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Analog Electronics Circuits

Chapter 1: Diode circuits

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• Objective
• To understand the diode operation and its equivalent circuits
• To understand various parameters of diodes

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• Load line analysis
• Diode applications in rectifiers; HWR,FWR
• Diode testing
• Zener diode
• Diode data sheets and specifications
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• Diode applications in clipper circuits
• Numerical

Semiconductor diode
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Fig – a semiconductor diode symbol

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Basic operation

Fig – b Vi characteristics of a diode

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n-type versus p-type
• n-type materials make the Silicon (or Germanium) atoms more negative.
• p-type materials make the Silicon (or Germanium) atoms more positive.

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• Join n-type and p-type doped Silicon (or Germanium) to form a p-n junction.

p-n junction

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• When the materials are joined, the negatively charged atoms of the n-type doped side
are attracted to the positively charged atoms of the p-type doped side.
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• The electrons in the n-type material migrate across the junction to the p-type material
(electron flow).
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• the ‘holes’ in the p-type material migrate across the junction to the n-type material
(conventional current flow).
• The result is the formation of a depletion layer around the junction.
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Depletion region

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Operating conditions
• No Bias
• Forward Bias
• Reverse Bias
No bias condition
• No external voltage is applied: VD = 0V and no current is flowing ID = 0A.

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Only a modest depletion layer exists
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Reverse bias condition
External voltage is applied across the p-n junction in the opposite polarity of the p- and n-
type materials.
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• This causes the depletion layer to widen.


• The electrons in the n-type material are attracted towards the positive terminal and the
‘holes’ in the p-type material are attracted towards the negative terminal.

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Avalanche breakdown

Avalanche breakdown occurs when a high reverse voltage is applied to a diode and large
electric field is created across the depletion region. The effect is dependant on the doping
levels in the region of the depletion layer. Minority carriers in the depletion region
associated with small leakage currents are accelerated by the field to high enough energies
so that they ionise silicon atoms when they collide with them. A new hole-electron pair are

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created which accelerate in opposite directions causing further collisions and ionisation and
avalanche breakdown

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Zener breakdown

Breakdown occurs with heavily doped junction regions (ie. highly doped regions are better

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conductors). If a reverse voltage is applied and the depletion region is too narrow for
avalanche breakdown (minority carriers cannot reach high enough energies over the distance
traveled ) the electric field will grow. However, electrons are pulled directly from the
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valence band on the P side to the conduction band on the N side. This type of breakdown is
not destructive if the reverse current is limited.
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Forward Bias Condition


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• External voltage is applied across the p-n junction in the same polarity of the p- and n-
type materials.
• The depletion layer is narrow.
• The electrons from the n-type material and ‘holes’ from the p-type material have
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sufficient energy to cross the junction.

• Actual v-i characteristics is as shown in fig below

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Diode current expression:
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ID = Is( eVD / VT-1)
• Is : Reverse saturation current
• q : Charge of an electron
• k : Boltzman constant 11600/η
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• T : Environment temperature in °K
[ °K = °C + 273 ]
• η =2 for silicon , η=1 for Germanium
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Majority and Minority Carriers in Diode


A diode, as any semiconductor device is not perfect!
There are two sets of currents:
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• Majority Carriers
The electrons in the n-type and ‘holes’ in the p-type material are the source of the
majority of the current flow in a diode.
• Minority Carriers
Electrons in the p-type and ‘holes’ in the n-type material are rebel currents. They produce
a small amount of opposing current.
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Zener Region

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Zener region
Zener diode operation:

• The diode is in the reverse bias condition.

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• At some point the reverse bias voltage is so large the diode breaks down.
• The reverse current increases dramatically.
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• This maximum voltage is called avalanche breakdown voltage and the current is
called avalanche current.
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Forward Bias Voltage

• No Bias condition to Forward Bias condition happens when the electron and ‘holes’
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are given sufficient energy to cross the p-n junction.


• This energy comes from the external voltage applied across the diode.
The Forward bias voltage required for a

• Silicon diode VT ≅ 0.7V


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• Germanium diode VT ≅ 0.3V

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Temperature Effects on performance of diode

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• As temperature increases it adds energy to the diode.
• It reduces the required Forward bias voltage in Forward Bias condition
It increases the amount of Reverse current in Reverse Bias condition
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• It increases maximum Reverse Bias Avalanche Voltage
• Germanium diodes are more sensitive to temperature variations than Silicon Diodes.
Resistance Levels
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• Semiconductors act differently to DC and AC currents.


There are 3 types of resistances.
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• DC or Static Resistance
• AC or Dynamic Resistance
• Average AC Resistance
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DC or Static Resistance

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RD=VD / ID

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DC or static resistance

• For a specific applied DC voltage VD, the diode will have a specific current ID,
and a specific resistance RD.

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• The amount of resistance RD, depends on the applied DC voltage.
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AC or Dynamic Resistance
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Forward Bias region:

• The resistance depends on the amount of current (ID) in the diode.


Rd=∆vd/ ∆Id

• The resistance depends on the amount of current (ID) in the diode.


• The voltage across the diode is fairly constant (VT = 26mV for 25°C).

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• Reverse Bias region:
Rd=∞
The resistance is essentially infinite. The diode acts like an open.

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Average AC Resistance

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Rac=∆Vd/∆Id Point to point

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Diode equivalent circuits

• An equivalent circuit is a combination of elements properly chosen to best represent


the actual terminal characteristics of a device, system or such a particular operating
region.
• Then device symbol can be replaced with the equivalent circuit which makes the
analysis of the circuit easy and straight forward.

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Piece wise linear equivalent circuit

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One technique for obtaining equivalent circuit is to approximate the characteristics of the
device by straight line segments
• Rd defines the resistance level of the device when it is in the ON state.
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• Ideal diode is included to establish that there is only one direction of conduction
through the device.
• Since silicon semiconductor diode does not conduct until VD of 0.7V is reached, a
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battery opposing the conduction direction is included.

Simplified equivalent circuit


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• In most of the applications, resistance rav is very small in comparison to the other
elements of the network.
• Removal of this rav from the network makes a simplified equivalent circuit.
• And an ideal diode will start conduction for zero applied voltage.

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Transition and diffusion capacitance

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• The figure shows the capacitance v/s applied voltage across the diode.
• Shunt capacitive effects that can be ignored at very lower frequencies since Xc=1/2πfc
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is very large (open circuit)
• However this can not be neglected in very high frequencies since it introduces a low
reactance (shorting) path.
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• Two types of capacitive effects to be considered in FB and RB condition.
• In RB region transition or depletion region capacitance CT in FB diffusion
capacitance CD or storage capacitance.
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• W.k.t C=εA/d.
• ε is the permittivity of dielectric between tow plates of area A separated by distance d.
• In RB, depletion region which is free of carriers that behaves essentially like an
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insulator between the layers of opposite charges. This depletion region width increase
with increase in RB potential.
• Since d is increasing, capacitance effect is more in FB.

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Diode characteristics

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Diode characteristics

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Reverse recovery time

• Denoted by trr.
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• In FB condition, large number of electrons from n-type progressing through p-type


and large number of holes in p-type is a requirement for conduction. The electrons in
p-type and holes progressing through n-type establish a large number of minority
carriers in each material.
• Now if the diode is changed from FB to RB

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• The diode will not instantaneously react to this sudden change. Because of the large
number of minority carriers in each material, the current sustains in diode for a time ts
storage time which is required for minority carriers to return to their majority carrier
state in the opposite material.
• Eventually current will reduce to non conduction levels.
• This time is tt transition interval
• Hence trr= ts + tt

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• This is very important consideration in high frequency operation.
• Commercially available diodes have reverse recovery time of few nano seconds to

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1micro second.

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Load line Analysis

• The applied load will normally have an important impact on region of operation of
device.
• If analysis is done in graphical approach, a line can be drawn on the characteristics of
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the device that represents applied load.


• The intersection of load line with the characteristics will determine the point of
operation.
• Such an analysis is called as load-line analysis.
• The intersection point is called ‘Q’ point or operating point.

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• Its very simple as compared to the non-linear analysis of diode which involves heavy
maths……

iR

iD

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By KVL : VSS  Ri D  v D

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By KCL : i R  i D

Both KVL and KCL must be satisfied at all times


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i-v curves plotted for diode (energised by Vss)
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i-v curves plotted for resistor

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VSS
When v D  0; i R 
R

VSS  vD
iD 
R

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When v D  VSS ; i R  0

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We can combine these curves on one plot to do a load line analysis

Load line analysis


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By KVL : VSS  Ri D  v D
By KCL : i R  i D
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Example on load line analysis

iR Assume : VSS  3V
and R  150.
iD
When v D  0 :

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VSS
i R  iD   20mA
R
When v D  VSS :

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i R  iD  0

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iD = VSS/R = 20mA

iD = 12.5mA
vD = 1.25V
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Operating Point:
KVL and KCL
satisfied
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iD = 0
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Diode approximations

 In the approximate model of diode, the rav is not used since the value of this rav is
much less than other series elements of the network.
 This model results in less expenditure of time and effort to obtain results.
 Unless otherwise mentioned this approximate model is used hereforth…

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Series diode configuration with DC inputs

• When connected to voltage sources in series, the diode is on if the applied voltage is

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in the direction of forward-bias and it is greater than the VT of the diode
• When a diode is on, we can use the approximate model for the on state

Series diode configuration

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Here, VD = VT, VR = E - VT
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ID = IR = VR / R
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Here, VD = E, VR = 0, ID = 0
Keep in mind that KVL has to be satisfied under all
conditions

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Parallel diode configuration

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Determine I1 , VD1 , VD2 and V0 for the parallel diode circuit in below figure
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Solution

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Examples
1. Find diode current and output voltage

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Solution:

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2. Solve for I , v1,v2 and vo
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3.Determine unknown parameters

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4.Determine unknown parameters

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5.Determine unknown parameters


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Rectifiers :

Half wave rectification

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For the half-wave rectified signal:

Vdc = 0.318 Vm
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If the effect of VT is also


considered, the output of the
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system will as below


Vdc = 0.318 (Vm- VT)
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Effect of VT on half-wave rectified signal

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PIV rating of Half-wave Rectifiers
PIV rating is very important consideration for rectifier circuits

 PIV ≥ Vm
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For the half-wave rectifier must be equal or must not exceed the peak value of the applied voltage
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This is the voltage rating that must not be exceeded in the reverse bias region

When vin is negative.


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Non Ideal Waveform

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Half-wave Rectifier

• The total effect of diode on the output signal is given in below

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Average voltage VAV


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• The average d.c. value of this half-wave-rectified sine wave is

1  

2  0
VAV   VM sin d   0 


VM
cos   cos 0  VM
2 

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Full-wave Rectifiers Bridge

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Working :
• For the positive half of the AC cycle:

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• Diode D1 and D2 gets forward biased and conducts.
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Working :
• For the negative half of the AC cycle
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• Diode D3 and D4 gets forward biased and conducts during this half cycle.

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Details of working of FWR

• We initially consider the diodes to be ideal, such that VC =0 and Rf =0

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• The four-diode bridge can be bought as a package During positive half cycles vi is
positive.
• Current is conducted through diodes D1, resistor R and diode D2

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• Meanwhile diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased
• During negative half cycles vi is negative.
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• Current is conducted through diodes D3, resistor R and diode D4
• Meanwhile diodes D1 and D2 are reverse biased.
• Current always flows the same way through the load R.
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• the average d.c. value of this full-wave-rectified sine wave is VAV = 2VM/ (i.e. twice
the half-wave value)
• Two diodes are in the conduction path.
• Thus in the case of non-ideal diodes vo will be lower than vi by 2VC.
• As for the half-wave rectifier a reservoir capacitor can be used. In the full wave case
the discharge time is T/2 and

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VMT
ΔV 
2RC

Centre - tap FWR

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• Two diodes and a center-tapped transformer are required.
• VDC = 0.636(Vm)
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• Note that Vm here is the transformer secondary voltage to the tap.

Operation
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For the positive half of the AC cycle:
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For the negative half of the AC cycle:

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Summary

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Note: Vm = peak of the AC voltage.
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Application of diode as Clippers

• Clippers have ability to “clip/remove” off a portion of the input signal without
distorting the remaining part of the alternating waveform.
• HWR is simplest form of clippers. The orientation of diode is going to decide the part
of sinusoidal waveform to be clipped off.

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Clipper configuration

Depending on the way in which the diodes are connected with the input, the clipper are
classified in to two major categories, viz.,

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• Series configuration
• Parallel configuration

1. Series clipper example 1

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2. Series Clipper example 2


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3. Series clipper ex – 3 & 4

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4. Series clipper Ex - 5 & 6

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Various clipepr examples along with transfer characteristics

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Biased parallel clippers
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Diode testing :

1. Diode testing using multi-meter

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One problem with using an ohmmeter to check a diode is that the readings obtained
only have qualitative value, not quantitative. In other words, an ohmmeter only tells you
which way the diode conducts; the low-value resistance indication obtained while
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conducting is useless. If an ohmmeter shows a value of “1.73 ohms” while forward-biasing a
diode, that figure of 1.73 Ω doesn't represent any real-world quantity useful to us as
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technicians or circuit designers.
It neither represents the forward voltage drop nor any “bulk” resistance in the
semiconductor material of the diode itself, but rather is a figure dependent upon both
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quantities and will vary substantially with the particular ohmmeter used to take the reading.
For this reason, some digital multimeter manufacturers equip their meters with a special
“diode check” function which displays the actual forward voltage drop of the diode in volts,
rather than a “resistance” figure in ohms. These meters work by forcing a small current
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through the diode and measuring the voltage dropped between the two test leads. (Figure
below)

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Meter with a “Diode check” function displays the forward voltage drop of 0.548 volts instead of a low resistance.

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The forward voltage reading obtained with such a meter will typically be less than the
“normal” drop of 0.7 volts for silicon and 0.3 volts for germanium, because the current
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provided by the meter is of trivial proportions. If a multimeter with diode-check function
isn't available, or you would like to measure a diode's forward voltage drop at some non-
trivial current, the circuit of Figure below may be constructed using a battery, resistor, and
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voltmeter
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Measuring forward voltage of a diode without“diode check” meter function:


(a) Schematic diagram. (b) Pictorial diagram

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2. Curve tracers

 A curve tracer can display the characteristics of a host device.


 Device could be diode or transistor or other semiconductor device.
 Curve tracer by tektronix and other companies available
 Easy to use and testing with less effort and time.

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Diode specifications

• Data sheets provide data on specific semiconductor device.

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• Manufacturers provide these information
• Usually given in easy readable formats like graphs, artwork, tables and so on.,
• These specifications are required for proper utilization of devices for specific
applications
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Important data to be considered are

 The forward voltage VF (at specific T)


 Maximum forward current IF

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Maximum reverse saturation current IR
 The reverse voltage rating (PIV)
 Maximum power dissipation
 Capacitance levels
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 Reverse recovery time trr


 Operating temperature range
Depending on type of diode being used, additional data such as
 Frequency
 Noise level

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Switching time
 Thermal resistance
Peak repetitive values are also provided

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For IN4001 and 4007

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Maximum ratings are those values beyond which device damage can occur.
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Zener diodes

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• By proper doping of the silicon, the “Zener Breakdown” can be made to have a very
“sharp breakdown”.
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• The breakdown voltage is commonly labeled as VZ.

Characteristics of Zener diode


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• Equivalent circuit consist of a constant voltage supply of VZ in series with a zener


resistor rZ.

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• The approximate model is obtained just by neglecting the effect of rZ in the equivalent
model. Only a constant voltage source is used in this model.
• The temperature coefficients reflects the percentage change in VZ with temperature
and it is defined by the relation
• Tc={∆V Z/ VZ( T1-T0) } x 100%
• ∆VZ change in zener potential due to temperature variation
• (T1-T0) change in temperature

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Examples

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1. Det. Nominal voltage for 1N961 fairchild zener diode at temp of 1000c.
Solution:
∆VZ=Tc VZ(T1-T0)/100
={0.072x10V/100}(1000-250)
= 0.54V

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Therefore change in Zener voltage is 10.54V when temperature is raised from 250c to 1000c.
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2. Find Is and vL using zener characteristics for given data.
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3. Compute the Thevenin equivalent of the previous circuit with the zener diode as the
load
Thevenin voltage
Thevenin resistance
We can then write VT +RTiD+vD = 0 and find out vD,, iD using the zener diode
characteristics
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vL = vD and IS = vL /RL + iD
Solution

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Answers
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• vL = 10V
• IS = vL /RL + iD = 10/6 +10 mA = 11.67mA
• vL = 9.5 V
• IS = vL /RL + iD = 9.5/1.2 +5 mA = 12.92mA
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4. Find currents through diode D1 and D2.

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General Approach:
• Assume the state of each of the diodes: i.e., “on” or “off”.

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• Analyze the circuit and check to see if your assumptions were correct.
• If not correct try another set of assumptions.
• Assume D1 is “off”: Replace with open
• Assume D2 is “on”: Replace with short

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vD1 = 10V – 3V = 7V
But this is not possible since the D1 would be forward biased or “on” with vD1 = 0V.
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We must try another set of assumptions

• Assume D1 is “on” and D2 is “off”


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Example 2

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Chapter 2. - DC Biasing - BJTs


Objectives

To Understand :
• Concept of Operating point and stability
• Analyzing Various biasing circuits and their comparison with respect to stability

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BJT – A Review

• Invented in 1948 by Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley


• Contains three adjoining, alternately doped semiconductor regions: Emitter (E),
Base (B), and Collector (C)

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• The middle region, base, is very thin
• Emitter is heavily doped compared to collector. So, emitter and collector are not
interchangeable.

Three operating regions

• Linear – region operation:

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– Base – emitter junction forward biased
– Base – collector junction reverse biased
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• Cutoff – region operation:
– Base – emitter junction reverse biased
– Base – collector junction reverse biased
• Saturation – region operation:
– Base – emitter junction forward biased
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– Base – collector junction forward biased

Three operating regions of BJT

• Cut off: VCE = VCC, IC  0


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• Active or linear : VCE  VCC/2 , IC  IC max/2

• Saturation: VCE  0 , IC  IC max

Q-Point (Static Operation Point)


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• The values of the parameters IB, IC and VCE together are termed as ‘operating
point’ or Q ( Quiescent) point of the transistor.

Q-Point

• The intersection of the dc bias value of IB with the dc load line determines the Q-
point.
• It is desirable to have the Q-point centered on the load line. Why?
• When a circuit is designed to have a centered Q-point, the amplifier is said to be

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midpoint biased.
• Midpoint biasing allows optimum ac operation of the amplifier.

Introduction - Biasing

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The analysis or design of a transistor amplifier requires knowledge of both the dc and
ac response of the system.In fact, the amplifier increases the strength of a weak signal
by transferring the energy from the applied DC source to the weak input ac signal
• The analysis or design of any electronic amplifier therefore has two components:
• The dc portion and
• The ac portion

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During the design stage, the choice of parameters for the required dc levels will
affect the ac response.
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What is biasing circuit?

• Once the desired dc current and voltage levels have been identified, a network
must be constructed that will establish the desired values of IB, IC and VCE, Such a
network is known as biasing circuit. A biasing network has to preferably make
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use of one power supply to bias both the junctions of the transistor.

Purpose of the DC biasing circuit


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• To turn the device “ON”


• To place it in operation in the region of its characteristic where the device
operates most linearly, i.e. to set up the initial dc values of IB, IC, and VCE

Important basic relationship


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• VBE = 0.7V
• IE = ( + 1) IB  IC
• IC =  IB

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Biasing circuits:

• Fixed – bias circuit


• Emitter bias
• Voltage divider bias
• DC bias with voltage feedback
• Miscellaneous bias

Fixed bias

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• The simplest transistor dc bias configuration.
• For dc analysis, open all the capacitance.
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DC Analysis

• Applying KVL to the input loop:


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VCC = IBRB + VBE


• From the above equation, deriving for IB, we get,
IB = [VCC – VBE] / RB
• The selection of RB sets the level of base current for the operating point.
• Applying KVL for the output loop:
VCC = ICRC + VCE
• Thus,
VCE = VCC – ICRC

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• In circuits where emitter is grounded,


VCE = VE
VBE = VB

Design and Analysis

• Design: Given – IB, IC , VCE and VCC, or IC , VCE and , design the values of RB,
RC using the equations obtained by applying KVL to input and output loops.

