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ASD vs.

SD
A Masonry Cage Fight

Richard Bennett, PhD, PE


The University of Tennessee

Chair, 2016 TMS 402/602 Code Committee

-1-

Outline

 Beams and lintels


 Non-bearing walls: out-of-plane
 Interaction diagrams
 Combined bending and axial force: pilasters
 Bearing walls: out-of-plane
 Shear walls: in-plane
• Partially Grouted Shear Wall
• Special Reinforced Shear Wall

-2-
2011 vs 2013 Code

Chapter 1 – General Design Requirements  Part 1 – General


• Chapter 1 – General Requirements
for Masonry
• Chapter 2 – Notation and Definition
Chapter 2 – Allowable Stress Design of • Chapter 3 – Quality and Construction
Masonry  Part 2 – Design Requirements
• Chapter 4 – General Analysis and Design Considerations
Chapter 3 – Strength Design of Masonry • Chapter 5 – Structural Elements
• Chapter 6 – Reinforcement, Metal Accessories, and
Chapter 4 – Prestressed Masonry Anchor Bolts
• Chapter 7 – Seismic Design Requirements
Chapter 5 – Empirical Design of Masonry
 Part 3 – Engineered Design Methods
Chapter 6 – Veneer • Chapter 8 – Allowable Stress Design
• Chapter 9 – Strength Design of Masonry
Chapter 7 – Glass Unit Masonry • Chapter 10 – Prestressed Masonry
• Chapter 11 – Strength Design of AAC
Chapter 8 – Strength Design of Autoclaved  Part 4 – Prescriptive Design Methods
Aerated Concrete Masonry • Chapter 12 – Veneer
• Chapter 13 – Glass Unit Masonry
Appendix B – Design of Masonry Infill • Chapter 14 – Masonry Partition Walls
 Part 5 – Appendices
• Appendix A – Empirical Design
• Appendix B – Design of Masonry Infill
• Appendix C – Limit Design Method

-3-

2011 vs 2013 Code

 Modulus of rupture values increased by 1/3 for all but fully


grouted masonry normal to bed joint
 Unit strength tables recalibrated
• Type S mortar, 2000 psi unit strength, f′m = 2000 psi
 Shear strength of partially grouted walls: reduction factor of
0.75

-4-
Beam and Lintel Design
Strength Design (Chapter 9)
Allowable Stress (Chapter 8)
• mu = 0.0035 clay masonry
• Allowable masonry stress: 0.45f’m
• mu = 0.0025 concrete masonry
• Allowable steel stress
• Masonry stress = 0.8f’m
• 32 ksi, Grade 60 steel
• Masonry stress acts over a = 0.8c
k • = 0.9 flexure; = 0.8 shear
k  (n ) 2  2n  n j  1
3  1 As f y 
M n  As f y  d  
M 2M  2 0 . 8 f 
m 
b
fs  fm 
As jd b(kd )( jd ) Vn  2.25 Anv f m

• No min or max reinforcement • Minimum reinf: Mn ≥ 1.3Mcr


requirements • or As ≥ (4/3)As,req’d
• Allowable shear stress • Maximum reinf: s ≥ 1.5y
1 0.80.8 f m   m 
Fvm  2.25 f m  max   
2 fy  m  s 
-5-

Beam and Lintel Design

Allowable Stress (Chapter 8) Strength Design (Chapter 9)


1. Assume value of j (or k). 1. Determine a, depth of compressive
Typically 0.85 < j < 0.95. stress block
2M n
2. Determine a trial value of As. a  d  d2 
/ 0.8 f m b
Choose reinforcement.
2. Solve for As
3. Determine k and j; steel stress 0.8 f m ba
and masonry stress. As 
fy
4. Compare calculated stresses to
allowable stresses. 3. ρ 0.285 ⁄ for CMU
5. If masonry stress controls design, Grade 60 steel:
consider other options (such as
= 1.5 ksi, ρ 0.00714
change of member size, or
change of f’m). Reinforcement is = 2 ksi, ρ 0.00952
not being used efficiently.

-6-
ASD: Alternate Design Method
Calculate
d M
 d  2M   As 
2

kd  3      k
2
  2  3Fmb  Fs d 1  
 3

Is k ≥ kbal? Fm As Fs n
kbal   
For Grade 60 steel Fs Fs b
Fm 
kbal = 0.312 n NO

YES kd 2   2  2d  


Fm (kd )b Iterate. Use (kd)2 as new
P guess and repeat.
As  2
1 
nFm   1 Allowable reinforcement
k  tension stress controls
Allowable masonry
compression stress
controls
-7-

Comparison of ASD and SD

8 inch CMU
d = 20 in.

-8-
Example: Beam
Given: 10 ft. opening; dead load of 1.5 kip/ft; live load of 1.5 kip/ft; 24 in.
high; Grade 60 steel; Type S masonry cement mortar; 8 in. CMU; f’m =
2000 psi
Required: Design beam
Solution:

5.2.1.3: Length of bearing of beams shall be a minimum of 4 in.; typically


assumed to be 8 in.
5.2.1.1.1 Span length of members not built integrally with supports shall be taken
as the clear span plus depth of member, but need not exceed distance between
center of supports.
• Span = 10 ft + 2(4 in.) = 10.67 ft
5.2.1.2 Compression face of beams shall be laterally supported at a maximum
spacing of:
• 32 multiplied by the beam thickness. 32(7.625 in.) = 244 in. = 20.3 ft
• 120b2/d. 120(7.625 in.)2 / (20 in.) = 349 in. = 29.1 ft

-9-

Allowable Stress Design: Flexure

Load
Weight of fully grouted
w  D  L  1.5  k
ft
 0.083 k
ft 2

2 ft   1.5 kft   3.17 kft
normal weight: 83 psf

M
wL2 3.17

 k
ft
10.67 ft 2
 45.1k  ft
Moment
8 8

Determine kd Assume compression controls

d
 d 
kd  3    
2
2M 
 3
 20in
  20in 
 
2
245.1k  ft  12ftin 
  9.32in.
 
 
2  2  3Fbb   2  2  30.900ksi 7.625in  
   

Check if compression controls k


kd 9.32in
  0.466  0.312 Compression
d 20in controls

Es Es 29000ksi
Calculate modular ratio, n n    16.1
Em 900 f m 9002.0ksi 
- 10 -
Allowable Stress Design: Flexure

Fb (kd )b 0.900ksi9.31in 7.625in 


Find As
Area of steel As  2  2  1.94in 2
1   1 
nFb   1 16.10.900ksi   1
k   0.466 

Use 2 - #9 (As = 2.00 in2)

Bars placed in bottom U-shaped unit, or knockout bond beam unit.

