light”
used must have a wavelength smaller than the
• If the two ends of the electron wave meet to give
dimesions of an electron. The high momentum
a series of crests and troughs, the electron wave
is said to be in phase.  h
photons of such light  p 
 
would change
• In other words there is constructive interference 
of electron waves and the electron motion has a
the energy of electrons by collisions. In this
character of standing wave or non-energy radiating process we, no doubt, would be able to calculate
motion. the position of the electron, but we would know
• To be an electron wav e in phase, the very little about the velocity of the electron after
circumference of the Bohr’s orbit should be an the collision.
integral multiple of the wavelength of the electron
wave.  If one of tries to find the exact location of the

2r electron, say to an uncertainty of only 10 8 m ,


n  2r 
n then the uncertainty v in velocity would be
• In case the circumference of the Bohr’s orbit 104 m 2 s 1
8
 10 4 ms 1
( 2r ) is bigger or smaller than n , the electron 10 m
wave is said to be out of phase. Which is so large that the classical picture of
• Then destructive interference of waves occurs electrons moving in Bohr’s orbit (fixed) cannot
causing radiation of energy. hold good.
12 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

11. SCHRODINGER’S WAVE EQUATION


sented as p x , p y , and p z . These are degener-
• Schrodinger’s wave equation is
ate orbitals.
2 2 2 2
      8π m • The shape of a p - orbital ( l = 1 ) is dumbell.
   E  V   0 •
x 2 y 2 z 2 h2 p - orbitals are oriented along the axes. So they
are directional orbitals.
where ψ = Wave function
m = Mass of electron
Orbital : p x p y pz
h = Planck’s constant m : 1 1 0
E = Total energy of the electron
• In a d - sub shell, the five orbitals are represented
V = Potential energy of electron
2
x, y, z are co - ordinates. as d xy, d yz, d zx, d X 2 Y 2 and d z .
• The solution of Schrodinger wave equation gives These are degenerate orbitals.
principal, azimuthal and magnetic quantum num-
ber but not the spin quantum number • The shape of a d - orbital ( l = 2 ) is double dumb
bell.
• ψ indicates the amplitude of the wave.
• d xy, d yz and d zx orbitals are oriented in between
• ψ2 indicates maximum probability of
2
finding an electron at a certain point. the axes. d X2  Y2 and d z orbitals are oriented
• The probability of finding an electron at a cer- along the axes.
tain distance from the nucleus is called radial
probability. • Orbital : d xy d yz d zx d x 2  y2 dz 2
• The curves obtained by plotting probability func-
m : 2 1 1 2 0
2 2
tion D 4πr dr  and radial distance (r) are • The plane where the probability of finding the
called radial probability distribution curves.
• Number of peaks obtained in a curve = n - l
 2
electrons is zero ψ  0 is called a
nodal plane.
where n = principal quantum number
l = Azimuthal quantum number • Number of nodal planes in an orbital = l.
• The nodal surface of 2s orbital exists at a dis- • No. of nodal planes :
Orbital No.of Nodal Nodal
tance of 2a 0 from the nucleus. Where a 0 is the
planes plane
s 0 Nil

Bohr radius 0.529 A
0

px 1 YZ
• The curve for 2s orbital has two peaks the curve
passes through lower maximum at 0.53 A0 and py 1 ZX
higher maximum at 2.6A0 radial distance.
ORBITALS pz 1 XY
• The space around the nucleus of an atom in which
there is a maximum probability of finding an
d xy 2 YZ, ZX
electron is called an orbital.
d yz 2 ZX, XY
• The maximum probability of finding an electron
in an orbital is 95 % d zx 2 XY, YZ
• The shape of s orbital ( l = 0 ) is spherical.
• s - orbital is a non directional orbital. d x 2  y2 2 YZ, Zx
• In a p - sub shell, the three orbitals are repre- • When the number of nodal planes increases, the
energy of the orbital increases. So the energy
order of the orbitals is s  p  d  f
13 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

• Number of radial nodes = n - l - 1 where n = • Angular momentum of the electron in an


principal quantum number h
orbital  l (l +l)  h l  l  1
l = Azimuthal quantum number 2π
12. QUANTUM NUMBERS
 h 
• A set of numbers used to provide a com h 
plete description of an electron in an atom  2π 
are called quantum numbers. where h = Planck’s constant
• There are four quantum numbers required l = Azimuthal quantum number
for a complete explanation of electrons in • MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER (m)
an atom.
• It was proposed by Lande.
• The quantum numbers are
n Principal quantum number
• The values of m = +l ..... 0 ..... -l
n Azimuthal quantum number • The total m values = 2l + 1
n Magnetic quantum number • The total number of m values indicates the
n Spin quantum number total number of orbitals in the subshell.
• PRINCIPAL QUANTUM NUMBER (n) • The number of orbitals in s, p,d and f sub shells
are 1, 3, 5 and 7 respectively.
• It was proposed by Niels Bohr
• It indicates the orientation of orbitals in space.
• The values of n =1, 2, 3, 4 ..... or K, L,
M, N ....... respectively • The number of orbitals in an energy level  n 2
• It indicates the size and energy of the
orbit. • The number of orbitals in a sub shell  2l  1
• The maximum number of electrons in an • Maximum number of electrons in a subshell
orbit  2n 2  2  2l  l  where l = Azimuthal quantum num-
Total number of orbitals = n 2 ber.
where n = no.of the orbit • SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER (s)
• Angular momentum of an electron in an • It was proposed by Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck.
h 1 1
orbit  n •The values of s   and 
2 2 2
• AZIMUTHAL QUANTUM NUMBER (l)
• The clock wise    direction spin is represented
• It was proposed by Sommerfield
• The values of l = 0, 1, 2, .....( n -1 ) 1
by  and anticlock wise    direction spin is
• The values of l represents various sub 2
shells. When l = 0, 1, 2, 3 ...... etc are called
1
s, p, d, f ....... sub shells respectively. represented by 
2
• Energies are in the order of
• For each value of m, there can be two
spdf . s values.
• It indicates the shape of orbit or orbital • It indicates the direction of the spin of
and angular momentum of electron. the electron.
•Number of sub shells in an energy • Maximum number of electrons in an
level = n orbital = 2.
where n = no.of the orbit • The maximum number of electrons
present in s, p, d and f shells are 2, 6, 10
and 14 respectively.
14 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

13. MULTI - ELECTRON ATOMS:


• The results obtained by solving the Schrodinger’s
• Electronic configuration of chromium atom is
wave equation agree with the experimental values 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p6 3d5 4s1 but not 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
3p6 3d4 4s2.
obtained for hydrogen and the other one electron
systems like He+, Li2+. STABILITY OF COMPLETELY FIELD AND HALF
FILLED SUBSHELLS
• The energy of electron in hydrogen atom is determined
only by the principal quantum number n.  The valence electronic configurations of Cr and
• In multi electron atoms, the energy level depend
on both principal quantum number and azimuthal Cu. are 3d 5 4 s1 and 3d 10 4 s1 respectively and
quantum number. not 3d 4 4s 2 and 3d 9 4 s 2 .
• The magnetic quantum number m indicates the
number of degenerate levels or orbitals of equal  The completely filled and completely half filled
energy. sub shells are stable due to the following rasons.
• An orbital having a certain value for m cannot
accommodate more than 2 electrons.  1.Symmetrical distribution of electrons: It is
• The maximum number of electrons in s, p, d and well known that symmetry leads to stability. the
f sub energy levels is 2, 6, 10 and 14 respectively. completely filled or half filled subshells have sym-
metrical distribution of electrons in them and are
• The maximum number of electrons in a given
therefore more stable.
principal quantum level is 2n2.
PAULI’S EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE:  2.Exchange Energy: The stabilizing effect arises
• No two electrons in the same atom can have the whenever two or more electrons with the same
same values for all the four quantum numbers. spin are present in the degenerate orbitals of a
• Two electrons in a given orbital have same values subshell. These electrons tend to exchange their
of n, l and m. positions and the energy released due to this
exchange is called exchange energy. The num-
• Electrons in the same orbital differ in their spin ber of exchanges that can take place is maxi-
quantum number and they spin in opposite mum when the subshell is either half filled or com-
directions. An orbital can not accommodate more pletely filled. As a result the exchange energy is
than two electrons. maximum and so is the stability.
AUFBAU PRINCIPLE: CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS
• Electron filling follows energy ranking. SUB ATOMIC PARTICLES :
• The orbitals are successively filled in the order of ( ELECTRON, PROTON, NEUTRON)
their increasing energy. MODEL QUESTIONS
• Among the available orbitals, the orbitals of lowest 1. The increasing order of specific charge of electron
energy are filled first. (e), proton (p), alpha particle (  ) and neutron (n)
• The energy value of an orbital increases as its is
(n + l) value increases. 1) e, p, n,  2) n, p, e, 
• If two orbitals have the same value for (n + l), the 3) n,  , p, e 4) n, p,  , e
orbital having lower n value is first filled. 2. In which of the following species cation and Anion
HUND’S RULE: have same number of electrons
• Orbitals of the same kind should be half filled 1) CaO 2) KBr 3) NaF 4) MgS
before electron pairing takes place. 3. The ratio between the number of neutrons present
in C12 and Si30 atoms is
• Orbitals having the same values for n and l are
called degenerate orbitals. 1) 3 : 8 2) 2 : 5 3) 3 : 7 4) 1 : 1
• Unpaired electrons have parallel spin. 4. The nitride ion in lithium nitride is composed of
1) 7 protons + 7 electrons
• Half filled and completely filled degenerate orbitals
2) 10 protons + 7 electrons
give greater stability to atoms.
3) 7 protons + 10 electrons
• Chromium (Z = 24) and copper (Z = 29) have
4) 10 protons + 10 electrons
anomalous electronic configuration due to this
reason.
15 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

5. The Z and A values of an element are 25 and 12. The  - particles are
55. The number of electrons protons and 1) high energy electrons
neutrons in its most stable ion respectively are 2) positively charged hydrogen atoms
1) 25,25,30 2) 23,25,30 3) nuclei of helium atoms
3) 22,25,30 4) 20,25,309. 4) high energy radiations
6. Which of the following statement is correct 13. The correct statement about proton is :
1) Sulphur atom, sulphide ion have same no. of 1) It is a nucleus of deuterium
electrons 2) It is an ionized hydrogen atom
2) Sulphur atom, sulphide ion have same electron 3) It is an ionized hydrogen molecule
configuration
4) It is an   particle
3) Sulphur atom, sulphide ion have same no. of
neutrons
14. In Moseley’s equation  v  a  Z  b   :
4) Sulphur atom, sulphide ion differ in their nuclear
charges 1) b depends on metal and a is independent of
7. Among the following which is not isoelectronic metal
with others 2) both a and b are metal dependent
1) HF 2) H2O 3) both a and b are independent of metal
3) NH3 4) CO 4) a is metal dependent while b is not
8. The charge on the atom containing 17 protons, 15. The argument which favours the particulars
18 neutrons and 18 electrons is
nature of cathode rays is :
1) -1 2) -2 3) 0 4) +1
1) they produce fluorescence
9. Which of the following is correct for cathode rays
in discharge tube 2) they travel through vacuum
1) independent of the nature of the cathode 3) they get deflected by electric and magnetic
2) independent of the nature of the gas fields
3) is observed in pressence of electric and mag 4) they cast shadows of objects present in their
netic field way
4) all the above 16. Which of the following pairs have identical
10. Magnitude of deflection of cathode rays in dis- values of e/m?
charge tube is more when 1) a Proton and a neutron
1) magnitude of charge of the particle is more 2) A proton and deuterium
2) greater interaction with the electric or mag- 3) Deuterium and an   particles
netic field 4) An electron and   rays
3) less mass of the particle 17. From the discharge tube experiment it was
4) all the above concluded that :
e 1) mass of proton is in fraction
11. The value of proton is 2) matter contains electrons
m
3) nucleus contains positive charge
e 4) positive rays are heavier than protons
1) less than value of electron 18. The nature of anode rays depends upon
m
1) Nature of gas filled in the discharge tube
e 2) Nature of electrode
2) equal to value of electron
m 3) Nature of metal 4) None of these
e 19. An oil drop has 6.39 1019 charge. What
3) greater than value of electron
m will be the number of electrons in this drop?
4) all the above 1) 2 2) 4 3) 8 4) 16
16 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

20. The ratio e/m i.e., specific charge for a cathode ray. 27. One of the fundamental particles is missing in
1) has the smallest value when the discharge one of the isotopes. And the particle and isotope
are respectively
tube is filled with H 2 1) neutron, protium 2) neutron, tritium
2) is constant 3) proton, protium 4) electron, tritium
3) varies with the atom number of gas in the 28. Which of the following contains more no of
discharge tube neutrons
1) S32 2) Na23 3) Fe56 4) Ca40
4) varies with the atomic number of an element
29. Tritium atom contains
forming the cathode
1) 1e, 1p, 1n 2) 1e, 1p, 2n
21. The value of charge on the oil droplets
3) 2p, 2e, 1n 4) 1e, 1p, 3n
experimentally observed were 1.6 1019 and 30. The massive particle among the following is
1)  - particle 2) deuteron
4 1019 coulomb. The value o f the
electronic charge, indicated by these results is 3) proton 4)  - particle

1) 1.6 1019 2) 2.4 1019 e


31. The value of electron is
m
3) 4 1019 4) 0.8 1019
22. When the speed electron increases, the specific 1) 1.758820  1011 ckg 1
charge 2) 1.75882  1011 ckg 1
1) Decreases 2) Increases
3) Remains same 4) None 3) 1.758802  1012 kg 1c
PRACTICE QUESTIONS 4) 1.75882  1013 kg  1c

23. An atom contains electrons, protons and 32. Charge of electron is determined by
neutrons. If the mass of each neutrons is halved, 1) J.J. Thomson 2) Mullikan
and each electron is doubled, then the atomic 3) Crookes 4) Chadwick
mass of 12Mg24 33. Neutrons are discovered by
1) Gets doubled 1) J.J.Thomson 2) Gold Stein
2) Approximately remain same 3) Crookes 4) Chadwick
3) Approximately get reduced by 5% 34. Charge of one mole of alpha particle is
4) Approximately get reduced by 25% 1) + 2 units 2) +1 units
24. Nucleons are 3) + 2 faraday 4) + 2 coulombs
1) only protons 2) only neutrons
3) both protons and neutrons e
4) electrons, protons and neutrons 35. The ratio of of proton and  - particle is
m
25. The wrong statement among the following is
1) Nitrogen atom, nitride ion have same atomic 1) 2 : 1 2) 1 : 2 3) 1 : 1 4) 1 : 3
number 36. The Ion that is isoelectron with carbon monoxide
2) Aluminium atom and its ion have same mass is (E-90)
number 1) CN- 2) O2+ 3) O-2 4) N2+
3) Iron atom, ferrous ion have same electron
configuration 37. Assertion(A): Cathode rays are deflected towards
4) Nuclear charge is same in both chlorine atom, positive plate in an electric field
chloride ion Reason(R): These consist of negatively charged
26. Set of iso electronic ions among the following is particles.
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
1) Na  , Cl , O 2) K+, Ca++,F- explanation of (A)
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
3) Cl , K  , S 4) H  , Be   , Na  correct explanation of (A)
3) (A) is true but (R) is false
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
17 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

38. Which of the following statemens is not correct 43. Which statement is correct?
regarding cathode rays? 1) Volume of proton is approximately
1) The rays carry negative charge
2) The charge / mass of these rays is 1.5 1038 cm3
considerably smaller than for positive rays. 2) The radius of electron is 42.8 1013 cm
3) The rays produce mechanical effect
4) The charge / mass ratio is independent of the 3) The density of nucleus is 1014 g / cm3
nature of the gass taken in the discharge tube.
4) All of the above
39. Which of the following is not be basic postulate
of Dalton’s atomic theory ? 44. If S1 be the specific charge  e / m  of cathode
1) Atoms are neither created not destroyed in
rays and S 2 be that of positive ray then which
a chemical reaction
2) In a compound, the relative number and is true?
kinds of atom are constant. 1) S1  S2 2) S1  S 2
3) Atoms of all elements are alike, including 3) S1  S2 4) Either of these
their masses
4) Each element is composed of extremely MODEL QUESTIONS
small particles called atoms ISOBARS AND ISOTOPES
40. Which of the following reactions led to the
discovery of neutrons ? 45. Among 10 A20 11 B 21 11C 22 and 12 D 22 the iso-
bar combination is
1
6
14
7 N  0 n
1) C  1 p 1 14 1) A and B 2) B and C
3) C and D 4) A and D

2) Be9  He4 
 6 C 12
 0 n1 46. U 235 and U 238 are seperated by
4 2
1) Sublimation
3) B11  D 2 
 C 11
 0 n1 2) Gaseous diffusion 3) Electrolysis
5 1 6 4) Precipitation
1
4) Be8  He4 
4 2 6 C11  0n PRACTICE QUESTIONS
47. Lightest isotope in the periodic table is
41. For the atomic radius of the order of 10-8 cm
1) Tritium 2) Deuterium
and nuclear radius of the order of 10-13 cm. 3) Protium 4) All the above
The fraction of atom occupied by the nucleus 48. The lightest radioactive isotope in periodic table
will be : is
1) 1013  atomic volume 1) Tritium 2) Deuterium
3) Protium 4) All the above
2) 1014 atomic volume 49. Isotopes exhibhits similar
3) 1015  atomic volume 1) physical properties
2) chemical properties
4) 1016  atomic volume
3) physical and chemical
42. Which of the following is main cause of late 4) neither physical nor chemical properties
discovery of neutron 50. Which the following elements exhibits more num-
1) Neutron is highly unstable particle ber of stable isotopes
2) Neutron in nucleus moves very fast 1) H 2) O
3) Neutron is chargeless particle 3) Sn 4) S
4) All of these 51. Isobars differ in
1) Neucleons 2) mass number
3) atomic number 4) both 1 & 3
18 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

52. The atomic weight of an element is 23 and its 58. Rutherford's experiment on scattering of  -
atomic number is 11. The number of protons, particles showed for the first time that the atom
electrons and neutrons respectively present in the has (E-95)
atom of the element are : 1) Nucleus 2) Electron 3) Proton 4) Neutron
(E-86) 59. The conclusions of Rutherford scattering
1) 11, 11, 12 2) 12,12,11
experiment does not include:
3) 11,12,11 4) 12,11,12 1)   particle can come within a distance of
the order of 1014 m of the nucleus.
53. The number of neutrons present in the deute-
rium isotope of hydrogen is 2) The radius of the nucleus is less than 1014 m
1) 2 2) 3 3) 5 4) 1 3) scattering follows Coulomb’s law
MODEL QUESTION 4) The (+) vely charged parts of an atom move
THOMSON AND RUTHERFORD ATOMIC MODELS with extremely high velocities.
54. In Rutherford  - rays scattering experiment gold MODEL QUESTIONS
foils are used due to
CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS
1) high maeliability
NATURE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
2) ductability
60. Assertion(A): Energy of radiation is large if its
3) high melting point
wave length is large
4) high ionisation energy
55. The best evidence that electrons are arranged C
Reason(R): Energy  hν  ν  
in definite orbits or energy levels is based on  λ
the observation that 1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
1) atomic spectra consist of discrete lines and explanation of (A)
not continuous bands 2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
2) electrons in the beta ray have high kinetic correct explanation of (A)
energy 3) (A) is true but (R) is false
3) the penetrating power of cathode ray 4) (A) is false but (R) is true
electrons depends upon the voltage used to 61. List - I List - II
produce them
A) Velocity of light 1) Energy particle
4) electrons revolve around the nucleus
B) Plank’s constant 2) Energy packet
56. Which of the following is true for Thomson’s
model of atom C) Wave number 3) 3  108 m / sec
1) The radius of an electron can be calculated D) Photon 4) 6.625  10 34 J  sec
by using this model
2) In an undisturbed atom, the electron will be 5) cm 1
at their equilibrium position, where the The correct match is
attraction between A B C D A B C D
3) the cloud of positive charge and the electrons 1) 2 3 4 5 2) 1 2 3 4
balances their mutual repulsion. 3) 2 4 5 1 4) 3 4 5 1
4) None of the above 62. The electromagnetic radiations are,
PRACTICE QUESTIONS a) Visible light b) IR light
57. In Rutherford's alpha-ray scattering experiment, c) UV light d) Micro waves
the alpha particles are detected using a screen The correct order of increasing energy from
coated with ( E-99) lowest to highest is
1) carbon black 2) platinum black
1) a bcd 2) abcd
3) zinc sulphide 4) poly tetrafluoro ethylene
3) dba c 4) bcda
19 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