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• Analysis: Given the circuit values (VCC, RB and RC), determine the values of IB,
IC , VCE using the equations obtained by applying KVL to input and output loops.

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Problem – Analysis

Given the fixed bias circuit with VCC = 12V, RB = 240 k, RC = 2.2 k and  = 75.
Determine the values of operating point.

Equation for the input loop is:

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IB = [VCC – VBE] / RB where VBE = 0.7V,
thus substituting the other given values in the equation, we get

IB = 47.08uA
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IC = IB = 3.53mA
VCE = VCC – ICRC = 4.23V
• When the transistor is biased such that IB is very high so as to make IC very high
such that ICRC drop is almost VCC and VCE is almost 0, the transistor is said to be
ol
in saturation.
IC sat = VCC / RC in a fixed bias circuit.

Verification
us

• Whenever a fixed bias circuit is analyzed, the value of ICQ obtained could be
verified with the value of ICSat ( = VCC / RC) to understand whether the transistor is
in active region.
• In active region,
ICQ = ( ICSat /2)
vt

Load line analysis

A fixed bias circuit with given values of VCC, RC and RB can be analyzed ( means,
determining the values of IBQ, ICQ and VCEQ) using the concept of load line also.
Here the input loop KVL equation is not used for the purpose of analysis, instead, the
output characteristics of the transistor used in the given circuit and output loop KVL
equation are made use of.

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• The method of load line analysis is as below:

1. Consider the equation VCE = VCC – ICRC This relates VCE and IC for the given IB
and RC
2. Also, we know that, VCE and IC are related through output characteristics
We know that the equation,
VCE = VCC – ICRC
represents a straight line which can be plotted on the output characteristics of the
transistor.

in
Such line drawn as per the above equation is known as load line, the slope of which is
decided by the value of RC ( the load).

Load line

n.
io
ut
• The two extreme points on the load line can be calculated and by joining which
the load line can be drawn.
ol
• To find extreme points, first, Ic is made 0 in the equation: VCE = VCC – ICRC .
This gives the coordinates (VCC,0) on the x axis of the output characteristics.
• The other extreme point is on the y-axis and can be calculated by making VCE = 0
in the equation VCE = VCC – ICRC which gives IC( max) = VCC / RC thus giving the
coordinates of the point as (0, VCC / RC).
us

• The two extreme points so obtained are joined to form the load line.
• The load line intersects the output characteristics at various points corresponding
to different IBs. The actual operating point is established for the given IB.

Q point variation
vt

As IB is varied, the Q point shifts accordingly on the load line either up or down
depending on IB increased or decreased respectively.
As RC is varied, the Q point shifts to left or right along the same IB line since the
slope of the line varies. As RC increases, slope reduces ( slope is -1/RC) which
results in shift of Q point to the left meaning no variation in IC and reduction in VCE .
Thus if the output characteristics is known, the analysis of the given fixed bias circuit
or designing a fixed bias circuit is possible using load line analysis as mentioned
above.

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Emitter Bias

• It can be shown that, including an emitter resistor in the fixed bias circuit
improves the stability of Q point.
• Thus emitter bias is a biasing circuit very similar to fixed bias circuit with an
emitter resistor added to it.

in
n.
Input loop
io
ut
ol
us

• Writing KVL around the input loop we get,


VCC = IBRB + VBE + IERE (1)
We know that,
IE = (+1)IB (2)
Substituting this in (1), we get,
vt

VCC = IBRB + VBE + (+1)IBRE


VCC – VBE = IB(RB + (+1) RE)

Solving for IB:


IB = (VCC – VBE ) /[(RB + (+1) RE)]

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The expression for IB in a fixed bias circuit was,


IB = (VCC – VBE ) /RB
Equivalent input loop:

in
n.

• io
REI in the above circuit is (+1)RE which means that, the emitter resistance that is
common to both the loops appears as such a high resistance in the input loop.

Thus Ri = (+1)RE ( more about this when we take up ac analysis)


ut
Output loop
ol
us

Collector – emitter loop


vt

Applying KVL,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE

IC is almost same as IE

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Thus,

VCC = ICRC + VCE + ICRE


= IC (RC + RE) +VCE
VCE = VCC - IC (RC + RE)
Since emitter is not connected directly to ground, it is at a potential VE, given by,

in
VE = IERE
VC = VCE + VE OR VC = VCC – ICRC
Also, VB = VCC – IBRB OR VB = VBE + VE

n.
Problem:

Analyze the following circuit: given


 = 75, VCC = 16V, RB = 430k, RC = 2k and RE = 1k 

io
ut
ol

Solution:

IB = (VCC – VBE ) /[(RB + (+1) RE)]


us

= ( 16 – 0.7) / [ 430k + (76) 1k] = 30.24A


IC = ( 75) (30.24A) = 2.27mA
VCE = VCC - IC (RC + RE) = 9.19V
VC = VCC – ICRC = 11.46V
vt

VE = VC – VCE = 2.27V
VB = VBE + VE = 2.97V
VBC = VB – VC = 2.97 – 11.46 = - 8.49V

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Improved bias stability

• Addition of emitter resistance makes the dc bias currents and voltages remain
closer to their set value even with variation in
– transistor beta
– temperature

in
Stability

In a fixed bias circuit, IB does not vary with  and therefore whenever there is an
increase in , IC increases proportionately, and thus VCE reduces making the Q point

n.
to drift towards saturation.In an emitter bias circuit, As  increases, IB reduces,
maintaining almost same IC and VCE thus stabilizing the Q point against  variations.

Saturation current

In saturation VCE is almost 0V, thus

Thus, saturation current


io
VCC = IC ( RC + RE )
ut
IC,sat = VCC / ( RC + RE )

Load line analysis

The two extreme points on the load line of an emitter bias circuit are,
ol

(0, VCC / [ RC + RE ]) on the Y axis, and

( VCC, 0) on the X axis.


us

Voltage divider bias


+V CC

RC
vt

R1
v out
C2
C1
v in

R2

RE C3

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This is the biasing circuit wherein, ICQ and VCEQ are almost independent of .
The level of IBQ will change with  so as to maintain the values of ICQ and VCEQ almost
same, thus maintaining the stability of Q point.

Two methods of analyzing a voltage divider bias circuit are:


Exact method – can be applied to any voltage divider circuit
Approximate method – direct method, saves time and energy, can be applied in most of
the circuits.

in
Exact method

In this method, the Thevenin equivalent network for the network to the left of the base
terminal to be found.

n.
io
ut
To find Rth:
ol
us

From the above circuit,

Rth = R1  R2
vt

= R1 R2 / (R1 + R2)

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To find Eth

in
From the above circuit,

n.
Eth = VR2 = R2VCC / (R1 + R2)

io
ut
In the above network, applying KVL

( Eth – VBE) = IB [ Rth +(  + 1) RE ]


ol
IB = ( Eth – VBE) / [ Rth +(  + 1) RE ]

Analysis of Output loop


us

KVL to the output loop:

VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE


IE  IC
vt

Thus, VCE = VCC – IC (RC + RE)

Note that this is similar to emitter bias circuit.

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Problem

For the circuit given below, find IC and VCE.


Given the values of R1, R2, RC, RE and  = 140 and VCC = 18V.
For the purpose of DC analysis, all the capacitors in the amplifier circuit are opened.

in
n.
io
ut
Solution

Considering exact analysis:

1. Let us find Rth = R1  R2


ol

= R1 R2 / (R1 + R2) = 3.55K

2. Then find Eth = VR2 = R2VCC / (R1 + R2)


us

= 1.64V
3. Then find IB
IB = ( Eth – VBE) / [ Rth +(  + 1) RE ]

= 4.37A
vt

4. Then find IC =  IB = 0.612mA

5. Then find VCE = VCC – IC (RC + RE)


= 12.63V

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Approximate analysis:

The input section of the voltage divider configuration can be represented by the network
shown in the next slide.

Input Network

in
n.
io
The emitter resistance RE is seen as (+1)RE at the input loop.
If this resistance is much higher compared to R2, then the current IB is much smaller than
ut
I2 through R2.
This means, Ri >> R2
OR
(+1)RE  10R2
ol
OR
RE  10R2
us

This makes IB to be negligible.


Thus I1 through R1 is almost same as the current I2 through R2.
Thus R1 and R2 can be considered as in series.
Voltage divider can be applied to find the voltage across R2 ( VB)

VB = VCCR2 / ( R1 + R2)
vt

Once VB is determined, VE is calculated as,


VE = VB – VBE
After finding VE, IE is calculated as,
IE = VE / RE
IE  IC
VCE = VCC – IC ( RC + RE)

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Problem
Given: VCC = 18V, R1 = 39k , R2 = 3.9k , RC = 4k , RE = 1.5k  and  = 140.
Analyse the circuit using approximate technique.
In order to check whether approximate technique can be used, we need to verify the
condition,

RE  10R2

in
Here,
RE = 210 k and 10R2 = 39 k

n.
Thus the condition
RE  10R2 satisfied

Solution

io
Thus approximate technique can be applied.

1. Find VB = VCCR2 / ( R1 + R2) = 1.64V


2. Find VE = VB – 0.7 = 0.94V
ut
3. Find IE = VE / RE = 0.63mA = IC
4. Find VCE = VCC – IC(RC + RE) = 12.55V
ol
Comparison

Exact Analysis Approximate Analysis


us

IC = 0.612mA IC = 0.63mA

VCE = 12.63V VCE = 12.55V


vt

Both the methods result in the same values for IC and VCE since the condition RE 
10R2 is satisfied.
It can be shown that the results due to exact analysis and approximate analysis have
more deviation if the above mentioned condition is not satisfied.
For load line analysis of voltage divider network, Ic,max = VCC/ ( RC+RE) when VCE
= 0V and VCE max = VCC when IC = 0.

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DC bias with voltage feedback

in
n.
Input loop

io
ut
ol

Applying KVL for Input Loop:

VCC = IC1RC + IBRB + VBE + IERE


us

Substituting for IE as ( +1)IB and solving for IB,


IB = ( VCC – VBE) / [ RB + ( RC + RE)]
Output loop
vt

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Neglecting the base current, KVL to the output loop results in,

VCE = VCC – IC ( RC + RE)

DC bias with voltage feedback

in
n.
Input loop

io
ut
ol
us

Applying KVL to input loop:

VCC = ICRC + IBRB + VBE + IERE


IC  IC and IC  IE
Substituting for IE as ( +1)IB [ or as IB] and solving for IB,
vt

IB = ( VCC – VBE) / [ RB + ( RC + RE)]


Output loop

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in
Neglecting the base current, and applying KVL to the output loop results in,

VCE = VCC – IC ( RC + RE)

n.
In this circuit, improved stability is obtained by introducing a feedback path from
collector to base.
Sensitivity of Q point to changes in beta or temperature variations is normally less than

Problem:

Given: io
that encountered for the fixed bias or emitter biased configurations.
ut
VCC = 10V, RC = 4.7k, RB = 250 and RE = 1.2k.  = 90.
Analyze the circuit.

IB = ( VCC – VBE) / [ RB + ( RC + RE)]


ol
= 11.91A
IC = ( IB ) = 1.07mA
VCE = VCC – IC ( RC + RE) = 3.69V
us

In the above circuit, Analyze the circuit if  = 135 ( 50% increase).


With the same procedure as followed in the previous problem, we get
 IB = 8.89A
 IC = 1.2mA
vt

 VCE = 2.92V
50% increase in  resulted in 12.1% increase in IC and 20.9% decrease in VCEQ

Problem 2:

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Determine the DC level of IB and VC for the network shown:

in
n.
Solution:
Open all the capacitors for DC analysis.

io
RB = 91 k + 110 k = 201k
IB = ( VCC – VBE) / [ RB + ( RC + RE)]
ut
= (18 – 0.7) / [ 201k + 75( 3.3+0.51)]
= 35.5A
IC =  IB = 2.66mA
VCE = VCC – (ICRC)
ol

= 18 – ( 2.66mA)(3.3k)
= 9.22V
Load line analysis
us

The two extreme points of the load line IC,max and VCE, max are found in the same as a
voltage divider circuit.

IC,max = VCC / (RC + RE) – Saturation current


vt

VCE, max – Cut off voltage

Miscellaneous bias configurations

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There are a number of BJT bias configurations that do not match the basic types of
biasing that are discussed till now.

Miscellaneous bias (1)

Analyze the circuit in the next slide. Given  = 120

in
n.
Solution

io
This circuit is same as DC bias with voltage feedback but with no emitter resistor.
ut
Thus the expression for IB is same except for RE term.

IB = (VCC – VBE) / ( RB + RC)


= ( 20 – 0.7) / [680k + (120)(4.7k)]
ol
= 15.51A
IC = IB = 1.86mA
VCE = VCC – ICRC = 11.26V = VCE
us

VB = VBE = 0.7V
VBC = VB – VC = 0.7V – 11.26V = - 10.56V
vt

Miscellaneous bias (2)

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in
Equivalent circuit

n.
io
ut
Input loop
ol
us
vt

Output loop

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in
Solution

n.
The above circuit is fixed bias circuit.
Applying KVL to input loop:
VEE = VBE + IBRB

io
IB = ( VEE – VBE) / RB = 83A
IC = IB = 3.735mA
VC = -ICRC = - 4.48V
ut
VB = - IBRB = - 8.3V
Miscellaneous bias (3)
Determine VCE,Q and IE for the network.
Given  = 90
ol
( Note that the circuit given is common collector mode which can be identified by
No resistance connected to the collector output taken at the emitter)
us
vt

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in
n.
Input loop

io
ut
ol

Writing KVL to input loop:


us

VEE = IBRB + VBE + (+1)IBRE


IB = (VEE – VBE ) / [RB + (+1) RE]
= ( 20 – 0.7) / [ 240K + (91)(2K)]
= 45.73A
vt

IC = IB = 4.12mA

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Output loop

in
n.
Applying KVL to the output loop:
VEE = VCE + IERE
IE = (+1) IB = 4.16mA, VEE = 20V

Miscellaneous bias (4) io


VCE = VEE – IERE = 11.68V
ut
Find VCB and IB for the Common base configuration given:
Given:  = 60
ol
us

Input loop
vt

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Applying KVL to input loop


IE = ( VEE – VBE ) / RE
= 2.75mA
IE = IC = 2.75mA
IB = IC /  = 45.8A
Output loop

in
n.
Applying KVL to output loop:
io
VCC = ICRC + VCB
ut
VCB = VCC – ICRC = 3.4V
Miscellaneous bias (5)
Determine VC and VB for the network given below.
ol
Given  = 120
Note that this is voltage divider circuit with split supply.
( +VCC at the collector and – VEE at the emitter)
us
vt

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Thevinin equivalent at the input

in
n.
io
ut
Rth= (8.2k)(2.2k) / [ 8.2k+2.2k] = 1.73k
I = (VCC + VEE) / [R1 + R2]
ol
= ( 20 + 20) / ( 8.2K + 2.2K)
= 3.85mA
Eth = IR2 – VEE
us

= - 11.53V
Equivalent circuit
vt

25
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Applying KVL:
VEE – Eth – VBE – (  +1)IBRE – IBRth = 0
IB = ( VEE – Eth – VBE ) / [(  +1) RE + Rth ]
= 35.39A
IC =  IB = 4.25mA
VC = VCC – ICRC = 8.53V

in
VB = - Eth – IBRth = - 11.59V
Design Operations:
Designing a circuit requires

n.
 Understanding of the characteristics of the device
 The basic equations for the network
 Understanding of Ohms law, KCL, KVL

 io
If the transistor and supplies are specified, the design process will simply
determine the required resistors for a particular design.
Once the theoretical values of the resistors are determined, the nearest
ut
standard commercial values are normally chosen.
 Operating point needs to be recalculated with the standard values of resistors
chosen and generally the deviation expected would be less than or equal to 5%.
ol
Problem:

• Given ICQ = 2mA and VCEQ = 10V. Determine R1 and RC for the network shown:
us
vt

Solution

To find R1:

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1. Find VB. And to find VB, find VE because, VB = VE + VBE


2. Thus, VE = IERE and IE  IC = 2mA
= (2mA)(1.2k) = 2.4V
3. VB =2.4 + 0.7 = 3.1V
4. Also, VB = VCCR2 /(R1 + R2)
3.1 = (18)(18k) / R1+18k
Thus, R1 = 86.52k

in
To find RC :
Voltage across RC = VCC – ( VCE + IERE)
= 18 – [ 10 + (2mA)1.2k]
= 5.6V

n.
RC = 5.6/2mA
= 2.8K
Nearest standard values are,
R1 = 82k + 4.7 k = 86.7 k  where as calculated value is 86.52 k  .
RC = 2.7k in series with 1k = 2.8k

io
both would result in a very close value to the design level.

Problem 2
ut
The emitter bias circuit has the following specifications: ICQ = 1/2Isat, Isat = 8mA, VC =
18V, VCC = 18V and  = 110. Determine RC , RE and RB.

Solution:
ol
ICQ = 4mA
VRC = (VCC – VC) = 10V
RC = VRC / ICQ,
us

= 10/4mA = 2.5k
To find RE: ICsat = VCC / (RC + RE)
To find RB: Find IB where, IB = IC /  = 36.36A
Also, for an emitter bias circuit,
vt

IB = (VCC – VBE) / RB+( +1) RE


Thus, RB = 639.8 k
Standard values: RC = 2.4 k, RE = 1 k, RB = 620 k

8mA = 28 / ( 2.5k + RE)

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Thus, RE = 1k

Transistor switching networks:


Through proper design transistors can be used as switches for computer and control
applications.
When the input voltage VB is high ( logic 1), the transistor is in saturation ( ON). And
the output at its collector = VCE is almost 0V( Logic 0)

in
Transistor as a switch

When the base voltage VB is low( logic 0), i.e, 0V, the transistor is cutoff( Off) and IC
is 0, drop across RC is 0 and therefore voltage at the collector is VCC.( logic 1)

n.
Thus transistor switch operates as an inverter.
This circuit does not require any DC bias at the base of the transistor.

Design

io
When Vi ( VB) is 5V, transistor is in saturation and ICsat
Just before saturation, IB,max = IC,sat / DC
Thus the base current must be greater than IB,max to make the transistor to work in
saturation.
ut
Analysis
ol
us
vt

When Vi = 5V, the resulting level of IB is

IB = (Vi – 0.7) / RB

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= ( 5 – 0.7) / 68k
= 63A
ICsat = VCC / RC = 5/0.82k
= 6.1mA
Verification
( IC,sat / ) = 48.8A

in
Thus IB > ( IC,sat / ) which is required for a transistor to be in saturation.

A transistor can be replaced by a low resistance Rsat when in saturation ( switch on)

n.
Rsat = VCE sat/ ICsat (VCE sat is very small and ICsat is IC,max is maximum current)
A transistor can be replaced by a high resistance Rcutoff when in cutoff ( switch on)

Problem
Determine RB and RC for the inverter of figure:

io
ut
ol
us

IC sat = VCC / RC
10mA = 10V/ RC
RC = 1k
IB just at saturation = IC sat / 
vt

= 10mA / 250
= 40A
Choose IB> IC sat / , 60 A
IB = (Vi – 0.7) / RB
60 A = ( 10 – 0.7) / RB

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RB = 155k
Choose RB = 150k, standard value,
re calculate IB, we get IB = 62 A which is also > IC sat / 
Thus, RC = 1k and RB = 155k

Switching Transistors

in
Transistor ‘ON’ time = delay time + Rise time
Delay time is the time between the changing state of the input and the beginning of a
response at the output.
Rise time is the time from 10% to 90% of the final value.

n.
Transistor ‘OFF’ time = Storage time + Fall time
For an ‘ON’ transistor, VBE should be around 0.7V
For the transistor to be in active region, VCE is usually about 25% to 75% of VCC.
If VCE = almost VCC, probable faults:
– the device is damaged

io
– connection in the collector – emitter or base – emitter circuit loop is open.
One of the most common mistake in the lab is usage of wrong resistor value.
Check various voltages with respect to ground.
Calculate the current values using voltage readings rather than measuring current by
ut
breaking the circuit.