- 11 -

Strength Design: Flexure

Factored Load
Weight of fully grouted
wu  1.2 D  1.6 L  1.2 1.5  k
ft
 0.083 k
ft 2

2 ft   1.61.5 kft   4.40 kft
normal weight: 83 psf

w L2 4.40
Mu  u 
 k
ft
10.67 ft  2
 62.6k  ft
Factored Moment
8 8

Find a  62.6k  ft  12in 


Depth of equivalent
2  
 0.9  ft 
 20in  20in  
2M n
rectangular stress block ad d 
2 2
 3.78in
0.8 f m b 0.82.0ksi 7.625in 

Find As 0.8 f m ba 0.82.0ksi 7.625in 3.78in 


Area of steel As    0.77in 2
fy 60ksi

Mn = 78.5 k-ft
Use 2 - #6 (As = 0.88 in2)
Mn = 70.6 k-ft

- 12 -
Check Min and Max Reinforcement

Minimum Reinforcement Check: fr = 160 psi (parallel to bed joints


in running bond; fully grouted)

bh 2 7.625in 24in 
2

Section modulus Sn    732in 3


6 6

Cracking moment  
M cr  S n f r  732in 3 160 psi   117.1k  in  9.76k  ft

Check 1.3Mcr 1.3M cr  1.39.76k  ft   12.7k  ft  M n  75.3k  ft

Maximum Reinforcement Check:


= 2 ksi ρ 0.00952 As 0.88in 2
   0.00577
bd 7.625in 20in 

- 13 -

Summary: Beams, Flexure

Dead Load (k/ft) Required As (in2)


Live Load (k/ft)
(superimposed) ASD SD
0.34 0.26
0.5 0.5
0.34 ( = 1.5 ksi) 0.26 ( = 1.5 ksi)

0.64 0.50
1.0 1.0
0.65 ( = 1.5 ksi) 0.52 ( = 1.5 ksi)

1.94 0.77
1.5 1.5
5.09 ( = 1.5 ksi) 0.80 ( = 1.5 ksi)

ASD: Allowable tension controls for 0.5 k/ft and 1 k/ft.

- 14 -
Allowable Stress Design: Shear
Design for DL = 1 k/ft, LL = 1 k/ft

Shear at reaction V
wL 1.0

 k
ft
 0.083 k
ft 2

2 ft   1.0 kft 10.67 ft 
 11.56k
2 2
 20in.  1 ft Section 8.3.5.4
d/2 from face of support   4in. 12in.  1.17 ft
 2  allows design for
shear at d/2 from
 5.33 ft  1.17 ft  face of supports.
Design shear force V  11.56k    9.02k
 5.33 ft 
V 9.02k Suggest that d be
Shear stress fv    59.2 psi
Anv 7.625in.20in. used, not dv.

Fvm 
1   M  
 4.0  1.75   f m   0.25
2   Vd  
P 1
 2.25 f m  
Allowable masonry  An 2
shear stress 1

 2.25 2000 psi  50.3 psi
2

- 15 -

Allowable Stress Design: Shear

Check max shear stress Fv  2 f m  2 2000 psi  89.4 psi > 59.2psi OK

Req’d steel stress 59.2 psi  50.3 psi  8.9 psi

AFd f As
Fvs  0.5 v s   Av  vs n
Determine Av for a  An s  0.5 Fs d
spacing of 8 in. 8.9 psi 7.625in.20in.8in.
Av   0.034in 2
0.532000 psi 20in.

Use #3 stirrups

Determine d so that no shear reinforcement would be required.


V 9.02k Use a 32 in. deep beam if possible;
d   23.5in.
bFvm 7.625in.50.3 psi  will slightly increase dead load.

- 16 -
Strength Design: Shear
Design for DL = 1 k/ft, LL = 1 k/ft

Shear at reaction
w L 1.2 1.0
Vu  u 
  k
ft
 0.083 k
ft 2
 
2 ft   1.61.0 kft  10.67 ft 
 16.00k
2 2
Requirement for shear at
 20in.  1 ft
d/2 from face of support   4in. 12in.  1.17 ft d/2 from face of support
 2  is in ASD, not SD, but
assume it applies
 5.33 ft  1.17 ft 
Design shear force Vu  16.00k    12.50k
 5.33 ft 

  M u 
Design masonry Vnm   4.0  1.75  Anv f m  0.25 Pu   2.25 Anv f m
shear strength   Vu d v 
 0.82.257.625in.20in. 2000 psi  12.28k Suggest that d
be used, not
dv to find Anv

- 17 -

Strength Design: Shear

Check max Vn Vn   4 Anv f m  0.847.625in.20in. 2000 psi  21.82k


> 12.50k OK
Req’d Vns Vu  Vm 12.50k  12.28k
  0.28k
 0.8

A  Vns s
Vns  0.5 v  f y d v  Av 
Determine Av for a  s  0.5 f y d v
spacing of 8 in. 0.28k 8in.
Av   0.004in 2
0.560ksi 20in.

Use #3 stirrups
Determine d so that no shear reinforcement would be required.
Vu 12.50k
d   20.4in. Use inverted bond beam
 
b  2.25 f m 
7.625in. 0.82.25 2000 psi  unit to get slightly greater d.

- 18 -
Non-Bearing Partially Grouted Walls
Out-of-Plane
b = width of effective flange
= min{s, 6t, 72 in}
s
Spacing Steel Area in2/ft
b
(inches) #3 #4 #5 #6
a

b’
8 0.16 0.30 0.46 0.66
16 0.082 0.15 0.23 0.33
d

tf
As 24 0.055 0.10 0.16 0.22
32 0.041 0.075 0.12 0.16
A. Neutral axis in flange: 40 0.033 0.060 0.093 0.13
a. Almost always the case 48 0.028 0.050 0.078 0.11
b. Design and analysis for solid 56 0.024 0.043 0.066 0.094
section 64 0.021 0.038 0.058 0.082
B. Neutral axis in web 72 0.018 0.033 0.052 0.073
a. Design as a T-beam section
80 0.017 0.030 0.046 0.066
C. Often design based on a 1 ft width
- 19 -

Example: Partially Grouted Wall ASD


Given: 8 in CMU wall; 16 ft high; Grade 60 steel, = 2000 psi; Lateral wind load
of 30 psf (factored)
Required: Reinforcing (place in center of wall)

  
Solution:
wh 2 0.6 30 ftlb2 12 inft 16 ft 2
lb  ft
Moment M   6912 lb ftin  576 ft
8 8
Fb = 0.45(2000psi) = 900 psi Em = 1.80 x 106 psi
Fs = 32000 psi Es = 29 x 106 psi
n= Es/Em = 16.1

Determine kd Assume compression controls

d  d
kd  3    
2
2M   3.81in
  3 
 
2 k  ft

3.81in  2 0.576 ft 12ftin     0.346in.
 
2
  2  3Fbb 

 2
  2  30.900ksi  12 inft   
Check if compression kd 0.346in
k   0.091  0.312 Tension controls
controls d 3.81in

- 20 -
Example: Partially Grouted Wall ASD

Equation / Value Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3

kd (in.) 0.346 0.699 0.709


k 0.091 0.183 0.183
M
As 
 k  (in2) 0.0584 0.0603 0.0603
Fs d 1  
 3

 
 As Fs n
(in.) 0.0784 0.0810 0.0810
Fs b

kd 2   2  2d   (in.) 0.699 0.709 0.709

Use # 4 @ 40 inches (As=0.060in2/ft)


(close enough for government work)

- 21 -

Example: Partially Grouted Wall SD


Given: 8 in. CMU wall; 16 ft high; Grade 60 steel, = 2000 psi; Wind load of
wu = 30 psf
Required: Reinforcing (place in center of wall)
Solution:
Factored w h 2 30
lb
ft 2
12 16 ft 
in
ft
2
k  ft
Mu  u   11520 lb ftin  0.96
Moment 8 8 ft

Find a
 11520 lb ftin 
Solve as solid 2 
section
a  d  d2 
2 M n
 3.81in  3.81in  
2  0.9   0.179in
0.8 f m b 0.82000 psi (12 inft )