63. Which of the following statements is not correct 70. If 1 and 2 are the wavelength of characteristic
regarding electromagnetic spectrum? X-rays and gamma rays respectively, then the
1) The velocity of X-rays is more than that of
relation between them is
microwaves
2) Infra-red radiations have larger wavelength 1
than cosmic rays 1) 1  2) 1  2
2
3) The frequency of microwaves is less than
that of ultra - violet rays 3) 1  2 4) 1  2
4) X-rays have larger wave number than micro MODEL QUESTIONS
waves PLANKS QUANTUM THEORY
64. Energy levels A, B, C of a certain atoms 71. Dimensions of Planck’s constant are
corresponding to increasing values of every level 1) Force  Time 2) Energy  Distance
i.e., E A  EB  EC . If 1 , 2 and 3 are the
Energy
wavelengths of radiations corresponding to the 3) Energy  Time 4)
Time
transitions C to B, B to A and C to A
respectively which of the following statement is 72. The characteristic not associated with Planck’s
correct? theory is :
1) radiations are associated with energy
12 2) the magnitude of energy associated with a
1) 3  1  2 2) 3  quantum is proportional to frequency
1  2
3) radiation energy is neither emitted nor
3) 1  2  3  0 3) 32  12  22 absorbed continuously.
PRACTICE QUESTIONS 4) radiation energy is neither emitted nor
65. The ratio of energy to frequency of electromag- absorbed discontinuously
netic radiation is called 73. Planck’s constant has the same dimensions as
1) Bohr’s constant 2) Rydberg’s constant that of
3) Planck’s constant 4) Ritz constant 1) power 2) work
66. The radiation having maximum wave length is 3) radiant energy 4) angular momentum.
1) Ultraviolet rays 2) Radio waves 74. Which of the following relates to photons both
3) X-rays 4) Infra-red rays as wave motion and as a stream of particles?
67. Which one of the following is having more wave 1) interference 2) E  mc 2
number 3) diffraction 4) E = hv
1) Red 2) Blue 3) Green 4) Violet PRACTICE QUESTIONS
68. The product of which of the following is equal to 75. As the frequency of the light increases, the
the velocity of light momentum of its Photon
1) wave length and wave number 1) increases 2) decreases
2) wave length and frequency 3) remains same 4) cannot be predicted
3) frequency and wave number MODEL QUESTIONS
4) wave length and amplitude PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
69. The number of photons of light having wave 76. The kinetic energy of the ejected electrons in pho-
number x in 1 J of energy source is (Planck’s toelectric effect is
constant = h, velocity of light = c) 1) Directly proportional to the frequency of the
incident radiation
x 1 2) Inversely proportional to the frequency of the
1) hcx 2) hc/x 3) 4)
hc hcx incident radiation
3) Not related to the frequency of the incident
radiation
4) All the above
20 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

77. Assertion(A): The kinetic energy of the photo 82. Visible light photons do not show Compton
electron ejected increases with increase in in- effect because they
tensity of incident light. 1) Move very slowly
Reason(R): Increase in intensity of incident light 2) Have no momentum
increases the rate of emission. 3) Have very less mass
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct 4) Have larger wavelength
explanation of (A)
83. Photoelectric effect of the phenomenon in which
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the 1) Photon comes out of a metal when it is hit
correct explanation of (A)
by a beam of electrons
3) (A) is true but (R) is false
2) Photons come out of the nucleus of an atomic
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
under the action of an electric field
78. Assertion(A): Threshold frequency is a charac-
3) Electrons come out of a metal with a constant
teristic for a metal
velocity which depends on the frequency and
Reason(R): Threshold frequency is a maximum
frequency required for the ejection of electron from
intensity of incident light we have
the metal surface. 4) Electrons come out of metal with different
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct velocities not greater than a certain value
explanation of (A) which depends only on the frequency of the
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the incident light wave and not on its intensity
correct explanation of (A) PRACTICE QUESTIONS
3) (A) is true but (R) is false 1
4) (A) is false but (R) is true 84. In the equation hv  hvo  me v 2 , vo is
2
known as
79. Photo electric emission is observed from a
1) work function
surface for frequencies v1 and v2 the KE in
2) velocity of ejected electron
two cases are in ratio 1 : K, then the threshold 3) threshold frequency
frequency v0 is given by 4) frequency of photon
v2  v1 Kv1  v2 85. Photo electric effected is not observed in case of
1) 2) 1) Potassium 2) Rubidium
K 1 K 1
3) Magnesium 4) Cesium
Kv2  v2 v2  v2
3) 4) 86. If 0 is the threshold wavelength for
K 1 K
80. Light of wavelength 1 shines on a metal surface photoelectric emission,  the wavelength of light
with intensity x and the metal emits y electrons falling on the surface of a metal and m is the
per second of average energy, z. What will mass of the elctron, then the velocity of ejected
happen to y and z if x is doubled? electron is given by
1) y will be doubled and z will become half 1/ 2 1/ 2
 2h   2hc
2) y will remian same and z will be doubled 1)        2)   0   
3) both y and z will be doubled m   m 
4) y will be doubled but z will remain same 1/ 2 1/ 2
 2hc  0     2hc  1 1 
81. The kinetic energy of electrons ejected by using 3)    4)    
light having frequency equal to threshold  m   0   m  0  
frequency  n0  is : 87. The photoelectric emission from a surface starts
only when the light incident upon the surface
1) hv0 2) Almost zero has certain minimum
3) very large 4) h / v0 1) intensity 2) wavelength
3) frequency 4) velocity
21 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

88. The threshold frequency for photoelectric


93.Which of the following transitions are not allowed
emission of electrons from platinum is
in the normal electronic emission spectrum of
1.3 × 1015 s 1 .Then incorrect statement is an atom?
1) The number of electrons ejected from the
1) 2s  1s 2) 2 p  1s
metal surface will depend upon the intensity
2) The radiation having energy 1 × 1020 J will 3) 3d  4 p 4) 5 p  3s
be able to cause photoelectric effect. PRACTICE QUESTIONS
3) If radiation having frequency 1.3 94. The spectrum with all wavelengths may be
×1014 s 1 strikes the platinum surface, photo 1) absorption spectrum 2) emission spectrum
3) continuous spectrum
- electrons will not be ejected.
4) The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons 4) discontinuous spectrum
will increase with increase in frequency 95. Line spectrum is characteristic of
provided it is greater than 1.3 × 1015 s 1 . 1) atoms 2) molecules
3) any substance in the solid state
89. In photoelectric effect the number of
phot-electrons emitted is proportional to 4) any substance in the liquid state
1) intensity of incident beam 96. All types of electromagnetic radiations possess
2) frequency of incident beam same
3) wavelength of incident beam 1) wave length 2) Frequency 3) Energy
4) all the above 4) Velocity when they passed
through vacuum
90. Light of wavelength  strikes a metal surface
97. The band spectrum is caused by
with intensity X and the metal emits  electrons 1) molecules 2) atoms
per second of average energy Z. If X is halved, 3) any substance in solid state
the  and Z will be : 4) any substance in liquid state
1)  will be halved, Z will be doubled 98. The line spectra of two elements are not
2)  will be doubled, Z will be halved identical because :
3)  will be halved & Z will remain same 1) the elements do not have the same number
4)  will remain the same and Z will be halved of neutrons
91. A surface ejects electrons when hit by green 2) they have different mass numbers
light but not when hit by yellow light. Will 3) their outermost electrons are at different
electrons be ejected if the surface is hit by red energy levels
light 4) all of the above.
1) Yes 2) No MODEL QUESTIONS
HYDROGEN SPECTRUM
3) Yes, if the red bream is quite intense
4) Yes, if the red beam continues to fall upon 99. In Hydrogen atom electron is present in the N
shell. If it loses energy, a spectral line may be
.MODEL QUESTIONS observed in the region
ATOMIC SPECTRA
1) infra-red 2) visible
92. Assertion(A): It is not essential that all the lines
available in the emission spectrum will also be 3) ultra-violet 4) any of these
available in the absorption spectrum 100. When the electron of 5th orbit jumps into the
first orbit the number of spectral lines produced
Reason(R): The spectrum of hydrogen atom is
in hydrogen spectrum is
only absorption spectrum
1) 5 2) 10 3) 20 4) 1
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
101. The electron present in 5th orbit in excited
explanation of (A)
hydrogen atoms returned back to ground state.
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the The no. of lines which appear in Lyman series
correct explanation of (A) of hydrogen spectrum
3) (A) is true but (R) is false 1) 5 2) 10 3) 4 4) 6
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
22 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

102. The electronic transition that emits maximum 114 The wave length of the radiation emitted by
energy is [n = represents orbit] Hydrogen when compared to He+ is
1) 2 times that of He+ ion
1) n5  n4 2) n4  n3
2) 3 times that of He+ ion
3) n2  n1 4) n3  n2 3) 4 times that of He+ ion 4) Same as He+
103. The wave number of the H  - line in Balmer series 115. Among the first lines Lyman, Balmer, Paschen
and Brackett series in hydrogen atomic spectra
of hydrogen spectrum is which has higher energy? (E-1999)
1) 5R / 36 2) 3R / 16 3) 21R / 100 4) 3R / 4 1) Lyman 2) Balmer
104. If the mass of the electron is reduced to half the 3) Paschen 4) Brackett
Rydberg constant 116. Assertion(A): Line spectrum of Li 2 and He 
1) remains unchanged 2) becomes half are identical
3) becomes double 4) becomes one Reason(R): Isoelectronic species produce iden-
fourth tical spectrum
105. Rydberg constant is 1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
1) Same for all elements explanation of (A)
2) Different for different elements 2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A)
3) A universal constant
3) (A) is true but (R) is false
4) Is different for lighter elements but same for 4) (A) is false but (R) is true
heavier elements
MODEL QUESTIONS
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
BOHRS MODEL OF HYDROGEN ATOM
106. Values of n1 and n2 for H  spectral line in the
hydrogen emission spectrum 117. For the electron moving in the circular orbit in the
1) 1 and 2 2) 2 and 3 3) 3 and 2 4) 2 and 4 hydrogen atom, the forces of attraction of the
107. Which of the following gives neither emission nucleus is balanced by the force equal to
spectrum nor absorption spectrum
1 2  mV 2  e 2 m
1) He+ 2) H2 3) H+ 4) He 1) mV 2) 3) 4) 2
108. In hydrogen spectrum, the spectral line of Balmer 2 r 2r Vr
series having lowest wavelength is 118. The ratio between potential energy and total
energy of an electron in H-atom according to Bohr
1) H  - line2) H  - line 3) H  - line 4) H  -line
atom
109. The following electronic transition corresponds 1) 1 : -1 2) 1 : 1 3) 1 : 2 4)2: 1
to the shortest wave length (n = no. of orbit) 119. The ratio of the radius of the Bohr orbit for the
1) n5  n1 2) n5  n3 electron orbiting the hydrogen nucleus that of the
3) n5  n2 4) n5  n4 electron orbiting the deuterium nucleus is
approximately
110. In hydrogen spectrum the following series of lines
belongs to U.V. region 1) 1 2) 1 : 2 3) 2 : 1 4) 1 : 4
1) Balmer series 2) Paschen series 120. The change in velocity when hydrogen electron
3) Bracket series 4) Lyman series jumps from K shell to L shell is
111. When the electron jumps from n = 5 to n = 2 1) one-half of its original velocity
level, the spectral line observed in the hydrogen 2) twice to its original velocity
spectrum belongs to 3) one-quarter of its original velocity
1) Balmer series 2) Lyman series
4) equal to its original velocity
3) Bracket series 4) Pfund series
112. Normal hydrogen atoms can not give 121. For the electron moving in the circular orbit in the
1) absorption spectrum 2) line spectrum hydrogen atom, the force of attraction of the
3) band spectrum 4) atomic spectrum nucleus is balanced by the force equal to
113. Which of the following transition is associated 1) 1/2 mv2 2) - mv2/r
with coloured spectral line 3) - e2/2r 4) m/vr2
1) n = 5 to n = 3 2) n = 4 to n = 2
3) n = 2 to n = 1 4) n = 3 to n = 1
23 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

122. Which of the following statements is incorrect h


1) The third shell can hold a max. of 18 electrons IV) m.v.r  d) Photoelectric effect

2) An electron falling to the same energy level
from any higher level always emits the same The correct match is
quantum of energy I II III IV I II III IV
3) The Balmer series spectral lines appear in the
visible part of the emission spectrum of 1) a b c d 2) c d b a
4) The Hydrogen atom is in its ground state when 3) d c b a 4) b d a c
its electrons in the first shell
126. Consider the following statements
123. According to de Broglie’s concept, the
circumference of each electron of which must be I) Bohr’s theory can also be used to explain the
equal to spectra of He  ion
1) diameter of a electron
II) Energy of an electron in the first Bohr orbit of
2) the wave length of an electron
3) the integral no of electron wavelength hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV
4) Planck’s constant divided by 2 III) Bohr’s theory is only applicable to hydrogen
124. List - I List - II atom and not to any other species
IV) The energy of an electron in a hydrogen atom
2πze 2 is quantised
A) Energy 1)
nh The correct statements are
1) I,II,IV 2) II,III 3) II,IV 4) All are
2π 2 mz 2 e 4
B) Velocity 2)
n 2h2 127. The expression for the Bohr radius of hydrogen
- like species is
2π 2 mz 2 e 4
C) Rydberg constant 3)  h2 
h 3c n 2
 
1)
 4 m  Ze / 4 0  
2 2

n2 h 2
D) Radius 4)
4π 2 mz e 2
1  h2 
2) n2  
 4 m  Ze / 4 0  
2 2
4π 2 mz 2 e 4
5)
n2 h 2
 4 2 mh2  1  4 2 mh2 
2
The correct match is
3) n   4) n 2  
  Ze / 4 0     Ze / 4 0  
2 2
1) A = 2 B = 4 C = 5 D = 1
2) A = 2 B = 1 C = 3 D = 4 128. The ionization energy of H atom is x kJ. The
3) A = 3 B = 2 C = 1 D = 4
enrgy required for the elctron to jump from n =
2 to n =3 will be :
4) A = 4 B = 3 C = 1 D = 5 1) 5x 2) 36x/5 3) 5x/36 4) 9x/4
125. List - I List - II 129. Choose the incorrect relation on the basis of
Bohr’s theory :
I) hν  W  K.E a) Quantization of
1
angular momentum 1) Velocity of electron 
n
II) E  hν b)Wave numbers of
1
Balmer series 2) Frequency of revolution 
n3
1 1 3) Radius of orbit  n 2 Z
III) ν  R  2
 2 c) Quantum theory
2 n  1
4) Force on electron  4
n
24 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

130. As an electron is brought from an infinite 138. When a hydrogen atom is raised from the
ground state to an excited state.
distance close of nucleus of the atom, the energy
1) Both kinetic energy and potential energy de-
of electron crease
1) increases to a grater +ve value 2) Potential energy increases and kinetic
2) decreases to a smaller +ve value energy decreases
3) increases to a grater -ve value 3) Potential energy decreases and kinetic
4) decreases to a smaller -ve value energy increases
131. If RH is the Rydberg constant, then the energy 4) Both kinetic energy and potential energy
increase
of an electron in the ground state of Hydrogen 139. The minimum energy required to eject an electron
atom is from an atom is called
1 1) Kinetic energy 2) Electrical energy
RH C hc
1) 2) R 3) 4) RH hc 3) Chemical energy 4) Work function
h H ch RH 140. The radius of an orbit in hydrogen atom is equal
to
PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1) n2h2 / 4  2 m Ze2 2) 2  Ze2 / nh
132. E value is maximum in 3) 2  2mZ2e4 / n2h2 4) -2  2mZ2e2 / n2h2
1) E2 - E1 = E 2) E3 - E2 = E 141. The angular momentum of the electron in the M-
shell of H atom is
3) E4 - E3 = E 4) E5 - E4 = E 1) 3h/2  2) Mh/2 
133. Energy difference between two adjacent orbits is 3) h/2  4) 2h/2 
minimum if they are
1) K, L - shells 2) L, M - shells
142. The total energy of the electron in any orbit of
3) M, N - shells 4) N, O - shells
one electron containing species is given by the
134. Bohr’s model of atom can explain the spectrum expression
of all except
1) H 2) He+ 3) Li++ 4) He 1)  e 2 / r 2 2)  n 2 h 2 / 2 2 Z 2 e 4 m
135. Transition of electron from M-shell to K-shell 3)  2 2 mZ 2 e 4 / n 2 h 2 4) nh / 2 
results in the emission of
143.. The potential energy of electron, revolving in an
1) Cosmic rays 2) Infrared rays orbit of radius ‘r’ in the atom with atomic number
3) ultraviolet rays 4) X-rays Z is
136. Which of the following electron transition in 1) Ze2/r 2) -Ze2/r
hydrogen atom will require the energy equivalent 2 2
3) Ze /r 4) mv2/r
to its ionization energy ? 144. The value of the total energy of an electron in the
1) from n = 1 to n = 2 2) from n = 2 to n =3 hydrogen atom is given by
3) from n = 1 to n = 3 4) from n = 1 to n   1) mv2 2) 1/2 mv2
137. Which of the following is correct 2
3) - e /2r 4) - mv/r2
145. The angular momentum of an electron in an atom
 Ze2 depends on
1) Potential energy of revolving electron 
r 1) m 2) l 3) n 4) all the three
146. Properties of electrons that are quantized in
Ze 2 Bohr’s atomic model are
2) Kinetic energy of revolving electron  1) mass and energy
2r
2) energy and angular momentum
 Ze2 3) angular momentum and mass
3) Total energy of revolving electron  4) mass and charge
2r
147.. When the atomic electron is at infinite distance
4) All the above from the nucleus, its energy is
1) infinity 2) zero 3) negative 4) positive
25 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

148. The total energy of the electron revolving round


the nucleus is h
1) zero 2) less than zero tron is whole number multiple of

3) More than zero
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
4) In some atoms less than zero and in certain
explanation of (A)
atoms more than zero
149. Bohr’s model violates the rules of classical 2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
physics because it assumes that correct explanation of (A)
1) all electrons have same charge 3) (A) is true but (R) is false
2) the nucleus have same charge
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
3) electrons can revolve around the nucleus
4) A charged particle can accelerate without 157. Assertion(A): In an atom, the velocity of elec-
emitting radiant energy trons in the higher orbits keeps on decreasing
150. The difference in angular momentum associated Reason(R): Velocity of electron is inversely pro-
with the electron in two successive orbits of portional to the radius of the orbit
hydrogen atom is
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
1) h / 2 2) h /  3) h/2 4) (n - 1) h / 2 explanation of (A)
151. Angular momentum of an electron is quantised
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
according to
correct explanation of (A)
1) Planck 2) Rutherford 3) Bohr 4) Thomson
152.. Bohr’s model of atom explains 3) (A) is true but (R) is false
1) zeeman effect 2) photo electric effect 4) (A) is false but (R) is true
3) stark effect
158. Assertion(A): Each principal level of quantum
4) hydrogen atomic spectrum atomic hydrogen number n contains a total of n sub levels
153. Bohr’s model of an atom is contradicted by
Reason(R): Each orbital can hold two electrons
1) Pauli’s exclusive principle
and each sub level of quantum number l contains
2) Planck’s quantum theory
a total of 2l+1 orbitals
3) Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
4) all the above
explanation of (A)
154. The basic assumption of Bohrs Model of hydro- 2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
gen atom is that (E-94) correct explanation of (A)
1) The energy of the electron is quantised 3) (A) is true but (R) is false
2) The angular momentum of the electron is 4) (A) is false but (R) is true
quantised 159. To which of the following is Bohr’s theory
applicable
3) The radial distance of the electron is quantised
4) The orbital velocity of the electron is quantised I) He  II) Li 2 III) Tritium IV) Be 2
The correct combination is
155. According to Bohr's theory energy
is..................... when an electron moves from a 1) III, IV 2) I,II,III,IV 3) I,II 4) I,II,III
lower to a higher orbit. (E-84)
160. The expression of Rydberg constant is
1) Absorbed 2) emitted
3) No change 4) both 1 and 2 2 2 mh 2 c 2 2 m  e2 / 4 0 
2