Problem – 1

Check the fault in the circuit given.


ol
us
vt

Problem - 2

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in
n.
PNP transistors

The analysis of PNP transistors follows the same pattern established for NPN transistors.
The only difference between the resulting equations for a network in which an npn

quantities.

PNP transistor in an emitter bias io


transistor has been replaced by a pnp transistor is the sign associated with particular
ut
ol
us
vt

Applying KVL to Input loop:

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VCC = IBRB +VBE+IERE

Thus, IB = (VCC – VBE) / [RB + (+1) RE]

Applying KVL Output loop:

VCE = - ( VCC – ICRC)

Bias stabilization

in
The stability of a system is a measure of the sensitivity of a network to variations in
its parameters.
In any amplifier employing a transistor the collector current IC is sensitive to each of

n.
the following parameters.
 increases with increase in temperature.
Magnitude of VBE decreases about 2.5mV per degree Celsius increase in temperature.
ICO doubles in value for every 10 degree Celsius increase in temperature.

T (degree
Celsius)
Ico (nA)

io  VBE (V)
ut
- 65 0.2 x 10-3 20 0.85

25 0.1 50 0.65
ol

100 20 80 0.48
us

175 3.3 x 103 120 0.3

Stability factors

S (ICO) = IC / IC0


vt

S (VBE) = IC / VBE

S () = IC /  
Networks that are quite stable and relatively insensitive to temperature variations
have low stability factors.
The higher the stability factor, the more sensitive is the network to variations in that
parameter.

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S( ICO)

• Analyze S( ICO) for


– emitter bias configuration
– fixed bias configuration
– Voltage divider configuration

For the emitter bias configuration,

in
S( ICO) = (  + 1) [ 1 + RB / RE] / [(  + 1) + RB / RE]
If RB / RE >> (  + 1) , then

n.
S( ICO) = (  + 1)
For RB / RE <<1, S( ICO) 1
Thus, emitter bias configuration is quite stable when the ratio RB / RE is as small as
possible.

Fixed bias configuration


io
Emitter bias configuration is least stable when RB / RE approaches (  + 1) .

S( ICO) = (  + 1) [ 1 + RB / RE] / [(  + 1) + RB / RE]


ut
= (  + 1) [RE + RB] / [(  + 1) RE + RB]
By plugging RE = 0, we get
S( ICO) =  + 1
ol

This indicates poor stability.


us

Voltage divider configuration

S( ICO) = (  + 1) [ 1 + RB / RE] / [(  + 1) + RB / RE]


Here, replace RB with Rth
S( ICO) = (  + 1) [ 1 + Rth / RE] / [(  + 1) + Rth / RE]
vt

Thus, voltage divider bias configuration is quite stable when the ratio R th / RE is as small
as possible.

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Physical impact

In a fixed bias circuit, IC increases due to increase in IC0. [IC = IB + (+1) IC0]
IB is fixed by VCC and RB. Thus level of IC would continue to rise with temperature –
a very unstable situation.

In emitter bias circuit, as IC increases, IE increases, VE increases. Increase in VE


reduces IB. IB = [VCC – VBE – VE] / RB. A drop in IB reduces IC.Thus, this
configuration is such that there is a reaction to an increase in IC that will tend to

in
oppose the change in bias conditions.

In the DC bias with voltage feedback, as IC increases, voltage across RC increases,


thus reducing IB and causing IC to reduce.

n.
The most stable configuration is the voltage – divider network. If the condition RE
>>10R2, the voltage VB will remain fairly constant for changing levels of IC. VBE =
VB – VE, as IC increases, VE increases, since VB is constant, VBE drops making IB to
fall, which will try to offset the increases level of IC.

S(VBE)

S(VBE) = IC / VBE io


ut
For an emitter bias circuit, S(VBE) = -  / [ RB + ( + 1)RE]

If RE =0 in the above equation, we get S(VBE) for a fixed bias circuit as,
S(VBE) = -  / RB.
ol
For an emitter bias,

S(VBE) = -  / [ RB + ( + 1)RE] can be rewritten as,


us

S(VBE) = - (/RE )/ [RB/RE + ( + 1)]


If ( + 1)>> RB/RE, then
S(VBE) = - (/RE )/ ( + 1)
= - 1/ RE

The larger the RE, lower the S(VBE) and more stable is the system.
vt

Total effect of all the three parameters on IC can be written as,

IC = S(ICO) ICO + S(VBE) VBE + S()


General conclusion:

The ratio RB / RE or Rth / RE should be as small as possible considering all aspects of


design.

34
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us
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Analog Electronics Circuits

General Amplifiers

in
 Cascade connection - FET & BJT

 Numerical

n.
 Cascode connection

 Darlington connection

 Packaged Darlington connection

 Dc bias of Darlington connectionio


ut
 AC equivalent

 ac output impedance of Darlington connection

 AC voltage gain
ol

 Feedback concept

 Feedback connection type


us

 Practical feedback circuits

 Practical feedback circuits

 Numerical
vt

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Cascade connection – FET

in
n.
io
• Cascade connection is a series connection with the output of one stage then
ut
applied as input to the second stage.

• Cascade connection provides a multiplication of the gain of each stage for a


larger overall gain.
ol
• Gain of overall cascade amplifier is the product of stage gains AV1 and AV2

Av = Av1AV2 = (-gmRD1) (-gmRD2)


us

• The input impedance of the cascade amplifier is that of stage 1,

Zi = RG1

• Output impedance is that of stage 2,


vt

Z0=RD2

• The main function of cascading the stages is the larger overall gain achieved.

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Numerical

in
n.
io
Calculate dc bias, voltage gain, input impedance, output impedance,Also
ut
calculate the load voltage if a 10K Ω load is connected across the output
ol
Data for numerical

• C1=C2=C3=0.05uF
us

• RG1=RG2=3.3 MΩ

• RS1=RS2=680 Ω

• RD1=RD2=2.4 KΩ
vt

• IDSS=10mA; VP=-4V for both stages

Solution

Step 1: from the dc bias details we can find out VGSQ= -1.9V, IDQ=2.8mA

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Step 2: both transistors have

gmo=2 IDSS/ Vp =2(10mA)/4 =5mS

At dc bias point, gm=gmo(1-VGS/VP)

gm =5m(1-(-1.9)/(-4) = 2.6mS

in
Step 3: the voltage gain of each stage

AV1=AV2=-gm RD=-2.6m x 2.4K = -6.2

n.
• Step 4: Overall gain of cascaded stage is

Av=Av1Av2=-6.2 x -6.2 = 38.4

(output is in phase with input)


io
ut
• Step 5: output voltage is Vo=Av Vi =384 mV

• Cascade amplifier input impedance is


ol
Zi=RG= 3.3 MΩ

• Output impedance (with rd=very high)


us

Zo=RD= 2.4 KΩ

• Load voltage if load resistance is 10 KΩ

VL= [RL/(RL+Zo)] Vo
vt

=[10K/(10K+2.4)] 384mV=310mV

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Cascade amplifier – BJT

in
n.
io
ut
• RC coupled cascade amplifier is taken here for example

• Advantage of cascading is increase in the overall voltage gain.


ol

• Dc bias is obtained by procedure followed for single stage amplifier.

• Gain of each stage: AV= -(RC ‫ װ‬RL )/re


us

• Amplifier input impedance is that of

stage 1: Zi= R1 ‫ װ‬R2 ‫ װ‬βre


vt

• Output impedance is that of stage 2 :

Zo=Rc ‫ װ‬ro

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Numerical

in
n.
io
ut
Calculate voltage gain, output impedance, input impedance for cascaded BJT
amplifier of fig above. Calculate output voltage resulting if 10K ohms load is
connected to load.
ol

Given,

 R1=15KΩ; R2=4.7KΩ;Rc=2.2KΩ;RE=1KΩ
us

• C1=C2=C3=10uF

• β=200 for both transistors


vt

• Input voltage vi= 25uV

Solution:

• Dc analysis yields

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• VB=4.7V;VE=4.0V;VC=11V; IE=4.0mA

• At bias point, re=VT/IE=26m/4.0m=6.5 Ω

• Voltage gain of stage 1 is then,

• AV1= -{RC ‫( װ‬R1 ‫ װ‬R2 ‫ װ‬βre)}/re

in
= -665.2/6.5=-102.3

• AV2= -Rc/re = -2.2K/6.5 =-338.46

n.
• Overall gain of AV=AV1AV2

=-102.3 x -338.46

=34,624
io
ut
• Output voltage is : Vo=AV Vi=34624 x 25u

=0.866V
ol
• Amplifier input impedance is

• Zi= R1 ‫ װ‬R2 ‫ װ‬βre =4.7K ‫ װ‬15 K ‫ װ‬200x6.5


us

=953.6 ohms.

• VL= {RL/Zo+RL} Vo

={10K/2.2K+10K}0.866 = 0.71 V
vt

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Cascode connection

• A cascode connection has one transistor on top in series with another.

• Figure below shows CE stage feeding a CB stage.

• This arrangement is designed to provide a high input impedance with low

in
voltage gain to ensure that the input Miller capacitance is at a minimum with
the CB stage providing good high frequency operation.

n.
io
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ol
us
vt

Cascade connection configuration fig:1

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Cascade connection configuration fig:2


us

Numerical

Calculate the voltage gain for the cascode amplifier of fig above..

Solution:
vt

Dc analysis: VB1=4.9V ; VB2=10.8V;

IC1=Ic2=3.8mA

Dynamic resistance of each transistor is then re=26/3.8=6.8 ohms

• Voltage gain of stage 1 is

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Av1= -Rc/re= -re/re = -1

• Voltage gain of stage 2 is

Av2=Rc/re =1.8K/6.8 = 265

• Resulting in an overall cascode amplifier gain of Av=Av1 x Av2 =-1 x 265


=-265

in
• CE stage with a gain of -1 provides the higher input impedance of CE stage.

• With gain of -1, miller capacitance is kept very small.

n.
• A large gain is then provided by the CB stage, resulting in large overall gain
of -265.

Darlington connection

io
Popular connection operates as “super beta” transistor is Darlington connection.
ut
ol
us

• Main feature of the Darlington connection is that the composite acts as a


single unit with a current gains of individual transistors.
vt

• Darlington connection provides a current gain of βo= β1+ β2

• If β1= β2= β then βo= β2

• This configuration provides a transistor having a very large current gain,


typically a few thousands.

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Packaged Darlington transistor

• Specification information of 2N999 Darlington transistor package

in
n.
DC bias of Darlington circuits

IB 
Vcc  VBE
RB   D RE
io
ut
I E  ( D  1) I B   D I B
Voltages
ol

VE  I E RE
VB  VE  VBE
us
vt

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io
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Numerical

Calculate dc bias voltages and currents for the Darlington connection. Given
ol
RB=3.3MΩ;RE=390 Ω;βd=8000;VCC=18V;VBE=1.6V

Vcc  VBE 18  1.6


IB    2.56uA
us

RB   D RE 3.3M  8000(390)
I E  (  D  1) I B   D I B  8000(2.56u )  20.48mA
Voltages
vt

VE  I E RE  20.48m(390)  8V
VB  VE  VBE  8  1.6  9.6V
VC  18V

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AC equivalent circuit

in
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io
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Equivalent model
ol
us
vt

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Input impedance

• The ac base current through ri is

Ib=Vi-Vo/ri

• Since Vo=(Ib+βDIb)RE

in
• Substituting Ib in Vo expression,

Ibri=Vi-Vo=Vi-Ib(1+ βD)RE

solving for Vi,

n.
Vi=Ib[ri+(1+ βD)RE]=Ib(ri+ βDRE)

• Ac input impedance looking into the transistor base is then

Vi/Ib= ri+ βDRE

Zi=RB ‫( װ‬ri+ βDRE) io


ut
ac output impedance of Darlington connection

This can be determined for ac circuit shown in fig below


ol
us
vt

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Output impedance

• The output impedance can be determined by applying a voltage Vo and


measuring the current Io with Vs setting to zero.

• Solution for Io yields..

in
Vo Vo V V V
Io    DIB  o  o  D o
RE ri RE ri ri

n.
 1 1 D 
I o     Vo
 E i
R r ri 

Zo 
Vo

1
io
I o 1 / RE  1 / ri   D / ri
ut
Zo= RE ‫ װ‬ri ‫ װ‬ri/βD
ol
us
vt

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ac voltage gain

in
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Gain expression

io
Vo  ( I b   D I b ) RE  I b ( RE   D RE )
Vi  Ibri  ( Ib   D I b ) RE
ut
On simplification

Vi  I b (ri  RE   D RE )
ol

Vi
Vo  ( RE   D RE )
ri  ( RE   D RE )
us

Vo RE   DRE
Av   1
Vi ri  ( RE   DRE )
vt

Numerical

For the Darlington pair, given RE=390 ohms and β=8000. Calculate gain if
ri=5KΩ
390  8000 x390
Av   0.998
5 K  [390  8000 x390]

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Feedback concepts

• Depending on the relative polarity of fed back signal in to the circuit, there
are two types of feedback

> Negative feedback

> Positive feedback

in
Negative feedback results in Reduced gain

Positive feedback are used in oscillators.

n.
Feedback amplifier

io
ut
ol
us

Negative feedback circuits

• Reduces the gain


vt

• Increases input impedance

• Better stabilized frequency response

• Lower output impedance

• Reduced noise

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• More linear operation

Feedback connection types

• Voltage series feedback

• Voltage shunt feedback

in
• Current series feedback

• Current shunt feedback

 Here voltage refers to small part of voltage as input to the feedback network

n.
 Current refers to tapping some part of output current through feedback
network.

voltage.
io
 Series refers to connecting feedback signal in series with the input signal

 Shunt refers to connecting feedback signal in shunt with the input signal
ut
voltage

 Series feedback connections increases the input resistance

 Shunt feedback connections decreases the input resistance.


ol
us
vt

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Voltage series feedback Af=Vo/Vs

in
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Voltage shunt feedback Af=Vo/Is io
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Current series feedback Af=Io/Vs

in
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io
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Current shunt feedback Af=Io/Is
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Gain with feedback

• Gain without feedback is A

• Feedback factor β

• Gain with feedback is (1+A β)

in
Voltage Voltage Current Current
Parameter
series shunt series shunt

n.
Gain with
A Vo/Vi Vo/Ii Io/Vi Io/Ii
feedback

Feedback factor β Vf/vo If/Vo Vf/Io If/Io

Gain with
feedback
Af Vo/Vs io Vo/Is Io/Vs Io/Is
ut
Voltage series feedback
ol

• With zero feedback then Vf=0 the voltage gain of amplifier stage is

A=Vo/Vs=Vo/Vi
us

• If feedback of Vf is connected then,

Vi=Vs-Vf

Vo=AVi=A(Vs-Vf)=AVs-AVf=A(Vs-A(βVo)
vt

Then, (1+ βA)Vo=AVs

Overall gain with feedback is

Af=Vo/Vi=A/(1+A β)

This shows that gain of feedback has reduced by factor (1+A β)

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Voltage shunt feedback

• Af=Vo/Is=A Ii / (Ii+If)=AIi/(Ii+ βAIi)

• Af=A/(1+ βA)

Input impedance with FB

in
• Ref to fig(1)

Ii=Vi/Zi=(Vs-Vf) / Zi = (Vs- βVo) / Zi

Ii Zi= Vs- βAVi

n.
Vs=Ii Zi+ β A Vi = Ii Zi+ β A Ii Zi

Zif = Vs/Ii=Zi+(βA)Zi=Zi(1+ βA)

Improved circuit features of feedback

• Reduction in frequency distortion io


ut
When Aβ» 1, then Af=A/(1+A β)≈1/ β

• Here feedback is completely resistive and thus frequency distortion arising


because of varying gain with frequency is considerably reduced.
ol

• Bandwidth variation

• When Aβ» 1, then Af=A/(1+A β)≈1/ β


us

• Therefore, here we can see that, practical circuits, open loop gain drops at
high frequencies.

• Therefore Aβ no longer » 1, hence Af=1/ β


vt

No longer holds good.

• Here reduction in gain has provided improvement in the Bandwidth.

Product of gain and Bandwidth remains same it’s a tradeoff between gain and BW

• Gain stability for Aβ»1,

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Af  1  A
dA f 1 dA

dA A A
• This shows that magnitude of relative change in dAf/A is reduced by the
factor Aβ compared to that without feedback dA/A

Numerical

in
If a amplifier with gain of -1000 and feedback of β=-0.1 has a gain change of 20%
due to temperature, calculate the change in gain of the feedback amplifier.

n.
Solution:

dAf 1 dA 1
  20%
Af A A
........  0.2%
 0.1(1000)

io
ut
Practical feedback circuits

• Voltage series feedback


ol
us
vt

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• Here part of output voltage (Vo) is obtained using a feedback network of


resistors R1 and R2.

• The feedback voltage Vf is connected in series with the source signal Vs.
their difference being the input signal Vi.

• Gain without feedback A=Vo/Vi=-gmRL

in
Where RL=parallel combination of RD,Ro,(R1+R2)

• The feedback network provides a feedback factor or β=Vf/Vo = -R2/R1+R2

n.
• Using values of A and β in above equation, Af is

A  g m RL
Af  
1  A 1  R2 RL /( R1  R2 )g m
if .. A  1, then
1 R  R2
io
ut
Af    1
 R2
ol
Numerical:

Calculate the gain without and with feedback for the FET amplifier shown in fig.
circuit values are given to be R1=80KΩ,R2=20KΩ,RD=10KΩ and gm=4000uS
us

Solution :

RL=5K Ω

A=-20
vt

β=-0.2 and Af=-4

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Series feedback connection

• Here gain of op-amp is reduced by factor β=R2/R1+R2

in
n.
Numerical
io
ut
If open loop gain of op-amp is 100,000 and feedback resistors are R1=1.8K Ω and
R2=200 Ω then calculate the gain with feedback .

Solution
ol
• β=0.1

• Af=9.9999
us

• Here Aβ>>1, Af=1/ β=1/0.1=10


vt

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Emitter follower circuit

in
n.
io
ut
• The output voltage Vo is also the feedback voltage in series with the input
ol
voltage.

• Operation of the circuit without the feedback Vf=0 then,


us

Vo h fe I b RE h fe RE (Vs / hie ) h fe RE
A   
Vi Vs Vs Vs
Vf
 1
vt

Vo
• The operation with feedback then provides that,

Vo A h fe RE / hie
Af   
Vs 1  A 1  (1)(h fe RE / hie )

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h fe RE

hie  h fe RE
hfeRE  1,
Af  1

in
Current series feedback

• Feedback technique is to sample the output current (Io) and return a

n.
proportional voltage in series with the input.

• It stabilizes the amplifier gain, the current series feedback connection


increases the input resistance.

io
• In this circuit, emitter of this stage has an un bypassed emitter, it effectively
has current-series feedback.
ut
• The current through RE results in feedback voltage that opposes the source
signal applied so that the output voltage Vo is reduced.
ol
us
vt

• To remove the current-series feedback, the emitter resistor must be either


removed or bypassed by a capacitor (as is done in most of the amplifiers)

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The fig below shows the equivalent circuit for current series feedback

in
n.
Gain, input and output impedance for this condition is,

Io A  h fe / hie
Af  
Vs 1  A

io
1  ( RE )
  h fe
 hie  RE



ut
 h fe RE 
Z if  Z i (1  A )  hie 1  
 h ie 
ol
 h fe RE 
Z of  Z o (1  A )  Rc 1  
 hie 
with  feedback .. A;
us

Vo I o Rc  I o   h fe RC
Avf    
   Rc  A f RC 
Vs Vs  Vs  hie  h fe RE
vt

Numerical

Calculate the voltage gain of the circuit..