Find As As  

0.8 f m ba 0.82000 psi  12 inft 0.179in  
 0.0573 inft
2

fy 60000 psi

Use # 4 @ 40 inches (As=0.060in2/ft)


- 22 -
ASD vs SD: Flexural Members

 ASD calibrated to SD for wind and seismic loads


 When a significant portion of load is dead load, ASD will
require more steel than SD
 When allowable masonry stress controls in ASD, designs are
inefficient
 Advantage to SD, which is reason concrete design rapidly
switched to SD about 50 years ago

- 23 -

Interaction Diagrams

Allowable Stress (Chapter 8) Strength Design (Chapter 9)


• For k > kbal • Set masonry strain to εmu
• Set masonry strain = Fb/Em; • Vary steel strain
= 0.0005 CMU • Equivalent rectangular stress block
• Find steel strain • Nominal axial strength
• For k < kbal • h/r ≤ 99
• Set steel strain = Fs/Es;   h 2 
= 0.00110 for Grade 60
 
Pn  0.8 0.80 f m  An  Ast   f y Ast 1    
  140r  
• Find masonry strain • h/r > 99
• Allowable axial load
 
2
 70r 
• h/r ≤ 99 Pn  0.80 0.80 f m  An  Ast   f y Ast  
  h 2   h 
Pa  0.25 f m An  0.65 Ast Fs 1    
  140r   • =0.9
• h/r > 99
2
 70r 
Pa  0.25 f m An  0.65 Ast Fs  
 h 

- 24 -
Example: 8 in. CMU Bearing Wall ASD
Given: 12 ft high CMU bearing wall, Type S masonry cement mortar;
Grade 60 steel in center of wall; #4 @ 48 in.; partial grout; = 2000 psi
Required: Interaction diagram in terms of capacity per foot
Pure Moment: n = 16.1 ρ = 0.00109 nρ = 0.0176

Find k k  ( n ) 2  2 n  n  0.01762  20.0176   0.0176  0.171


Find j k 0.171
j  1  1  0.943
3 3
M s  As Fs jd  0.05 inft 32ksi 0.9433.81in.  5.75 k ftin
2
Find Ms

Find Mm M m  bkd 
Fm
2
 
 jd   12 inft 0.1713.81in  0.900ksi 0.9433.81in 
2
 12.64 k ftin
k  ft
Allowable M M  5.75 k-in
ft  0.479 ft

- 25 -

Example: 8 in. CMU Bearing Wall ASD

Pure Axial: 4.3.3 Radius of gyration Radius of gyration shall be computed


using average net cross-sectional area of the member considered.

NCMA TEK 14-1B Section Properties of Concrete Masonry Walls


r = 2.66 in. An = 40.7in2/ft In = 332.0 in4/ft

h 144in
Find h/r   54.1  99
r 2.66in

Find Pa   h 2  P  17.3 kft


Pa  0.25 f m An  0.65 Ast Fs 1    
  140r  
  54.1  2 
 
 0.252.0ksi  40.7 in 2
ft
 
 0 1      17.3 kft
  140  

- 26 -
Example: 8 in. CMU Bearing Wall ASD

0.900 ksi Strain


0.0005
Balanced: 32 ksi
Stress 1.19 in 0.00110
kd < 1.25 in.
N.A. in face shell 3.82 in

Find Cm Cm 
1
2
1
2
 
f m kd b  0.900ksi 1.19in  12 inft  6.44 k
ft

Find T  2

T  f s As  32ksi  0.05 inft  1.6 k
ft
P  4.84 kft
M  1.83 k ftft
Find P P  Cm -T  6.44  1.60  4.84k
ft
k
ft

Find M  1.19in  k  ft
M  6.44 kft  3.81in    22.0 k ftin  1.83 ft
 3 

- 27 -

Example: 8 in. CMU Bearing Wall ASD


1800ksi(0.000391) =
0.703 ksi 0.000391 Strain
Below 32 ksi
Balanced: Stress 1.00 in 0.00110
kd = 1.00 in.
3.82 in

Find Cm Cm 
1
2
1
2
 
f m kd b  0.703ksi 1.00in  12 inft  4.22 k
ft

Find T  2

T  f s As  32ksi  0.05 inft  1.6 k
ft
P  2.62 kft
M  1.22 k ftft
Find P P  Cm -T  4.22  1.60  2.62k
ft
k
ft

Find M  1.00in  k  ft
M  4.22 kft  3.81in    14.7 k ftin  1.22 ft
 3 

- 28 -
Example: 8 in. CMU Bearing Wall ASD
0.900 ksi
0.338 ksi 0.0005 Strain
Above 13.1 ksi
Balanced: 1.25 in
Stress 2.00 in 0.00045
kd = 2.00 in. 2.00 in
Neutral axis 3.82 in
is in web
0.25 k/ft 0.900  0.338ksi 1.25in 12 in   9.28 k
9.28 k/ft Cm1  ft ft
2
0.66k/ft
Centroid Cm 2 
1
 
0.338ksi0.75in  2 inft  0.25 kft
0.53 in 2

x
h1  2h2 b
h1  h2 3 1.5 in 
T  13.1ksi  0.05 inft  0.66
2
 k
ft
1.25+0.75/3=1.5in.
h1 P  Cm1  Cm 2 -T  8.88 kft
b
h2
P  8.88 kft
x
M  9.28 kft 3.81in  0.53in   0.25 kft 3.81in  1.5in   2.58 k ftft
k  ft
M  2.58 ft
- 29 -

Example: 8 in. CMU Bearing Wall SD


Given: 12 ft high CMU bearing wall, Type S masonry cement mortar;
Grade 60 steel in center of wall; #4 @ 48 in.; partial grout; = 2000 psi
Required: Interaction diagram in terms of capacity per foot
Pure Moment:
 1 As f y 
M n  As f y  d  
Find Mn  2 0.8bf 'm 
 1 0.05 inft 60ksi  
2

 0.05 inft 60ksi  3.812in   11.2 k ftin  0.934 k ftft


2



in
 
2 0.8 12 ft 2.0ksi  

Find Mn M n  0.90.934 k ftft   0.840 k ftft

Check to make sure As f y 0.05 inft 60ksi 


2

stress block is in a   0.156in


face shell 0.8bf 'm  
0.8 12 inft 2.0ksi 

- 30 -
Example: 8 in. CMU Bearing Wall SD

Pure Axial: NCMA TEK 14-1B Section Properties of Concrete Masonry Walls
r = 2.66 in. An = 40.7in2/ft In = 332.0 in4/ft

h 144in
Find h/r   54.1  99
r 2.66in

Find Pn   h 2 

Pn  0.8 0.80 f m  An  Ast   f y Ast 1    
  140r  
  54.1  2 
   
 0.8 0.802.0ksi  40.7 inft  0  0 1  
2
   44.3 kft
  140  

Pn  0.944.3 kft   39.9 kft

- 31 -

Example: 8 in. CMU Bearing Wall SD


0.8f′m = 1.6 ksi T
0.0025 Strain Cm
Balanced:
Stress
2.09 in
0.00207 a = 0.8c = 0.8(2.09in.) = 1.67in.
3.82 in web length =
. .
2.0
.