1) e 2 / 4 2 2)
156. Assertion(A): The angular momentum of an elec-  0 h3 c
tron in an atom is quantised
2
Reason(R): In an atom only those orbits are
3)
e 2
/ 4 0  2 2 mh3c
4) 2
permitted in which angular momentum of the elec- e / 4 0
2 2 mh3c
26 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

161. The wave length of a spectral line for an 166. Assertion(A): The faster a particle moves, the
electronic transition is inversely related to greater its momentum and the shorter is the wave
length that is associated with it.
1) velocity of electron undergoing transition
2) number of elctrons undergoing transaction h
3) the difference in energy levels involved in Reason(R): Because λ  and P  mv
p
the transition 1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
4) none of these explanation of (A)
162. The potential energy of an electron present in 2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
the ground state of Li 2 ion is : correct explanation of (A)
3) (A) is true but (R) is false
3e 2 3e 4) (A) is false but (R) is true
1)  2)  4 r 167. Among the following particles, which will have
4 0 r 0
the shortest wavelength when accelerated by
3e 2 3e2 one million eV?
3)  4)  1) Neutron 2) Tritium atom
4 0 r 4 0 r 2 3)  -particle 4) Electron
163. The velocity of electron in first orbit of H-atom 168. If moving with equal speeds, the longest
as compared to the velocity of light is : wavelength of the following matter waves is that
for a (an)
1 1 1 1) Electron 2)  -particle
1) th 2) th 3) th 4) same
10 100 1000 3) Proton 4) Neutron
164. When greater number of excited hydrogen 169. If Ee , E , and E p represents the kinetic
atoms reach the ground state, then energies of an electron alpha particle and a
1) more number of lines are found in Lyman proton respectively, each moving with same de
series Broglie wavelength then :
2) the intensity of lines in Balmer series increase
1) Ee  E  E p 2) Ee  E  E p
3) the intensity of lines in Lyman series increase
4) both the intensity and number of lines in 3) E  EP  Ee 4) Ee  E p  E
Lyman series increases 170. An electron, a proton and an alpha particle
MODEL QUESTIONS have K.E. of 16E, 4E and E respectively. What
DE BROGILE’S HYPOTHESIS, HEISENBERG’S is the qualitative order of their de-Broglie
UNCERTAINITY PRINCIPLE wavelengths :
165. List - I List - II 1) c   p   2)  p    e
Ze 2 3)  p  c   4)   e   p
A) nodal plane 1)
2r 171. Wavelength of an electron is equal led by it in
one second, then correct relation is
h
B) p-orbital 2) λ  h h
mv
1)   2)  
C) deBroglie 3) Spherical p p
D) Kinetic energy 4) Probability of finding
of electron an electron is zero
h h
3)   4)  
5) Dumb bell m m
The correct match is 172. Wave properties are only important for particles
A B C D A B C D having
1) 4 5 2 1 2) 2 4 3 5 1) high mass and low velocities
3) 1 5 3 2 4) 3 1 4 2 2) low mass and no velocity
3) high mass and high velocities
4) low mass and high velocities
27 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

PRACTICE QUESTIONS 178. Assertion(A): It is not possible to predict posi-


173. The wavelength associated with a golf ball tion and the velocity of an electron exactly and
weighing 200 g and moving at a speed of 5 simultaneously
mh-1 is of the order Reason(R): Electron moving with high speed pos-
sesses both the particle nature and the wave
1) 10 10 m 2) 10 20 m nature
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
3) 10 30 m 4) 10 40 m explanation of (A)
174. The momentum of electron is 2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A)
1) directly proportional to wave length
3) (A) is true but (R) is false
2) inversly proportional to wave number
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
3) inversly proportional to wave length 179. Which of the following has the largest de Broglie
4) unable to be determined wavelength provided all have equal velocity?
175. Assertion(A): deBroglie equation has significance 1) Carbon dioxide molecule
for any microscopic or submicroscopic particles 2) Ammonia molecule 3) Oxygen molecule
Reason(R): deBroglie wavelength is inversely pro- 4) Nitrogen molecule
portional to the mass of the object. 180. When uncertainty in position and momentum
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct are equal, then uncertainty in velocity is :
explanation of (A)
h 1 h
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the 1) 2)
correct explanation of (A)  2 
3) (A) is true but (R) is false 1 h h
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
3) 4) 2m
2  
176. Assertion(A): An electron cannot exist in the 181. The mass of an electron is m, its charge e and it
nucleus is accelerated from rest through a potential
Reason(R): The deBroglie wavelength of an elec- difference V. The velocity of electron will be
tron is much smaller than the diameter of the calculated by formula :
nucleus
1) V / m 2) eV / m
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
explanation of (A)
3)  2cV / m  4) none of these
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A) 182. The de Broglie wavelength relates to applied
3) (A) is true but (R) is false
voltage as :
4) (A) is false but (R) is true 12.3 0 12.3 0
1)   A 2)   A
177 Assertion(A): The position of electron can be de- h V
termined with the help of an electronic
12.3 0
microscope 3)   A 4) Both (B) and (C)
E
Reason(R): The product of uncertainty in
183. The construction of an electron microscope
momentum and the uncertainty in the position of
an electron cannot be less than a finite limit
isbased on
1) de Broglie’s principle
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
explanation of (A) 2) Heisenberg’s principle
3) Bohr’s theory
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A) 4) Rutherford concept
3) (A) is true but (R) is false
184. The kinetic energy of an electron accelerated
from rest through a potential difference of 5V
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
will be
1) 5J 2) 5erg 3)5eV 4) 8  1010 eV
28 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

MODEL QUESTIONS
192. List - I List - II
SCHRODINGER WAVE EQUATION
A) No of electrons present in 1) 2
185. The electron density of 3d xy orbital in YZ plane an orbit
is B) Number of orbitals in an 2) n
1) 50 % 2) 95 % orbit
3) 33.33 % 4) Zero C) Number of electrons in 3) n2
186. The orbital that has equal number of nodal spaces an orbital
and nodal planes
D) Number of sub shells 4) 2n 2
1) 2p 2) 3p 3) 4p 4) 5p
in an orbit
187. In the plots of radial distribution function for the
hydrogen 3s orbital versus ‘r’, the no. of peaks 5) n+1
are The correct match is
1) 3 2) 2 3) 1 4) 0 A B C D A B C D
188 Which one of the following expressions repre- 1) 4 2 1 3 (2) 1 2 3 4
sent the electron probability function (D) (M-2003) 3) 4 3 1 2 (4) 5 1 3 4
193. List - I List - II
1) 4r dr  2 2) 4r 2 dr  I) Radial probability a) 1.1A 0
3) 4r 2 dr  2 4) 4r dr  distribution curve of
3s orbital
189. According to aufbau principle the electron has a II) Distance of maximum b)1s orbital
tendency to occupy that subshell which has......... probability of 1s electron
energy. (E-93) III) Radial node for a c) 3 peaks,
1) lowest 2) highest 2s electron 2 radial nodes
3) no energy 4) both 1 and 2 IV) No spherical nodes d) 0.53A 0
190. Assertion(A): A spectral line will be observed for The correct match is
a 2Px  2Py transition I II III IV I II III IV
1) a b c d 2) c d a b
3) b a d c 4) d a b c
Reason(R): The energy of 2Px and 2Py 194. Consider the following statement
orbitals is the same I) Splitting of spectral lines in magnetic field is
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct due to the presence of degenerate orbitals
explanation of (A) II) In presence of electric field energy value of
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the Px , Py and Pz of same orbit are different
correct explanation of (A) III) Degenerate orbitals differs only in their
3) (A) is true but (R) is false orientation
4) (A) is false but (R) is true The correct combination is
1) I,II 2) II,III 3) I,II,III 4) I,III
191. Assertion(A): The Px orbital has maximum elec-
tron density along the x axis and its nodal plane 195. The number of nodal points in the plot of Rn ,0
is yz plane versus r is equal to the value of
Reason(R): For a given atom, for all values of n, 1) n 2) l 3) n-l 4) n-(l+a)
the p-orbitals have the same shape, but the over- 196. In an orbital, the signs of lobes indicate the
all size increase as n increases 1) sign of the wave function
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct 2) sign of the probability distribution
explanation of (A) 3) presence or absence or electron
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the 4) sign of charge
correct explanation of (A)
3) (A) is true but (R) is false
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
29 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

204. Which of the following statements is correct?


197. Which of the following conditions is incorrect
1) An orbital describes the path of an electron in
for an atom
1)  must be single valued at any particular
2) An orbital is a region where the electron is not
point located
2)  must be finite 3)  must be positive 3) An orbital is a function which gives the
4)  must be a continuous function of its probabilities of finding the electron in a
coordinates given region
198. Choose the correct statement among the 4) All the above
following : 205. The maximum probability of finding electron in
1)  2 represents the atomic orbital the d xy orbital is
2) The number of peaks in radial distribution is n-1
1) Along with x - axis 2) Along the y - axis
3) A node is a point in space around nucleus
where the wave function  has zero value 3) At an angle of 450 from the X and Y axis
4) all of the these
4) At an angle of 900 from the x and y axis
199. Consider the following statements :
206. In a main energy level, the orbital with more
1) Electron density in XY plane in 3d x2 2y number of nodal planes will be ......
orbital is zero 1) higher energy 2) lower energy
3) either 1 or 2 4) neither 1 nor 2
2) Electron density in XY plane in 3d z2 orbital
207. The quantum no. not obtained from Schrodinger’s
is zero wave equation is
3) 2s orbital has only one spherical node 1) n 2) l
4) For 2pz orbital YZ is the nodal plane 3) m 4) s
The correct statements are : 208. The angle between two ‘p’ orbitals is
1) 2 and 3 2) 1,2,3,4 3)Only 2 4)1 and 3 1) 450 2) 1800
200. The probability of finding an electron in a 3) 900 4) 1200
d xy orbital is maximum 209. The no. of nodes for 5p orbital
1) 2 2) 3 3) 4 4) 5
1) Parallel to x-axis 210. The electron density between 1s and 2s is
2) Parallel to y-axis 1) High 2) Low
3) Parallel to x and y-axis 3) Zero 4) Abnormal
4) At an angle of 450 from x and y axis. 211. The d-orbital with the orientation along x and y-
axis is called as
201.  2  psi  the wave function represents the 1) dxy 2) dyz 3) dxz 4) dx2y2
probability of finding electron. Its value 212. In the Schrodinger wave equation  represents
depends 1) orbitals 2) wave function
1) Inside the nucleus 3) amplitude function *4) both 2 & 3
213. The 2px, 2py and 2pz orbitals of an atom have
2) Far from the nucleus identical shapes but differ in their
3) Near the nucleus 1) size 2) shape
4) Upon the type of orbital 3) orientation 4) spin
PRACTICE QUESTIONS 214. The probability of finding an electron in an orbital
202. Orbital having most of its orientation along the is approximately? (M-2000)
axis is 1) 95% 2) 50% 3) 60% 4) 25%
1) dx2-y2 2) s 3) dxy 4 dyz 215. Which one of the following atomic orbitals is NOT
203. The orbital having minimum ‘m’ value directed along the axis? (M-99)
1) Spherical in shape 2) dumbell in shape 1) Px 2) d x 2  y 2 3) dxy 4) d z 2
3) double dumbell in shape 4) Tetrahedral
30 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

216. The rule that explains the reason for chromium


III) ψ 2 depends upon c) f -orbital
to have [Ar]3d5 4s1 configuration instead of [Ar]
3d4s2? (E-96) distance and on two
1) Pauli's exclusion principle 2) Aufbau Principle directions
3) Hund's rule 4) Heisenberg principle
IV) ψ 2 depends upon d) s -orbitals
217. When 4p orbital in any atom are filled completely,
the next electron goes in : (E-91) distance and on three
1) 5s 2) 3d 3) 4d 4) 4f directions
218. Due to which of the following reasons the nitro- The correct match is
gen shows three unpaired electrons I II III IV I II III IV
(E-87)
1) d c b a 2) c b a d
1) Hund’s rule 2) Aufbau principle
3) d a b c 4) d a c b
3) Pauli's principle 4) Heisenberg’s principle
223. Consider the following statements which is wrong
219. The statement "No two electrons in an atom can
have all the four quantum numbers identical" is I) The larger the value of n, smaller is the size of
known as the............. (E-87) the orbital
1) Pauli's exclusion principle II) The larger the value of n, higher the probability
of finding the electron at greater distance from
2) Aufbau Principle
the nucleus
3) Hund's rule
III) If n = 3, l can never have value greater than 3
4) Heisenberg’s principle
220. Assertion(A): Electrons may be considered as
224. Which of the following statements is not
particles and waves correct?
Reason(R): An electron in an atom may be de- 1) The wave function depicting the dependence
scribed as occupying at atomic orbital or by a on r involves two quantum numbers n and l.
wave function ψ , which is a solution to the 2) The wave function depicting the angular
schrodinger wave equation dependence involves two quantum numbers l
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct and m.
explanation of (A) 3) The spin quantum number is not the outcome
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the of the Schrodinger equation.
correct explanation of (A) 4) The lowest energy state of an atom
3) (A) is true but (R) is false corresponds to n = 0
4) (A) is false but (R) is true 225. For an electron in a hydrogen atom, the wave
221. Assertion(A): ψ indicates the amplitude of function  is proportional to exp, where a0 is
electron - wave the Bohr’s radius. What is the ratio of the
probability of finding the electron at the nucleus
Reason(R): ψ2 denotes probability of finding an to the probability of finding it at a0 ?
electron in the space around the nucleus 1) e 2) e2 3) 1/e2 4) zero
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the cor- 226. Which of the following statements regarding an
rect explanation of (A)
orbital are correct
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A)
1) An orbital is a definite trajectory around the
3) (A) is true but (R) is false
nucleus in which electron can move
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
2) An orbital always has spherical trajectory
222. List - I List - II
3) An orbital is the region around the nucleus
where here is a 90 - 95% probability of
I) ψ2 depends only a) p orbitals finding all the electrons of an atom
upon distance 4) An orbital is characterized by 3 quantum
numbers n, l and m
II) ψ 2 depends upon b) d orbital
distance and on one
direction
31 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

227. Which of the following statements on the atomic 235. The shape of an orbital is decided by
wave function  is not correct? 1) Radial wave function
1)  may be a real valued wave function 2) Angular wave function
2)  may be in some cases be a complex 3) Magnetic quantum number
function 4) Spin quantum number

3) has a mathematical significance only 236. Choose the incorrect statement :
4)  is proportional to the probability of finding 1) The shape of an atomic orbital depends upon
an electron the azimuthal quantum number
MODEL QUESTIONS 2) The orientation of an atomic orbitals depend
QUANTUM NUMBERS upon the magnetic quantum number
228. A neutral atom of an element has two ‘K’ eight ‘L’ 3) The energy of an electron in an atomic orbital
nine ‘M’ and two ‘N’ electrons. The total number of multi-electron atom depends on principal
of electrons present in the orbitals having l value quantum number.
1 are
4) The number of degenerate atomic orbitals
1) 6 2) 8 3) 10 4) 12
of one type depends on the value of
229. The quantum number which cannot say any thing
about an orbital is azimuthal and magnetic quantum numbers.
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1) n 2) l 3) m 4) s
237. The minimum angular momentum of an electron
230. An impossible set of four quantum number of an
electron is with the magnetic quantum -1, 0, +1
1) n = 4, l = 2, m = -2, s = + 1/2 3h 3h
2) n = 4, l = 0, m = 0, s = +1/2 1) 2) h /  3) 2 / h 4)
 
3) n = 3, l = 2, m = -3, s = + 1/2 238. The m value not possible for a double dumbell-
4) n = 5, l = 3, m = 0, s = - 1/2 shaped orbital is
231. An orbital made of four lobes can have the following 1) 0 2) -2 3) +3 4) -1
quantum numbers
239. The quantum number l and the number of electrons
1) n = 2, l = 2, m = 0 2) n = 3, l = 1, m = -2 (n) in the sub level are related by
3) n = 3, l = 2, m = 0 4) n = 3, l = 3, m = -3 1) n = 2l + l 2) l = 2n + l
232. For the azimuthal quantum number ‘l’ the total 2
number of magnetic quantum numbers is given 3) n = 4l + 2 4) n  2 l
by 240. Number of electrons of manganese with magnetic
( m  1) m 1 quantum number value ‘0’ is
1) l  2) l  1) 1 2) 8 3) 12 4) 13
2 2
241. How many sets of four quantum numbers are
2m  1 2m  1 possible for electrons present in He2- anion
3) l  4) l  1) 2 2) 4 3) 5 4) 7
2 2
242. If the azimuthal quantum number (K) value
233. n and l values of an orbital A or 3 and 2 of an- increases, the ellipticity of the path in which the
other orbital B are 5 and 0. The energy of electron moves
1) B is more than A 2) A is more than B
1) increases 2) decreases
3) A and B are same
3) remains constant
4) A is four times than B
4) first increases and then decreases
234. Ruther ford’s experiment, which established the
243. The principal quantum number (n) and azimuthal
nuclear model of the atom used a beam of quantum number (k) for the circular path present
1)  -particles which impinged on a metal foil in the fourth main energy level are
and got absorbed 1) n = 4, k = 1 2) n = 4, k = 2
2)  -rays, which impinged on a metal foil and 3) n = 4, k = 3 4) n = 4, k = 4
ejected electrons 244. The quantum number which determines the
3) helium atoms, which impinged on a metal number of sub-energy levels in any main energy
foil and got scattered level is
4) helium nuclei, which impinged on a metal foil 1) n 2) l 3) m 4) s
and got scattered
32 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