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With RB=470Ω,RC=2.2KΩ,RE=510 Ω, hfe=120,hie=900Ω.

in
n.
Solution:

A
Io

 hfe

 120
Vi hie  RE 900  510
io
 0.085
ut
Vf
   RE  510
Io
ol

• The factor (1+Aβ) is then,

1+(-0.085)(-510) =44.35
us

• The gain with feedback is

Af=Vo/vi=A/(1+A β)

=-.085/44.35 = -1.92x10e-3
vt

• Voltage gain with feedback is

Avf=Vo/Vs=AfRC=(-1.92x10e-3)(2.2x10e3)=4.2

• Without feedback (RE=0) the voltage gain is

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Av=-RC/re=-2.2x10e3/7.5= -293.3

Voltage shunt feedback

• Constant gain op-amp circuit provides voltage shunt feedback.

• Ref to fig below. The input impedance of a ideal op-amp is taken to be


infinite. Hence Ii=0,vi=0 and voltage gain is infinity.

in
• Ie., A=Vo/Ii=infinity

• And β=If/Vo= -1/Ro

n.
• This is transfer resistance gain.

io
ut
ol

Voltage shunt negative feedback amplifier


us

1.Constant gain circuit

2.Equivalent circuit

• Voltage gain with feedback ,


vt

Vo Is 1  R0
Avf   ( Ro) 
Is V 1 R1 R1

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Voltage shunt feedback using FET

in
n.
Equivalent circuit io
ut
ol
us
vt

• With no feedback A=Vo/Ii=-gmRDRS

• The feedback factor is β=If/Vo= -1/RF

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• With feedback, gain of the circuit is,

Vo A  g m RD RS
Af   
I s 1  A 1  (1 / RF )( g m RD RS )

in
voltage  gain  withfeedback ..is,
Vo I s  g m RD RS RF   1
Avf   
I s Vs RF  g m RD RS

n.
  RS
 g m RD RF RF
  ( g m RD )
RF  g m RD RS RF  g m RD RS

Numerical io
ut
Calculate voltage gain with and without feedback for the circuit of FET f/b. With
the values, gm=5mS, RD=5.1KΩ, Rs=1KΩ, RF=20KΩ

Solution :
ol

Use above formulae

• Av=-gmRD=-25.5
us

• Feedback gain Avf=-11.2


vt

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CHAPTER.4: Transistor at low frequencies


• Introduction
• Amplification in the AC domain
• BJT transistor modeling

in
• The re Transistor Model
• The Hybrid equivalent Model

Introduction

n.
• There are three models commonly used in the small – signal ac analysis of
transistor networks:
• The re model
• The hybrid  model
• The hybrid equivalent model

Amplification in the AC domain


io
ut
The transistor can be employed as an amplifying device, that is, the output ac power
is greater than the input ac power. The factor that permits an ac power output greater
than the input ac power is the applied DC power. The amplifier is initially biased for
the required DC voltages and currents. Then the ac to be amplified is given as input to
the amplifier. If the applied ac exceeds the limit set by dc level, clipping of the peak
ol
region will result in the output. Thus, proper (faithful) amplification design requires
that the dc and ac components be sensitive to each other’s requirements and
limitations. The superposition theorem is applicable for the analysis and design of the
dc and ac components of a BJT network, permitting the separation of the analysis of
the dc and ac responses of the system.
us

BJT Transistor modeling

• The key to transistor small-signal analysis is the use of the equivalent circuits
(models). A MODEL IS A COMBINATION OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
LIKE VOLTAGE OR CURRENT SOURCES, RESISTORS, CAPACITORS
vt

etc, that best approximates the behavior of a device under specific operating
conditions. Once the model (ac equivalent circuit) is determined, the schematic
symbol for the device can be replaced by the equivalent circuit and the basic
methods of circuit analysis applied to determine the desired quantities of the
network.
• Hybrid equivalent network – employed initially. Drawback – It is defined for a set
of operating conditions that might not match the actual operating conditions.
• re model: desirable, but does not include feedback term

1
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• Hybrid  model: model of choice.

AC equivalent of a network

• AC equivalent of a network is obtained by:


• Setting all dc sources to zero and replacing them by a short – circuit equivalent
• Replacing all capacitors by short – circuit equivalent

in
• Removing all elements bypassed by the short – circuit equivalents
• Redrawing the network in a more convenient and logical form.

n.
io
ut
ol
us

re model
vt

• In re model, the transistor action has been replaced by a single diode between
emitter and base terminals and a controlled current source between base and
collector terminals.
• This is rather a simple equivalent circuit for a device

2
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The Hybrid equivalent model

 For the hybrid equivalent model, the parameters are defined at an operating point.
 The quantities hie, hre,hfe, and hoe are called hybrid parameters and are the
components of a small – signal equivalent circuit.
• The description of the hybrid equivalent model will begin with the general two

in
port system.

n.
io
ut
• The set of equations in which the four variables can be related are:
• Vi = h11Ii + h12Vo
• Io = h21Ii + h22Vo
• The four variables h11, h12, h21 and h22 are called hybrid parameters ( the mixture
ol
of variables in each equation results in a “ hybrid” set of units of measurement for
the h – parameters.
• Set Vo = 0, solving for h11, h11 = Vi / Ii Ohms
• This is the ratio of input voltage to the input current with the output terminals
shorted. It is called Short circuit input impedance parameter.
us

• If Ii is set equal to zero by opening the input leads, we get expression for h12:
h12 = Vi / Vo , This is called open circuit reverse voltage ratio.
• Again by setting Vo to zero by shorting the output terminals, we get
h21 = Io / Ii known as short circuit forward transfer current ratio.
• Again by setting I1 = 0 by opening the input leads, h22 = Io / Vo . This is known as
open – circuit output admittance. This is represented as resistor ( 1/h22)
vt

• h11 = hi = input resistance


• h12 = hr = reverse transfer voltage ratio
• h21 = hf = forward transfer current ratio
• h22 = ho = Output conductance

3
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Hybrid Input equivalent circuit

in
n.

Hybrid output equivalent circuit

io
ut
ol
Complete hybrid equivalent circuit
us
vt

4
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Common Emitter Configuration - hybrid equivalent circuit

in
n.
• Essentially, the transistor model is a three terminal two – port system.
• The h – parameters, however, will change with each configuration.


io
To distinguish which parameter has been used or which is available, a second
subscript has been added to the h – parameter notation.
For the common – base configuration, the lowercase letter b is added, and for
common emitter and common collector configurations, the letters e and c are used
ut
respectively.

Common Base configuration - hybrid equivalent circuit


ol
us
vt

Configuration Ii Io Vi Vo
Common emitter Ib Ic Vbe Vce
Common base Ie Ic Veb Vcb
Common Collector Ib Ie Vbe Vec

5
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• Normally hr is a relatively small quantity, its removal is approximated by hr  0


and hrVo = 0, resulting in a short – circuit equivalent.
• The resistance determined by 1/ho is often large enough to be ignored in
comparison to a parallel load, permitting its replacement by an open – circuit
equivalent.

in
n.
io
ut
ol

h-Parameter Model v/s. re Model


us
vt

hie = re

6
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hfe = ac

Common Base: re v/s. h-Parameter Model

in
n.
Common-Base configurations - h-Parameters

io
hib= re
hfb= -  = -1
ut
Problem
• Given IE = 3.2mA, hfe = 150, hoe = 25S and hob = 0.5 S . Determine
– The common – emitter hybrid equivalent
– The common – base re model
ol
us
vt

Solution:
• We know that, hie = re and re = 26mV/IE = 26mV/3.2mA = 8.125
• re = (150)(8.125) = 1218.75k
• ro = 1 /hoe = 1/25S = 40k

7
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in
• re = 8.125
• ro = 1/ hob = 1/0.5S = 2M 
• 1

n.
• Small signal ac analysis includes determining the expressions for the following
parameters in terms of Zi, Zo and AV in terms of
– 
– re



– ro and
– RB, RC

io
Also, finding the phase relation between input and output
The values of , ro are found in datasheet
ut
• The value of re must be determined in dc condition as re = 26mV / IE

Common Emitter - Fixed bias configuration


ol
us


Removing DC effects of VCC and Capacitors
vt

8
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Vtusolution.in

re model

in
Small signal analysis – fixed bias

n.
• From the above re model,
Zi = [RB  re] ohms

If RB > 10 re, then,

Then, Zi  re
io
[RB  re]  re

 Zo is the output impedance when Vi =0. When Vi =0, ib =0, resulting in open circuit
ut
equivalence for the current source.
ol
us

• Zo = [RC ro ] ohms
vt

• AV
– Vo = - Ib( RC  ro)

• From the re model, Ib = Vi /  re


• thus,
– Vo = -  (Vi /  re) ( RC  ro)
– AV = Vo / Vi = - ( RC  ro) / re

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• If ro >10RC,
– AV = - ( RC / re)

• The negative sign in the gain expression indicates that there exists 180o phase
shift between the input and output.

Common Emitter - Voltage-Divider Configuration

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us

• The re model is very similar to the fixed bias circuit except for RB is R1 R2 in the
case of voltage divider bias.
• Expression for AV remains the same.
vt

Zi = R1  R2   re
Zo = RC
• From the re model, Ib = Vi /  re
• thus,
Vo = -  (Vi /  re) ( RC  ro)

• AV = Vo / Vi = - ( RC  ro) / re

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o If ro >10RC,

AV = - ( RC / re)

Common Emitter - Unbypassed Emitter-Bias Configuration

in
n.

io
ut
ol
us

• Applying KVL to the input side:

Vi = Ib re + IeRE
Vi = Ib re +( +1) IbRE
vt

Input impedance looking into the network to the right of RB is

Zb = Vi / Ib = re+ ( +1)RE

Since >>1, ( +1) = 

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Thus,
Zb = Vi / Ib =  (re+RE)

• Since RE is often much greater than re,


Zb = RE,

Zi = RB||Zb

in
• Zo is determined by setting Vi to zero, Ib = 0 and  Ib can be replaced by open
circuit equivalent. The result is,
• Zo = RC

n.
• AV : We know that, Vo = - IoRC
= - IbRC
= - (Vi/Zb)RC
AV = Vo / Vi = - (RC/Zb)

Substituting,

RE >>re,
Zb = (re + RE)

io
AV = Vo / Vi = - [RC /(re + RE)]

AV = Vo / Vi = - [RC /RE]
ut
• Phase relation: The negative sign in the gain equation reveals a 180 o phase shift
between input and output.
ol
us
vt

12
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Emitter – follower

in
n.
re model

io
ut
ol
us

• Zi = RB || Zb
• Zb = re+ ( +1)RE
• Zb = (re+ RE)
• Since RE is often much greater than re, Zb = RE
vt

• To find Zo, it is required to find output equivalent circuit of the emitter follower
at its input terminal.
• This can be done by writing the equation for the current Ib.
Ib = Vi / Zb
Ie = ( +1)Ib
= ( +1) (Vi / Zb)
• We know that, Zb = re+ ( +1)RE substituting this in the equation for Ie we get,

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Ie = ( +1) (Vi / Zb)


= ( +1) (Vi / re+ ( +1)RE )
Ie = Vi / [re/ ( +1)] + RE
• Since ( +1) = ,
Ie = Vi / [re+ RE]
• Using the equation Ie = Vi / [re+ RE] , we can write the output equivalent circuit as,

in
n.

As per the equivalent circuit,


io
ut
Zo = RE||re
• Since RE is typically much greater than re, Zo  re
• AV – Voltage gain:
ol
• Using voltage divider rule for the equivalent circuit,
Vo = Vi RE / (RE+ re)
AV = Vo / Vi = [RE / (RE+ re)]
us

• Since (RE+ re)  RE,


AV  [RE / (RE]  1

• Phase relationship
vt

As seen in the gain equation, output and input are in phase.

14
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Common base configuration

in
n.
re model

io
ut
Small signal analysis
ol
• Input Impedance: Zi = RE||re
• Output Impedance: Zo = RC
• To find, Output voltage,
us

Vo = - IoRC
Vo = - (-IC)RC = IeRC
o Ie = Vi / re, substituting this in the above equation,
Vo =  (Vi / re) RC
vt

Vo =  (Vi / re) RC

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Voltage Gain: AV:


AV = Vo / Vi =  (RC/ re)
  1; AV = (RC/ re)
Current gain
Ai = Io / Ii
Io = -  Ie = -  Ii

in
Io / Ii = -   -1
Phase relation: Output and input are in phase.

n.
 h-Parameter Model vs. re Model

io
ut
ol

 CB re vs. h-Parameter Model


us
vt

Common-Base h-Parameters

h ib  re
h fb    1
16
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• Small signal ac analysis includes determining the expressions for the following
parameters in terms of Zi, Zo and AV in terms of
– 
– re
– ro and
– RB, RC

in
• Also, finding the phase relation between input and output
• The values of , ro are found in datasheet
• The value of re must be determined in dc condition as re = 26mV / IE

n.
Common Emitter Fixed bias configuration

io
ut
ol

Removing DC effects of VCC and Capacitors


us
vt

17
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Vtusolution.in

re model

in
n.
Small signal analysis – fixed bias

Input impedance Zi:

From the above re model, is,

If RB > 10 re, then,


io
Zi = [RB  re] ohms
ut
[RB  re]  re

Then, Zi  re
ol
Ouput impedance Zoi:

Zo is the output impedance when Vi = 0. When Vi = 0, ib = 0, resulting in open circuit


equivalence for the current source.
us
vt

Zo = [RC ro ] ohms

18
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Voltage Gain Av:

Vo = - Ib( RC  ro)
From the re model, Ib = Vi /  re
thus, Vo = -  (Vi /  re) ( RC  ro)
AV = Vo / Vi = - ( RC  ro) / re

in
If ro >10RC, AV = - ( RC / re)

n.
Phase Shift:
The negative sign in the gain expression indicates that there exists 180o phase shift
between the input and output.

io
ut
ol

Problem:
Common Emitter - Voltage-Divider Configuration
us
vt

19
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Equivalent Circuit:

in
The re model is very similar to the fixed bias circuit except for RB is R1 R 2 in the case
of voltage divider bias.

n.
Expression for AV remains the same.
Zi = R1  R2   re

:
Zo = RC

Voltage Gain, AV:


io
ut
From the re model,
Ib = Vi /  re
Vo = - Io ( RC  ro),
Io =  Ib
ol

thus, Vo = -  (Vi /  re) ( RC  ro)


AV = Vo / Vi = - ( RC  ro) / re
us

If ro >10RC, AV = - ( RC / re)
vt

20
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Problem:
Given:  = 210, ro = 50k.
Determine: re, Zi, Zo, AV. For the network given:

in
n.
io
To perform DC analysis, we need to find out whether to choose exact analysis or
approximate analysis.
ut
This is done by checking whether RE > 10R2, if so, approximate analysis can be chosen.
Here, RE = (210)(0.68k) = 142.8k.
10R2 = (10)(10k) = 100k.
RE > 10R2.
ol
Thus,
Therefore using approximate analysis,
VB = VccR2 / (R1+R2)
us

= (16)(10k) / (90k+10k) = 1.6V


VE = VB – 0.7 = 1.6 – 0.7 = 0.9V
IE = VE / RE = 1.324mA
re = 26mV / 1.324mA = 19.64
Effect of ro can be neglected if ro  10( RC). In the given circuit, 10RC is 22k, ro is 50K.
vt

Thus effect of ro can be neglected.


Zi = ( R1||R2||RE)
= [90k||10k||(210)(0.68k)] = 8.47k
Zo = RC = 2.2 k

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AV = - RC / RE = - 3.24
If the same circuit is with emitter resistor bypassed,
Then value of re remains same.
Zi = ( R1||R2||re) = 2.83 k
Zo = RC = 2.2 k
AV = - RC / re = - 112.02

in
Common Emitter Un bypassed Emitter - Fixed Bias Configuration

n.
io
ut
Equivalent Circuit:
ol
us
vt

Applying KVL to the input side:


Vi = Ibre + IeRE
Vi = Ibre +( +1) IbRE

22
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Input impedance looking into the network to the right of RB is


Zb = Vi / Ib = re+ ( +1)RE
Since >>1, ( +1) = 
Thus, Zb = Vi / Ib =  (re+RE)
Since RE is often much greater than re,
Zb = RE,

in
Zi = RB||Zb
Zo is determined by setting Vi to zero, Ib = 0 and Ib can be replaced by open circuit
equivalent.

n.
The result is, Zo = RC
We know that, Vo = - IoRC
= - IbRC

Substituting
AV = Vo / Vi = - (RC/Zb)
Zb = (re + RE)
io
= - (Vi/Zb)RC
ut
AV = Vo / Vi = - [RC /(re + RE)]
RE >>re, AV = Vo / Vi = - [RC /RE]
Phase relation: The negative sign in the gain equation reveals a 180 o phase shift between
ol
input and output.
us
vt

23
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Problem:

in
n.
Given:  = 120, ro = 40k.
Determine: re, Zi, Zo, AV.
To find re, it is required to perform DC analysis and find IE as re = 26mV / IE
To find IE, it is required to find IB.

We know that,

io
IB = (VCC – VBE) / [RB + (+1)RE]
IB = (20 – 0.7) / [470k + (120+1)0.56k] = 35.89A
ut
IE = (+1)IB = 4.34mA
re = 26mV / IE = 5.99
Effect of ro can be neglected, if ro  10( RC + RE)
ol
10( RC + RE) = 10( 2.2 k + 0.56k)
= 27.6 k
and given that ro is 40 k, thus effect of ro can be ignored.
us

Z i = RB|| [ ( re + RE)]
= 470k || [120 ( 5.99 + 560 )] = 59.34
Zo = RC = 2.2 k
AV = - RC / [ ( re + RE)]
vt

= - 3.89
Analyzing the above circuit with Emitter resistor bypassed i.e., Common Emitter
IB = (VCC – VBE) / [RB + (+1)RE]
IB = (20 – 0.7) / [470k + (120+1)0.56k]
= 35.89A

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IE = (+1)IB = 4.34mA
re = 26mV / IE = 5.99
Zi = RB|| [re] = 717.70
Zo = RC = 2.2 k
AV = - RC / re = - 367.28 ( a significant increase)

in
Emitter – follower

n.
io
ut
re model
ol
us
vt

Zi = RB || Zb
Zb = re+ ( +1)RE
Zb = (re+ RE)
Since RE is often much greater than re, Zb = RE

25
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To find Zo, it is required to find output equivalent circuit of the emitter follower at its
input terminal.
This can be done by writing the equation for the current Ib.
Ib = Vi / Zb
Ie = ( +1)Ib
= ( +1) (Vi / Zb)

in
We know that,
Zb = re+ ( +1)RE
substituting this in the equation for Ie we get,

n.
Ie = ( +1) (Vi / Zb)
= ( +1) (Vi / re+ ( +1)RE )
dividing by ( +1), we get,

Since ( +1) = ,
io
Ie = Vi / [re/ ( +1)] + RE

Ie = Vi / [re+ RE]
ut
Using the equation Ie = Vi / [re+ RE], we can write the output equivalent circuit as,
ol
us

As per the equivalent circuit,


Zo = RE||re
vt

Since RE is typically much greater than re,


Zo  re

26
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AV – Voltage gain:
Using voltage divider rule for the equivalent circuit,
Vo = Vi RE / (RE+ re)
AV = Vo / Vi = [RE / (RE+ re)]
Since (RE+ re)  RE,
AV  [RE / (RE]  1

in
Phase relationship
As seen in the gain equation, output and input are in phase.

n.
Vo

io
ut
Common base configuration
ol
us
vt

27
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Vtusolution.in

re model

in
Small signal analysis

n.
Zi = RE||re
Zo = RC
To find
Vo = - IoRC
Vo = - (-IC)RC = IeRC
io
Substituting this in the above equation, Ie = Vi / re,
ut
Vo =  (Vi / re) RC
Vo =  (Vi / re) RC
AV = Vo / Vi =  (RC/ re)
ol
  1; AV = (RC/ re)
Current gain Ai :
Ai = Io / Ii
us

Io = -  Ie = -  Ii
Io / Ii = -   -1
Phase relation: Output and input are in phase.
vt

28
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Common Emitter - Collector Feedback Configuration

in
n.
re Model

io
ut
ol
Input Impedance: Zi
Zi = Vi / Ii,
Ii = Ib – I,
us

thus it is required to find expression for I in terms of known resistors.