Find Cm  
Cm, face shell  0.802.0ksi 1.25in  12 inft  24 kft


Cm , web  0.802.0ksi 1.67in  1.25in  2.0 inft  1.34 kft 
Find T 
T  f y As  60ksi  0.05 inft  3.0
2
 k
ft
Pn  20.1 kft
Find Pn  0.924.0  1.3  3.0  kft  20.1 kft M n  5.96 k ftft

Find   1.25in   1.67  1.25  


M n  0.9 24.0 kft  3.81in    1.3 kft  3.81  1.25 
k  ft
in   5.96 ft
  2   2  

- 32 -
Example: 8 in. CMU Bearing Wall SD

0.8f′m = 1.6 ksi T


Below 0.0025 Strain
Balanced:
c = 1.25 in. 1.25 in 0.00512 Stress
a = 0.8c
3.81 in 1.00 in

Find Cm Cm  0.8 f m a b  0.82.0ksi 1.00in  12 inft  19.2   k


ft

Find T 
T  f y As  60ksi  0.05 inft  3.0
2
 k
ft
Pn  14.6 kft
M n  4.77 k ftft
Find Pn   Cm -T   0.919.2  3.0 kft  14.6 kft
  0.81.25in  
Find M n  0.919.2 kft  3.81in  k  ft
  57.2 k ftin  4.77 ft
  2 

- 33 -

Example: 8 in. CMU Bearing Wall SD


0.8f′m = 1.6 ksi T
Above 0.0025
Cm
Strain
Balanced: Stress
c = 3.0 in. 3.0 in 0.00068 a = 0.8c = 0.8(3.0in.) = 2.4in.
. .
3.81 in web length = 2.0
.

Find Cm  
Cm, face shell  0.802.0ksi 1.25in  12 inft  24 kft

Cm, web  0.802.0ksi 2.40in  1.25in 2.0   3.68 in


ft
k
ft

Find T 
T  Es s As  29000ksi 0.00068 0.05 inft  0.99
2
 k
ft
Pn  24.0 kft
Find Pn  0.924.0  3.68  0.99 kft  24.0 kft M n  6.28 k ftft

Find   1.25in   2.40  1.25  


M n  0.924.0 kft  3.81in    3.68 kft  3.81  1.25 
k  ft
in   6.28 ft
  2   2  

- 34 -
Interaction Diagrams

- 35 -

ASD vs SD: Interaction Diagrams

 Similar behavior to flexure


• ASD and SD close when allowable tension stress controls
• ASD more conservative when allowable masonry stress
controls
 SD interaction diagram easier to construct due to equivalent
uniform stress vs. linear varying stress
 Advantage to SD

- 36 -
Strength Design: Combined Bending
and Axial Load Design Method
Calculate
2Pu d  t / 2   M u  a
a  d  d2  c
 0.8 f m b  0.8

Is c ≥ cbal?  mu
For Grade 60 steel
cbal  d
 mu   y
cbal = 0.547
YES NO

0.8 f m ba  Pu /  0.8 f m ba  Pu / 
As  As 
d c fy
 mu Es  
 c  Tension controls
Compression controls

- 37 -

ASD: Combined Bending and


Axial Load Design Method
Calculate
   t kd 
M   P  
2
d  d  2( P(d  t / 2)  M ) 
kd  3    
2 2 3Fmb  2 3 
 
M M
As 
Is k ≥ kbal? Fm  k
kbal  Fs d 1  
For Grade 60 steel
Fm 
Fs  3
kbal = 0.312 n NO
 
P  As Fs n
YES
Fs b
Fm (kd )b
P
As  2 kd 2   2  2d  
1 
nFm   1
k  Iterate. Use (kd)2 as new
guess and repeat.
Compression controls
Tension controls
- 38 -
ASD: Combined Bending and
Axial Load Design Method
If k < kb tension controls. Solve cubic equation for kd.

bFs
kd 3  bdFs kd 2   P d  t   M kd    P d  t   M d  0
6n 2n   2    2 

Solve for As.

As 
1
kd b  1 kd   P
2  n d  kd  Fs

- 39 -

Example: Pilaster Design ASD


Given: Nominal 16 in. wide x 16 in. deep CMU pilaster; = 2000 psi; Grade 60
bar in each corner, center of cell; Effective height = 24 ft; Dead load of 9.6 kips and
snow load of 9.6 kips act at an eccentricity of 5.8 in. (2 in. inside of face); Factored
wind load of 26 psf (pressure and suction) and uplift of 8.1 kips (e=5.8 in.);
Pilasters spaced at 16 ft on center; Wall is assumed to span horizontally between
pilasters; No ties.
Required: Determine required reinforcing using allowable stress design.
Solution:
e=5.8 in 2.0 in

Em = 1800ksi
n = 16.1
Vertical Spanning
Inside

x
Load
Lateral Load
w = 0.6(26psf)(16ft)=250 lb/ft

d=11.8 in

- 40 -
Example: Pilaster Design ASD
Weight of pilaster:
Weight of fully grouted 8 in wall (lightweight units) is 75 psf. Pilaster is
like a double thick wall. Weight is 2(75psf)(16in)(1ft/12in) = 200 lb/ft

Usually the load combination with smallest axial load and largest lateral
load controls. Try load combination of 0.6D + 0.6W to determine
required reinforcement and then check other load combinations.

The location and value of maximum moment can be determined from:

M wh 2 M2 If x<0 or x>h, Mmax= M


M max   
2 8 2 wh 2
M = moment at top
h M x measured down from top of pilaster
x 
2 wh

- 41 -

Example: Pilaster Design ASD

0.6D + 0.6W
Top of pilaster. P = 0.6(9.6)k-0.6(8.1)k = 0.9kips M = 0.9k(5.8in) = 5.2kip-in
Find location of h M 288in 5.2kip  in
maximum moment x 
2 wh

2

0.250 k 288in  1 ft
ft
 
 143.1in
in

5.2k  in 0.0208 ink 288in 


2
M wh 2 M2 (5.2k  in) 2
       218.3k  in
 
M max
2 8 2 wh 2 2 8 2 0.0208 ink 288in 2

Find axial force at this point. Include weight of pilaster (200 lb/ft).


P  0.9k  0.6 0.20 k
ft
143.1in 1 ft
12in.
 2.3k

Design for P = 2.3 k, M = 218 k-in

- 42 -
Example: Pilaster Design ASD

 2 
d  d  2( P(d  h / 2)  M ) 
kd  3    
Assume compression 2 2 3Fbb 
controls;  
 
Determine kd  11.8in  2(2.3kip11.8in  15.6in / 2   218kip  in) 
2
11.8in
 3      3.00in
 2  2  30.900ksi 15.6in  
 

kd 3.00in
Determine k k   0.254
d 11.8in

Fb 0.900ksi
Determine kbal kbal    0.312
Fs 32ksi
Fb  0.900ksi 
n 16.1

k < kbal Tension controls; iterate

- 43 -

Example: Pilaster Design ASD

Equation / Value Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3

kd (in.) 3.00 3.38 3.40


k 0.254 0.286 0.288
 h kd 
M   P   (k-in.) 15.6 15.3 15.3
2 3 
M M
As 
 k (in2) 0.585 0.593 0.593
Fs d 1  
 3

 
P  As Fs n
(in.) 0.678 0.686 0.686
Fs b

kd 2   2  2d   (in.) 3.38 3.40 3.40

Try 2-#5, 4 total, one in each cell


- 44 -
Example: Pilaster Design ASD

D+0.75(0.6W)+0.75S
P = 15.3k
M = 16.8k-ft
D+S D+0.6W
P = 19.2k P = 7.1k
M = 9.25k-ft M = 19.2k-ft