245. The quantum number which determines the 259. In order to designate an orbital in an atom the no.
energy of a sublevel is of quantum no. required
1) n 2) l 1) One 2) Two 3) Three 4) Four
3) both n and l 4) neither n nor l
246. The sub-energy level having minimum energy is 260. A 3d electron having s = + 1/2 can have a
1) 3d 2) 5p 3) 4s 4) 4p
magnetic quantum number
247. Among the various quantum numbers (n, l, m, s)
describing an electron which can have the largest 1) + 2 2) + 3 3) - 3 4) - 4
value 261. The angular momentum of an electron due to its
1) n 2) l 3) m 4) s spin is given by
248. The quantum number that was proposed to explain h h
the Zeeman effect is 1) s  s  1 2) s  s  1
2 2
1) m 2) l 3) s 4) n
249. The direction of spin of an electron is represented h 2
by 3) 4) s  s  1
2 h
1) n 2) l 3) m 4) s
262. The number of orbitals present in any main energy
250. The sub-energy level which can accommodate
maximum number of electrons with parallel spin level is equal to
values is 1) n 2) n2 3) 2n2 4) n + l
1) 4p 2) 6s 3) 3d 4) 6p
251. The electrons occupying the same orbital have 263 The number of sub-energy levels present in any
the same values for all the quantum number main energy level is equal to
except for
1) n 2) n + 1 3) n - 1 4) n2
1) n 2) l 3) m 4) s
264. The quantum number which determines the
252. The magnetic quantum number for the outermost
orientation of electron orbit is
electron in sodium atom is
1) n 2) l 3) m 4) s
1) -2 2) 0 3) +1 4) -1
253. The azimuthal quantum number and the principal 265. The m value not possible for a 4f-electron is
quantum number of the 17th electron are 1) -4 2) +3 3) 0 4) -2
1) l = 1, n = 3 2) l = 3, n = 2 266. The quantum number in which the valence
3) l = 1, n = 17 4) l = 2, n = 1 electrons of magnesium differs in
254. The quantum numbers n = 3, l = 1, m = +1 and 1) m 2) n 3) l 4) s
s = +1/2 represent the unpaired electron present 267. The azimuthal quantum number of an electron is
in one. The shape of the orbital is
1) Sodium atom 2) Aluminium atom 1) spherical 2) dumb bell
3) Fluorine atom 4) Potassium atom 3) double dumb bell 4) highly complicated
255. The azimuthal quantum number of a non-
268. The lowest orbital in which an electron with
directional orbital is
Azimuthal quantum no. value 3 is
1) 0 2) 1 3) -1 4) +1/2
1) 4 2) 5 3) 1 4) 6
256 The quantum levels upto n = 3 has
1) s, p electrons 2) s, p, d, electrons
3) s electrons 4) s,p,d,f electrons 269. The max. number of electron that can be
257 The orbital with maximum number of possible accomodated in all the orbitals for which l = 3 is
orientations (E-91)
1) s 2) p 3) d 4) f 1) 2 2) 6 3) 10 4) 14
258. ‘n’ and ‘l’ values of an orbital ‘A’ are 3 and 2 and 270. Which is correct with respect to 'p' orbitals(E-90)
of another orbital ‘B’ are 5 and 0. The energy is 1) They are spherical
1) B is more than A 2) They have a strong directional character
2) A is more than B 3) They are five fold degenerate
3) A and B are of same energy
4) They have no directional character
4) All the above
33 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

271. When there are two electrons in the same or- 277. The orbital diagram in which the aufbau
bital, they have...............................spins. principle is violated is
1) Equal 2) Opposite 2s 2p
3) No spins 4) All the above
1)
272. List - I List - II
I) Wave number a) ms 1
2)
II) Frequency b) nM
III) Wavelength c) s 1 3)
1
IV) Velocity d) m 1 d) m 4)
The correct match is 278. The successive elements belonging to the 3d-
I II III IV I II III IV series have the same number of electrons in the
1) a b c d 2) d c b a d-sub-shell. The elements are
3) b c d a 4) c d b a 1) Ti and V 2) V and C
3) Cr and Mn 4) Mn and Fe
273. Which of the following statements on quantum
279. Number of unpaired electrons of neutral
numbers is not correct? manganese atom and its divalent ion are in the
1) Quantum numbers n, l, m and ms are needed ratio (the atomic number of manganese is 25 and
to describe an electron in an atom it loses two electrons to form the divalent ion)
completely. 1) 1 : 1 2) 25 : 23 3) 5 : 3 4) 3 : 5
2) Quantum numbers n, l, m and s are obtained 280. According to (n + l) rule after completing ‘np’ level
by solving the Schrodinger wave quation. the electron enters into
3) A subshell in an atom can be designated with 1) (n - 1)d 2) (n + 1)s 3) nd 4) (n + 1)p
two quantum numbers n and l. 281. The atomic number at which filling of a g-orbital
4) The maximum value of l is equal to n - 1 and is likely to begin is :
that of m is l . 1) 121 2) 116 3) 106 4) 124
274. The angular wave function depends upon 282. The electronic configuration with maximum
quantum numbers. exchange energy will be
1) n and l 2) l and m 3) l and m 4) m and 1) 3d 1xy 3d 1yz 3d zx1 4 s1
CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS 2) 3d 1xy 3d 1yz 3d zx1 3d x12  y 2 3d z12 4 s1
MODEL QUESTIONS
ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 3) 3d xy2 3d yz2 3d zx2 3d x22  y 2 3d z12 4 s1
275. The electron identified by quantum numbers 4) 3d xy2 3d yz2 3d zx2 3d x22  y 2 3d z22 4 s1
n and l
i) n = 4, l = 1 ii) n = 4, l = 0 283. Which of the following statements is incorrect ?
iii) n = 3, l = 2 iv) n = 3, l = 1 1) Extra stability of half filled and completely
can be replaced in order of increasing filled orbitals among s and p block elements
energy from the lowest to highest as is reflected in trends of IE across a period.
1) iv < ii < iii < i 2) ii < iv < i < iii 2) Extra stability of half filled and completely
3) i < iii < ii < iv 4) iii < i < iv < ii
filled orbitals among s and p block elements
is reflected in E.A. trends across a period.
276. An atom Cr has one 4s electron and five 3d
electrons. How many unpaired electrons 3) Aufbau principle is incorrect for cases where
would be in Cr 3 ? energy difference between ns and  n  1 d
1) 1 2) 2 3) 3 4) 4 subshell is larger
4) Extra stability to half filled subshell is due to
higher exchange energies.
34 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

PRACTICE QUESTIONS 295. In potassium, the order of energy levels is


1) 3s > 3d 2) 4s < 3d 3) 4s > 4p 4) 4s = 3d
284. The d z 2 orbital can give room only to 296. The ion that is most stable
1) 10 electrons 2) 6 electrons 1) Fe+ 2) Fe2+ 3) Fe3+ 4) Fe4+
3) 2 electrons 4) 4 electrons 297. The electronic configuration in the valence shell
285. Any p - orbital can accommodate upto of silicon is
1) Four electrons
2) Two electrons with parallel spins
3) Six electrons
4) Two electrons with opposite spins The rule violated is
286. Which of the following arrangements of 1) Auf-bau principle 2) Paul’s rule
electrons is most likely to be stable? 3) Hund’s rule 4) All
3d 4s 298. 1s2 is not the electronic configuration of
1) Hydrogen ion 2) Hydride ion
3) Helium ion
1)
4) unipositive ion of lightest metal atom
2) 299 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d5 is not the electron
configuration of
1) Mn3+ 2) Fe3+ 3) Cr+ 4) CO4+
300. A transition metal “X” has a configuration [Ar]3d4
in its +3 oxidation state. The atomic number of
3)
the metal is
1) 26 2) 22 3) 19 4) 25
301. The valency shell electron configuration of an atom
4)
is 4s2 4p5. The maximum no. of electrons having
287. The ion that has different number of electrons in parallel spin in this configuration are
the ultimate and penultimate shells 1) 7 2) 4 3) 3 4) 5
1) Na+ 2) K+ 3) Cl- 4) Ca2+ 302. Which has the same number of s-electrons as
the d-electrons in Fe2+ ?
288. Mg  , Al  have identical ---------- 1) Li 2) Na 3) N *4) P
1) Configuration 2) Atoms 303. The order of filling various sublevels with electrons
3) Ions 4) Molecules is the order of their energies. This is
289. If Pauli’s exclusion principle is not known, the 1) Auf-bau principle 2) Pauli’s principle
electronic arrangement of lithium atom is 3) Hund’s rule 4) nlx principle
1) 1s2 2s1 2) 1s1 2s2 3) 1s3 4) 1s2 2s1 2p1
304. Assertion(A): Fe 3 ion is more stable than Fe 2
290. Aufbau principle fails to explain the configuration
of element with atomic number Reason(R): Fe 3 ion has more number of un-
1) 18 2) 21 3) 24 4) 27
paired electrons than Fe 2
291 Number of orbitals used by chromium for filling
its electrons is 1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct
1) 24 2) 4 3) 12 4) 15 explanation of (A)
292. Which of the following electrons is most tightly 2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
bound by the nucleus correct explanation of (A)
1) 4p 2) 5s 3) 4d 4) 5d 3) (A) is true but (R) is false
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
293. The no. of unpaired electrons in Chromium atom
are 305. Assertion(A): The electronic configurations in
which all of the orbitals of the same sub shell are
1) 2 2) 3 3) 4 4) 6 either completely filled or are exactly half filled
294 The atomic number of an element whose are more stable
differentiating electron enters in a d sub-shell Reason(R): The completely filled or exactly half
1) 13 2) 19 3) 20 4) 21 filled shells possess a symmetrical distribution
35 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

of electrons and allow their maximum number of


exchanges
potential trends along a period.
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct 2) Special stability associated with half -filled
explanation of (A) and fully-filled configurations amongst s and
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the p blocks elements is reflected in electron
correct explanation of (A) affinity trends along a period.
3) (A) is true but (R) is false 3) Aufbau order is not obeyed in cases where
4) (A) is false but (R) is true energy difference between ns and (n-1)d
306. Assertion(A): An orbital cannot have more than subshells is larger.
two electrons 4) Special stability of half - filled subshell is
Reason(R): The two electrons in an orbital
attributed to higher exchange energy of
create opposite magnetic field
1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct stabilization
explanation of (A) 310. After np 6 electronic configuration, the next
2) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A)
orbital filled will be :
3) (A) is true but (R) is false 1)  n  1 d 2)  n  1 s
4) (A) is false but (R) is true
307. List - I List - II 3)  n  1 f 4) none of the above
I) The electrons of a) Hund’s rule LEVEL - I
same orbital differ in
MODEL QUESTIONS
s value
NATURE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
II) Order of orbitals is b) Stability of
2s,2p,3s,3p,4s completely 311. The frequency of a wave light is 1.0  10 6 sec 1 .
filled sublevel
The wave length for this wave is
III) Electronic confi c) Pauli’s principle
guration of N is 1) 3  10 4 cm 2) 3  104 cm
2 1 1 1
1s 2 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3) 6  104 cm 4) 6  106 cm
IV) Electric configur- d) Aufbau principle 312. If the wav elength of green light is
ation of Cu is  Ar  about 5000A 0 , then the frequency of its wave
is
4s1 3d10
The correct match is 1) 16  1014 sec 1 2) 16  10 14 sec 1
I II III IV I II III IV
3) 6  1014 sec 1 4) None
1) a b c d 2) d c b a
3) c d a b 4) c b d a 313. What is the energy of photons that corresponds
308. Which of the following statements are incorrect to a wave number of

I) There are five unpaired electrons in Fe 3 (z=26) 2.5  105 cm 1


II) Fe 3 , Mn  and Cr all having 24 electrons 1) 2.5 1020 erg 2) 5.1 1023 erg
have same value of magnetic moment
III) Copper (I) chloride is coloured salt 3) 5.1 1021 erg 4) 8.5  102 erg
IV) Every coloured ion is paramagnetic 314. Suppose 10 17 J of energy is needed by the
1) I and II 2) II and III interior of human eye to see an object. How
3) III and IV 4) I and IV
many photons of green light    550nm 
309. Whcih of the following statements is not
correct? are needed to generated this minimum amount
1) Special stability associated with half-filled of energy?
and fully-filled configurations amongst s and p 1) 14 2) 28 3) 39 4) 42
blocks elements is refected in ionization
36 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

323. What is the lowest energy of the spectral line


PRACTICE QUESTIONS
emitted by the hydrogen atom in the Lyman se-
315. The frequency of green light is 6 X 1014Hz its ries? (h=Plank constant; C=Velocity of light;
wavelength R=Rydberg constant). (M-2005)
1) 50nm 2) 5nm 3) 5000nm 4) 500nm
316. The energy a photon is 3 x 10-12 ergs, Its 5hcR 4hcR 3hcR 7hcR
1) 2) 3) 4)
wavelength in nm (E-2006) 36 3 4 144
1) 662 2) 1324 3) 66.2 4) 6.62
324. What is the wavelength of H  line the Balmer
317. A certain laser transition emits 6.37 × 1025
series of hydrogen spectrum?
quanta per second per square meter. The power
(R = Rydberg constant)(M-2000)
output in joules per square meter per second
1) 36/5R 2) 5R/36 3) 3R/16 4) 16/3R
would be (  = 632.8nm)
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1) 5  105 Jm 2 sec 1 325. The ratio of the wave numbers of the radiation
2) 2  10 3 Jm 2 sec1 corresponding to the third line of Balmer series
and the second line of the Paschen series of
3) 9.2  103 Jm 2 sec 1 4) 2  105
hydrogen spectrum is
1) 21/16 x 9/4 2) 25/16 x 9/4
MODEL QUESTIONS
3) 21/25 x 9/4 4) 16/25 x 9/4
HYDROGEN SPECTRUM
326. The limiting value of wave number in Lyman series
318. If the wave number of the first line in the Balmer
of hydrogen atoms is
series of hydrogen atom is 15000 cm 1 , the
1) 109678 cm 1 2) 109678/2 cm 1
wave number of the first line of the Balmer series
of 3) 109678/5 cm 1 4) 2 x 109678 / 3 cm 1
Li 2 is
327. The shortest  for the Lyman series is
1) 1.43 104 cm 1 2) 1.66 109 cm 1
(given R = 109678 cm-1)
3) 13.5 105 cm 1 4) 1.35 105 cm 1 1) 912 A0 2) 700 A0 3) 600 A0 4) 811 A0
319. The ratio of highest possible wavelength to low- 328. All the electrons in a sample of hydrogen
est possible wavelength of Lyman series is atom are exicted to n = 7 level. The number
of emission spectral lines possible are
1) 4/3 2) 9/8
1) 12 2) 15 3) 21 4) 18
3) 27/5 4) 16/5
329. What are the values of n1 and n2 respectively for
320. Which of the following lines will have a wave no.
equal in magnitude to the value of R in the H - H  line in the Lyman series of hydrogen atomic
Spectral series spectrum? (E-2000)
1) limiting line of Balmer series 1) 3 and 5 2) 2 and 3 3) 1 and 3 4) 2 and 4
2) limiting line of Lyman series 330. The first emission line of hydrogen atomic spec-
3) first line of Lyman series trum in the Balmer series appears at (R = Rydberg
4) first line of Balmer series constant) (E 98)
321. The equation corresponding to the wave number 5R 3R 1
of spectral line in the Bracket series 1) cm 1 2) cm
36 4
1) R[(1 / 2 2 )  (1 / 42 )] 2) R[(1 / 4 2 )  (1 / 52 )]
7R 9R
3) cm 1 4) cm 1
2 2 2
3) R[(1 / 3 )  (1 / 5 )] 4) R[(1 / 6 )  (1 / 4 )] 2 144 400
331. In the hydrogen spectrum, lines belonging to
322. When an electron jumps from n = 7 to n = 4, the
Lyman series are in.............. region. (E-89)
spectral line observed in which of the following
series of hydrogen spectrum 1) U.V 2) I.R 3) Mass 4) 1 & 2
1) Paschen 2) Lyman
3) Balmer 4) Brackett
37 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

1) Third orbit 2) Second orbit


MODEL QUESTIONS
3) Fourth orbit 4) Fifth orbit
BOHR’S THEORY :
341. Which one of the following statement is not cor-
332. The energy of an electron in the first Bohr rect ? (E-2002)
orbit for hydrogen is 13.6 eV . Which one 1) Rydberg's constant and wave number have
of the following is a possible excited state same units
for electron in Bohr orbit of hydrogen 2) Lyman series of hydrogen spectrum occur in
atom? the ultraviolet region
1) 3.4 eV 2) 6.8 eV 3) The angular momentum of the electron in the
h
3) 1.7 eV 4) 13.6 eV ground state hydrogen atom is equal to
2
333. The minimum energy (numerical value) 4) The radius of first Bohr orbit of hydrogen atom
required to be supplied to H-atom to push is 2.116 x 10-8 cm.
its electron from 2nd orbit to the 3rd orbit 342. The velocity of an electron with de Broglie
1) 1.9 eV 2) 2.2 eV 3) 2.7 eV 4) 7.0 eV wavelength of 1.0  102 nm is :
334. The ionization energy of the ground state of 1) 7.2  105 cm / sec 2) 72  105 cm / sec
hydrogen atom is 2.18 1018 J . The energy 3) 7.2  104 cm / sec 4) 3.6  105 cm / sec
of an electron in its second orbit would be 343. According to Bohr’s theory the energy required
for the transition of H-atom from n = 6 to n = 8
1) 1.09 10 18 J 2) 2.18 1018 J
state is
3) 4.36 10 18 J 4) 5.45 1019 J 1) equal to the energy required for the transition
from n = 5 to n = 6 state
335. The velocity of an electron in the first Bohr 2) larger than in (1) 3) less than in (1)
orbit of hydrogen atom is 2.19 106 ms 1 . 4) equal to the energy required for the transition
Its velocity in the second orbit would be from n = 7 to n = 9 state.
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1) 1.10 106 ms 1 2) 4.38 106 ms 1 344. In a certain Bohr orbit the total energy is

3) 5.5 105 ms 1 4) 8.76 106 ms 1  4.9 eV for this orbit, the kinetic energy and
potential energy are respectively
336. The ratio of radius of 2nd and 3rd Bohr
orbit is 1) 9.8eV,  4.9 eV 2) 4.9 eV,  9.8 eV
1) 3 : 2 2) 9 : 4 3) 2 : 3 4) 4 : 9
3) 4.9 eV,  4.9 eV 4) 9.8eV,  9.8eV
337. The energy of the second Bohr orbit of hydrogen
atom is - 3.41 eV. The energy of the second orbit 345. The minimum energy required to excite a
of He+ would be hydrogen atom from its ground state
1) -0.85eV 2) -13.6eV 1) 13.6 eV 2) 13.6 eV
3) -1.70eV 4) -6.82eV
338. The ratio of energies of photons with wavelengths 3) 3.4 eV 4) 10.2 eV
2000A0 and 4000A0 is 346. The ratio of radii of the first three orbits in an
1) 1/4 2) 4 3) 1/2 •4) 2 atom is
339. The ratio of the energies of two different radiations 1) 1 : 2 : 3 2) 3 : 2 : 1
whose frequencies are 3 x 1014 Hz and 5 x 1014 3) 1 : 4 : 9 4) 9 : 4 : 1
Hz is 347. If the energy of the electron in Bohr’s first orbit is
1) 3 : 5 2) 5 : 3 3) 3 : 1 4) 5 : 1 E, then the energy of the electron in the second
340 The angular momentum of an electron present orbit is
1) E/2 2) 2E 3) E/4 4) 4E
1.5h
in the excited state of Hydrogen is . The 348. The radius of the 10th orbit in hydrogen atom is
 1) 52.9 cm 2) 5.29 cm 3) 52.9A0 4) 5.29A0
electron present in (M-2006)
38 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

349. The amount of energy emitted when an electron 357. An electron is moving in Bohr’s orbit. Its deBrogile
jumps from n = 4 to n = 2 in H - atom is wavelength is  . What is the circumference of
the fourth orbit ? (E-2005)
1) 4.08 1018 J 2) 0.408 1018 J
1) 2 /  2 2)
3) 40.8 1018 J 4) 2.02 1018 J
3) 4 4) 4 / 
350. If the energy of the electron in the first orbit of H - 358. The de Broglie wavelength for a proton with a
atom is E, the energy of the electron in the first
velocity 15% of the speed of light is :
Bohr orbit of Li 2 ion is 1) 8.8  1012 m 2) 8.8  1015 cm
1) 4 E 2) 9 E 3) 3 E 4) 2 E
3) 8.8  1015 m 4) 4.4  10 15 cm
351. The energy of an electron present in Bohr’s sec-
ond orbit of hydrogen atom is_ ____(E-2001) 359. Uncertainty in position of a minute particle of
1) -1312J atom-1 2) -328kJ mol-1 mass 25g in space is 105 m. What is the
-1
3) -328 J mol 4) -164kJ mol-1
352. The maximum wavelength of light capable of
uncertainty in it s velocit y  inms  ?
1

removing an electron from a hydrogen atom in


the energy states characterised by n = 3 is :
 h  6.6 10 34
Js 

1)210 nm 2) 403 nm 1) 2.1 1034 2) 0.5  1034


3) 680.2 nm 4)820nm 3) 2.1 1028 4) 0.5  1023
MODEL QUESTIONS PRACTICE QUESTIONS
DE BROGLIE’S THEORY, HEISENBERG’S 360. The uncertainties in position and the velocity of
UNCERTAINITY PRINCIPLE
a particle are 10 10 m and 10 1024 sec1 re-
353. A cricket ball of 0.5 Kg is moving with a
spectively. The mass of the particle in Kg is
velocity of 100m per sec. the wavelength
associated with its motion is h
1) h  4 1033 2) 1033
1) 1/100 m 2) 6.6 1034 m 4π