I = (Vo – Vi)/ RF (1)
Vo = - IoRC
Io = Ib + I
vt

Normally, I << Ib


thus, Io = Ib ,
Vo = - IoRC
Vo = - Ib RC,

29
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Replacing Ib by Vi / re
Thus,
Vo = -  (Vi RC) / re
= - (Vi RC) / re (2)
Substituting (2) in (1):
I = (Vo – Vi)/ RF

in
= (Vo / RF) - (Vi/ RF)
= - [(Vi RC) / RF re] - (Vi/ RF)
I = - Vi/RF[ (RC / re )+1]

n.
We know that, Vi = Ibre,
Ib = Ii + I
and, I = - Vi/RF[ (RC / re ) +1]
Thus,

Taking Vi terms on left side:


io
Vi = ( Ii + I ) re = Ii re + I re
= Ii re - (Vi re)( 1/RF)[ (RC / re )+1]
ut
Vi + (Vi re)( 1/RF)[ (RC / re )+1] = Ii re
Vi[1 + (re)( 1/RF)[ (RC / re ) +1] = Ii re
Vi / Ii = re / [1 + (re)( 1/RF)[ (RC / re ) +1]
ol
But, [ (RC / re )+1]  RC / re
(because RC >> re)
Thus, Zi = Vi / Ii
us

= re / [1 + (re)( 1/RF)[ (RC / re )]


= re / [1 + ()(RC/RF)]
Thus, Zi = re / [(1/) + (RC/RF)]
vt

30
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To find Output Impedance Zo:

in
Zo = RC || RF ( Note that ib = 0, thus no effect of re on Zo)

n.
Voltage Gain AV:
Vo = - IoRC

= - (Vi/ re)RC
AV = Vo / Vi = - (RC/re) io
= - IbRC ( neglecting the value of I )
ut
Phase relation: - sign in AV indicates phase shift of 180 between input and output.

Collector DC feedback configuration


ol
us
vt

31
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re model

in
Zi = RF1 ||re
Zo = RC||RF2||ro,
for ro10RC, Zo = RC||RF2

n.
To find Voltage Gain AV :
Vo = - Ib(RF2||RC||ro), Ib = Vi / re
Vo = -  (Vi / re)(RF2||RC||ro)

for ro10RC,
io
Vo / Vi = - (RF2||RC||ro) / re,

AV = Vo / Vi = - (RF2||RC) / re
ut
Determining the current gain
For each transistor configuration, the current gain can be determined directly from the
ol
voltage gain, the defined load, and the input impedance.

We know that, current gain (Ai) = Io / Ii


Io = (Vo / RL) and Ii = Vi / Zi
us

Thus, Ai = - (Vo /RL) / (Vi / Zi)


= - (Vo Zi / Vi RL)
Ai = - AV Zi / RL
Example:
vt

For a voltage divider network, we have found that, Zi = re


AV = - RC / re and RL = RC
Thus, Ai = - AV Zi / RL
= - (- RC / re )(re) / RC
Ai = 

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For a Common Base amplifier, Zi = re, AV = RC / re, RL = RC


Ai = - AV Zi / RL
= - (RC / re )(re) / RC
=-1
Effect of RL and RS:
Voltage gain of an amplifier without considering load resistance (RL) and source

in
resistance (RS) is AVNL.
Voltage gain considering load resistance ( RL) is AV < AVNL
Voltage gain considering RL and RS is AVS, where AVS<AVNL< AV
For a particular design, the larger the level of RL, the greater is the level of ac gain.
Also, for a particular amplifier, the smaller the internal resistance of the signal source, the

n.
greater is the overall gain.

Fixed bias with RS and RL:

io
ut
ol
us

AV = - (RC||RL) / re
Z i = RB|| re
Zo = RC||ro
To find the gain AVS, ( Zi and RS are in series and applying voltage divider rule)
vt

Vi = VSZi / ( Zi+RS)
Vi / VS = Zi / ( Zi+RS)
AVS = Vo / VS = (Vo/Vi) (Vi/VS)
AVS = AV [Zi / ( Zi+RS)]

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Voltage divider with RS and RL

in
Voltage gain: AV = - [RC||RL] / re

n.
Input Impedance: Zi = R1||R2|| re
Output Impedance: Zo = RC||RL||ro

Emitter follower with RS and RL

io
ut
ol
us

re model:
vt

34
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Vtusolution.in

Voltage Gain: AV = (RE||RL) / [RE||RL+re]


Input Impedance: Zi = RB || Zb
Input Impedance seen at Base: Zb = (RE||RL)
Output Impedance Zo = re

Two – port systems approach

in
This is an alternative approach to the analysis of an amplifier.
This is important where the designer works with packaged with packaged products
rather than individual elements.
An amplifier may be housed in a package along with the values of gain, input and

n.
output impedances.
But those values are no load values and by using these values, it is required to find
out the gain and various impedances under loaded conditions.
This analysis assumes the output port of the amplifier to be seen as a voltage source.
The value of this output voltage is obtained by Thevinising the output port of the
amplifier.

Model of two port system


Eth = AVNLVi

io
ut
ol
us

Applying the load to the two port system


vt

Applying voltage divider in the above system:

Vo = AVNLViRL / [ RL+Ro]

35
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Including the effects of source resistance RS

in
Applying voltage divider at the input side, we get:

n.
Vi = VSRi /[RS+Ri]
Vo = AVNLVi
Vi = VSRi /[RS+Ri]

io
Vo = AVNL VSRi /[RS+Ri]
Vo/ VS = AVS = AVNLRi /[RS+Ri]
ut
Two port system with RS and RL
ol
us

We know that, at the input side


Vi = VSRi /[RS+Ri]
Vi / VS = Ri /[RS+Ri]
At the output side,
vt

Vo = AVNLViRL / [ RL+Ro]
Vo / Vi = AVNLRL / [ RL+Ro]
Thus, considering both RS and RL:
AV = Vo / Vs
= [Vo / Vi] [Vi / Vs]

36
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AV = (AVNLRL / [ RL+Ro]) (Ri / [RS+Ri])

Example:
Given an amplifier with the following details:
RS = 0.2 k, AVNL = - 480, Zi = 4 k, Zo = 2 k
Determine:

in
AV with RL =1.2k
AV and Ai with RL= 5.6 k, AVS with RL = 1.2
Solution:

n.
AV = AVNLRL / (RL + Ro)
= (- 480)1.2k / (1.2k+2k)
= - 180
With RL = 5.6k, AV = - 353.76

io
This shows that, larger the value of load resistor, the better is the gain.
AVS = [Ri /(Ri+RS)] [ RL / (RL+Ro)] AVNL
ut
= - 171.36
Ai = - AVZi/RL, here AV is the voltage gain when RL = 5.6k.
Ai = - AVZi/RL
ol
= - (-353.76)(4k/5.6k) = 252.6
Hybrid  model
us
vt

This is more accurate model for high frequency effects. The capacitors that appear are
stray parasitic capacitors between the various junctions of the device. These capacitances
come into picture only at high frequencies.

• Cbc or Cu is usually few pico farads to few tens of pico farads.


• rbb includes the base contact, base bulk and base spreading resistances.

37
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• rbe ( r), rbc, rce are the resistances between the indicated terminals.
• rbe ( r) is simply re introduced for the CE re model.
• rbc is a large resistance that provides feedback between the output and the input.
• r = re
• gm = 1/re
• ro = 1/hoe

in
• hre = r / (r + rbc)

n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

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in
n.
io
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ol
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vt

39
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Analog Electronics Circuits

in
FET small signal Analysis

n.
• FET introduction and working principles
• FET small signal analysis
• FET self bias technique.
• Examples
io
ut
• JFET self bias configuration
• Numerical
ol

• JFET Voltage divider configuration


• JFET common drain configuration
us

• Source follower.
• Numerical
vt

• JFET common gate


• Depletion mode
• Enhancement mode
• E MOSFET drain feedback configuration.
• E MOSFET voltage divider Configuration.
• numerical
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FET Introduction
• The Field-Effect Transistor (FET) is a type of transistor that
works by modulating a microscopic electric field inside a
semiconductor material.
• There are two general type of FET's, the MOSFET and JFET.

in
Symbol and representation

n.
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ut
ol
us
vt

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Basic operation of JFET


• The JFET operation is compared with the water spigot.
The source of water pressure
• accumulated electrons at the negative pole of the applied voltage

in
from Drain to Source
The drain of water

n.
• electron deficiency (or holes) at the positive pole of the applied
voltage from Drain to Source.
The control of flow of water

io
Gate voltage that controls the width of the n-channel, which in
turn controls the flow of electrons in the n-channel from source to
drain.
ut
ol
us

JFET Operating Characteristics

There are three basic operating conditions for a JFET:


vt

A. VGS = 0, VDS increasing to some positive value


B. VGS < 0, VDS at some positive value
C. Voltage-Controlled Resistor

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A. VGS = 0, VDS increasing to some positive value

in
n.
to a more positive voltage:
io
Three things happen when VGS = 0 and VDS is increased from 0

• The depletion region between p-gate and n-channel increases as


ut
electrons from n-channel combine with holes from p-gate.
• Increasing the depletion region, decreases the size of the n-channel
ol
which increases the resistance of the n-channel.
• But even though the n-channel resistance is increasing, the current
(ID) from Source to Drain
us

Through the n-channel is increasing. This is because VDS is


increasing.
vt

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Pinch off

in
n.
io
ut
Saturation
ol
us
vt

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At the pinch-off point:


• any further increase in VGS does not produce any increase in ID.
VGS at
pinch-off is denoted as Vp.

in
• ID is at saturation or maximum. It is referred to as IDSS.
• The ohmic value of the channel is at maximum.

n.
B. VGS < 0, VDS at some positive value

io
ut
ol
us

As VGS becomes more negative the depletion region increases.


vt

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Now Id < Idss

in
n.
As VGS becomes more negative:

io
• the JFET will pinch-off at a lower voltage (Vp).
• ID decreases (ID < IDSS) even though VDS is increased.
ut
• Eventually ID will reach 0A. VGS at this point is called Vp or
VGS(off).
ol

Also note that at high levels of VDS the JFET reaches a breakdown
situation. ID will increases uncontrollably if VDS > VDSmax
us

C. Voltage-Controlled Resistor

 The region to the left of the pinch-off point is called the ohmic
region.

 The JFET can be used as a variable resistor, where VGS controls


vt

the drain-source resistance (rd).

 As VGS becomes more negative, the resistance (rd) increases.

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in
n.
Transfer Characteristics

io
• The transfer characteristic of input-to-output is not as straight
forward in a JFET
ut
as it was in a BJT.
• In a BJT, β indicated the relationship between IB (input) and IC
(output).
ol

• In a JFET, the relationship of VGS (input) and ID (output) is a


little more complicated:
us

Current relation
vt

Comparison between BJT & FET

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BJT FET
1.BJT controls large output(Ic) by 1.FET controls drain current
means of a relatively small base by means of small gate
current. It is a current controlled voltage. It is a voltage
device. controlled device

in
2.Has amplification factor β 2.Has trans-conductance gm.
3.Has high voltage gain 3.Does not have as high as

n.
BJT
4.Less input impedance 4.Very high input impedance

FET Small-Signal Analysis


io
ut
• FET Small-Signal Model
• Trans-conductance
The relationship of VGS (input) to ID(output)is called trans-
ol

conductance.
• The trans-conductance is denoted gm.
us
vt

Definition of gm using transfer characteristics

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in
n.
Example:

io
Determine the magnitude of gm for a JFET with IDSS = 8mA and VP = -
4V at the following dc bias points.
ut
a. At VGS = -0.5V
b. At VGS = -1.5V
c. At VGS = -2.5V
ol
us
vt

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Mathematical Definition of gm

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us

FET Impedance
• Input Impedance Zi : ∞ ohms
• Output Impedance Zo: rd= 1/yos
vt

Yos=admittance equivalent circuit parameter listed on FET specification sheets.

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Two port model

in
n.
FET AC Equivalent Circuit

io
ut
ol
us

Phase Relationship
• The phase relationship between input and output depends on the
vt

amplifier configuration circuit.


• Common – Source ~ 180 degrees
• Common - Gate ~ 0 degrees
• Common – Drain ~ 0 degrees

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JFET Common-Source (CS) Fixed-Bias Configuration

in
n.
• The input is on the gate and the output is on the drain.

io
• Fixed bias configuration includes the coupling capacitors c1 and c2
that isolate the dc biasing arrangements from the applied signal and
ut
load.
• They act as short circuit equivalents for the ac analysis.
ol
AC Equivalent Circuit
us
vt

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Voltage gain

in
n.
io
ut
Phase difference
ol

Negative sign in the gain expression indicates that the output voltage is
1800 phase shifted to that of input.
us

Example
For fixed bias circuit, the following bias data are given. VGS=-2V,
IDO=5.625mA and Vp=-8V. The input voltage vi. The value of yOs=40μS.
vt

1. Determine Gm
2. Find rd
3. Determine Zi
4. Calculate ZO, AV with and without effects of rd.

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JFET Self bias configuration


• Main disadvantage of fixed bias configuration requires two dc
voltage sources.
• Self bias circuit requires only one DC supply to establish the
desired operating point.

in
Self bias configuration

n.
io
ut
ol
us

If Cs is removed, it affects the gain of the circuit


vt

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AC Equivalent Circuit

in
n.
io
ut
ol
• The capacitor across the source resistance assumes its short circuit
equivalent for dc allowing RS to define the operating point.
• Under ac conditions the capacitors assumes short circuit state and
us

short circuits the Rs.


• If RS is left un-shorted, then ac gain will be reduced.
vt

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Redrawn equivalent circuit:

in
n.
Circuit parameters:

io
• Since the resulting circuit is same as that of fixed bias
configuration, all the parameter expression remains same as
evaluated for fixed bias configuration.
ut
• Input impedance Zi=RG
• Output Impedance:ZO= rd parallel RD
ol
us

Leaving Rs un-bypassed helps to reduce gain variations from device to


device by providing degenerative current feedback. However, this
method for minimizing gain variations is only effective when a
vt

substantial amount of gain is sacrificed.

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Self bias configuration with un bypassed Rs

in
n.
io
ut
ol
• Here Rs is part of the equivalent circuit .
• There is no way to reduce the network with lowest complexity.
us

• Carefully all the parameters have to be calculated by considering


all polarities properly
Input Impedance
vt

• Due to open-circuit condition between gate and output network,


the input impedance remains as follows:
Zi=RG

Output impedance

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• Output impedance is defined by


ZO= Vo/Io at vi=0
Setting Vi=0 results in following circuit.

RD

in
Zo 
RD  Rs
1  gmRs 
rd

n.
rd  10( RD  Rs )

RD
Zo 

io 1  gmRs
ut
ol
Voltage gain:
Vo
Av   gmRD

Vi 1 gmRs  RDrd Rs
us

gmRD
rd  10( RD  Rs ), Av  
1  gmRs
vt

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Example: A self bias circuit has operating point defined by


VGSo=-2.6V, IDq=2.6mA with IDSS=8mA and Vp=-6V.
Yos=20uS
Determine
a. Gm

in
b. Rd
c. Zi

n.
d. Zo with and without rd effect.
e. Av with and without rd effect

io
ut
ol
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vt

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JFET voltage divider configuration

in
n.
AC equivalent circuit
io
ut
ol
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vt

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Voltage gain:

in
n.
io
ut
Note
• Equations for ZO and Av are same as in fixed bias.
ol
• Only Zi is now dependent on parallel combination of R1 and R2.
JFET source follower
us
vt

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In a CD amplifier configuration the input is on the gate, but


the output is from the source.
AC equivalent circuit

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us

Input and output impedance:


• Input impedance : Zi=RG
vt

• Output impedance :
setting Vi=0V will result in the gate terminal being connected
directly to ground as shown in figure below.

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Equivalent circuit

in
n.
• Applying KCL at output node

Io  gmVgs  Ird  IRS


io
ut
Vo Vo
 
rd Rs
 
ol
1 1
result : Io  Vo  rd    gmVgs
 Rs 
us

1 1 
 Vo     gmVgs
 rd Rs 
vt

1 1 
 Vo     gm[Vo]
 rd Rs 
1 1 
 Vo    gm
 rd Rs 

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Vo Vo 1
Zo  
Io  1 1  V0

 rd Rs  g m

1

in
1 1 

 rd Rs  g m


n.
rd, Rs and gm are all in parallel.
io
ut
Voltage gain
ol
us
vt

Since denominator is larger by a factor of one, the gain can never


be equal to or greater than one. (as in the case of emitter follower of
BJT)

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Example:
A dc analysis of the source follower has resulted in VGS=-2.86V and
Io=4.56mA.
Determine

in
a. gm
b. Zi

n.
c. rd
d. Calculate Zo with and without effect of rd.
e. Calculate Av with and without effect of rd.
Compare the results.
io
Given IDSS=16mA, Vp=-4V, yos=25μS.
ut
The coupling capacitors used are 0.05μF.
JFET common gate configuration
ol
us
vt

The input is on source and the output is on the drain.


Same as the common base in BJT

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AC equivalent circuit

in
n.
io
ut
ol

Impedances:
us
vt

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Voltage gain

in
n.
io
ut
ol
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vt

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Example: For the network shown if VGSo=-2.2V, IDoq=2.03mA,


Determine gm,rd, Zi with and without the effect of rd, Av with and
without the effect of rd.
Also find Vo with and without rd. compare the results.

in
C1 and c2 are given by 10uf.

n.
io
ut
ol
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vt

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MOSFETs:
MOSFETs are of two types;

 Depletion type

 Enhancement type

in
1. Depletion type MOSFETs

n.
io
ut
ol
us

• Shockley’s equation is also applicable to depletion type


MOSFETs.
vt

• This results in same equation for gm.


• The ac equivalent model for this MOS device is same as JFET.
• Only difference is VGSo is positive for n-channel device and
negative for p-channel device.
• As a result of this, gm can be greater than gmo.

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• Range of rd is very similar to that of JFETs.


D-MOSFET ac equivalent model

in
n.
io
ut
Example:A network shown below has the dc analysis results as
IDSS=6mA, VP=3V,VGSo=1.5V and IDQ=7.6mA.yos=10uS
a.Determine gm and compare with gmo
ol

b.Find rd
c.Sketch ac equivalent circuit
us

d.Find Zi,Zo and Av.


vt

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in
n.
Solution:
• gmo=4mS
io
ut
• gm=6mS
• gm is 50% more than gmo
ol

• rd= 100K Ω
• Zi=10M Ω parallel with 110M Ω =9.17MΩ
us

• Zo=100K Ω parallel with 1.8K Ω=1.8KΩ


• Av=-gmrd= 10.8
Ac equivalent circuits
vt

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in
n.
Enhancement type MOSFET

io
• There are two types of E-MOSFETs:
nMOS or n-channel MOSFETs
ut
pMOS or p-channel MOSFETs
E-MOSFET ac small signal model
ol
us
vt

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• ID=k(VGS-VGS(Th))2
• gm is defined by
• Taking the derivative and solving for gm,

in
gm=2k(VGS-VGS(th))

n.
EMOSFET drain feedback configuration

io
ut
ol
us
vt

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Ac equivalent model

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

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Input and output impedances

in
n.
Voltage gain

io
ut
ol
us
vt

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Numerical
For the above said configuration, the following results were got.
K=0.24X10-3A/V2, VgsQ=6.4V, IDQ=2.75mA. Determine gm, rd, Zi with
and without the effect of rd, Zo with and without the effect of rd. Av
with and without effect of rd. And compare the results. Id(sat)=6mA,

in
VGS(th)=3V, VGS(on)=6V,yos=20uS.

n.
io
ut
ol

• RD=2K ohms
us

• RF=10M ohms
• C1,c2=1uF
Solution.
vt

• gm=2k(VGS-VGS(th))
=1.63mS.
• rd=1/yos=50KΩ
• Zi with rd: Rf  (rd // RD )
Zi 
1  gm(rd // RD )
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= 2.42MΩ
• Zi without effect of rd: Zi 
RF
1  gmRD
= 2.53MΩ

in
• Zo with rd: (RF parallel rd parallel RD)
= 1.92KΩ

n.
• Zo without rd: Zo=RD = 2KΩ
• Gain AV with rd:

io
ut
• = -3.21
• Without effect of rd:
ol
us

• = -3.26
vt

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E MOSFET voltage divider configuration

in
n.
io
ut
Important Parameters
ol
us
vt

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Ac equivalent circuit

in
n.
io
ut
ol
us
vt

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CHAPTER.6 :TRANSISTOR FREQUENCY RESPONSE

• To understand
– Decibels, log scale, general frequency considerations of an amplifier.
– low frequency analysis - Bode plot
– low frequency response – BJT amplifier
– Miller effect capacitance
– high frequency response – BJT amplifier

in
Introduction

It is required to investigate the frequency effects introduced by the larger capacitive


elements of the network at low frequencies and the smaller capacitive elements of the

n.
active device at high frequencies. Since the analysis will extend through a wide frequency
range, the logarithmic scale will be used.