0.6D+0.6W
P = 2.3k
M = 18.2k-ft

- 45 -

Example: Pilaster Design ASD

f’m = 2000 psi

f’m = 1500 psi

- 46 -
Example: Pilaster Design SD
Given: Nominal 16 in. wide x 16 in. deep CMU pilaster; = 2000 psi; Grade 60
bar in each corner, center of cell; Effective height = 24 ft; Dead load of 9.6 kips and
snow load of 9.6 kips act at an eccentricity of 5.8 in. (2 in. inside of face); Factored
wind load of 26 psf (pressure and suction) and uplift of 8.1 kips (e=5.8 in.);
Pilasters spaced at 16 ft on center; Wall is assumed to span horizontally between
pilasters; No ties.
Required: Determine required reinforcing using strength design.
Solution:
e=5.8 in 2.0 in

Em = 1800ksi
n = 16.1

Vertical Spanning
Inside

x
Load
Lateral Load
w = 0.6(26psf)(16ft)=250 lb/ft

d=11.8 in

- 47 -

Example: Pilaster Design SD


0.9D + 1.0W
Pu  0.99.6k   1.0 8.1k   0.54k
At top of pilaster:
M u  Pu e  0.54k 5.8in.  3.1k  in

Find location of h M 288in 3.1kip  in


x     143.7in
maximum moment 2 wh 2 0.416 kft 24 ft 

3.1k  in 0.0347 ink 288in 


2
M wh 2 M2 (3.1k  in) 2
Mu        361.0k  in
2 8 2wh 2 2 8 
2 0.0347 ink 288in 2 
Find axial force at this point. Include weight of pilaster.

Pu  0.54k  0.9 0.20  k


ft
143.7in 1 ft
12in
 2.69k

Design for Pu = 2.7 kips, Mu = 361 k-in

- 48 -
Example: Pilaster Design SD

2Pu d  h / 2   M u 
a  d  d2 
 0.8 f m b 
Determine a
 11.8in  11.8in 2  22.7k 11.8in  15.6in / 2  361k  in  1.50in
0.90.82.0ksi 15.6in 

0.8 f m ba  Pu /  0.82.0ksi 15.62in 1.50in   2.7 k / 0.9


Determine As As    0.57in 2
fy 60ksi

Required steel = 0.57 in2


Use 2-#5 each face, As = 0.62 in2
Total bars, 4-#5, one in each cell

- 49 -

Example: Pilaster Design SD

- 50 -
Example: Pilaster Design

- 51 -

ASD vs SD: Pilaster Design

 Similar behavior to before


• ASD and SD close when allowable tension stress controls
• ASD more conservative when allowable masonry stress
controls
• Less reinforcement required with SD due to small dead load
factor
 SD design easier as steel has generally yielded
 Advantage to SD

- 52 -
Design: Bearing Walls – OOP Loads

Allowable Stress Strength Design (Chapter 9)


(Chapter 8)
• No second-order • Second order analysis required
analysis required • Assumes simple support conditions
• Use previous design • Assumes uniform load
procedure • Assumes midheight moment is
approximately maximum moment
• Valid only for following conditions:
• 0.05 No height limit
• 0.20 height limited by
30
• Need to check maximum
reinforcement limits

- 53 -

Strength Design Procedure


Moment: Deflection:
wu h 2 e 5M u h 2
Mu   Puf u  Pu u u  M u  M cr
8 2 48 Em I n
Pu  Puw  Puf
5M cr h 2 5M u  M cr h 2
u   M u  M cr
Puf = Factored floor load 48 Em I n 48 Em I cr
Puw = Factored wall load

 P t sp  bc 3 As f y  Pu
I cr  n As  u

d  c 
2
c
 f y 2d  3 0.64 f 'm b

Calculated using allowable


Deflection Limit  s  0.007 h
stress load combinations

- 54 -
Strength Design Procedure

Solve simultaneous linear equations:

Mu > Mcr Mu < Mcr

wu h 2 e 5M cr Pu h 2  1 1  wu h 2 e
 Puf u      Puf u
8 2 48 Em  I n I cr 
Mu  Mu  8 2
2
5 Pu h 2 5 Pu h
1 1
48 Em I cr 48 Em I n

5h 2  wu h 2 e I  5h 2  wu h 2 e 
  Puf u  M cr  cr  1   Puf u 
48 Em I cr  8 2  In  48 Em I n  8 2
u  u 
5 Pu h 2
5 Pu h 2
1 1
48 Em I cr 48 Em I n

- 55 -

Example: Wind Loads ASD


D = 500 lb/ft
Given: 8 in. CMU shear wall; Grade 60 steel; Type S Lr = 400 lb/ft
masonry cement mortar; = 2000 psi; roof forces act on W = -360 lb/ft
3 in. wide bearing plate at edge of wall.
2.67 ft

Required: Reinforcement
Solution:
Estimate reinforcement
0.6 0.032 16
~ 0.62
8 8
32 psf
16 ft

Try #4 @ 40 in.
k = 0.185, kd = 0.707 in. Cross-section
of top of wall
Mm = 1.14 k-ft/ft; Ms = 0.57 k-ft/ft
Lightweight units: wall weight = 40 psf
Determine eccentricity
e = 7.625in/2 – 1.0 in.
= 2.81 in.

- 56 -
Example: Wind Loads ASD

Check 0.6D+0.6W
Find force at top of wall   
Pf  0.6 0.5 kft  0.6  0.36 kft  0.084 kft 
P  0.084 kft  0.60.040ksf 2.67 ft  8 ft   0.340k / ft
Find force at
midheight

Find moment
M top 0.084 k
2.81in. 1 ft
 0.60.032ksf  2.67 ft 
2
 0.049 k ftft
at top of wall ft 12 in
2
wh 2 M top 0.60.032ksf 16 ft   0.049 ft
1k  ft
Find moment 2

at midheight M     0.590 k ftft


8 2 8 2

Load Comb. Pf (kip/ft) P (kip/ft) Mtop (k-ft/ft) M (k-ft/ft) As (in2)


0.6D+0.6W 0.084 0.340 -0.049 0.590 0.051
D+0.6W 0.284 0.711 -0.002 0.613 0.042

Use #4@ 40 in. (0.06 in2/ft)


Although close to #4@48, a wider spacing also reduces wall weight (As = 0.052in2/ft)
- 57 -

Example: Wind Loads ASD

Sample Calculations: 0.6D+0.6W


1. kbal = 0.312; kdbal = 1.19in. d d 
2
2M 
kd  3     
2. Assume masonry controls. 2  2  3Fbb 
 
Determine kd.
Since 0.355 in. < 1.18 in.  3.81in.
 3
 3.81in. 
 
2
    0.355in.
2 0.590 k ftft 12ftin.
 
tension controls.  2
  2  30.900ksi  12 inft   
3. Iterate to find As.

Equation / Value Iteration 1 Iteration 2


kd (in.) 0.355 0.707
M   Pt sp / 2  kd / 3 (k-ft/ft) 0.1047 0.1013
M M
As  (in2/ft) 0.049 0.051
Fs d 1  k / 3

 
P  As Fs n
Fs b
(in.) 0.0804

kd 2   2  2d   (in.) 0.707

- 58 -
Example: Wind Loads SD
D = 500 lb/ft
Given: 8 in. CMU wall; Grade 60 steel; Type S masonry Lr = 400 lb/ft
cement mortar; = 2000 psi ; roof forces act on 3 in. W = -360 lb/ft
wide bearing plate at edge of wall.