3) 1.321035 m 4) 6.6 1028 m h h  4 1033


3) 4)
4π 10 33 π
354. The mass of the electrons 9.11028 gram and
361. If uncertainty in the position of an electron is Zero,
uncertainty in the v elocity equal to the uncertainty in its momentum would be
2 103 cm / sec . The uncertainty in the posi- 1) Zero 2)  h / 44 3)  h / 4π 4) Infinite
tion of an electron is ( h  6.62 1027 erg sec ) 362. Compared to the uncertainty associated with 1
kg iron ball, the uncertainty of electron is
1) 2.9 102 cm 2) 2.9 10 2 cm 1) 10 times 2) 103 times
3) 1023 times 4) 1030 times
3) 2.9 1012 cm 1 4) None 363. The de-Broglie wavelength associated with a par-
ticle of mass 1 kg moving with a velocity of 10
355 deBroglie wave length associated with a material
ms-1 is (M 98)
particle is
1) 6.63 x 10-35m 2) 6.63 x 10-34m
1) Inversely proportional to momentum
3) 6.65 x 10-33 m 4) 6.63 x 10-32m
2) Inversely proportional to its energy
364. The uncertainity (in metres) in the position of a
3) Directly proportional to momentum
insect weighing 0.68g and travelling at a velocity
4) Directly proportional to its energy
of 0.85m/s (the uncertainty in the velocity is
356. The uncertainty in the positions of an electron 0.1m/s), is :
and proton is equal, the ratio of the uncertainties
in the velocity of an electron and proton is 1) 8  1021 m 2) 4  1025 m
1) 103 :1 2) 1 : 1836
3) 8  1031 m 4) 8  1034 m
3) 3672 : 1 4) 1836 : 1
39 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

365. If electron has a speed of 600 m/sec with an K L M N


372. Given
accuracy of 0.005%. The certainty with which 2 8 11 2
the position of the elctron can be located is The number of electrons present in l  2 is
1) 1.96 × 103 2) 1.058 × 103 1) 3 2) 6 3) 5 4) 4
3) 2.69 × 102 4) 3.58 × 102 373. The maximum number of electrons with spin value
+1/2 in the orbital with azimuthal quantum num-
MODEL QUESTIONS
ber value l = 2 and magnetic quantum number m
SCHRODINGER’S WAVE EQUATION = +2 is ............... (E-89)
366. For 1s orbital of hydrogen atom, the radial electron 1) 5 2) 6 3) 3 4) 1
probability has a maximum value from its nucleus,
at a distance of PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1) 0.106 A0 2) 0.53 A0 374. The four quantum numbers of the valence elec-
3) 1.06 A 0
4) 2.06 A0 tron of potassium are (M 98)
367. Which one of the following statements is cor- 1) 4,0,1,+ 12 2) 4,1,0, + 12
rect?
(M-2002) 3) 4,0,0,+ 12 4) 4,1,1,+ 12
1) 2's' orbital is spherical with two nodal planes 375. Write the values of n and l quantum numbers for
2) The de Broglie wavelength (  ) of a particle of 4s, 5f. (E-97)
mass 'm' and velocity 'V' is equal to mV/h 1) 5,3 2) 3,5 3) 3,4 4) 4,3
3) The principal qantum number (n) indicates 376. The quantum number that represent the energy
the shape of the orbital levels of the orbits is ............. (E-88)
4) The electronic configuration of phosphorous is 1) n 2) l 3) m 4) k
given by [Ne] 3s2 3p1x 3p1y 3p1z 377. The maximum number of electrons that can be
PRACTICE QUESTIONS filled into all the orbitals corresponding to the azi-
368. For a 2s orbital the radial node is at a distance of muthal quantum number l = 3, is ......(E-86)
1) 14 2) 15
1) 0.53A 0 2) 2.6A 0
3) 12 4) 18
3) 3.5A 0 4) 1.1A0 MODEL QUESTIONS
QUANTUM NUMBERS : ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION
369. The minimum angular momentum of an electron 378. Sum of electronic spins of all electrons with the
with the magnetic quantum numbers -1 , 0 , +1 configuration 3d7 is
1) + 3/2 2) + 5/2 3) + 7/2 4) 9/2
3h h 2h 3h 379. The atomic numbers of elements X,Y and Z are
1) 2) 3) 4) 19, 21 and 25 respectively. The number of elec-
2π π π 2π
trons present in the M shells of these elements
370. The values of four quantum numbers of valence follow the order. (E-2005)
electrons an element X n  4,1  0, m  0 1) Z>X>Y 2) X>Y>Z
3) Z>Y>X 4) Y>Z>X
1
s  . The element is (M-2004) 380. An element has 2 electrons is K shell, 8 elec-
2 trons in L shell, 13 electrons in M shell and one
1)K 2) Ti 3) Na 4) Sc electron in N shell. The element is (M-2004)
371. Which one of the following set of quantum num- 1)Cr 2) Fe 3) V 4) Ti
bers is not possible for a 4p electron? 381. The total number of electrons present in all the s
(E 98) orbitals, all the P orbitals and all the d orbitals of
caesium ion are respectively. (M-2003)
1) n =4, l = 1, m = +1, m s =  12 1) 6, 26, 10 2) 10,24,20
2) n =4, l = 1, m = 0, ms =  12 3) 8, 22, 24 4) 12, 20, 23

3) n = 4, l = 1, m = 2, ms =  12

4) n = 4, l = 1, m = -1, ms =  12
40 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

382. How many 'd' electrons are present in Cr2+ ion ? 394 The correct electronic configuration of potassium
(M-2002) is (E-91)
1) 4 2) 5 3) 6 4) 3 1) 1s2 2s2 2p63s2 3p6 3d1
383. Which one of the following pairs of ions have the 2) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1
same electronic configuration? (M-2001) 3) 1s2 2s22p6 3s2 3p3 4s1 3d2
1) Cr+3, Fe+3 2) Fe+3,Mn+2 4) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 4s2 3d1
3) Fe+3,CO+3 4) Sc+3,Cr+3 395. The number of unpaired electrons in the Fe3+ ion
384. How many electrons are present in the M-shell (At no. = 26) is ..................... (E-86)
of an atom of the element with atomic number 1) 5 2) 6
Z=24? (E-2000)
3) 2 4) 5
1) 5 2) 6 3) 12 4) 13
LEVEL- II
385. Which of the following pairs of ions contain the
same number of unpaired electrons? MODEL QUESTIONS
(E-99) 396. A quantum of light having energy E has wave-
1) Ni2+, Co2+ 2) Mn2+, Fe3+ length equal to 7200 A 0 . The frequency of light
3) Mn2+, Ni2+ 4) Ti3+ , Co2+ which corresponds to energy equal to 3E, is
386. How many electrons are present in the M-shell
of the atom of an element with atomic number 1) 1.25 1014 s 1 2) 1.25 1015 s 1
24? (M-99)
3) 1.25 1013 s 1 4) 1.25  1014 s 1
1) 5 2) 6 3) 12 4) 13
387. A transition metal 'X' has a configuration [Ar] 3d4 397. The wave length of lights is 7000 A0. The no. of
in its +3 oxidation state, its atomic Number is protons required to provide 20 J of energy is
(E-90) approximately
1) 25 2) 26 3) 22 4) 19 1) 4.56 x 1018 2) 5.02 x 1018
388. Which of the following is an isoelectronic pair:
( E-89) 3) 7 x 1019 4) 4 x 107
1) K+ , Cl- 2) Na+, Cl- 3) Na+, He 4) H+, Xe PRACTICE QUESTIONS
389. Electronic configuration of 19K39 is ..(E-85) 398. A photon of radiation of wavelength 600nm has
1) 1s2 2s2 2p63s2 3p6 3d1 an energy E. The wavelength of photon of
2) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 radiation having energy 0.25 E is:
3) 1s2 2s22p6 3s2 3p3 4s1 3d2 1) 600 nm 2) 2400 nm3) 150 nm 4) 300nm
4) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 4s2 3d1 0
399. A bulb emits light of wavelength 4500 A . The
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
390. The atomic number of an element in 35. What is bulb is rated as 150 watt and 8% of the energy
the total number of electrons present in all the P- is emitted as light. How many photons are
orbitals of the ground state atom of the element emitted by the bulb per second?
(M-2003)
1) 27.2 1018 2) 2.72 1016
1) 6 2) 11 3) 17 4) 23
391. In the ground state, an element has 13 electrons 3) 27.5 104 4) 27.2 108
in its "M-shell". The element is________
(E-2001) MODEL QUESTIONS
1) Copper 2) Manganese PHOTO ELECTRIC EFFECT
400. Ultraviolet light of 6.2eV falls on aluminium sur-
3) Nickel 4) Iron
face (work function = 4.2eV). The kinetic energy
392. The atomic number (Z) on an element is 25. In in joules of the fastest electron emitted is ap-
its ground state how many electrons are present proximately
in the "N" shell? (M-2001)
1) 13 2) 2 3) 15 4) 3 1) 3 1021 2) 31019 3) 31017 4) 31015
393. Which one of the following ions has same number of
unpaired electrons as that of V3+ ion? (M-99)
1) Cr3+ 2) Mn2+ 3) Ni2+ 4) Fe3+
41 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

PRACTICE QUESTIONS
401. In a photoelectric effect, the energy of the
408. Hydrogen electron is excited from the 1st shell to
photon striking a metallic surface is 5.6 × 10 19 the 2 nd shell. The maximum number of
J. The kinetic energy of the ejected electrons possibilities that the electron is present with
is 12.0 × 10 20 J. The work function is : different spin values, and with different orientations
of the orbitals
1) 6.4  1019 J 2) 6.8  10 19 J
1) 1 2) 2 3) 4 4) 8
3) 4.4  10 19 J 4) 6.4  1020 J 2+
409. What electronic transition in Li produces the
402. Ultraviolet light of 6.2 eV falls on Aluminium radiation of same wavelength as the first line in
surface (work function = 4.2 eV). The kinetic the Balmer’s series of hydrogen spectrum.
energy (in joule) of the fastest electron emitted 1) n2 = 3 to n1 = 2 2) n2 = 6 to n1 = 3
is approximately 3) n2 = 9 to n1 = 6 4) n2 = 9 to n1 = 8
MODEL QUESTIONS
1) 31021 2) 31019
BOHR’S THEORY :
3) 31017 4) 31015 410. Each hydrogen atom is excited by giving 10.2
eV. The maximum number of spectral lines in
403. The work function of a photoelectric material the emission is equal to
is 3.3 eV. It threshold frequency will be 1) 1 2) 2 3) 3 4) 4
1) 8 1014 Hz 2) 8 1010 Hz 411. For hydrogen atom, the energy of the electron in
13.6
3) 5 1033 Hz 4) 4 1011 Hz the nth orbit is given by E  . The minimum
n2
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
quantity of energy which hydrogen atom can
404. The work function of a metal is 4.2 eV . If radia- absorb in its ground state is
tion of 2000A 0 falls on the metal, then the 1) 1.00 eV 2) 3.4 eV 3) 6.8 eV 4) 10.2 eV
kinetic energy of the fastest photo electrons is 412. The ratio of the difference in energy between the
first and the second Bohr orbit to that between
1) 1.6  10 19 J 2) 16  1010 J the second and the third Bohr orbit is
3) 3.2  10 19 J 4) 6.4  10 10 J 1) 1/2 2) 1/3 3) 4/9 4) 27/5
413. Energy level A, B, C of a centain atom corresponds
405. Treshold frequency for a metal is 5  1014 S 1 , to increasing values of energy i.e., EA < EB<EC,
calculate the K.E of exulted electron when radia- l 1, l 2, l 3 are the wav elengths of radiation
tion of frequency v  3 1015 S 1 corresponding to the transitions C to B, B to A
and C to A respectively. Which of the following
1) 16.5625  10 19 J 2) 165.625  1019 J statement is correct.

3) 16.5625  1019 J 4) 165.625  10 19 12


1) 3  1  2 2) 3 
1  2
MODEL QUESTIONS
HYDROGEN SPECTRUM 3) 1  2  3  0 4) 32  12  22
406. The ionization potential of hydrogen atom is 13.6
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
eV. The wavelength of the energy radiation
required for the ionization of H-atom 414. If the value of energy of an atom of an electron in
1) 1911 nm 2) 912 nm 3) 68 nm 4) 91.2 nm H atom is -19.6 K.cal, which value of ‘n’ the
electron corresponds.
407. A gas of mono atomic hydrogen is excited by an
energy of 12.75 eV/atom. Which spectral lines 1) 2 2) 4 3) 3 4) 5
of the following are formed in Lyman, Balmer and
Paschen series respectively.
1) 3, 2, 1 2) 2, 3, 1 3) 1, 3, 2 4) 1, 2, 3
42 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

MODEL QUESTIONS
LEVEL - III
DE BROGLIE’S THEORY, HEISENBERG’S
MODEL QUESTIONS
UNCERTAINITY PRINCIPLE
FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES
415. Uncertainty in position of a particle of 25 gram in
423. The hydride ion is isoelectronic with (AFMC- 95)
space is 105 m . Hence uncertainty in velocity 1) H+ 2) He+ 3) He 4) Be
424. Charge of the species with 17 protons, 18
(m/sec) is( h  6.6 1034 J  sec )
neutrons and 18 electrons is (AIIMS 96)
1) 2.11028 2) 2.11034 1) + 1 2) - 1 3) - 2 4) None
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
3) 0.5 1034 4) 5 1024 425. The species which are isoelectronic with CO is
(IIT 91)
416. A ball of mass 200 gm is moving with velocity of

10 m.s-1. If the error in measurement of velocity 1) Cl  2) OH  3) CH 3 4) N2
is 0.1%, the uncertainity in its position is
40 1
1) 3.3. x 10-31 m 2) 3.3 x 10-27 m 426. The number of electrons in [19 K ] is
-25
3) 5.3 x 10 m 4) 2.64 x 10-32 m
(AFMC 99)
417. An electron of a velocity ‘x’ is found to have a 1) 18 2) 19 3) 20 4) 20
certain wavelength. The velocity to be MODEL QUESTIONS
possessed by the neutron to have half the de ISOTOPES & ISOBARS
Broglie wavelength possessed by electron is : 427. Many elements have non-integral masses.
1) x/1840 2) x/920 3) 3680x 4) x/3680 This is because (IIT 93)
418. The momentum of radiation of wavelength 0.33 1) their isotopes have different atomic number
nm is ……. kgm sec 1 2) their isotopes have different masses
3) their isotopes have non-integral masses
1) 2 1024 2) 2 1012 4) their constituents, protons, electrons and
neutrons combine to give fractional masses
3) 2 106 4) 2 1048 428. A neutral atom, with atomic number greater
PRACTICE QUESTIONS than one consists of (AFMC 96)
419. The two particle A and B have de Broglie wave- 1) protons only 2) protons and neutrons
lengths 1nm and 5nm respectively. If mass of A 3) neutrons and electrons
is 4 times that of mass of B, the ratio of KE of A
and B would be 4) neutrons, electrons and protons
1) 5 : 1 2) 25 : 4 3) 20 : 1 4) 5 : 4 429. Difference in 17Cl35 and 17Cl37 is of
420. A particle ‘A’ moving with a certain velocity (AFMC 2000)
1) no. of protons 2) no. of neutrons
has a de Broglie wavelength of 1 A0 . If the 3) no. of electrons 4) atomic number
particle B has mass 25% of that ofA and velocity PRACTICE QUESTIONS
75% of that of A then de-Broglie wavelength 430. Pick out the isoelectronic structure from the fol-
of B will be approximately. lowing : (IIT 93)
I : CH3+ II : H3O+ III : NH3 IV : CH3-
1) 1.6 A0 2) 5.3 A0 3) 3.5 A0 4) 5.9 A0
1) I and II 2) III and IV
MODEL QUESTIONS
3) I and III 4) II, III and IV
SCHRODINGER’S WAVE EQUATION
431 Substances having same number of electrons
421. The number of radial nodes, nodel planes for an but different mass are (AFMC92)
orbital with n = 4 ; l = 1 is
1) isotopes 2) isobars
1) 3, 1 2) 2, 1 3) 2, 0 4) 4, 0
3) isotones 4) allotropes
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
422. For a 2s orbital the radial node is at a distance of
1) 0.53 A0 2) 1.1 A0 3) 2.6 A0 4) 4. 3 A0
43 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

MODEL QUESTIONS frequency of incident light is.