Logarithms

To say that

For example: What is log28?


io
logaM = x means exactly the same thing as saying ax = M .

"To what power should 2 be raised in order to get 8?"


ut
 Since 8 is 23 the answer is "3."
 So log28 = 3

Basic Rules
ol
Logarithmic Rule 1:
us

Logarithmic Rule 2:
vt

Logarithmic Rule 3:

1
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Natural Logarithm (or base e)

• There is another logarithm that is also useful (and in fact more common in natural
processes). Many natural phenomenon are seen to exhibit changes that are either
exponentially decaying (radioactive decay for instance) or exponentially
increasing (population growth for example).
• These exponentially changing functions are written as ea, where ‘a’ represents the

in
rate of the exponential change.
• In such cases where exponential changes are involved, we usually use another
kind of logarithm called natural logarithm. The natural log can be thought of as
Logarithm Base-e.

n.
• This logarithm is labeled with ln (for "natural log"), where, e = 2.178.

Semi – Log graph

io
ut
ol
us

Decibels

• The term decibel has its origin in the fact that the power and audio levels are related
on a logarithmic basis. The term bel is derived from the surname of Alexander
vt

Graham Bell.
• Bel is defined by the following equation relating two power levels, P1 and P2:
G = [log10 P2 / P1] bel
• It was found that, the Bel was too large a unit of measurement for the practical
purposes, so the decibel (dB) is defined such that 10 decibels = 1 bel.
• Therefore,
GdB = [10 log10 P2 / P1 ] dB

2
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 The decimal rating is a measure of the difference in magnitude between two power
levels.
 For a specified output power P2, there must be a reference power level P1. The
reference level is generally accepted to be 1mW.

GdBm = [10 log10 P2 / 1mW ] dBm

GdB = [10 log10 P2 / P1 ] dB

in
= [10 log10 (V22 / Ri ) / (V12 / Ri )] dB
= 10 log10 (V2 / V1)2
GdB = [20 log10 V2 / V1 ] dB

n.
One of the advantages of the logarithmic relationship is the manner in which it can be
applied to cascaded stages wherein the overall voltage gain of a cascaded system is the
sum of individual gains in dB.

AV = (Av1)(Av2)(Av3)…….

Problem1:
io
AVdB = (Av1dB)+(Av2dB)+(Av3dB)…….

Find the magnitude gain corresponding to a voltage gain of 100dB.


ut
GdB = [20 log10 V2 / V1 ] dB = 100dB
= 20 log10 V2 / V1 ;
V2 / V1 = 105 = 100,000
ol
Problem 2:
The input power to a device is 10,000W at a voltage of 1000V. The output power is
500W and the output impedance is 20.
 Find the power gain in decibels.
us

 Find the voltage gain in decibels.

GdB = 10 log10 (Po/Pi)


= 10 log10 (500/10k)
= -13.01dB
vt

GV = 20 log10 (Vo/Vi)
= 20 log10 (PR/1000)
= 20 log10 [(500)(20)/1000]
= - 20dB

( Note: P = V2/R; V = PR)

3
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Problem 3 :
An amplifier rated at 40 W output is connected to a 10 speaker.
a. Calculate the input power required for full power output if the power gain is 25dB.
b. Calculate the input voltage for rated output if the amplifier voltage gain is 40dB.

a. 25 = 10 log10 40/Pi
Pi = 40 / antilog(2.5) = 126.5mW

in
b. GV = 20log10Vo/Vi ;
40 = 20log10Vo/Vi

n.
Vo /Vi = antilog 2 = 100
Also, Vo = PR =  (40)(10) = 20V
Thus, Vi = Vo / 100 = 20/100 = 200mV

General Frequency considerations



io
At low frequencies the coupling and bypass capacitors can no longer be replaced
by the short – circuit approximation because of the increase in reactance of these
ut
elements.
• The frequency – dependent parameters of the small signal equivalent circuits and
the stray capacitive elements associated with the active device and the network
will limit the high frequency response of the system.
• An increase in the number of stages of a cascaded system will also limit both the
ol
high and low frequency response.
• The horizontal scale of frequency response curve is a logarithmic scale to permit a
plot extending from the low to the high frequency
us
vt

• For the RC coupled amplifier, the drop at low frequencies is due to the increasing
reactance of CC and CE, whereas its upper frequency limit is determined by either
the parasitic capacitive elements of the network or the frequency dependence of
the gain of the active device.
• In the frequency response, there is a band of frequencies in which the magnitude
of the gain is either equal or relatively close to the midband value.
• To fix the frequency boundaries of relatively high gain, 0.707AVmid is chosen to
be the gain at the cutoff levels.

4
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• The corresponding frequencies f1 and f2 are generally called corner, cutoff, band,
break, or half – power frequencies.
• The multiplier 0.707 is chosen because at this level the output power is half the
midband power output, that is, at mid frequencies,

PO mid = | Vo2| / Ro = | AVmidVi|2 / RO

• And at the half – power frequencies,

in
POHPF = | 0.707 AVmidVi|2 / Ro
= 0.5| AVmid Vi|2 / Ro
• And, POHPF = 0.5 POmid

n.
• The bandwidth of each system is determined by f2 – f1
• A decibel plot can be obtained by applying the equation,

(AV / AVmid )dB

io
= 20 log10 (AV / AVmid)
ut
ol
 Most amplifiers introduce a 180 phase shift between input and output signals. At low
frequencies, there is a phase shift such that Vo lags Vi by an increased angle. At high
frequencies, the phase shift drops below 180.
us

Low – frequency analysis – Bode plot

In the low frequency region of the single – stage BJT amplifier, it is the RC combinations
formed by the network capacitors CC and CE, the network resistive parameters that
determine the cutoff frequencies.
vt

Frequency analysis of an RC network

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• Analysis of the above circuit indicates that,

in
XC = 1/2fC  0 

• Thus, Vo = Vi at high frequencies.

At f = 0 Hz, XC = , Vo = 0V.

n.

• Between the two extremes, the ratio, AV = Vo / Vi will vary.


As frequency increases, the capacitive reactance decreases and more of the input
voltage appears across the output terminals.

io
The output and input voltages are related by the voltage – divider rule:

Vo = RVi / ( R – jXC)
ut
the magnitude of Vo = RVi / R2 + XC2
• For the special case where XC = R,
Vo =RVi / R2 = (1/2) Vi
ol
AV = Vo / Vi = (1/2) = 0.707
• The frequency at which this occurs is determined from,
XC = 1/2f1C = R
us

where, f1 = 1/ 2RC
• Gain equation is written as,
AV = Vo / Vi
= R / (R – jXC) = 1/ ( 1 – j(1/CR)
vt

= 1 / [ 1 – j(f1 / f)]
• In the magnitude and phase form,
AV = Vo / Vi
= [1 / 1 + (f1/f)2 ]  tan-1 (f1 / f)
• In the logarithmic form, the gain in dB is

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AV = Vo / Vi = [1 / 1 + (f1/f)2 ]
= 20 log 10 [1 / 1 + (f1/f)2 ]
= - 20 log 10  [ 1 + (f1/f)2]
= - 10 log10 [1 + (f1/f)2]

• For frequencies where f << f1 or (f1/ f)2 the equation can be approximated by

in
AV (dB) = - 10 log10 [ (f1 / f)2]
= - 20 log10 [ (f1 / f)] at f << f1
• At f = f1 ;

n.
f1 / f = 1 and
– 20 log101 = 0 dB
• At f = ½ f1;

• At f = ¼ f1;
f1 / f = 2
– 20 log102 = - 6 dB
io
ut
f1 / f = 4
– 20 log102 = - 12 dB
• At f = 1/10 f1;
ol
f1 / f = 10
– 20 log1010 = - 20dB
• The above points can be plotted which forms the Bode – plot.
us

• Note that, these results in a straight line when plotted in a logarithmic scale.
Although the above calculation shows at f = f1, gain is 3dB, we know that f1 is
that frequency at which the gain falls by 3dB. Taking this point, the plot differs
from the straight line and gradually approaches to 0dB by f = 10f1.

Observations from the above calculations:


vt

• When there is an octave change in frequency from f1 / 2 to f1, there exists


corresponding change in gain by 6dB.
• When there is an decade change in frequency from f1 / 10 to f1, there exists
corresponding change in gain by 20 dB.

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Low frequency response – BJT amplifier

• A voltage divider BJT bias configuration with load is considered for this analysis.
• For such a network of voltage divider bias, the capacitors CS, CC and CE will
determine the low frequency response.

in
n.
io
Let us consider the effect of each capacitor independently.

CS:
ut
ol

1
fLs 
us

2 (Rs  Ri)Cs

Ri  R1 || R2 || βre
vt

• At mid or high frequencies, the reactance of the capacitor will be sufficiently


small to permit a short – circuit approximations for the element.
• The voltage Vi will then be related to Vs by

Vi |mid = VsRi / (Ri+Rs)

• At f = FLS, Vi = 70.7% of its mid band value.

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• The voltage Vi applied to the input of the active device can be calculated using the
voltage divider rule:

Vi = RiVs / ( Ri+ Rs – jXCs)


Effect of CC:

• Since the coupling capacitor is normally connected between the output of the
active device and applied load, the RC configuration that determines the low
cutoff frequency due to CC appears as in the figure given below.

in
n.

1
io
ut
fLC 
2 π(Ro  RL)Cc
• Ro = Rc|| ro
ol
Effect of CE:
us
vt

1 R s R s  Rs || R1 || R2
fLE  Re  RE || (  re)
2 πReCE β

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• The effect of CE on the gain is best described in a quantitative manner by recalling


that the gain for the amplifier without bypassing the emitter resistor is given by:
AV = - RC / ( re + RE)
• Maximum gain is obviously available where RE is 0.
• At low frequencies, with the bypass capacitor CE in its “open circuit” equivalent
state, all of RE appears in the gain equation above, resulting in minimum gain.
• As the frequency increases, the reactance of the capacitor CE will decrease,
reducing the parallel impedance of RE and CE until the resistor RE is effectively
shorted out by CE.

in
• The result is a maximum or midband gain determined by AV = - RC / re.
• The input and output coupling capacitors, emitter bypass capacitor will affect only
the low frequency response.
• At the mid band frequency level, the short circuit equivalents for these capacitors

n.
can be inserted.
• Although each will affect the gain in a similar frequency range, the highest low
frequency cutoff determined by each of the three capacitors will have the greatest
impact.
Problem:

parameters:
Cs = 10μF, CE = 20μF, Cc = 1μF io
Determine the lower cutoff freq. for the network shown using the following
ut
Rs = 1kΩ, R1= 40kΩ, R2 = 10kΩ,
RE = 2kΩ, RC = 4kΩ, RL = 2.2kΩ,
β = 100, ro = ∞Ω, Vcc = 20V
ol
us
vt

• Solution:

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a. To determine re for the dc conditions, let us check whether RE > 10R2
Here, RE = 200k, 10R2 = 100k. The condition is satisfied. Thus approximate
analysis can be carried out to find IE and thus re.
VB = R2VCC / ( R1+R2) = 4V
VE = VB – 0.7 = 3.3V
IE = 3.3V / 2k = 1.65mA

in
re = 26mV / 1.65mA = 15.76 
Mid band gain:
AV = Vo / Vi = -RC||RL / re = - 90

n.
• Input impedance
Zi = R1 || R2|| re = 1.32K
• Cut off frequency due to input coupling capacitor ( fLs)

io
fLs = 1/ [2(Rs +Ri)CC1 = 6.86Hz.
fLc = 1 / [2(RC + RL) CC
= 1 / [ 6.28 (4k + 2.2k)1uF]
ut
= 25.68 Hz
Effect of CE:
RS = RS||R1||R2 = 0.889
ol
Re = RE || (RS/ + re) = 24.35 
fLe = 1/2 ReCE = 327 Hz
fLe = 327 Hz
us

fLC = 25.68Hz
fLs = 6.86Hz
In this case, fLe is the lower cutoff frequency.
• In the high frequency region, the capacitive elements of importance are the inter-
vt

electrode ( between terminals) capacitances internal to the active device and the
wiring capacitance between leads of the network.
• The large capacitors of the network that controlled the low frequency response are
all replaced by their short circuit equivalent due to their very low reactance level.
• For inverting amplifiers, the input and output capacitance is increased by a
capacitance level sensitive to the inter-electrode capacitance between the input
and output terminals of the device and the gain of the amplifier.

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Miller Effect Capacitance

• Any P-N junction can develop capacitance. This was mentioned in the chapter on
diodes.
• In a BJT amplifier this capacitance becomes noticeable between: the Base-
Collector junction at high frequencies in CE BJT amplifier configurations.
• It is called the Miller Capacitance.
• It effects the input and output circuits.

in
n.


Ii = I1 + I2

Using Ohm’s law yields


io
Eqn (1)
ut
I1 = Vi / Zi,
I1 = Vi / R1
and I2 = (Vi – Vo) / Xcf
ol
= ( Vi – AvVi) / Xcf
I2 = Vi(1 – Av) / Xcf
Substituting for Ii, I1 and I2 in eqn(1),
us

Vi / Zi = Vi / Ri + [(1 – Av)Vi] /Xcf


1/ Zi = 1/Ri + [(1 – Av)] /Xcf
1/ Zi = 1/Ri + 1/ [Xcf / (1 – Av)]
1/ Zi = 1/Ri + 1/ XCM
vt

Where, XCM = [Xcf / (1 – Av)]


= 1/[ (1 – Av) Cf]
CMi = (1 – Av) Cf
CMi is the Miller effect capacitance.

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• For any inverting amplifier, the input capacitance will be increased by a Miller
effect capacitance sensitive to the gain of the amplifier and the inter-electrode
( parasitic) capacitance between the input and output terminals of the active
device.

Miller Output Capacitance (CMo)

in
n.
CMo  Cf
Applying KCL at the output node results in: io
ut
Io = I1+I2
I1 = Vo/Ro
and I2 = (Vo – Vi) / XCf
ol

The resistance Ro is usually sufficiently large to permit ignoring the first term of the
equation, thus

Io  (Vo – Vi) / XCf


us

Substituting Vi = Vo / AV,

Io = (Vo – Vo/Av) / XCf


= Vo ( 1 – 1/AV) / XCf
vt

Io / Vo = (1 – 1/AV) / XCf
Vo / Io = XCf / (1 – 1/AV)
= 1 / Cf (1 – 1/AV)
= 1/ CMo
CMo = ( 1 – 1/AV)Cf

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CMo  Cf [ |AV| >>1]


If the gain (Av) is considerably greater than 1:

CMo  Cf
High frequency response – BJT Amplifier

in
• At the high – frequency end, there are two factors that define the – 3dB cutoff point:
– The network capacitance ( parasitic and introduced) and
– the frequency dependence of hfe()

n.
Network parameters

• In the high frequency region, the RC network of the amplifier has the configuration
shown below.

Vi
io
ut
Vo
ol
• At increasing frequencies, the reactance XC will decrease in magnitude, resulting
in a short effect across the output and a decreased gain.

Vo = Vi(-jXC) / R -jXC
us

Vo / Vi = 1/[ 1+j(R/XC)] ; XC = 1/2fC


AV = 1/[ 1+j(2fRC)];
AV = 1/[ 1+jf/f2]
o This results in a magnitude plot that drops off at 6dB / octave with increasing
frequency.
vt

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Network with the capacitors that affect the high frequency response

in
n.
• Capacitances that will affect the high-frequency response:
 Cbe, Cbc, Cce – internal capacitances



CS, CC – coupling capacitors
CE – bypass capacitor io
Cwi, Cwo – wiring capacitances
ut
ol
us

The capacitors CS, CC, and CE are absent in the high frequency equivalent of the BJT
amplifier.The capacitance Ci includes the input wiring capacitance, the transition
capacitance Cbe, and the Miller capacitance CMi.The capacitance Co includes the
output wiring capacitance Cwo, the parasitic capacitance Cce, and the output Miller
capacitance CMo.In general, the capacitance Cbe is the largest of the parasitic
vt

capacitances, with Cce the smallest.


As per the equivalent circuit,
fH = 1 / 2RthiCi
Rthi = Rs|| R1||R2||Ri
Ci = Cwi+Cbe+CMi = CWi + Cbe+(1- AV) Cbe

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At very high frequencies, the effect of Ci is to reduce the total impedance of the
parallel combination of R1, R2, Ri, and Ci.The result is a reduced level of voltage
across Ci, a reduction in Ib and the gain of the system.
For the output network,

fHo = 1/(2RThoCo)
RTho = RC||RL||ro
Co = Cwo+Cce+CMo

in
At very high frequencies, the capacitive reactance of Co will decrease and
consequently reduce the total impedance of the output parallel branches.
The net result is that Vo will also decline toward zero as the reactance Xc becomes
smaller.The frequencies fHi and fHo will each define a -6dB/octave asymtote.

n.
If the parasitic capacitors were the only elements to determine the high – cutoff
frequency, the lowest frequency would be the determining factor.However, the
decrease in hfe(or ) with frequency must also be considered as to whether its break
frequency is lower than fHi or fHo.

hfe (or ) variation


io
The variation of hfe( or ) with frequency will approach the following relationship
ut
hfe = hfe mid / [1+(f/f)]

• f is that frequency at which hfe of the transistor falls by 3dB with respect to its
mid band value.
• The quantity f is determined by a set of parameters employed in the hybrid 
ol
model.
• In the hybrid  model, rb includes the
• base contact resistance
• base bulk resistance
us

• base spreading resistance


vt

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Hybrid  model

in
• The resistance ru(rbc) is a result of the fact that the base current is somewhat
sensitive to the collector – to – base voltage.

n.
• Since the base – to – emitter voltage is linearly related to the base current through
Ohm’s law and the output voltage is equal to the difference between the base the
base – to – emitter voltage and collector – to – base voltage, we can say that the
base current is sensitive to the changes in output voltage.

• Thus,
f = 1/[2r(C+Cu)]
r = re = hfe mid re
io
ut
• Therefore,
f = 1/[2 hfemid re(C+Cu)]
OR
ol
f = 1/[2 mid re(C+Cu)]
• The above equation shows that, f is a function of the bias configuration.
• As the frequency of operation increases, hfe will drop off from its mid band value
us

with a 6dB / octave slope.


• Common base configuration displays improved high frequency characteristics
over the common – emitter configuration.
• Miller effect capacitance is absent in the Common base configuration due to non
inverting characteristics.
• A quantity called the gain – bandwidth product is defined for the transistor by the
vt

condition,
| hfemid / [1+j(f/f)| = 1
• So that,
|hfe|dB = 20 log10 | hfemid / [1+j(f/f)|
= 20 log101 = 0 dB
• The frequency at which |hfe|dB = 0 dB is indicated by fT.