2.67 ft
Required: Reinforcement
Solution:
Estimate reinforcement
0.032 16
~ 1.02
8 8

32 psf
16 ft
a = 0.19 in.
As = 0.061 in2/ft Cross-section
of top of wall
Try #4 @ 40 in.
Determine eccentricity
e = 7.625in/2 – 1.0 in.
= 2.81 in.

- 59 -

Example: Wind Loads SD


Summary of Strength Design Load Combination Axial Forces
(wall weight is 40 psf for 40 in. grout spacing)

Puf Puw Pu
Load Combination
(kip/ft) (kip/ft) (kip/ft)
0.9(0.5)+1.0(-0.36) = 0.9(0.040)(2.67+8) =
0.9D+1.0W 0.474
0.090 0.384
1.2(0.5)+1.0(-0.36) 1.2(0.040)(2.67+8) =
1.2D+1.0W+0.5Lr 0.952
+0.5(0.4) = 0.440 0.512

Puf = Factored floor load; just eccentrically applied load


Puw = Factored wall load; includes wall and parapet weight, found at
midheight of wall between supports (8 ft from bottom)

- 60 -
Example: Wind Loads SD

Find modulus of rupture; use linear interpolation between no grout and full grout
Ungrouted (Type S masonry cement): 51 psi
Fully grouted (Type S masonry cement): 153 psi
 4 ungrouted cells   1 grouted cell 
f r  51 psi   153 psi    71 psi
 5 cells   5 cells 

Find Mcr, cracking moment:


Commentary allows inclusion of axial load
Use minimum axial load (once wall has cracked, it has cracked)

M cr
P / A  f r I n
 u n 
474 / 42.8  71 psi 336.7 
lb
ft
in 2
ft
in 4
ft

t/2 3.81in
M cr  7.28 ft  0.606 kipft ft
kip in

Wall properties determined from NCMA TEK 14-1B Section


Properties of Concrete Masonry Walls

- 61 -

Example: Wind Loads SD

As f y  Pu 0.06 inft 60ksi   0.474 kft


2

Find c c   0.265in
0.64 f 'm b 0.642.0ksi  12ftin

Es 29000ksi
Find n n   16.1
Em 1800ksi

 Pu t sp  bc 3
Find Icr 
I cr  n As 

d  c  
2

 f y 2d  3
  12 in 0.265in 
3
0.474 kft
 16.1 0.06 inft  3.812in  0.265in 2  ft
2

 60ksi  3
 13.8 inft
4

- 62 -
Example: Wind Loads SD
Pufeu is the moment at the top support of the wall, Mu,top. It includes eccentric axial load and
wind load from parapet.

2.81in  121ftin  0.032ksf 2.67 ft  k  ft


2 2
wu , parapet h parapet
M u ,top  Puf eu   0.090 k
ft  0.093
2 2 ft

Find Mu.

wu h 2 e 5M cr Pu h 2  1 1 
 Puf u    
8 2 48 Em  I n I cr 
Mu 
5 Pu h 2
1
48 Em I cr
0.032ksf 16 ft   0.093
2

k  ft
ft

  
5 0.606 k ftft 0.474 kft 16 ft   1
2
 
1  144in 2 
 
8 2 481800ksi   in 4 in 4  1 ft 2 
  337 ft 13.8 ft   1.009 k ftft
 
5 0.474 kft 16 ft   144in 2 
2

1 4  
 
481800ksi  13.8 inft  1 ft 2 

- 63 -

Example: Wind Loads SD


Check area of steel:

As f y  Pu /  0.06 inft 60ksi   0.474 kft / 0.9


2

Find a a   0.215in
0.80 f m b 0.802.0ksi  12 inft  
M n   Pu /   As f y  d  
 a
Find
 2

 

 0.9 0.474 kft / 0.9  0.06 inft 60ksi   3.812in 
2 0.215in 

 2 
 13.76 kipftin  1.147 kipft ft

Compare M u  1.01 k ftft  1.15 k ftft  M n OK

Check other load combinations:


1.2D+1.0W+0.5Lr, Mu = 1.09 k-ft/ft and Mn = 1.29 k-ft/ft
OK
- 64 -
Example: Wind Loads SD

Check Deflections: Use ASD Load Combinations

Load Combination D+0.6W 0.6D+0.6W


Pf (k/ft) 0.5+0.6(-0.36) = 0.284 0.6(0.5)+0.6(-0.36) = 0.084
Pw (k/ft) 40(2.67+8) = 0.427 0.6(0.427) = 0.256
P (k/ft) 0.711 0.340
c (in) 0.280 0.256
Icr (in4/ft) 14.5 13.4
Mtop (k-ft/ft) -0.002 -0.049
δ (in) 0.066 0.044
M (k-ft/ft) 0.617 (cracked) 0.565 (uncracked)

Deflection Limit  s  0.007 h  0.007(192in)  1.34in OK

- 65 -

Example: Wind Loads SD

Deflections, Sample Calculations (D+0.6W):


Replace factored loads with service loads

5h 2  wh 2 e I 
  Pf  M cr  cr  1
48 Em I cr  8 2  In 
 2
5 Ph
1
48 Em I cr
516 ft   0.6 0.032ksf 16 ft 2  0.002 k ftft  14.5 inft  1728in 3
4
2
k  ft  
   0.606 ft 4 1 

481800ksi  14.5 inft
4
  8 2  336.7 in
 ft
 1 ft 3


1
 k

5 0.711 ft 16 ft  144in
2 2

 
481800ksi  14.5 inft 1 ft 2
4

 0.066in.

Check that M > Mcr; M = 0.617 k-ft/ft > 0.606 k-ft/ft = Mcr

- 66 -
Example: Wind Loads SD

Check Maximum Reinforcement:


• neutral axis is in face shell
• Pu is just dead load = 0.5+0.04(2.67+8) = 0.927k/ft

  mu  Pu
0.64 f m  
     bd
 max
A
 s   mu y 

bd fy
  0.927 kft
0.642.0ksi 
0.0025
  in
 0.0025  1.50.00207   12 ft 3.81in 
 0.00918
60ksi

ft 2
A 0.06 ft OK
  s  in  0.00131
bd 12 ft 3.81in 

- 67 -

ASD vs SD: Bearing Walls

 ASD and SD require approximately the same amount of


reinforcement for reasonably lightly loaded walls
 SD requires a second-order analysis and a check of
deflections
 Advantage to ASD
• Interestingly OOP loading is where designers often use SD

- 68 -
Shear Walls: Shear

Allowable Stress (Chapter 8) Strength Design (Chapter 9)


Fv  Fvm  Fvs  g Vn  Vnm  Vns  g   0.8
1   M   P = 0.75 partially grouted shear walls;
Fvm   4.0  1.75   f m   0.25
2   1.0 otherwise
 Vd v   An
  M 
Vnm  4.0  1.75 u  Anv f m  0.25Pu
1   M   P   Vu d v 
Fvm   4.0  1.75   f m   0.25

4  
 Vd v
  An
A 
Special Reinforced Shear Walls Vns  0.5 v  f y d v
 s 
AFd
Fvs  0.5 v s  
Vn  6 Anv 
f m  g M u / Vu d v   0.25
 An s 
 4 A f  
 