ATOMIC MODEL 1) 1.5 x 1015Hz 2) 2.5 x 1018Hz
432. When alpha particles are sent through a thin 3) 1 x 1022Hz 4) 2.5 x 1012Hz
metal foil, most of them go straight through the 440. Iodine molecule dissociates into atoms after
foil because (IIT 84) absorbing light of 4500 0A. If one quantum of
1) alpha particles are much heavier than electron radiation is absorbed by each molecule, calcu-
late the kinetic energy of Iodine atoms. (IIT 95)
2) alpha particles are positively charged
(Bond energy of I2 = 240 kJ mol-1 )
3) alpha particles move with high velocity
1) 2.16 x 10-20 J 2) 4.1 x 10-20J
4) most part of the atom is empty.
3) 3.12 x 10-14 J 4) 2.16 x 10-22 J
PRACTICE QEUSTIONS
PRACTICE QEUSTIONS
433. Rutherford scattering experiment is related to the
size of (IIT 83) 441. A photoelectric emitter has a threshold
1) atom 2) electron 3) neutron 4) nucleus frequency 0. When light frequency 2 0. is
MODEL QUESTIONS incident, the speed of photo electrons is V. When
NATURE OF LIGHT light of frequency 10 0. is incident the speed of
434. Which of the following does not characterise photoelectrons will be
X-rays? (IIT 92) 1) 5V 2) 3V 3) 20V 4) 8V
1) The radiation can ionise the gas 442. We can say that the energy of frequency v is
2) It causes ZnS to fluoresce given by E = hv, where h is Planck’s constant.
3) Deflected by electric and magnetic fields
4) Have wavelength shorter than ultra-violet rays
h
The moment of a photon is p  , where
435. A photon in the region 'X' is more energetic than 
in the visible region. Then 'X' is (BHU 92)  is the wavelength of photon. Then we may
1) infrared 2) ultraviolet conclude that velocity of light is equal to
3) microwave 4) radiowave
1/ 2 2
PRACTICE QEUSTIONS E E E
436. The energy of electromagnetic radiation a)   b) c) Ep d)  
depends on (AIIMS 91)  p p  p
1) its wavelength 2) its amplitude
3) both 1 and 2 4) temperature of medium MODEL QUESTIONS
MODEL QUESTIONS HYDROGEN SPECTRUM
PLANCK’S QUANTUM THEORY 443. The minimum and maximum values of wavelength
in the Lyman series of a H atom are, respectively,
1) 364.3 nm and 653.4 nm
437. Which of the following relates to light as wave 2) 91.2 nm and 121.5 nm
motion as a stream of particles ? (IIT 92) 3) 41.2 nm and 102.6 nm
1) Photoelectric effect 2) E = mc2 4) 9.12 nm and 121.5 nm
3) Diffraction 4) E = hv. 444. The maximum wavelength that would excite an
PRACTICE QEUSTIONS electron from energy level n=1 to n=3 in atomic
438. The energy per quantum associated with light of hydrogen is
wave length 250 X 10 -9mt is 1) 1 nm 2) 102 nm 3)487 nm 4) 10 7 m
1) 7.95 X 10-19 J 2) 7.95 X 10 -26 J
445. What transition in the hydrogen spectrum would
-26
3) 3.93 X 10 J 4) 3.93 X 10-19 J have the same wavelength as the Balmer transi-
MODEL QUESTIONS tion n = 4 to n = 2 of He+ spectrum ? (IIT 93)
PHOTO ELECTRIC EFFECT 1) n1 = 1 ; n2 = 2
439. The threshold wavelength for ejection of electron 2) n1 = 2 , n2 = 3
from metal is 310nm. The kinetic energy of 3) n1 = 3 , n2 = 2
emitted photo electron is 36 x 10-20J. Then
4) n1 = 2 , n2 = 4
44 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

446. The wave number of first line in Balmer series of remains in an allowed orbital
Hydrogen is 15,200 cm-1 the wave number of 455. If the speed of electron in the Bohr’s first orbit
first line in Balmer series of Be 3+ of hydrogen in x, the speed in the third orbit
1) 2.43 X 10 5cm-1 2) 3.43 X105cm-1 is (IIT 90)
3) 4.43 X 10 5cm-1 4) 5.43 X 10 5cm-1 1) x/9 2) x/3 3) 3x 4) 9x
PRACTICE QUESTIONS 456. According to Bohr's theory, the angular momen-
447. In the Bohr series of lines of hydrogen emission tum for an electron of 5th orbit is;
spectrum, the third line from the red end (BHU-92)
corresponds to which one of the following inter- 1) 10h/  2) 5h / 2 
orbit jumps of the electron ? 3) 25h/  4) 5  /2h
1) 3  2 2) 5  2 3) 4  1 4) 2  5 457. Calculate the energy emitted when electrons of
448. The wave number of first line of Balmer series of 1.0 gram atom of hydrogen undergo transition
H-atom is 15200 cm-1. The wave number of first giving the spectral line of lowest wave energy in
Balmer line of Li2+ ion is (IIT 92) the visible region of its atomic spectrum.
1) 15200 cm-1 2) 60800 cm-1 (Roorkee93)
3) 76000 cm-1 4) 136,800cm-1 1) n2 = 3 to n1 = 2 ; E = 182.8 KJ
449. Spectrum produced due to the transition of an 2) n2 = 2 to n1 = 1 ; E = 155.8 KJ
electron from M to L shell is 3) n2 = 3 to n1 = 1 ; E = 180.8 KJ
(AFMC 90) 4) n2 = 4 to n1 = 2 ; E = 182.5 KJ
1) absorption 2) emission 458. In Bohr series of lines of hydrogen spectrum, the
3) X-rays 4) continuous third line from the red end corresponds to which
one of the following inter-orbit jumps of the elec-
MODEL QUESTIONS
tron for Bohr orbits is an atom of hydrogen.
BOHR’S THEORY 2002 A.I.E.E.E.
450. In a certain electronic transition in the hydrogen
1)52 2) 4  1
atom from an initial state (1) to a final state (2),
3) 2  5 4) 3  2
the difference in the orbital radius  r1  r2  is 24
459. With increasing atomic number of a single
times the first Bohr radius. Identify the transition.
electron species, the energy difference between
1) 5  1 2) 25  1 3) 8  3 4) 1  5
two orbits
451. In an atom, two electrons move round the nucleus
in circular orbits of radii R and 4R. The ratio of
1) increases 2) decreases
the time taken by them to complete one revolution 3) remains constant
is 4) first increases followed by a decrease
1) 1:4 2) 4:1 3) 1:8 4) 8:1 460. The energy of different between the states n =
452. When a hydrogen atom emits a photon of energy 2 and n = 3 is e eV, in Hydrogen atom. The
12.1 eV, the oribital angular monetum changes ionization potential of H atom is
by
1) 3.2 E 2) 7.2 E 3) 5.6 E 4) 13.2 E
h 3h h 2h
1) 2) 3) 4) PRACTICE QUESTIONS
2 2  
461. The radius of the hydrogen atom in the ground
453. Energy of electron moving in the second orbit of o
of He  ion is state is 0.53 A . The radius of 3 Li 2  ion in the
1) -13.6ev 2) -3.4 ev 3) -1.51 ev 4) -0.84 similar state is
o o
454. According to Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom 1) 1.06 A 2) 0.265 A
(IIT 91) o o
1) there is only fixed set of allowed orbitals for 3) 0.17 A 4) 0.53 A
the electron 462. A hydrogen-like atom has one electron revolving
2) the allowed orbitals of the electrons are round a stationary nucleus. The energy required
elliptical in shape to excite the electron from the 2nd to the 3rd
3) the moment of an electron from one allowed orbit is 47.2 eV. The atomic number (Z) of the
to another allowed orbital is forbidden atom is
4) no light is emitted as long as the electron 1) 3 2) 4 3) 5 4) 6
45 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

469. The de Broglie wavelength of a particle with


463. Which of the following represents kinetic energy
of an an electron in Bohr’s orbit of H-atom. mass 1 gm and velocity 100 m/s is
(AFMC 99)
 Rhc Rhc
1) 2) 1) 6.63 x 10 33 m 2) 6.63 x 10 34 m
n2 n2
2Rhc 2Rhc 3) 6.63 x 10 35 m 4) 6.65 x 10 35 m
3) 4) 470. For an electron, if the uncertainty in velocity is
n2 n2
v , the uncertainty in its position ( x ) is
464. According to Bohr's theory, energy in the nth orbit given by (AIIMS 94)
hm 2 h 2m
 2.176 10 18 1) 2) 3) 4)
En = J Calculate the longest 4 xv hmv 4mv hv
n2
471. Uncertanity in the position of an electron (mass
wavelength of light that will be needed to remove = 9.1 x 10-31 kg) moving with velocity 300m-1, ac-
an electron from the 3rd orbit of He+ ion ? curate upto 0.001%, will be (h = 6.63 x 10-34 JS)
(IIT 90) 1) 19.2 x 10-2 m 2) 5.76 x 10-2 m
-2
1)  = 2054 0A 2)  = 21540A 3) 1.92 x 10 m 4) 3. 83 x 10-2 m
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
3)  = 2164 0A 4)  = 20040 A 472. When uncertainity in position and momentum are
465. Electron falls from n = 3 to n = 2 in the equal, then uncertainity in velocity is
hydrogen atom. Then energy emitted is
h 1 h
1) 10.2 eV 2) 12.09 eV 1) 2)
3) 19 eV 4) 1.9 eV (AFMC 97)
 2 
466. In hydrogen atom electron jumps from 3 to 2 1 h h
energy level, the energy released is 3) 4) 2m
2m  
(AFMC 97)
473. The de Broglie equation is applicable to
1) 3.03 x 10 19 J atom1 1) protons only 2) neutrons only
3) electrons only 4) any particle in motion
2) 1.03 x 10 19 J atom1
474. If uncertainty in the position of electron is zero,
18 1 the uncertainty in its momentum is :
3) 3.03 x 10 J atom (BHU-92)
4) 6.06 x 10 19 J atom1 1) zero 2)  h/4  3) <h/4  4) infinite

467. According to Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom, 475. The de Broglie’s wavelength of a tennis ball of
which of the following is quantised for an mass 60 gm moving with a velocity of 10 metres
electron ? (AFMC 99) per second is appoximately
1) acceleration 2) velocity 1) 10-31 m 2) 10-16 m
3) angular momentum 3) 10 -25 4) 10-33 m
4) angular acceleration 476 The incertainly in position of particle of 25gm in
space is 10-5 m. Hence uncertainty in velocity
MODEL QUESTIONS (ms-1) is
DE-BROGLIE’S HYPOTHESIS, HEISENBERG’S
1) 2.1 x 10-28 2) 2. 1 x 10-34
UNCERTAINITY PRINCIPLE
3) 0.5 x 10-34 4) 5.0 x 10-24
468. Diffraction of the electron beam is an evidence of
the fact that MODEL QUESTIONS
1) electrons repel each other SCHRODINGER’S WAVE EQUATION
2) light has wave properties 477. Which of the following d orbitals has a diagonal
nodal plane ?
3) electron has wave property
4) electron has momentum 1) d xy 2) d yz 3) d zx 4) d x 2  y2
46 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

478. Which of the following 3d orbitals has electron e) n = 3, l = 2, m = 0


density in all three axes ? 1) a and c 2) b and c 3) c and d 4) d and e
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1) 3d xy 2) 3d yz 3) 3d z 2 4) 3d zx 485. The electrons, identified by quantum numbers n
PRACTICE QUESTIONS and l (i) n = 4, l = 1 (ii) n = 4, l = 0 (iii) n = 3,
479. The number of nodal planes in apx orbital is l = 2 and (iv) n = 3, l = 1 can be placed in order
of increasing energy, from the lowest to high-
1) one 2) two 3) three 4) four
est, as (IIT- 99)
MODEL QUESTIONS 1) (iv) < (ii) < (iii)< (i)
QUANTUM NUMBERS 2) (ii) <(iv)<(i)<(iii)
480. What is likely to be principal quantum number 3) (i)<(iii)< (ii) < (iv)
for a circular orbit of diameter 20 nm of the 4) (iii)< (i) < (iv) < (ii)
hydrogen atom if we assume Bohr orbit to be the
486. For a particular principal quantum number the
same as that represented by the principal
energy will be maximum for the orbital
quantum number?
(AIIMS 91)
1) 10 2) 14 3) 12 4)16
1) s 2) p 3) d 4) f
481. The quantum numbers + 1/2 and - 1/2 for the
electron spin represent (IIT 2001)
1) rotation of electron in clockwise and anti 487. Which of the following gets of quantum numbers
clockwise direction respectively is correct for an electron in 4f orbital.
2) rotation of electron in anti-clockwise and 1
clockwise direction respectively 1) n = 4, l = 3, m = + 4, s = +
2
3) magnetic moment of the electron pointing 1
up and down respectively 2) n = 4 , l = 4, m = - 4, s =
4) two quantum mechanical spin states which 2
have no classical analogue 1
3) n = 4, l = 3, m = + 1, s = +
2
482. The set of quantum numbers not possible to an
electron is (MLNR-94) 1
1) 1,1,1, +1/2 2) 1,0,0, +1/2 4) n = 3, l = 2, m = 2, s = + 2003 A.I.E.E.E.
2
3) 1, 0, 0, - 1/2 4) 2, 0,0, +1/2
MODEL QUESTIONS
483. Which of the following sets of quantum numbers
represents the highest energy of an atom? ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION
2006 A.I.E.E.E. 488. The electronic configuration of an element is 1s2
2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s1. This represents its
1 (IIT 2000)
1) n = 3, l = 1, m = 1, s = +
2 1) excited state 2) ground state
3) cationic form 4) anionic form
1
2) n = 3, l = 2, m = 1, s = + 489. Which of the following have same number of
2 electrons in outermost orbit (AFMC 2000)
1 1) Pb, Sb 2) N, O 3) As, Bi 4) P, Ca
3) n = 4, l = 0, m = 0, s = + 490. Which of the following explains the sequence of
2 filling electrons in different shells ?
1 (BHU 99)
4) n = 3, l = 0, m = 0, s = + 1) Octet rule 2) Hund's rule
2
3) Aufbau rule 4) All the above
484. In multi electron atom, which of the following or-
bitals described by the three quantum numbers 491. Which of the following has maximum number of
will have the same energy in the absence of unpaired electrons ? (BIT- Ranci)
megnetic and electric fields. 1) Zn 2) Fe2+ 3) Ni3+ 4) Cu+
a) n = 1, l = 0, m = 0 b) n = 2, l = 0, m = 0
c) n = 2, l = 1, m = 1 d) n = 3, l = 2, m = 1
47 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

498. The ionization energy of hydrogen atom is 13.6eV.


PRACTICE QUESTIONS The longest wave length of hydrogen spectrum in
492. The electronic configuration 1s 2 2s2 2px 1 the ultraviolet region is expected to be
2py12pz1 is of (AFMC 97) 1) 121.8 nm 2) 102.8 nm
1) N 2) O 3) Na 4) K 3) 97.44 nm 4) 95.11 nm
499. The be Broglie wavelength of a tennis ball of mass
493. The number of d-electrons in Fe2+ (Z = 26) is not 60 g moving with a velocity of 10 m/s is
equal to that of the ( MLNR-93) approximately
1) p- electrons in Ne (at no = 10) 1) 10-25 m 2) 10-33 m 3) 10-31 m 4) 10-16 m
2) s-electrons in Mg (at no. = 12) 500. Which of the following sets of quantum numbers
is correct for an electron in 4f orbital ?
3) d - electrons in Fe
4) p - electrons in Cl- (at no. of Cl = 17) 1) n  4, l  3, m  4, s  1/ 2
LEVEL-IV 2) n  4, l  4, m  4, s  1/ 2
(PREVIOUS AIEEE QUESTIONS) 3) n  4, l  3, m  1, s  1/ 2
494. For a d-electron, the orbital angular momentum
is 4) n  3, l  2, m  2, s  1/ 2
1) 6  h / 2  2) 2  h / 2  501. Consider the ground state of Cr atom (Z=24). The
numbers of electrons with the azimuthal quantum
3)  h / 2  4) 2  h / 2  numbers, l  1 and 2 are, respectively
495. Which of the following statements is correct? 1) 12 and 4 2) 12 and 5
1) Energy of electron in first Bohr orbit of hydrogen 3) 16 and 4 4) 16 and 5
atom is more negative than that of first orbit of 502. The wavelength of the radiation emitted, when in
lithium dipositive ion a hydrogen atom electron falls from infinity to
2) Energy of electron in first Bohr orbit of hydrogen stationary state 1, would be
atom is the same as that of third orbit of lithium (Rydberg constant = 1.097  10 7 m 1
dipositive ion 1) 91 nm 2) 192 nm
3) Velocity of electron in first Bohr orbit of
3) 406 nm 4) 9.1 10 8 nm
hydrogen atom is nine times that in the first orbit
of lithium dipositive ion 503. In a multi-electron atom, which of the following
4) Radius of first orbit of hydrogen atom is three orbitals described by the three quantum numbers
times that of first orbit of lithium dipositive ion will have the same energy in the absence of
496. Which of the following statements is not correct? magnetic and electric fields?
i) n  1, l  0, m  0 ii) n  2, l  0, m  0
1) The orbital 3d x2  y 2 has no probability of finding
electron along x- and y-axis iii) n  2, l  1, m  1 iv) n  3, l  2, m  1
2) The energy of 3d orbital may be greater than v) n  3, l  2, m  0
or less than or equal to that of 4s orbital 1) ii and iv 2) iv and v 3) i and ii 4)ii and iii
depending upon the atomic number of the atom 504. Which of the following statements in relation to
3) In a given electric field,  - particles are the hydrogen atom is correct?
deflected more than  -particles in spite of  - 1) 3s and 3p orbitals are of lower energy than 3d
particles having larger charge orbital
4) Pauli exclusion principle is followed by 2) 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals all have the same energy
fermiones 3) 3s orbital is lower in energy than 3p orbital
497. Which of the following statements is not correct? 4) 3p orbital is lower in energy than 3d orbitals
1) Velocity of electron in the first orbit of hydrogen 505. According to Bohr ’s theory, the angular
atom is the same as that of electron in the second momentum of an electron in 5th orbit is
orbit of helium positive ion 1) 2.5h /  2) 25h / 
2) Radius of first orbit in hydrogen atom is the 3) 1.0h /  4) 10h / 
same as that of second orbit in beryllium
506. Which of the following sets of quantum numbers
tripositive ion
represents the highest energy of an atom?
3) Energy of electron in first orbit of hydrogen
atom is the same as that of electron in second 1) n  3, l  1, m  1, s  1/ 2
orbit of helium positive ion 2) n  3, l  2, m  1, s  1/ 2
4) Potential energy of electron in first orbit of
hydrogen atom is the same as that of electron in 3) n  4, l  0, m  0, s  1/ 2
fourth orbit of helium positive ion
4) n  3, l  0, m  0, s  1/ 2
48 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

507. The ionization enthalpy of hydrogen atom is closer to the nucleus, Yes 1s 7 is not observed
6 1
1.312  10 J mol . The energy required to because it violates (2002)
excite the electron in the atom from n = 1 to n =2 1) Heisenberg uncertainty principle
is 2) Hund's rule
1) 9.84  105 J mol 1 2) 8.51 105 J mol 1 3) Pauli exclusion principle
4) Bohr postulate of stationary orbits
3) 6.56 105 J mol 1 4) 7.56 105 J mol 1
508. A 3p orbital has (1995-1 Mark)
513. The number of radial nodes of 3s and 2 p
1) two non spherical nodes orbitals are respectively (2005)
2) two spherical nodes 1) 2, 0 2) 0, 2 3) 1,2 4) 2,1
3) one spherical and non-spherical node
4) one spherical and two non-spherical nodes LEVEL – V
509. The wavelength associated with a golf ball MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION WITH
weighing 200g and moving at speed of 5m/h ONE OR MORE THAN ONE COR
is of the order RECT ANSWER
(2001) 76
514. An isotone of Ge is (1984-1 Mark)
1) 10 m 2) 10 20 m 3) 10 30 m 4)
 10
32
1040 m 77 77 77 78
510. The quantum numbers +1/2 and -1/2 for the 1) Ge 2) As 3) Se Se
4)
32 33 34 34
electron spin represent (2001)
1) rotation of the electron in clockwise and 515. Many elements have non-integral atomic
anticlockwise direction respectively masses because (1984-1 Mark)
2) rotation of the electron in anticlockwise 1) they have isotopes
and clockwise direction respectively 2) their isotopes have non-integral masses
3) magnetic moment of the electron pointing 3) their isotopes have different masses
up and down respectively 4) the constituents, neutrons, protons and
4) two quantum mechanical spin states which electrons, combine to give fractional masses
have no classical analogue 516. When alpha particles are sent through a thin
511. Rutherford's experiment, which established metal foil because (1984-1 Mark)
the nuclear model of the atom, used a beam 1) alpha particles are much heavier than
of (2002) electrons
2) alpha particles are much heavier than
1)  -particles, which impinged on a metal electrons
foil and got absorbed 3) most part of the atom is empty space
2)  -rays, which impinged on a metal foil 4) alpha particles move with high velocity
and ejected electrons 517. The sum of the number of neutrons and
3) helium atoms, which impinged on a metal protons in the isotope of hydrogen is
foil and got scattered 1) 6 2) 2 3) 4 4) 3
4) helium nuclei, which impinged on a metal 518. The energy of an electron in the first Bohr
foil and got scattered orbit of H atom is -13.6 eV. The possible
512. If the nitrogen atom has electronic configura- energy value(s) of the excited state(s) for
tion 1s 7 , it would have energy lower than that electrons in Bohr orbits of hydrogen is (are)
of hte normal ground state configuration (1998-2 Marks)
1) -3.4 eV 2) -4.2 eV 3) -6.8 eV 4) -1.5
1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 3 , because the electrons would be
eV
49 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