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| hfemid / [1+j(f/f)| = 1
hfemid / 1+ (fT/f)2  hfemid / (fT/f) =1
( by considering fT>>f)
• Thus, fT = hfemid f OR fT = mid f
• But, f = 1/[2 mid re(C+Cu)]

in
fT = (mid) 1/[2 mid re(C+Cu)]
fT = 1/[2 re(C+Cu)]

n.
Problem:
For the amplifier with voltage divider bias, the following parameters are given:
RS = 1k , R1 = 40k, R2 = 10k, Rc = 4k, RL = 10k
Cs = 10F, Cc = 1 F, CE= 20 F
 = 100, ro =  , VCC = 10

io
C = 36pF, Cu = 4pF, Cce=1pF, Cwi=6pF, Cwo=8pF
a. Determine fHi and fHo
ut
b. Find f and fT
Solution:
To find re, DC analysis has to be performed to find IE.
ol
VB = R2VCC / R1+R2 = 2V
VE = 2 – 0.7 = 1.3V
IE = 1.3/1.2K = 1.083mA
us

re = 26mV / 1.083mA
re = 24.01,
re = 2.4k
Ri = RS||R1||R2||re
vt

Ri = 1.85k

AV = Vo/Vi = - (Rc ||RL) / re


AV = - 119
RThi = Rs||R1||R2||Ri

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RThi = 0.6k
To determine fHi and fHo:
fHi = 1/[2RThiCi] ;
Ci = Cwi+Cbe+(1 – AV)Cbc
= 6pF + 36pF + (1 – (-119)) 4pF
Ci = 522pF

in
fHi = 1/2RThiCi
fHi = 508.16kHz
RTho = Rc||RL

n.
RTho = 2.86k
Co = Cwo+Cce+C Mo
= 8pF+1pF+(1 – (1/-119))4pF
Co = 13.03pF
fHo = 1/2RThoCo
fHo = 8.542MHz io
ut
f = 1/[2 mid re(C+Cu)]
f = 1.66MHz
fT = f
ol
fT = 165.72MHz
Summary – Frequency response of BJT Amplifiers
• Logarithm of a number gives the power to which the base must be brought to
us

obtain the same number


• Since the decibel rating of any equipment is a comparison between levels, a
reference level must be selected for each area of application.
• For Audio system, reference level is 1mW
• The dB gain of a cascaded systems is the sum of dB gains of each stage.
• It is the capacitive elements of a network that determine the bandwidth of a
system.
vt

• The larger capacitive elements of the design determine the lower cutoff
frequencies.
• Smaller parasitic capacitors determine the high cutoff frequencies.
• The frequencies at which the gain drops to 70.7% of the mid band value are called
– cutoff, corner, band, break or half power frequencies.
• The narrower the bandwidth, the smaller is the range of frequencies that will
permit a transfer of power to the load that is atleast 50% of the midband level.

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• A change in frequency by a factor of 2, is equivalent to one octave which results


in a 6dB change in gain.
• For a 10:1 change in frequency is equivalent to one decade results in a 20dB
change in gain.
• For any inverting amplifier, the input capacitance will be increased by a Miller
effect capacitance determined by the gain of the amplifier and the inter electrode
( parasitic) capacitance between the input and output terminals of the active
device.

in
CMi = (1 – AV)Cf
• Also, CMo  Cf (if AV >>1)
• A 3dB drop in  will occur at a frequency defined by f, that is sensitive to the DC

n.
operating conditions of the transistor.
• This variation in  defines the upper cutoff frequency of the design.

Problems:

io
1. The total decibel gain of a 3 stage system is 120dB. Determine the dB gain of
each stage, if the second stage has twice the decibel gain of the first and the third
has 2.7 times decibel gain of the first. Also, determine the voltage gain of the each
stage.
ut
• Given: GdBT = 120dB
We have GdBT = GdB1+GdB2+GdB3
Given, GdB2 = 2GdB1
ol
GdB3 = 2.7GdB1
Therefore, 120dB = 5.7GdB1
GdB1 = 21.05,
us

GdB2 = 42.10
GdB3 =56.84
We have GdB = 10 log[Vo / Vi]
Vo / Vi = antilog ( GdB/10)
vt

G1 = 127.35
G2 = 16.21k
G3 = 483.05k
2. If the applied ac power to a system is 5W at 100mV and the output power is 48W,
determine
a. The power gain in decibels

20
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b. The output voltage


c. The voltage gain in decibels, if the output impedance is 40k.
d. The input impedance

Given: Pi = 5W.Vi = 100mV, Po = 48w Ro = 40k


a. GdB =10 log [48/ 5] = 69.82
b. Po = Vo2 /Ro,

in
Vo = PoRo = 1385.64V
c. Voltage gain in dB = 20 log [1385.64/100m] = 82.83
d. Ri = Vi2 / Pi = 2k

n.
General steps to solve a given problem:
Normally, the amplifier circuit with all the values of biasing resistors, value of  and

Also, fHi, fHo, f and fT


io
values inter electrode capacitances ( Cbe, Cbc and Cce) will be given.
It is required to calculate: fLS, fLC and fLE

Step1: Perform DC analysis and find the value of IE, and re


ut
– Find the value of Ri ( Zi) using the value of re
– Find the value of AVmid
• Step 2: Find fLS using the formula 1/2(Ri+RS)CS
ol
• Step 3: Find fLC using the formula 1/2(RC+RL)CC
• Step 4: Determine the value of fLE using the formula 1/2ReCE
where, Re = RE || [(RS)/ + re]
us

RS = RS||R1||R2
• Step 5: Determine fHi using the formula 1/2RThiCi
where RThi = R1||R2||RS||re
Ci = Cwi + Cbe + (1-AV)Cbc
vt

• Step 6: Determine fHo using the formula 1/2RThoCo


where RTho = RC||RL||ro
Co = Cwo + Cce+ C bc

• Step 7: Determine f using the formula 1/[2 mid re(C+Cu)]

21
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• Step 8: Determine fT using the formula fT = mid f

Problem: Determine the following for the given network:


1. fLs
2. fLc
3. fLE

in
4. fHi
5. fHo
6. f and fT

n.
io
ut
ol

• Given:
VCC = 20V, RB = 470k, RC = 3k, RE = 0.91k, RS = 0.6k, RL = 4.7k
CS = CC = 1F, CE = 6.8 F
us

Cwi = 7pF, Cwo=11pF, Cbe = 6pF, Cbe = 20pF and Cce = 10pF
Solution:
IB = (VCC – VBE) / [RB + ( +1)RE]
IB = 3.434mA
vt

IE =  IB
IE = 3.434mA

re = 26mV / IE
re = 7.56

22
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AV = - (RC||RL) / re
AV = -242.2
Zi = RB|| re
Zi = 754.78 
fLS = 1/2(Ri+RS)CS
fLS = 117.47Hz

in
fLC = 1/2(RC+RL)CC
fLC = 20.66 Hz
fLE = 1/2ReCE ;

n.
where, Re = [(RS /)+ re] || RE
RS = RB || RS
fLE = 1.752kHz

Ci = 1.48nF
RThi = RS || RB|| re
io
Ci = Cwi + Cbe + (1 – AV) Cbc
ut
RThi = 334.27
fHi = 1 / 2(1.48nF)(334.37)
fHi = 321.70 KHz
ol
Co = CWo + Cce + (1 – 1/AV) Cbc
Co = 27.02pF
RTho = RC || RL
us

RTho = 1.83K
fHo = 1 / 2(27.02p)(1.83k)
fHo = 3.21MHz
f = 1 / 2 (100) (7.56)( 20p + 6p)
vt

f = 8.09MHz
fT = f
fT = 803MHz

23
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Equations - Logarithms
1. a = bx, x = logba
2. GdB = 10 log P2 / P1
3. GdB = 20 log V2 / V1

in
Equations – Low frequency response
1. AV = 1 / [1 – j(f1/f)],
where, f1 = 1/2RC

n.
Equations – BJT low frequency response
1. fLs = 1 / [2(RS+Ri)CS] ,
where, Ri = R1||R2||re
2. fLC = 1 /[2(Ro+RL)CC],
where, Ro = RC||ro
3. fLE = 1 / 2ReCE, io
ut
where, Re = RE || ( RS/ +re) and RS = RS||R1||R2
Miller effect Capacitance
CMi = (1 – AV)Cf,
ol
CMO = ( 1 – 1/AV)Cf
BJT High frequency response:
1. AV = 1/ [1 + j(f/f2)]
us

2. fHi = 1 / 2RThiCi,
where, RThi = RS||R1||R2||Ri, Ci = CWi+Cbe+ CMi
3. fHO = 1/ 2RThoCo,
where, RTho = RC||RL||ro
vt

Co = CWo+Cce+ CMo
4. f = 1/[2 mid re(C+Cu)]
5. fT =  f

24
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Analog Electronics Circuits

in
Power Amplifiers

n.
• Introduction
• Definitions and amplifier types
• Series fed class A amplifiers

io
• Transformer coupled class A amplifier
• Transformer coupled amplifier continuation
ut
• Numerical
• Class B amplifier operation
• Class B amplifier circuits
ol
• Numerical
• Amplifier distortion
• Numerical
us

• Second harmonic distortion


• Power transistor heat sinking
• Thermal analogy of power transistor
vt

• Class C and class D amplifiers


• Numerical

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Introduction
 Amplifier receives a signal from some pickup transducer or other input
source and provides larger version of the signal.
 In small signal amplifiers the main factors are usually amplification,
linearity and magnitude of gain.

in
Classes of PAs
 Amplifier classes represent the amount the output signal varies over one
cycle of operation for a full cycle of input signal

n.
 So the following classes of PA are defined
 Class A
 Class B
 Class AB
 Class C io
ut
 Class D

Class A amplifier
ol
• Class A amplifying devices operate over the whole of the input cycle such
that the output signal is an exact scaled-up replica of the input with no
clipping. Class A amplifiers are the usual means of implementing small-
us

signal amplifiers. They are not very efficient. a theoretical maximum of 50%
is obtainable with inductive output coupling and only 25% with capacitive
coupling.
• In a Class A circuit, the amplifying element is biased so the device is always
vt

conducting to some extent, and is operated over the most linear portion of its
characteristic curve Because the device is always conducting, even if there is
no input at all, power is drawn from the power supply. This is the chief
reason for its inefficiency.

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in
n.
Class B
io
ut
• Class B amplifiers only amplify half of the input wave cycle. As such they
create a large amount of distortion, but their efficiency is greatly improved
and is much better than Class A. Class B has a maximum theoretical
ol
efficiency of 78.5% (i.e., π/4). This is because the amplifying element is
switched off altogether half of the time, and so cannot dissipate power.
• A single Class B element is rarely found in practice, though it can be used in
us

RF power amplifier where the distortion levels are less important. However
Class C is more commonly used for this.
vt

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in
n.
Class AB
io
• A practical circuit using Class B elements is the complementary pair or
ut
"push–pull" arrangement. Here, complementary or quasi-complementary
devices are used to each amplify the opposite halves of the input signal,
ol
which is then recombined at the output. This arrangement gives excellent
efficiency, but can suffer from the drawback that there is a small mismatch
at the "joins" between the two halves of the signal..
us

• Class AB sacrifices some efficiency over class B in favor of linearity, so will


always be less efficient (below 78.5%). It is typically much more efficient
than class A.
vt

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in
n.
io
ut
Class C
ol
• Class C amplifiers conduct less than 50% of the input signal and the
distortion at the output is high, but high efficiencies (up to 90%) are
possible. Some applications (for example, megaphones) can tolerate the
us

distortion. A much more common application for Class C amplifiers is in RF


transmitters, where the distortion can be vastly reduced by using tuned loads
on the amplifier stage.
vt

• The input signal is used to roughly switch the amplifying device on and off,
which causes pulses of current to flow through a tuned circuit.

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in
n.
Class D
io
ut
• Class D amplifiers are much more efficient than Class AB power amplifiers.
As such, Class D amplifiers do not need large transformers and heavy
ol
heatsinks, which means that they are smaller and lighter in weight than an
equivalent Class AB amplifier. All power devices in a Class D amplifier are
operated in on/off mode.
us

• These amplifiers use pulse width modulation,


vt

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Comparison of Amplifier classes

in
n.
Series fed class A amplifiers

 It is a fixed bias circuit. io


ut
ol
us
vt

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DC bias operation

The DC bias set by Vcc and Rb Vcc  0.7V


IB 
RB

Collector current IC=βIB

in
Collector –emitter voltage
VCE=VCC-ICRC
Load line

n.
io
ut
ol
us

Power considerations
 The power into an amplifier is provided by the power supply
 With no input supply, current drawn is collector bias current ICq.
vt

pi(dc)=VCCICq
Output power
 The output voltage and current varying around the bias point provide ac
power to the load.

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Using rms signals


 P0(ac)=VCE(rms)IC(rms)
=I2C(rms) Rc
=V2C(rms)/Rc
 Using peak signals

in
The ac power delivered to the load is
p0={VCE(p) IC(p)} / 2
or = {I2c(p)/2} Rc

n.
={V2CE(p)}/2Rc
 Using peak-peak signals
P0(ac)={VCE(p-p) IC(p-p)}/8
= {I2c(p-p)/8} Rc
={V2CE(p)}/8Rc io
ut
Efficiency
 Efficiency of an amplifier represents the amount of ac power delivered from
dc source. It can be calculated using
ol

Po(ac)
%  x100
Pi(dc)
us

Maximum Efficiency
 Maximum voltage swing VCE(p-p)=VCC
 Maximum current swing IC(p-p)=VCC/RC
vt

 Maximum power
Vcc(Vcc / Rc)
Po(ac) 
8

 The maximum power input evaluated using dc bias current set to half of the
maximum value….

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 Maximum Pi(dc)=VCC(maximum IC)


Vcc / Rc
 Vcc
2

 Maximum efficiency = {maximum Po(ac)/


maximum Pi(dc)} x100

in
V 2 cc / 8 Rc
 x100
V 2 cc / 2 Rc

n.
= 25%

Maximum efficiency

io
 The maximum efficiency of a class A series fed amplifier is thus seen to be
25%.
ut
 The maximum efficiency occurs only for ideal conditions of both voltage
and current swing .thus practical circuits will have less than this percentage.
ol
Numerical
Calculate input power, output power and efficiency of the amplifier circuit for the
us

circuit shown below for an input voltage that increases the base current by 10mA
peak.
Data given
 VCC=20V
vt

 Rc=20 ohms
 RB=1k ohms
 β=25

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in
n.
io
ut
Solution
Hint: use the above derived formulae
 Po(ac)=0.625W
ol

 Pi(dc)=9.6W
 Efficiency=6.5%
us
vt

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Transformer coupled class A amplifier

in
n.
io
ut
 The transformer can step up or step down a voltage applied to primary coil .
ol
I 2 N1 V 2 N2
 
I1 N 2 V 1 N1
us

Transformer coupled class A PA


• A form of class A amplifier having maximum efficiency of 50% uses
transformer to couple the output signal to the load.

Impedance transformation
vt

2
RL R 2 V 2 / I 2 V 2 I1 N 2 N 2  N 2 
     
RL1 R1 V 1 / I1 I 2 I 2 N1 N1  N1 

If α=N1/N2 Then Above equation reduces to


2
RL1 R1  N1 
   
2

RL R 2  N 2 

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Load resistance reflected to the primary side as,

R1   2 R 2
OR
RL1   2 RL

in
Transformer coupled amplifier
• Drawing DC and AC load line

n.
• Signal swing and output AC power

VCE ( p  p )  VCE max  VCE min


I C ( p  p )  I C max  I C min
io
(VCE max  VCE min )( I C max  I C min )
ut
Po ( ac ) 
8
N2
VL  V2  V1
ol
N1
Power across the load can be expressed as
us

VL ( rms )
PL 
RL
vt

• IL=I2=N1/N2 IC
• with the output ac power then calculated using
PL=IL2(rms) RL

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Numerical
Calculate the ac power delivered to 8 ohm speaker for the circuit shown below.
The circuit component values result in a dc base current of 6mA, and the input
signal Vi results in a peak base current swing of 4mA.

in
n.
io
ut
Solution:
ol

Step 1: dc load line is drawn vertically from voltage point


VCEQ=VCC=10V
us

Step 2: for IB=6mA the operating point


VCEQ=10V & ICQ=140mA
Step 3: the effective resistance seen at the primary is RL’=(N1/N2)2 RL =72 ohms.
Step 4: the ac load line can be drawn of slope 1/72.
vt

IC=VCE/RL’=10/72=139mA
Mark point A on graph..
ICEQ+IC=140mA+139mA
Connect point A through the point Q to obtain the ac load line.

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For a given base current of 4mA peak , the maximum and minimum collector
current and collector –emitter voltage obtained from graph ..

(VCE max  VCE min )( I C max  I C min )


Po (ac) 
8

in
(18.3  1.7)( 255m  25m)
Po ( ac)   0.477W
8

n.
Efficiency

io
The input dc power obtained from the supply is calculated from the supply dc
voltage and thus average power drawn from the supply Pi(dc)= VCC ICQ
ut
For the transformer coupled amplifier power dissipated by the transformer is small
(due to small resistance)
The only power loss considered here is that dissipated by the power transistor and
ol
calculated by
PQ=Pi(dc) - Po(ac)
us

Po(ac)
%  x100
Pi(dc)
Maximum theoretical efficiency
vt

2
 (VCE max  VCE min) 
%  50  %
 (VCE max  VCE min) 

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Larger the value of VCEmax and smaller the value of VCEmin, the closer the
efficiency approaches the theoretical limit of 50%

Numerical

in
Calculate the efficiency of a transformer coupled class A amplifier for a supply of
12V and outputs of :
a. V(p)=12V

n.
b. V(p)=6V
c. V(p)=2V
Solution :

io
Here VCE=VCC=12V, the maximum and minimum of the voltage swing are
 VCEmax=VCEQ+V(p)=12V+12V=24V
ut
 VCEmin=VCEQ-V(p)=12V-12V=0V
 This results in efficiency of ,
ol
 24  0 
2

%  50   50%
 24  0 

Case ii.
us

 VCEmax=VCEQ+V(p)=12V+6V=18V
 VCEmin=VCEQ-V(p)=12V-6V=6V
 This results in efficiency of 12.5%
vt

Case iii.
 VCEmax=VCEQ+V(p)=12V+2V=14V
 VCEmin=VCEQ-V(p)=12V-2V=10V
 This results in efficiency of 1.39%

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Class B Amplifier operation

• Class B operation is provided when the dc bias leaves the transistor biased
just off, the transistor turning on when the ac signal is applied.
• This is essentially no bias and conducts for only one half cycle.

in
• To obtain output for full cycle , it is required to use two transistors and have
each conduct on opposite half-cycles, the combined operation providing a
full cycle of output on opposite half cycles of output signal.

n.
• Since one part of the circuit pushes the signal high during one half cycle and
other part pulls the signal low during the other half cycle, the circuit is
referred to as push-pull circuit.

io
• Class B operation provides greater efficiency than was possible using single
transistor in class A operation.
ut
Class B push-pull
ol
us
vt

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Power equations
• Input DC power
Pi(dc)=VCC Idc
 Here Idc is the average current drawn 2
Idc  I ( p)
 Hence Idc can be written as 

in
 Hence input power is equal to

2 
Pi (dc)  Vcc I ( p ) 
 

n.
 Output ac power can be evaluated as,

2
V (rms )
Po (ac)  L
RL io
ut
Efficiency:

Po(ac)
%  x100
ol
Pi(dc)
2
VL ( p ) / 2 RL
%  x100%
us

VCC [(2 /  ) I ( p)]


 VL ( p )
 x 100  78.5%
4 Vcc
vt

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Power dissipated by output transistors


• P2Q=Pi(dc)-Po(ac)
• Power handled by each transistor =P2Q/2

Numerical:

in
For a class B amplifier providing a 20V peak signal to a load of 16 ohms (speaker)
and power supply of VCC=30V, determine the input power, output power, and
circuit efficiency.

n.
Solution:
Hint : use the above derived formulae
• Pi(dc)=23.9W
• Po(ac)=12.5W
• Efficiency=52.3% io
ut
For a class B amplifier using supply of VCC=30V and driving a load of 16ohms
determine the maximum input power, output power and transistor dissipation.
ol
Solution:
Hint : use the above derived formulae
 Po(ac)=28.125W
us

 Pi(dc)=35.81W
 Efficiency=78.54%
 Pq=5.7W
vt

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Efficiency in another form

2
V ( p)
Po(ac)  L
2 RL
 2V ( p ) 
Pi (dc)  VCC I dc  VCC  L 

in
  RL 
VL 2( p ) / 2 RL
%  x100

n.
 2V ( p ) 
VCC  L 
  RL 
VL( p )
%  78.54
Vcc
%

io
ut
Numerical
1. Calculate the efficiency of a class B amplifier for a supply voltage of
VCC=24V with peak output voltages of
ol
a. VL(p)=22V
b. VL(p)=6V
us
vt

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Class B amplifier circuits


• To obtain phase inverted signals .
– To use transformers using op-amps
– Using transistors
Phase splitter circuits

in
n.
io
ut
ol

Using BJT
us
vt

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Using op-amp

in
n.
io
Transformer coupled push-pull amplifier
ut
ol
us
vt

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Complementary symmetry circuits

in
n.
Working of the circuit io
ut
• Every transistor will conduct for half cycle
• Single input signal is applied to the base of both transistors
• npn transistor will be biased in conduction for positive half cycle of the
ol

input.
• During negative half cycle pnp transistor is biased into conduction when
us

input goes to negative.