Fv  3 f m  g M / Vdv   0.25
Vn nv m g M u / Vu d v   1.0

F  2 f  
4 M  
v m g M / Vd v   1.0 Vn    5  2 u  Anv f m  g 0.25 
Mu
Vu d v
 1.0
3 Vu d v  
Interpolate for 0.25 < (M/Vdv) < 1

- 69 -

Shear Walls: Maximum Reinforcement


Allowable Stress (Chapter 8) Strength Design (Chapter 9)
• Provide boundary elements, or
Special reinforced shear walls having
• Limit reinforcement
• M/(Vd) ≥ 1 and
• P > 0.05f′mAn Boundary elements not required if:
Pu  0.1 f m A g symmetrical sections
nf m
 max  Pu  0.05 f m A g unsymmetrical sections
 f 
2 f y  n  y  AND
 f m 
Mu Mu
 1 OR Vu  3 An f m 3
Vu lw Vu lw
Reinforcement limits:
• Maximum stress in steel of αfy
 = 1.5 ordinary walls; all others
• Axial forces D+0.75L+0.525QE
 = 3 intermediate walls with Mu/(Vudv)≥1
 = 4 special walls with Mu/(Vudv)≥1
• Compression reinforcement, with or
without lateral ties, permitted to be
included
- 70 -
Shear Walls: Shear Capacity Design
Special Reinforced Shear Walls
Allowable Stress (7.3.2.6.1.2) Strength Design (7.3.2.6.1.2)

• Seismic design load required • Design shear strength, Vn,


to be increased by 1.5 for greater than shear
shear corresponding to 1.25 times
• Masonry shear stress nominal flexural strength, Mn
reduced for special walls (increases shear at least
1.39 times)
• Except Vn need not be
greater than 2.5Vu. (doubles
shear)

- 71 -

Example: Shear Wall ASD


Given: 10 ft high x 16 ft long 8 in. CMU shear wall; Grade 60 steel, Type
S mortar; = 2000 psi; superimposed dead load of 1 kip/ft. In-plane
seismic load (from ASCE 7-10) of 100 kips. SDS = 0.4
Required: Design the shear wall; ordinary reinforced shear wall
Solution: Check using 0.6D+0.7E load combination.
• Try #6 in each of last 3 cells; #6 @40in.

Weight of wall: [40 psf(12ft)+2(2ft)75psf]10ft = 7800lb


Lightweight units, grout at 40 in. o.c. 40 psf; full grout 75 psf

P = (0.6-0.7(0.2)(SDS))D = (0.6-0.7(0.2)(0.4))(1k/ft(16ft)+7.8k) = 12.9 kips

From interaction diagram OK; stressed to 90% of capacity

- 72 -
Example: Shear Wall ASD

- 73 -

Example: Shear Wall ASD

Anv  2.5in192in   9(8in)(7.62in  2.5in)  849in 2


Calculate net area, Anv,
including grouted cells.

Shear ratio M / Vd v   Vh  / Vd v   120in / 192in  0.625

2 M  
 f m  g   5  20.625 2000 psi 0.75  83.8 psi
2
Maximum Fv Fv    5  2 
3 Vd v   3 

V 0.7100000lb 
Shear stress fv    82.4 psi OK
Anv 849in 2

- 74 -
Example: Shear Wall ASD
Top of wall P = (0.6-0.7(0.2SDS))D = 0.544(1k/ft)(16ft) = 8.70 kips
(critical location for shear):
1   M   P
Fvm   4.0  1.75   f m   0.25
2  
Determine Fvm  Vd v    An

2

 4.0  1.750.625 2000 psi  0.25
1
 8700lb
849in 2
 67.5 psi

Required steel stress Fvs  f v /  g  Fvm  82.4 psi / 0.75  67.5 psi  42.4 psi

AFd
Use #5 bars in bond beams. Fvs  0.5 v s  
Determine spacing.  An s 
0.5 Av Fs d 0.50.31in 32000 psi 188in 
s   25.9in
f vs An 
42.4 psi 849in 2 
s ≤ min{d/2, 48 in.} = min{94 in., 48 in.} = 48 in.
Code 8.3.5.2.1
Use #5 at 24 in. o.c.

- 75 -

Example: Shear Wall ASD


Given: 10 ft high x 16 ft long 8 in. CMU shear wall; Grade 60 steel, Type
S mortar; = 2000 psi; superimposed dead load of 1 kip/ft. In-plane
seismic load (from ASCE 7-10) of 100 kips. SDS = 0.4
Required: Design the shear wall; special reinforced shear wall
Solution: Check using 0.6D+0.7E load combination.
• Design for 1.5V, or 1.5(70 kips) = 105 kips (Section 7.3.2.6.1.2)
• fv = (105 kips)/(849in2) = 123.7 psi
• But, maximum Fv is 83.8 psi
• Fully grout wall

- 76 -
Example: Shear Wall ASD

Calculate net area, Anv,


Anv  7.625in.192in.  1464in 2
including grouted cells.

V 1.50.7100000lb 
Shear stress fv    71.7 psi
Anv 1464in 2

Determine Fvm
Fvm 
1
4
 
4.0  1.750.625 2000 psi  0.25 8700lb2  34.0 psi
1464in
(special wall)

Required steel stress f vs  f v  Fvm  71.7  34.0 psi  37.7 psi

Use #5 bars in bond beams. 0.5 Av Fs d 0.50.31in 32000 psi 188in 


s   16.6in
Determine spacing.
Fvs An 
37.7 psi 1494in 2 

Use #5 @ 16 in.

- 77 -

Example: Shear Wall ASD


Section 8.3.3.4 Maximum Reinforcement
No need to check maximum reinforcement since only need to check if:
• M/(Vdv) ≥ 1 and M/(Vdv) = 0.625
• P > 0.05f′mAn 0.05(2000psi)(1464in2) = 146 kips; P = 12.2 kips

If we needed to check maximum reinforcing, do as follows.


nf m 16.12000 psi 
 max    0.00582
 fy   60000 psi 
2 f y  n   260000 psi 16.1  
 f m   2000 psi 

For distributed reinforcement, the reinforcement ratio is obtained as the


total area of tension reinforcement divided by bd. Assume 6 bars in tension.


As


6 0.44in 2 
 0.00184 OK
bd 7.625in.188in.

- 78 -
Example: Shear Wall ASD

• Prescriptive Reinforcement Requirements (7.3.2.6)


• 0.0007 in each direction
• 0.002 total

• Vertical: 9(0.44in2)/1464in2 = 0.00270


• Horizontal: 7(0.31in2)/[120in(7.625in)] = 0.00237
• Total = 0.00270 + 0.00237 = 0.00507 OK

- 79 -

Example: Shear Walls SD


Given: 10 ft high x 16 ft long 8 in. CMU shear wall; Grade 60 steel, Type
S mortar; = 2000 psi; superimposed dead load of 1 kip/ft. In-plane
seismic load (from ASCE 7-10) of 100 kips. SDS = 0.4
Required: Design the shear wall; ordinary reinforced shear wall
Solution: Check using 0.9D+1.0E load combination.
• Try 2-#5 at end and #5 @ 40 in.