519. Which of the following statements(s) is (are) Statement I


correct? (1998-2 Marks) 2) Statement I is true, STatement II is also
true; STatement II is not the correct explana-
1) The electronic configuration of Cr is  Ar 
tion of Statement I
3d s 4s1 . (Atomic number of Cr = 24) 3) Statement I is true, Statement II is false
2) The magnetic quantum number may have a 4) Statement I is false, Statement II is true
negative value 523. Statement I: P orbital can accomadate 6
3) In silver atom, 23 electrons have a spin of electrons
one type and 24 of the opposite Statement II : No two electrons in atom can
type.(Atomic number of Ag = 47) have same set of four quantum numbers
4) The oxidation state of nitrogen in HN3 is - 524. Statement I : Ground state electronic configu-
3 ration of chromium atom is  Ar  4 s1 3d 5
520. Decrease in atomic number is observed
during Statement II: Exchange energy is more
(1998-2 Marks) wtih  Ar  4 s1 3d 5 than (Ar) 4s 2 3d 4
1) alpha emission 2) beta emission 525. Statement I : Wavelength of limiting line of
3) positron emission 4) electron capture lyman series is less than wavelength of limiting
521. Ground state electronic configuration of line of Balmer series.
nitrogen atom can be represented by Statement II: Rydberg constant value is same
(1999-3 Marks) for all elements
1)    LINKED COMPREHENSION TYPE
This section contains a paragraph based on the
2)    paragraph some multiple choice ques-
tions have to be answered. Each question
3)    has four choices. 1,2,3&4. Out of which
4) only one is correct
  
Werner Heisenberg derived a remarkable
result using a different (but compatible)
522. If there were three values possible theory to that of Schrodinger. He said that it
 1 1 was impossible to measure with complete
  , 0   for the spin magnetic quantum accuracy both the position and momentum of
 2 2
an electron. This statement has come to be
number  ms  . Which of the following known as Heisenberg uncertainity principle.
statement(s) is/are correct regarding a We can write the uncertainity in position as
hypothetical periodic table based on this x and in momentum as p . Hesisenberg
condition? equation is
1) First period would be only 2 vertical 526. If the position of an electron is known to the
columns within 1012 m , then uncertainity in its mo-
2) Second period would have 12 elements
mentum is
3) Periodic table would contain 27 groups
4) Third period would have 12 elements 1) 5.27  1023 kg ms 1
For the following questions, choose the correct 2) 2.130 10 23 kg ms 1
answers from the codes(1)(2)(3) and (4)
defined as follows. 3) 1.69  10 24 kg ms 1
1) Statement I is true, Statement II is also 4) 16.9  10 23 kg ms 1
true; Statement is the correct wxplanation of
50 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

527. If the electron is travelling with one-third the 530. The element which has least work function
speed of light, the uncertainty in momentum value is
will be 1) Copper 2) Iron
1) very loss 2) almost 50% 3) Rubidium 4) Caesium
3) very high 4) almost the same 531.Kinetic energy of photoelectrons increases
528. In the large scale world, we often like to think with
that the degree of accuracy is fixed by the 1) Increase in intensity of incident light
limits of our measuring instruments. These 2) Increase in wavelength of incident light
seams to be no way round the limits ex- 3) Decrease in frequency of incident light
pressed by the uncertainity principle. In the 4) Increase in frequency of incident light
large scale world, the effective value of MATRIX MATCH TYPE
Plank’s constant can be expected to be Following questions contains statements
given in two columns. Which have to be
1) same 2) less than the actual
matched. Statements (A,B,C,D) in column I
3) zero 4) very high
have to be matched with statements
In 1887, H.Hertz performed a very interest-
(P,Q,R,S) in column II
ing experiment in which electrons (or electric
532. Column-I Column-II
current) were ejected when certain metals
A) 7s P) Maximum energy
(for example potassium, rubidium, caesium B) 4d Q) Maximum number
etc.) were exposed to a beam of light. The of electrons
phenomenon is called Photoelectric effect. C) 5d R) 3 sub shells
The results observed in this experiment were. D) 4p S) Minimum number
fo orbitals
The electrons are ejected from the metal 533. Column-I Column-II
surface as soon as the beam of light strikes A) Radial function(R) P) Principle quantum
the surface, i.e., there is no time lag between number
the striking of light of beam and the ejection B) Angular function(  ) Q) Azimutal quantum
of electrons from the metal surface. number
C) Angular function (  )R) Magnetic quantum
The number of electrons ejected is propor-
number
tional to the intensity or brightness of light
D) Qunatised angular S) Spin quantum
For each metal, ther is a characteristic
momentum number
minimum frequency, v0 (also known as
threshold frequency) below which photoelec-
tric effect is not observed. At a frequency
v  v0 , the ejected electrons come out with
certain kinetic energy. The kinetic energies of
these electrons increase with the increase of
frequency of the light used.
529 The element which shows greater tendency of
photoelectric effect
1) Sodium 2) Potassium
3) Magnesium 4) Caesium
51 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

KEY 213.3 214.1 215.3 216.3


217.1 218.1 219.1 220.2
1.3 2.3 3.1 4.3 221.2 222.3 223.3 224. 4
5.2 6.3 7.4 8.1 225. 4 226. 4 227. 4 228.4
9.4 10.4 11.1 12.3 229.4 230.3 231.3 232.2
13 2 14 2 15 3 16 3 233.1 234. 4 235. 2 236. 3
17. 2 18. 1 19 2 20. 2 237.2 238.3 239.3 240.4
21. 4 22. 1 23.4 24.3 241.2 242.2 243.4 244.1
25.3 26.3 27.1 28.3 245.3 246.3 247.1 248.1
29.2 30.1 31.2 32.1 249.4 250.3 251.4 252.2
33.4 34.3 35.1 36.1 253.1 254.2 255.1 256.2
37.1 38. 2 39. 3 40. 2 257.4 258.1 259.3 260.1
41. 3 42. 3 43. 4 44. 2 261.1 262.2 263.1 264.3
45.3 46.2 47.3 48.1 265.1 266.4 267.2 268.1
49.3 50.3 51.4 52.1 269.4 270.2 271.2 272.2
53.4 54.1 55. 1 56. 2 273. 2 274. 2 275.1 276.3
57.3 58.1 59. 4 60.4 277.2 278.3 279.1 280.2
61.4 62.3 63. 1 64. 2 281. 1 282. 4 283. 3 284.3
65.3 66.2 67.4 68.2 285.4 286.3 287.1 288.1
69. 4 70. 3 71.3 72. 4 289.3 290.3 291.1 292.1
73. 4 74. 4 75.1 76.1 293.4 294.4 295.2 296.3
77.4 78.3 79. 2 80. 4 297.3 298.1 299.1 300.4
81. 2 82. 4 83. 4 84.3 301.2 302.4 303.1 304.2
85.3 86. 3 87. 3 88. 2 305.1 306.4 307.3 308. 2
89. 1 90. 3 91. 2 92.3 309. 3 310) 2 311) 1 312) 3
93. 3 94.3 95.1 96.4 313) 3 314) 2 315) 4 316) 1
97.1 98. 3 99.4 100.2 317) 1 318) 4 319) 1 320) 2
101.3 102.3 103.1 104.2 321) 2 322) 4 323) 3 324) 4
105.2 106.4 107.3 108.4 325) 2 326) 1 327) 1 328) 3
109.1 110.4 111.1 112.3 329) 3 330) 1 331) 1 332) 1
113.2 114.3 115.1 116.1 333) 1 334) 4 335) 1 336) 4
117.2 118.4 119.1 120.1 337) 2 338) 4 339) 1 340) 1
121.2 122.2 123.3 124.2 341) 3 342) 1 343) 4 344) 2
125.3 126.1 127. 1 128. 3 345) 4 346) 3 347) 3 348) 3
129. 3 130. 3 131. 4 132.1 349) 2 350) 2 351) 3 352) 4
133.4 134.4 135.3 136.4 353) 1 354) 4 355) 3 356) 1
137.4 138.2 139.4 140.1 357) 3 358) 3 359) 4 360) 4
141.1 142.3 143.2 144.3 361) 3 362) 1 363) 3 364) 3
145.2 146.2 147.2 148.2 365) 1 366) 2 367) 4 368) 2
149.4 150.1 151.3 152.4 369) 2 370) 1 371) 3 372) 1
153.3 154.2 155.1 156.1 373) 4 374) 3 375) 1 376) 1
157.1 158.2 159.4 160. 2 377) 1 378) 1 379) 3 380) 1
161. 3 162. 3 163. 2 164. 3 381) 3 382) 1 383) 2 384)4
165.1 166.1 167. 3 168. 1 385) 2 386) 4 387) 1 388) 1
169. 3 170. 1 171. 2 172. 4 389) 2 390) 3 391) 2 392) 2
173.3 174.3 175.1 176.3 393) 3 394) 2 395) 1 396) 2
177.4 178.1 179. 2 180. 3 397) 3 398) 2 399) 1 400) 2
181. 3 182. 2 183. 1 184. 3 401) 3 402) 2 403) 1 404) 3
185.4 186.2 187.1 188.3 405) 1 406)4 407)1 408)3
189.3 190.4 191.2 192.3 409)3 410) 1 411) 4 412) 4
193.2 194.3 195. 4 196. 1 413) 2 414) 2 415) 1 416) 4
197. 3 198. 4 199. 4 200. 4 417)2 418) 1 419) 2 420) 2
201. 4 202.1 203.3 204.3 421) 2 422) 2 423) 3 424) 2
205.3 206.1 207.4 208.3 425) 4 426) 4 427) 2 428) 4
209.2 210.3 211.4 212.4
52 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

429) 2 430) 4 431) 2 432) 4 20 Conceptual


433) 4 434) 3 435) 2 436)1 21. q  ne
437) 4 438) 1 439) 1 440) 2 m0
441) 2 442) 2 443) 2 444) 2 m
2
445) 1 446) 1 447) 2 448) 4 22. v
449) 2 450) 1 451) 4 452) 3
1  
c
453) 1 454) 4 455) 2 456) 2
457) 1 458) 1 459) 1 460) 2 23. P n Mass
461) 3 462) 3 463) 2 464) 1 Initial 12 12 24
465) 4 466)1 467) 3 468) 3 Final 12 6 18
469) 1 470) 3 471) 3 472) 3 6  100
473) 4 474) 4 475) 4 476) 1 =  25%
24
477) 4 478) 3 479) 1 480) 2
481) 1 482) 1 483) 2 484) 4 24 Nuclear particles = (P+N)
485) 1 486) 4 487) 3 488) 2
489) 3 490) 3 491) 2 492) 1 25. Fe Z  26 26 e 
493) 1 494)1 495)2 496)1
497)2 498)1 499)2 500) 3 Fe2 24 e
501) 2 502) 1 503) 2 504) 2 26. Same number of electrons
505) 1 506) 2 507) 1 508) 3
509)3 510) 3 511) 4 512)3 27. 1 H1  e 1
513)1 514)2,4 515)1,3 516)1,3
517)2,4 518)1,4 519)1,2,3 520) 1,3,4 P 1
521)1,4 522)2,3,4 523)4 524)1 n0
525)3 526)1 527)2 528)3 28. no. of neutrons = A-Z
529)4 530)4 531)4 3
29. 1 H  e 1
532) A-P, S: B-Q C - Q D - R p 1
533) A-P,Q B-Q, R C - R D - Q,S n2
30. Conceptual

HINTS e 1.602 10 19 C


31.   1.75882 1011 C / kg
1. e/m values m 9.109 10 31
32. Conceptual
2. Na   10 e  F   10 e  33. Conceptual
3. N=A-Z 34. Charge possessed by 1 mole of +ve charge
4. N 3 ion 7 e  , 7 P, 10 N =1 Faraday
1 mole of  -particle contains 2 moles of
5. Z = 25 Mn
positive charges.
Mn  Mn 2 ( stable) 35.  Charge of protan is two times less than
N=A-Z charge of  -particle.
6. S atom S 2 ion - same no of neutrons  mass of proton is 4 times less than mass of
Nuclear particles - No change  -particle.
7. No same number of electrons 36. CO = 14 electrons
8. Z = 17 = Cl Cl  ion  1 CN   14 electrons
37. Conceptual
9. All are correct 38. Mass of electron is 1836 times less than that
10. All are correct of protan
11. Proton mass is more 39. Conceptual
12. He  40. Conceptual
13. Conceptual. 4 3
14 Conceptual. 41. Volume = r
15 Conceptual. 3
16 Conceptual. 42. Conceptual
17 Conceptual 43. Conceptual
18 Conceptual 44. Conceptual
19 Charge possed by 1e   1.602  10 19 C 45. isobars contain same mass number.
46. They differ in their atomic weight.
53 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

47. Protium  11 H 1
48. Tritium is radio active in nature.
N
hcx
49. Conceptual 70. Conceptual
50. Conceptual 71. Conceptual
51. isobars differ in their mass number (no of 72. According to planck’s quantum theory energy
neucleons) is released discontinuously in the form of small
52. In a nutral atom pockets called quanta.
no .of electrons = Z 73. Conceptual
no. of protans = Z 74. Conceptual
no of neutrons = A-Z
53. no. of neutrans =A-Z h
75. P
2
1 H contains no. of neutrans = 2-1 
=1 v
54. Conceptual but 
55. Conceptual c
56. Conceptual hv
57. Conceptual P 
58. Conceptual c
59. nucleus is stationary P v
1 76. As frequency of incident radiation increases KE
60. E of photo electron increases and KE is indepen-
 dent of intensity of radiation.
61. Conceptual 77. Conceptual
62. Conceptual 78. The minimum frequency required to eject an
63. all electromagnetic radiations travells with electron from the surface of metal is called
same Velocity. threshold frequency.
64.
79. hv1  hv0  1  h  v1  v0   1 ----------------(1)
hv2  hv0  k  h  v2  v0   k -------------- (2)
(1)
(2)
1 v1  v0

Ec  EA  Ec  EB  EB  EA K v2  v0
hc hc hc v2  v0  Kv1  Kv0
 
3 1 2 Kv0  v0  Kv1  v2
1 1 1
  v0  K  1  Kv1  v2
3 1 2
Kv1  v2
 v0 
3  1 2 K 1
1  2 80. no. of photo electrons ejected  intensity of
radiation but KE is independent of intensity of
E hv radiation.
65.   h (Planck’s constant)
v v 81. If v  v0 The energy of incident radiation is
66. Conceptual
67. In VIBGYOR from violet to red wave number sufficient only utilised to eject the electron.
decreases. 82. Conceptual
83. Conceptual
C
68.  v    C 84. v0 =threshold frequency..
 v = frequency of incident radiation.
69. E  Nhv 85. Coceptual
Nhc hc c 1
E 86. h  mv 2
  0 2
E  Nhcv 1 1  1
1  N  hcx hc     mv 2
  0  2
54 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

1
 2hc  0     2 1 Z22
V   
   2 Z12
 m  0   115. For a given spectral line from lyman series to
87. Conceptual pfund series wave length increases and energy
88. Conceptual decreases.
89. no. of photo electrons  intensity of radiation. 116. Due to same electronic configuration.
90. no. of photo electrons  intensity of radiation.
but KE is independent of intensity of radiation. mv 2
117. Centripetal force 
91. Red light has less frequency than green. so it r
will not cause ejection of electrons.
92. Conceptual P.E
93. because 3d orbital energy is less than 4p 118. 2
T .E
orbital
94. Conceptual. r1 z2
95. Atoms give line spectrum. 119. 
96. All types of electromagnetic radiations travel
r2 z1
with the same velocity. V1
97. molecules give band spectrum. 120. Vn 
98 Conceptual. n
99. If electron is in N shell it come down to K or L mv 2
or M shells 121. Centripetal force =
n  n  1 r
100. no. of spectral lines = 122. An electron falling to the same energy level
2 from any higher level emits different quantum of
energy.
5  5  1 123. 2 r  n
=  10
2 124. Conceptual
125. Conceptual
101. no. of spectral lines in a series = n2  n1 126. Conceptual
= 5 1  4
n2 h2 1
102. The energy difference between first and second 127. rn  
2 2
orbits is more. 4 mze 4 0
1 1 128. Eionisation   E1
103. v  R 2  2 
2 3  E1   x
5R x
v E2  
36 4
2 2 mz 2e 4 x
104. R  E3  
ch3 9
R m x x
105. R is different for different elements. E  
106. For H  line
9 4
n  2
x x
107. No electron in H  = 
108. Conceptual 4 9
109. The energy difference between 1st and 5th orbit 5x
=
is maximum. 36
110. Lyman series falls in U.V region.
111. Balmer series of lines are observed when 0.529  n 2
129. rn 
electron jumps from any higher level to 2nd z
energy level. 130. As electron approaches to nucelus total energy
112. Atoms can not give band spectrum. decreases.
113. n  4 to n  2 falls in visible region. Rhc
131. En 
1 1 1 n2
114.  RZ2  2  2  132. On moving away from the nucleus, energy
  n1 n2  difference between successive orbits de-
creases,
55 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

133. On moving away from the nucleus, energy 160. Conceptual


difference between successive orbits de- 161. Conceptual
creases.
134. He is multi electron atom.  Ze2
135. Lyman series of lines are observed in U.V 162. P.E 
r
region.
136. Energy required to take electron to infinity is 163. Velocity of light = 3  1010 cm / sec
called I.E Velocity of electron in Bohr’s first orbit =
 Ze2 2.18  108 cm/sec.
137. P.E  164. Conceptual
r 165. Conceptual
Ze2 h
KE  166. 
r mv
ze2 h h
T.E   167.   so 
2r mv mv
ze2 h
138. P.E   168.  
r mv
h
Ze 2 169. 
K .E  2 KE  m
2r
139. The minimum energy required to eject an h
electron is called work function. 170.  
140. Conceptual. 2 KE  m
nh 171.   V
141. mvr  Where n = 3 h
2  
2 2 mz 2e 4 mV
142. En  h
n2 h2 
143. Conceptual m
e 2 2 
h
144. Total Eenergy =
2r m
h h
145. Angular momentum = l  l  1 
2 m
146. Energy and angular momentum are quantised 172. Conceptual
for electron.
h
2 2 mz 2e 4 173. 
147. En  If n   then E = 0 mv
n2 h2 h
148. Total energy negative value.
149. Conceptual 174.  
p
nh 175. Conceptual
150. mvr  176. Conceptual
2 177. Conceptual
Between two successive orbits n2  n1  1 178. Conceptual
nh 1
179. 
151. mvr  m
2
152. Conceptual 180. x  4
153. Bohr’s model is against uncertainty principle.
154. Angular momentum of an electron is quantised. x  mv
155. Conceptual. h
156. Conceptual V 
157. Conceptual 4 m.x
158. Conceptual h
159. Bohr’s theory applicable for single electronic V 
species only. 4 m.mV
56 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

h 209. no .of nodes =  n  l   1


V 2 
4 m2 =
210. It is a nodal region.
1 h 211. Conceptual
V  212. Conceptual
2m  213. Conceptual
1 2 214. The probality of finding electron in an orbital is
181. mv  e.v 95%
2
215. For d xy orbitals lobes lie in between the axis.
2eV
V2  216. Conceptual
m 217. After 4p orbital electron enter into the 5s orbital
2eV 218. In the degenarate orbitals electrons are filled
V  one electron before pairing.
m 219 Conceptual
182. Conceptual 220. Conceptual
183. Conceptual
221.  2 is the probability function
1 2  is the wave function.
184. mv  ev
2 222. Conceptual
where v=5v 223. Conceptual
185. YZ plane is a nodel plane for d xy orbital 224. n  0 not possible
186. no. of nodal planes =l value. 225. The probability of finding the electron is zero at
the nucleus
no. of nodal regions =  n  l   1 226. Conceptual
so for 3p orbital both the value are one. 227. Conceptual
228. 2K , 8L 9M 2N
187. no of peaks = n  l
1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 4s 2
188. Electron probability function = 4 r 2 dr  2
189. Conceptual l  1 is for p orbital
190. 2P orbotals are degenerate. 229. Spin can not say any thing about an orbital.
191. The two lobes are oriented along x-axis. 230. If l  2 then m  3 not possible.
192. no. of electrons in an orbit = 2n 2 231. Conceptual.
232. m  2l  1
no. of orbitals in an orbit = n 2
no. of electrons in an orbital = 2 233. If n  l values for two orbitals are same then
no. of subshells = n higher ‘n’ value orbital has higher energy.
193. Conceptual 234. Conceptual.
194. Conceptual 235. Conceptual
195. No of nodal points = (n -l)-1 236. Conceptual.
196. Conceptual 237. If m  1 , 0, +1
197.  may be  ve ve or zero. l 1
198. Conceptual
199. Conceptual h
angular momentum = l  l  1
200. d xy orbital has lobes in between x and y axis. 2
201. different orbitals have different h
 2 values. = 11  1
202. d x 2  y 2 orbital having orientation along the axis. 2
238. For double dumbell shaped orbital l  2
203. For double dumbell l  2 m = -2 -1, 0, +1, +2
m  2 -1 0 +1 +2 239. no. of electrons= 4l  2
204. Orbital is a function which gives the probability 6 6
of finding the electron in a given region. 240. 1s 2 2s 2 2 p 3s 2 3 p 4s 2 3d 5
in each subenergy level one orbital is with m= o
205. For d xy orbital lobes lies between the axes. 241. no .of sets = no. of electrons.
206. The orbital with more number of nodal planes 242. If K increases, then ellipticity of the path is
will have more energy. decreases.
207. Spin quantum number can not derived from 243. For a circular orbit n  K
sehrodinger’s wave equation. 244. no .or subenergy levels =n
208. P-otbitals are mutually perpendicular.
245. for 4s orbital n =4 l  0 n  l  4
57 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