Weight of wall: 40 psf(10ft)(16ft) = 6400 lb


Lightweight units, grout at 40 in. o.c. 40 psf

Pu = [0.9 - 0.2(SDS)]D = [0.9 - 0.2(0.4)](1k/ft(16ft)+6.4k) = 18.4 kips

From interaction diagram OK; stressed to 97% of capacity

- 80 -
Example: Shear Walls SD

- 81 -

Example: Shear Walls SD

Calculate net area, Anv,


Anv  2.5in192in   7(8in)(7.62in  2.5in)  767in 2
including grouted cells.

4  Mu  
Vn     5  2  Anv f m  g 
3  Vu d v   OK
Maximum Vn
4

0.8 5  20.625 767in 2  
2000 psi  0.75  102.9kips
3 

- 82 -
Example: Shear Walls SD
Top of wall Pu = (0.9-0.2SDS)D = 0.82(1k/ft)(16ft) = 13.1 kips
(critical location for shear):

  Mu  
Determine Vnm Vnm    4.0  1.75   Anv f m  0.25Pu 

  Vu d v   

 0.8 4.0  1.750.625 767in 2  1kip
2000 psi 1000  
lb  0.25 13.1k  82.4kips

Vu Vnm 100k 82.4k


Required steel strength Vns      63.7 k
 g  0.80.75 0.8

A 
Vns  0.5 v  f y d v 
Use #5 bars in bond beams.  s 
Determine spacing. 0.5 Av f y d v 0.50.31in 60ksi 192in 
s   28.0in
Vns 63.7k
s ≤ min{d/2, 48 in.} = min{94 in., 48 in.} = 48 in. Code 8.3.5.2.1
In strength design, this provision only applies to beams (9.3.4.2.3 (e)) Use
Suggest that minimum spacing also be applied to shear walls. #5 at 24 in. o.c.
- 83 -

Example: Shear Walls SD

Shear reinforcement requirements (9.3.3.3.2)

• Except at wall intersections, the end of a horizontal reinforcing bar needed to


satisfy shear strength requirements shall be bent around the edge vertical
reinforcing bar with a 180-degree hook.

• At wall intersections, horizontal reinforcing bars needed to satisfy shear


strength requirements shall be bent around the edge vertical reinforcing bar
with a 90-degree standard hook and shall extend horizontally into the
intersecting wall a minimum distance at least equal to the development length.

- 84 -
Example: Shear Walls SD
Given: 10 ft high x 16 ft long 8 in. CMU shear wall; Grade 60 steel, Type
S mortar; = 2000 psi; superimposed dead load of 1 kip/ft. In-plane
seismic load (from ASCE 7-10) of 100 kips. SDS = 0.4
Required: Design the shear wall; special reinforced shear wall
Solution: Check using 0.9D+1.0E load combination.
• Shear capacity design provisions (Section 7.3.2.6.1.1)
• Vn ≥ shear corresponding to 1.25Mn.
• Minimum increase is 1.25/0.9 = 1.39
• Vn need not exceed 2.5Vu
• Normal design Vn ≥ Vu/ = Vu/0.8 = 1.25Vu
• Increases shear by a factor of 2 Anv  7.625in.192in.

• Fully grout wall (Max Vn was 103 kips)  1464in 2

- 85 -

Example: Shear Walls SD

• Previously, Mn = 1028 k-ft; Mn = 1142 k-ft (Pu = 18.4k)


• 1.25Mn = 1428 k-ft; Design for 143 kips
• But wait, wall is fully grouted. Wall weight has increased to 75 psf
• For Pu = 23.0k, fully grouted, Mn = 1178 k-ft, 1.25Mn = 1474 k-ft
• Design for 147 kips
• But wait, need to check load combination of 1.2D + 1.0E
• Pu = [1.2 + 0.2(SDS)]D = 35.8 kips, 1.25Mn = 1601 k-ft
• Design for 160 kips
• Bottom line: any change in wall will change Mn, which will change
design requirement; also need to consider all load combinations
• Often easier to just use Vn = 2.5Vu.
- 86 -
Example: Shear Walls SD

  Mu  
Determine Vnm Vnm    4.0  1.75   Anv f m  0.25Pu 

  Vu d v   
 
 0.8 4.0  1.750.625 1464in 2  1kip
2000 psi 1000  
lb  0.25 13.1k  154.8kips

Vu  Vnm 160.1k  154.8k


Required steel strength Vns    6.6k Using shear
 0.8 from 1.25Mn

A 
Vns  0.5 v  f y d v 
Use #5 bars in bond beams.  s 
Determine spacing. 0.5 Av f y d v 0.50.31in 60ksi 192in 
s   269in
Vns 6.6k

7.3.2.6 (b) Maximum spacing of reinforcing of 1/3 length, 1/3 height, or 48 in.
Use maximum spacing of 1/3(height) = 40 in.

Use #5 at 40 in. o.c.

- 87 -

Example: Shear Walls SD

Using shear from Vn = 2.5Vu Vn  2.5Vu  2.5100k   250k

154.8k
Required steel strength Vns  Vn  Vnm  250k   56.4k
0.8

Use #5 bars in bond beams. 0.5 Av f y d v 0.50.31in 60ksi 192in 


Determine spacing.
s   31.6in
Vns 56.4k

Use #5 at 32 in. o.c.

(Bars at 28, 60, 92 and 116 in. from bottom; top spacing is 24 in.)

- 88 -
Example: Shear Walls SD

• Prescriptive Reinforcement Requirements (7.3.2.6)


• 0.0007 in each direction
• 0.002 total

• Vertical: 7(0.31in2)/1464in2 = 0.00148


• Horizontal: 3(0.31in2)/[120in(7.625in)] = 0.00102
• Total = 0.00148 + 0.00102 = 0.00250 OK

- 89 -

Example: Shear Walls SD


Section 9.3.3.5 Maximum Reinforcement
Since Mu/(Vudv) < 1, strain gradient is based on 1.5εy.

Strain c/d, CMU c/d, Clay


1.5εy 0.446 0.530
3εy 0.287 0.360
4εy 0.232 0.297
c = 0.446(188in.) = 83.8 in.

• Calculate axial force based on c = 83.8 in.


• Include compression reinforcement
• Pn = 726 kips
• Assume a live load of 1 k/ft
• D + 0.75L + 0.525QE = (1k/ft + 0.75(1k/ft))16ft = 28 kips OK

- 90 -
Example: Shear Walls SD
• Section 9.3.6.5: Maximum reinforcement provisions of 9.3.3.5 do not
apply if designed by this section (boundary elements)
• Special boundary elements not required if:
Pu  0.1 f m A g geometrically symmetrical sections
Pu  0.05 f m A g geometrically unsymmetrical sections
AND
Mu Mu
1 OR Vu  3 An f m AND 3
Vu d v Vu d v

For our wall, Mu/Vudv < 1 OK


Pu < 0.1fʹmAg = 0.1(2.0ksi)(1464in2) = 293 kips

- 91 -

Comparison of SD and ASD

- 92 -
ASD vs SD: Shear Walls

 SD provides significant savings in overturning steel


• Most, if not all, steel in SD is stressed to fy. Stress in steel in
ASD varies linearly
 SD generally requires about same shear steel for ordinary
walls; some savings for special walls
 Advantage to SD
• But, maximum reinforcement requirements can sometimes be
hard to meet; designers then switch to ASD, which requires
more steel. This makes no sense.
• SD requires 180° hooks. Some think hard to construct, but not
really. Some designers avoid SD solely for this reason.
- 93 -

ASD vs SD: Final Outcome

Allowable Strength
Stress Design
Design

- 94 -

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