246. Conceptual 280. Conceptual


247. Conceptual 281. Conceptual.
248. Magnetic quantum number was proposed to 282. Conceptual
explain. Stark effect and zeeman effect. 283. Conceptual
249. Direction of spin is represented by ‘s’ 284. An orbital can accamodate only for 2 electrons.
250. 3d has 5 parallel spin values. 285. An orbital can accamodate only for 2 electrons.
251. Spin is different values for the electrons in the 286. Half filled orbitals are having symmetry and
same orbital. symmetry leads to stability.
252.  Ne 3s1 287. Na   1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 ultimate shell has 8
electrons and penultimate shell has 2 electrons
n3 288.
l 0 289. If pauli’s principle violated an orbital can have
more than 2 electrons.
m0
290. Cr  24  Violates Auf bau principle.
253. Cl   Ne 3s 3 p
2 5

291. Conceptual
n3 292. n  l value for 4p is 5.
l  1 for 3P electrons
293. E.C of Cr   Ar  3d 5 4 s1
254. Al = 1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p1
255. ‘S’ orbital is non-directional orbital 294. 1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 4s 2 3d 1 (for element with
256. No. of subshell = n Atomic numbers 2l)
257. f orbital has 7 orientations. 295. Orbital n+l
258. If n  l values are same then low n value 4S 4+0=4
orbital has lower energy 3d 3+2=5
259. no. of quantum numbers required to designate o 4s<3d
an orbital =3  3
296. Fe has half filled 3d orbital.
260. for ‘d’ orbital l  2 so m  2 , -1, 0 +1, +2 297. In the degenate orbitals electrons are paired
possible. after filling each orbital with one electron. This
h rule is known as Hund’s rule.
261. Spin angular momentum = S  S  1 298. Hydrogen ion has no electron.
2 3
2
299. M n   Ar  3d 4
262. no. of orbitals = n
263.
264.
no. of sub energy levels = n
Conceptual
300.  Ar  3d 5 has 22 electrons.
oxidation state +3 indicate loss of 3 electrons.
265. For ‘f’ orbital l  3 so m  3 , -2 -1, 0, +1, +2
so: Atomic number = 22+3  25
+3
266. Spin is different 301. 4s 2 4 p5
267. If l  1 that is P sub level.
268. 4f-orbital
269. no. of electrons= 4l+2
270. Conceptual
271. Conceptual so electrons with parallel spins are 4
272. Conceptual 302 Fe2  1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 6
273. ‘S’ value can not obtained from schrodinger’s
equation. no. of ‘S’ electrons in Fe 2 = 6
274. It depends on l and m
275. Conceptual P  1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p3
no. of ‘S’ electrons in P =6
3
276. Cr  Ar 3d   5
303. Conceptual
277. Filling of 2P orbitals starts only after the 304. Conceptual
complete filling of ‘2s’ orbital. 305. Conceptual
306. Conceptual
278. Cr   Ar  3d 5 4 s1 307. Conceptual
308. Conceptual
M n   Ar  3d 5 4s 2
309. If ns and  n  1 d subshells energy difference
279. M n   Ar  4 s 2 3d 5  no. of unpaired is less then Auf bau principle is not obeyed
electrons =5 310. Conceptual
2
M n   Ar  3d 5  no. of unpaired elec- c 3 1010
311.   6
 3 104 cm
trons = 5 v 110
58 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

c 3 1010 cm / sec 321. For Braket series n1  4


312. v   = 6  1014 sec 1
 500 108 cm n2  5, 6, 7......
313. 322. When an electron jumps from any higher
E  hcv
energy level to 4th line Bracket series of lines
= 6.625  1027 erg sec 3  1010 cm sec 1 are observed.
 2.5  10 5 cm 1 1 1
= 5.1 1021 ergs 323. E  Rhc  2  2 
 n1 n2 
N hc
314. E  1 1 
  Rhc   
1 4 
E 1017 J  550 109 m
N  3Rhc
hc 6.625 1034  3 108 =
= 27.6  28
4
1 1 1 
c 3 1010 cm / sec 324.  R  
315.    = 0.5  10 4 cm   4 16 
v 6 1014 Hertz
= 500  10 7 cm 1 3
 R 
` = 500nm.  16 
hc 16
316. E 
 3R
6.625105cm31010 1 1 
31012  R  
 v1 4 25 
5  
  6.625  10 cm 325. v2 1 1 
R  
= 6.625  10 7 cm  9 25 
= 662.5 nm
v1 21R 25  9 21 9
hc 6.625 10 34  3 108   
317. E   v2 100 16 R 16  4
 632.8 109
= 3.1 10 19 1 1 
326. v  R  
Power = No. of quanta x energy 1  
= 3.1 10 19  6.37  10 25  2  107 = 109678cm 1
318. v  z2 vH 1 1 1 
327.  RH   2 
v  32 1500cm1  1  
= 135000cm 1 1
= 1.35  105 cm 1  RH

1 1 1  1
319.  R    R   912 A0
1 1   RH
328. Number of spectral lines
1 1 1  3R
 R    n  n  1 7  7  1 42
2 1 4  4 =  =  21
2 2 2
1 4 329. Conceptual

2 3 330. n1  2 , n2 3
1 1  1 1 1
320. v  R     R 2  2
1     n1 n2 
vR
59 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

1 1 h
 R   342. 
4 9 mv
343. Conceptual
5R 344. KE  T .E
=
36
331. Conceptual = 1  4.9
13.6 = 4.9
332. E PE  2  TE
n2
= 2   4.9
13.6
3.4  =
9.8ev
n2
n2  4 345. E2  E1  3.4   13.6 
n2 = 10.2 ev.
333. E  E3  E2 346. r1 : r2 : r3  n12 : n22 : n32
13.6  13.6  = 12 : 22 : 32
=  2  E1
32  2  347. En 
= 1.5  3.4 n2
= 1.9 ev 348. rn  0.529  n 2 A0
334. E1  2.18  1018 J 349. E4  E2 
18
2.18 10 J 2.179 10 18  2.179 1018 
 
22 16 4 
= 5.45  10 19 J
 
= 0.408  10 18 J
V1
335. Vn  350. E  EH  Z 2
n
2.19 106 ms 1  E  32
= = 9E
2
= 1.10  10 6 m sec 1
1312
351. E  KJ / mole
n2
r1 n12 22 4
336.    1312
r2 n22 32 9 = KJ / mole
4
337. E  EH  Z 2 = 328 KJ / mole
E  3.41 22 2.18 1018
= 3.41 4 352. Eionization 
n2
= -13.6 ev
E1 2 hc 2.18 1018
 
338.
E2 1  9
E1 v2 6.625 10  3 108 2.18 1018
34

 
339.
E2 v1  9
34 8
9  6.625 10  3 10
nh 
340. mvr  2.18 1018
2
= 82.05  10 8 m
1.5h nh
 = 820nm
 2
n =3 h 6.625 1034
341. Conceptual 353.  =  1.32 1035 m
mv 0.5 100
60 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

h 371. For a p electron l value must be one


354 x.m.v  and m values are -1,0,+1
4
372. Electronic configuration is
h 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 3 d 3 4 s 2
x 
4 .m.v 373. An orbital can accommodate one electron
h 1
355  with s  
mv 2
1 374. 4s1 electron
 375. conceptual
mv
376. conceptual
xe .me .ve 377. no. of electrons = 4l  2
356 1
x p .m p .vp 4  3  2  14
ve m p 378.     

vp me 1 1
Sum of spin Q.No. = 5   2
357 circumference= n 2 2
n = orbit number
5 3
h = 1 
358  2 2
mv
379. 19 X  1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 4 s1
h
359. v  Y  1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 4s 2 3d 1
4 m  n 21

h 25 Z  1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 3d 5
360. m
4 .x.v. 380. 2 K 8L 13M 1N
361. conceptual
1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 5 4 s1
31
362 mass of election= 9.1 10 kg 381 conceptual
= 10 30 (nearly) 382 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 4
383 conceptual
h 6.625 1034
363.    6.625 1033 m 384. E.C. of Cr = 1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 5 4 s1
mv. 110
385. conceptual
h 386. conceptual
364.  387. Element is ‘Mn’
mv
h
388. k  and cl has same no. of electrons.
365.  389. conceptual
mv 390. conceptual
366. conceptual 391. conceptual
367. conceptual
368. conceptual 392. E.c. of Mn  1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 5 4s 2
369. l 1 393. E.c. of v 3  1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 2
 minimum value of n = 2 (2-unpaired electrons)
nh h E.c. of Ni 2  1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 8
mvr  =
2  (2-unpaired electrons)
370. valence electron is 4s1 394. conceptual
61 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

411. Electron has to jump to atleast 2nd orbit


395. E.c of Fe3  1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 5
E  E 2  E
E1 v1 =-3.4 - (-13.6)
396. 
E2 v2 = 10.2 e.v.

Nhc  1 1
397. E 13.6   
 E2  E1  4 1   3  3  36  27

E1 2 E3  E2 1 1 4 4 5 5
 412.. 13.6   
398. 9 4  5
E2 1
36
399. Energy emitted from the bulb is 8% of 150 413.
watt (J/sec) i.e. 12 Joules/sec.
EC  EA   EC  EB    EB  E A 
Nhc
E 1 1 1
  
400. hv  W  KE
3 1 2
6.2 = 4.2 + KE z2
KE = 2ev 414. En  313.6  K cal /mole
n2
= 2  1.6  10 19 J
h
= 3.2  10 19 J 415. V 
4 .m.x
401. hv  w  K .E h
416. x 
402. 1e.v = 1.602  10 19 J 4 .m.v
h
403. Work function W= h 0
e me .ve
hc 
K .E .   work function 417. h h
404.
o mn .vn
405. K .E.  h  v  vo  1 mn vn

1 me.ve
hc 2
406. E
 2  me  ve
Vn 
407. Electron excited to 4th orbit mn
2  1 x x
    = 
408. 1840 920
2s 2p
h
418.  
 p
1s A K .EB .mB
409. 419. 
B K .EB .mA
2  1 1 2  1 1  A mB vB
RH   Z Li 2   2  2   RH   Z H   2  2  420. 
 n1 n2  2 3  B m AvA
421. radial nodes = n-l-1
410. Electron excited to 2nd orbit nodal plane = l
n  n  1 422. Conceptual
No. of spectral lines = 423. Hydride ion is H 
2 424. one electron is excess
62 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

425. Same no of electrons


426. Conceptual v 2  3v
427. Conceptual 442. Conceptual
428. Conceptual 443. Wave length of limiting line is minimum
429. N  A Z
430. Same no of electrons  912 A0 wave length of first line is
431. definiction of isobars
432. Conceptual maximum 1215 A0
433. Conceptual
CG UVIMTR 1 1 1
 444.  RH  z 2  2  2 
434. 
wavelength increases  n1 n2 
435. Conceptual 445.
1
436. E 1 1 2  1 1
 RH  zH2  2  2   RH  zHe  2  2 
437. Conceptual
 n1 n2   n1 n2 
hc
438. E
 1 z2
446.  2H
hc 2 z Be 3

439. h   K .E
0
447. Spectral has to present in ......... region is
240 103
440. B.E for 1 molecule = = 40  10 20 J Balmer series
6 1023
= 4  10 19 J
n1  2
Energy of incident light For third line n2  n1  3
hc 19
E  4.41 10 J n2  5

K .E  0.41 1019 1 Z H
2

= 4.1 10 20 J 448.  2


 2 Z Li 2

441. hv  hv0  K .E 449. Conceptual


case 1: 2hv0  hv0  K .E
450. r2  r1  0.529  n22  n12 
= K . E1  hv 0
case 2: 10hv0  hv0  K .E2 1
451. No. of revolutions per seconds 
K . E 2  9 hv0 h3
452. Electron jumps from 3rd orbit to 1st orbit
K .E1 hv
 0 z2
K .E2 9hv0 453. En  13.6  e.v / atom
42
1 2
mv1 1 454. Conceptual
2 
1 2 9 z
mv2 455. V
2 n
v12 1 nh
 2  456. mvr 
v2 9 2
v 1 457. For first line of Balmer series energy is
 1  maximum
v2 3 458. Balmer series - visible region
v 1
 n1  2, n2  5
v2 3 459. Conceptual
63 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

460. Conceptual
h
 
n2 4  10
461. rn  0.529 
z h
475. x
mu
462. E  E3  E2
h
476. u 
4 m.n
477. Conceptual
478. Conceptual
5 
47.2  13.6  z 2   479. Conceptual
 36  480. Radius is 100 A0
47.2  36
z2  n2 0
13.6  5 ru  0.53  A
z
 25
z  5 n2
100  0.53 
463. Conceptual 1
464.
100
465. E  E3  E2 n2   189
0.53
  1 .5 1    3 .4 
n  4 c approximates
 1.89 e.u 481. Conceptual
482. l value never greater than n
466. E  E3  E2
467. Conceptual 483.  n  l  value is more so energy is more
468. Conceptual
h
484.  n  l  value and n, l values are same then
469. x energies are same
mu
470. Conceptual 485.  n  l  value increases energy increases
h 486. If n is same , then the orbital with more l
471. x 
4 m.V value has more energy

h 487. n  l, l  m
472. x.p 
4 488. It is electronic configuration of chromium
489, As , Bi both are V A group elementss
1 h 490. Conceptual
x.
m 4 491. Fe 2 has 4 unpaired electrons
492. Conceptual
1 h
 493. In Fe 2 6 d electrons are present
2m 
473. Conceptual h
494. Orbitals argular mementum  l  l  1
h 2
474. p 
4 .x z2
495. En  13.6 
n2
64 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

496. Shape of dx 2  y 2 orbital For ionization, n1  1 and n2   . Hence,


y
N A RH hc  1.312  106 J mol 1
Forn  1  n  2 , the energy difference is
x
3 3
E   N A RH hc    1.312  106 J mol 1
4 4
 9.84  105 J mol 1
n2
497. rn  0.529  A0 508. Total number of nodes =  n  l 
z
For 3p orbital, total nodes = 3 -1 = 2
1 1 1 
498.  Rh  z 2 H  2  2  Number of radial nodes = n  l  1
 1   For 3p orbital, radial nodes = 3-1-1=1
h Number of angular nodes = l
499.  For 3p orbital number of angular nodes = 1
mu
[For 3p orbital, n  3, l  1 ]
500. l m
509.
501. 1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p6 4s1 3d 5 h 6.626 1034  3600
   2.38 1030 m
l  1 no of p electrons   12 mv 3
200 10  5
510. The spin angular momentum has a magnitude
l  2  no of p electrons   5
 1  3 1
1 2 1 1  S   s  s  1 2 h    h since s  
 RH  Z H 12   2 
502.
  
  2  2 
The component of S in the direction of
 912 A0
magnetic field B can be specified by ms ,
 91.2 nm
503. In the absence of magnetic and electric 1
fields, the atoms having the same value of n+l where ms   component has upward
2
possess the same electronic energy.
504. (b) 1
For a single electron species, the energy of orientation    and ms   component
2
electron depends only on the principle quantum
number. Hence, 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals will have has downward orientation    . Here spin-
the same energy
ning electrons behave like a tiny bar magnet
505. (a) 511. In Rutherford's experiment   particles are
In Bohr’s theory, the angular momentum of used.   particles are doubly positively
electron is given by L  n  h / 2  , where n is charged helium ions i.e helium nucleus.
the quantum number. For 5th orbit, n=5. 512. Pauli's exclusion principle states, "No two
506. (b) electrons in an atom can have same values for
Larger the value of n  l , higher the energy of n, l , m then they must have different s values
atomic orbital
so no orbital can accommodate more than 2
507. (a)
The energy difference between the two orbits of electrons
hydrogen atom is given by So the value is same in two cases
 1 1  513. Number of radial nodes =  n  l  1
E  N A RH hc  2  2 
 n1 n2  For 3s, number of radial nodes =
65 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

3  0 1  2 4) is not correct because oxidation number of


For 2p number of radial nodes = 2-1-1 = 0 N in HN3 is -1/3
514. Isotones have the same number of neutrons. 520.
77 78
Here 33 As and 34 Se have the same number 
X A  Z 2 Y A4  2 He4   emission 
Z
77
of neutrons as in 33 Ge (i.e 44 neutrons) 
Z X A  Z 1 Y A  1 e 0    emission 
515. Isotopes have same atomic number but
different mass numbers. The average atomic Z X A Z 1 Y A  1 e0  positron emission 
mass is the weighed mean of their occurence
Z X A  1 e 0 Z 1 Y A  electron capture 
in nature. Cl 35 and Cl 37 occur in nature in
the ratio of 3:1 so the average atomic mass of In  - emission atomic number decreases
Cl is A given by from Z to (Z-2) i.e. by two units
In  - emission atomic number increases
35  3  37  1
A  35.5 from Z to (Z+1) i.e. by one unit
4
In positron atomic number decreases from Z
516. Since most part of the atoms is empty so  - to (Z-1) i.e by one unit.
particles pass through it undeflected In electron capture atomic number decreases
517. In tritium (an isotope of hydrogen with mass from Z to (Z-1) i.e by one unit.
number 3 and atomic number 1). There are 2 521. Only these configuration follow Hund's tule
neutrons and 1 proton i.e. sum = 2+1 = 3. In In b and c the spin of unpaired electrons is
deuterium 12 D , n + p = 2. In ordinary not same and so they are not correct configu-
hydrogen 11 H , n  p  1 rations of nitrogen atom.
522. There are three possible values of spin
518. Energy in an orbito of hydrogen atom, En is quantum number -it means an orbital can
given by accommodate 3 electrons.
523. Conceptual
2 2 me4 Z 2 Constant 13.6eV 524. Conceptual
En  2 2
 2

nh n n2 525. Conceptual
13.6eV 6.626 1034
For 1st orbit, n  1 , Hence En   526. P   5.27 10 23 kg ms 1
1 12
4 10 m
The possible values of energies are -13.6, - 527. The electrons momentum will be approxi-
3.4, -1.5...etc for n  1, 2,3,.... etc.
mately 9.1 1031 kg  108 ms 1
519. 1) is the correct electronic configuration of
2 2 6 2 6 s 1 = 9.1 1023 kg ms 1
Cr  Z  24  ,1s 2 s 2 p 3s 3 p 3d 4 s
Uncertainity is large (over 50%)
2) is correct because magnetic quantum 528. Planck’s constant will be effectively zero.
number (m) can have values from - 529. Conceptual
l......0......+l i.e. it can have negative values. 530. Conceptual
3) is correct because the electronic configu- 531. Conceptual
ration of Ag  Z  47  is 532. Conceptual
533. Conceptual
1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4 p 6 4d 10 5s1 . .

From here we find 23 electrons have spin of


one type and 24 electrons have spin of
* * *
opposite type.