Disadvantages
• One disadvantage is that the need of two separate voltage supplies.
• Cross over distortion in the output signal
vt

• This cross over distortion is referred to as the nonlinearity in the output


signal during cross over from positive to negative or vice-versa. This is due
to the fact that, none of the transistors are on near zero input and thus output
does not follow input.

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Complementary symmetry push-pull circuit using Darlington transistors


• This circuit provides higher output current and lower output resistance.
• Here the load resistance is matched by low output resistance of the driving
source.

in
n.
io
ut
ol

Quasi complementary push-pull transformer less power amplifier

• In practical circuit it is preferred to use npn for both high-current-output


us

devices.
• Practical means of obtaining complementary operation while using same,
matched transistors for the output is provided by a quasi complementary
vt

circuit.

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Circuit

in
n.
io
ut
• Here push-pull operation is achieved by using complementary transistors(Q1
ol

and Q2) before the matched npn output transistors (Q3 and Q4)
• Q1 and Q3 forms a Darlington connection
us

• Q2 and Q4 forms a feedback connection, which similarly provides low-


impedance to drive the load.
• Resistor R2 can be adjusted to minimize cross over distortion by adjusting
the dc bias condition.
vt

• This is the most popular form of power amplifier used today.

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Numerical
For the circuit shown calculate input power, output power and power handled by
each transistor and circuit efficiency.
• Given Vcc=+25V and VEE=-25V
• Input vi=12V

in
• Load resistance=4 ohms

n.
io
ut
ol

Solution:
us

Hint: use the above derived formulae.


• Po(ac)=36.125W
• Pi(dc)=67.75W
vt

• PQ=15.8W
• Efficiency=53.3%

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Numerical
For the circuit calculate maximum input power, maximum output power, input
voltage for maximum power operation and power dissipated by the output
transistor at this voltage.
Solution:

in
Hint: use the above derived formulae
• Pi(dc)=99.47W
• Po(ac)=78.125W

n.
• Efficiency=78.54%
• To achieve maximum power operation the output voltage must be
VL(p)=VCC
• PQ=21.3W
io
ut
Numerical
For the circuit shown, determine the maximum power dissipated by the output
transistors and the input voltage at which this occurs.
ol
Solution:
• PQ=31.66W
us

• VL=15.9V
vt

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Amplifier distortion
• Any signal varying over less than the full 3600 cycle is considered to have
distortion.
• An ideal amplifier is capable of amplifying a pure sinusoidal signal to
provide a larger version, the resulting waveform being a pure sinusoidal

in
frequency sinusoidal signal.
• When distortion occurs, output will not be an exact duplicate of input signal
(except for magnitude)

n.
• Distortion can occur because the device characteristic is not linear. In this
case non linear or amplitude distortion occurs.
• Distortion can also occur because the circuit elements and devices respond

io
to the input signal differently at various frequencies, this being frequency
distortion.
ut
• One technique for describing distorted but period waveforms uses Fourier
analysis, a method that describes any periodic waveform in terms of its
fundamental frequency component and frequency components at integer
ol
multiples- these components are called harmonic components or
harmonics.
us

Example
A fundamental frequency of 1KHz could result in harmonics of 2KHz,3KHz,4KHz
so on.,
vt

• 1KHz is termed as fundamental frequency


• 2KHz is termed as second harmonic
• 3KHz is termed as third harmonic and so on.,

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Harmonic Distortion
• A signal is considered to have harmonic distortion when there are harmonic
frequency components.
• If fundamental frequency has amplitude A1, and nth frequency component
has an amplitude of An.

in
• Harmonic distortion can be defined as

An
% nth harmonic distortion= %D  x100%
A1

n.
Numerical

io
Calculate the harmonic distortion components for an output signal having
fundamental amplitude of 2.5V, second harmonic amplitude of 0.1V, and fourth
ut
harmonic amplitude of 0.05V.
Solution:

A2 0.25
ol
%D  x100%  x100%  10%
A1 2 .5
A3 0 .1
%D  x100%  x100%  4%
us

A1 2 .5
A4 0.05
%D  x100%  x100%  2%
A1 2 .5
vt

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Total harmonic distortion

When an output signal has a number of individual harmonic distortion


components, the signal can be seen to have a total harmonic distortion based on the
individual elements as combined by relation,

in
%THD  D2  D3  D4  .....x100%
2 2 2

Numerical

n.
Calculate the total harmonic distortion for the amplitude components given in
previous example
Solution:

%THD  D2  D3  D4  .....x100%
2 2

io 2
ut
%THD  0.12  0.04 2  0.02 2  .....x100%
%THD  10.95%
ol

Second harmonic distortion


us

Ic=ICQ+Io+I1 cos wt + I2 cos wt


 IcQ quiescent current
 Io additional dc current due to non zero average of the distorted
signal
vt

 I1 fundamental component of current


 2 second harmonic current due to twice the fundamental frequency
Solving for I1 and I2,

Ic max  Ic min  2 Icq


Io  I2 
4
Ic max  Ic min
I1 
2 Vtusolution.in
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Definition of second harmonic can be

1
VCE max  VCE min   VCEQ
D2  2 x100%
VCE max  VCE min

in
In voltage terms

n.
1
(VCEMAX  VCEMIN )  VCEQ
D2  2 x100%
VCEMAX  VCEMIN

io
ut
Numerical

An output waveform displayed on oscilloscope provides the following


ol
measurements,
i.VCEmin=1V; VCEmax=22V;VCEQ=12V
ii.VCEmin=4V;VCEmax=20V;VCEQ=12V
us

solution:

1
22  1  12
i..D 2  2 x100%  2.38%
22  1
vt

1
20  4  12
i..D 2  2 x100%  0%(no  distotion )
22  4

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Power of signal having distortion

• Power delivered to the load resistor Rc due to the fundamental component of


the distorted signal is
2
I R
P1  1 c
2

in
• Total power due to all the harmonic components of the distorted signal is,
Rc
P  ( I1  I 2  I 3  ......)
2 2 2

n.
2
In terms of Total harmonic distortion

P  (1  D2  D3  ......) I1
2

P  (1  THD 2 ) P1
2 2

io
Rc
2
ut
Numerical
ol
For harmonic distortion reading of D2=0.1,D3=0.02 and D4=0.01, with I1=4A and
Rc=8 ohms, calculate THD, fundamental power component and total power.
us

Solution: THD=0.1
P1=64W
P=64.64W
vt

Graphical description of harmonic components of distorted signal

• All the components are obtained by Fourier analysis


• Conclusion: any periodic signal can be represented by adding a fundamental
component and all harmonic components varying in amplitude and at
various phase angles.

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Power transistor heat sinking


Heat is produced in transistors due to the current flowing through them. If you find
that a transistor is becoming too hot to touch it certainly needs a heat sink! The
heat sink helps to dissipate (remove) the heat by transferring it to the surrounding
air.

in
n.
Heat sink

io
• Maximum power handled by a particular device and the temperature of the
transistor junction are related since the power dissipated causes an increase
ut
in temperature at the junction of the device.
• Example : a 100 W transistor will provide more power than 10 W transistor.
ol
• Proper heat sinking techniques will allow operation of a device at about one-
half its maximum power rating.
• There are two types of bipolar transistors
us

 Germanium
Junction temperature : 100 – 1100C
 Silicon
Junction temperature : 150 – 2000C
vt

• Silicon transistors provide greater maximum temperature


• Average power dissipated may be approximated by
PD=VCEIC
• This power dissipation is allowed only up to a maximum temperature.

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• Above maximum temperature, device power dissipation must be reduced


(derated) so that at higher temperature, power handling capacity is reduced.
• The limiting factor in power handling by a particular transistor is the
temperature of the device’s collector junction.
• Power transistors are mounted in large metal cases to provide a large area

in
from which the heat generated by the device may radiate.
• Even then the device power rating limited.
• Instead if the device is mounted on the heat sink power handling capacity is

n.
increased.
• The derated curve for silicon transistor given by

io
ut
ol
us

Mathematical definition.
vt

PD (temp1)  PD (temp0)  (Temp1  Temp 0) x


derating factor

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Numerical:

Determine what maximum dissipation will be allowed for an 80W silicon transistor
rated at 25 degree C. if derating s required above this temp by derating factor of
0.5W/degree C at case temp of 125 degree C.
Solution:

in
Using the above formula
Power derated is 30W

n.
Thermal analogy of power transistor
• θJA total thermal resistance (jn to ambient)
• θJC transistor thermal resistance (jn. To case)

io
• θCS insulator thermal resistance (case to heat-sink
• θSA heat-sink thermal resistance (heat sink to ambient)
• Usng electrcal analogy
ut
• θJA= θJC+ θCS + θSA
• This analogy can be used n applying kirchoff’s law as
TJ = PD θJA +TA
ol

• The thermal factor θ provides information about how much temp drop( or
rise) for amount of power dissipation .
us

• Eg: θJC =0.5 deg C/W means that power dissipation of 50W.the dffernce
between junton temp and case temp s gven by
TJ-TC = θJC PD = 0.5x50 =25 deg C.
• Value of thermal resistance from junction to free air (using HS)  40 deg
vt

C/W
• For this thermal resistance only 1W of power dissipation results n junction
temp 40 deg C greater than the ambient.

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• A HS can now be seen to provide a low thermal resistance between case and
air much less than 40 deg C/W value of case alone. Using HS having
• θSA  2 deg C/W
And insulating thermal resistance (case to HS)
• θCS 0. 8 deg C/W

in
• Finally for transistor
• θJC 0.5 deg C/W
• θJA= θJC+ θCS + θSA

n.
= 2.0 +0.8 +0.5
= 3.3 deg C/W
With HS thermal resistance between air and the junction is only 3.3 deg C/W

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compared 40 deg C/W for transistor operating directly in to free air
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Numerical:

A silicon power transistor s operated with a HS θSA = 1.5 deg C/w. the transistor
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rated at 150W(25 deg C) has θJC =0.5 deg C/W and the mounting insulation has
θCS =0.6 deg C /W. what s the max power dissipated f the ambient temp s 40 deg
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C and TJ max s 200 deg C


• Solution : pd =(TJ-TA)/ θSA + θJC + θCS
= 61.5W
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Class C and Class D amplifiers

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Class C
• The circuit is biased to operate for less than 180 deg of input cycle. The
tuned circuit n the load provide a full cycle of output signal for fundamental
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frequency of tuned LC circuit. This type of operation s thus limited to one
fixed frequency as n communication systems.
• Not suitable for power amplification
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Class D amplifier
• Class D designed to operate with digital or pulse type signals
• Efficiency of 90% can be achieved.
• Desirable for power amplifiers.
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• Necessary to convert any input signal in to pulse type wave before using to
drive a large power load and to convert the signal back to sinusoidal type
signal to recover the original signal .

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• Here class – D amplifier we can also consider D stands for Digital since that
s the name of the signal provided to the class D amplifier .
Block diagram of class D

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• Most of the power applied to the amplifier is transferred to the load the
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efficiency of the circuit s typically very high.
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Chapter.8: Oscillators
• Objectives:
– To understand
• The basic operation of an Oscillator
• the working of low frequency oscillators
– RC phase shift oscillator

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– Wien bridge Oscillator
• the working of tuned oscillator
– Colpitt’s Oscillator, Hartley Oscillator
– Crystal Oscillator
• the working of UJT Oscillator

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Basic operation of an Oscillator
• An amplifier with positive feedback results in oscillations if the following


conditions are satisfied:

feedback network) is unity


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– The loop gain ( product of the gain of the amplifier and the gain of the

– The total phase shift in the loop is 0


If the output signal is sinusoidal, such a circuit is referred to as sinusoidal
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oscillator.
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When the switch at the amplifier input is open, there are no oscillations. Imagine that a
voltage Vi is fed to the circuit and the switch is closed. This results in Vo = AV Vi and
Vo = Vf is fed back to the circuit. If we make Vf = Vi, then even if we remove the input
voltage to the circuit, the output continues to exist.
Vo = AV Vi
Vo = Vf
 AV Vi = Vf
If Vf has to be same as Vi, then from the above equation, it is clear that,  AV =1.

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Thus in the above block diagram, by closing the switch and removing the input, we are
able to get the oscillations at the output if  AV =1, where  AV is called the Loop gain.
Positive feedback refers to the fact that the fed back signal is in phase with the input
signal. This means that the signal experiences 0 phase shift while traveling in the loop.

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The above condition along with the unity loop gain needs to be satisfied to get the
sustained oscillations. These conditions are referred to as ‘Barkhausen criterion’.
Another way of seeing how the feedback circuit provides operation as an oscillator is
obtained by noting the denominator in the basic equation
Af = A / (1+A).

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When A = -1 or magnitude 1 at a phase angle of 180, the denominator becomes 0 and
the gain with feedback Af becomes infinite.Thus, an infinitesimal signal ( noise voltage)
can provide a measurable output voltage, and the circuit acts as an oscillator even without
an input signal.
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Phase shift oscillator
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• The phase shift oscillator utilizes three RC circuits to provide 180º phase shift that
when coupled with the 180º of the op-amp itself provides the necessary feedback
to sustain oscillations.
• The gain must be at least 29 to maintain the oscillations. The frequency of
resonance for the this type is similar to any RC circuit oscillator:
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fr = 1/26RC

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FET phase shift oscillator

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• The amplifier stage is self biased with a capacitor bypassed source resistor Rs and
a drain bias resistor RD . The FET device parameters of interest are gm and rd.


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|A| = gmRL, where RL = (RDrd / RD + rd)
At the operating frequency, we can assume that the input impedance of the
amplifier is infinite.
This is a valid approximation provided, the oscillator operating frequency is low
enough so that FET capacitive impedances can be neglected.
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• The output impedance of the amplifier stage given by R L should also be small
compared to the impedance seen looking into the feedback network so that no
attenuation due to loading occurs.

RC Phase shift Oscillator - BJT version


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• If a transistor is used as the active element of the amplifier stage, the output of the
feedback network is loaded appreciably by the relatively low input resistance
( hie) of the transistor.

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• An emitter – follower input stage followed by a common emitter amplifier stage


could be used.If a single transistor stage is desired, the use of voltage – shunt
feedback is more suitable. Here, the feedback signal is coupled through the
feedback resistor R’ in series with the amplifier stage input resistance ( Ri).

f = (1/2RC)[1/ 6 + 4(RC / R)]

hfe > 23 + 29 (R/RC) + 4 (RC / R)

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Problem:

It is desired to design a phase shift oscillator using an FET having gm = 5000S, rd =


40 k , and a feedback circuit value of R = 10 k. Select the value of C for oscillator

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operation at 5 kHz and RD for A > 29 to ensure oscillator action.

Solution:

• f = 1/26RC ; C = 1/26Rf = 1.3nF


• |A| = gm RL
Let A = 40; RL = |A| / gm = 8 k

IC phase shift Oscillator io


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Wien Bridge
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• When the bridge is balanced,

(R2 / R1) = (R3 / R4) + ( C2 / C1)

f = 1/[2  R3C1R4C2]

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Wien bridge Oscillator
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• R and C are used for frequency adjustment and resistors R1 and R2 form part of
the feedback path.
• If R3 = R4 =R, C1 = C2 = C, the resulting frequency is f = 1/2RC
and R2 / R1 = 2
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Tuned Oscillators

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• A variety of circuits can be built using the above diagram, by providing tuning in
both the input and output sections of the circuit.
• Analysis of the above diagram shows that the following types of Oscillators are

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obtained when the reactance elements are as designated:

Oscillator type X1 X2 X3

Colpitts Oscillator

Hartley Oscillator
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L
C

L
L

C
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Tuned input, Tuned Output LC LC -
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Colpitts Oscillator
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• The Colpitts oscillator utilizes a tank circuit (LC) in the feedback loop. The

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resonant frequency can be determined by the formula below. Since the input
impedance affects the Q, an FET is a better choice for the active device.

fr = 1/2LCT
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CT = C1C2 / C1 + C2
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• An Op amp Colpitts Oscillator circuit can also be used wherein the Op amp
provides the basic amplification needed and the Oscillator frequency is set by an
LC feedback network.

Hartley Oscillator

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The Hartley oscillator is similar to the Colpitts. The tank circuit has two inductors and
one capacitor. The calculation of the resonant frequency is the same.

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f = 1/2LTC

LT = L1 + L2 + 2M
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where, M is mutual coupling
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Crystal Oscillator

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• A Crystal Oscillator is basically a tuned circuit Oscillator using a piezoelectric


crystal as a resonant circuit.
• The crystal ( usually quartz) has a greater stability in holding constant at
whatever frequency the crystal is originally cut to operate.
• Crystal Oscillators are used whenever great stability is required, such as
communication transmitters and receivers.

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Characteristics of a Quartz Crystal

• A quartz crystal exhibits the property that when mechanical stress is applied
across one set of its faces, a difference of potential develops across the opposite
faces.

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• This property of a Crystal is called ‘ Piezoelectric effect’.
• Similarly, a voltage applied across one set of faces of the Crystal causes
mechanical distortion in the Crystal shape.
• When alternating voltage is applied to a crystal, mechanical vibrations are set up
– these vibrations having a natural resonant frequency dependent on the Crystal.

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Although the Crystal has electromechanical resonance, we can represent the
Crystal action by equivalent electrical circuit as shown.
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The inductor L and the capacitor C represent electrical equivalents of Crystal mass
and compliance respectively, whereas resistance R is an electrical equivalent of the
crystal structures internal friction. The shunt capacitance CM represents the
capacitance due to mechanical mounting of the crystal. Because the crystal losses,
represented by R, are small, the equivalent crystal Q factor is high – typically 20,000.
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Values of Q up to almost 106 can be achieved by using Crystals. The Crystal can
have two resonant frequencies. One resonant condition occurs when the reactances of
the series RLC leg are equal. For this condition, the series – resonant impedance is
very low ( equal to R). The other resonant condition occurs at a higher frequency
when the reactance of the series resonant leg equals the reactance of the capacitor CM.
This is parallel resonance or antiresonance condition of the Crystal,
At this frequency, the crystal offers very high impedance to the external circuit.

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To use the crystal properly, it must be connected in a circuit so that its low
impedance in the series resonant operating mode or high impedance in the
antiresonant operating mode is selected.

Series resonant circuits


• To excite a crystal for operation in the series – resonant mode, it may be
connected as a series element in a feedback path.

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• At the series resonant frequency of the crystal, its impedance is smallest and the
amount of feedback is largest.

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R3 can be replaced with RF choke. Resistors R1, R2 and RE provide a voltage divider
stabililized dc bias circuit. Capacitor CE provides ac bypass of the emitter resistor,
RFC coil provides for dc bias while decoupling any ac signal on the power lines from
affecting the output signal. The voltage feedback from collector to base is a maximum
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when the crystal impedance is minimum ( in series – resonant mode). The resulting
circuit frequency of oscillation is set by the series – resonant frequency of the crystal.
The circuit frequency stability is set by the crystal frequency stability which is good.

Parallel resonant circuits


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Since the parallel resonant impedance of a crystal is a maximum value, it is connected


in shunt. The circuit is similar to a Colpitts circuit with Crystal connected as inductor

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element. Maximum voltage is developed across the crystal at its parallel resonant
frequency. The voltage is coupled to the emitter by a capacitor voltage divider
capacitors C1 and C2.

Crystal Oscillator using op amp

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An Op – amp can be used in a crystal oscillator. The crystal is connected in the
series resonant path and operates at the crystal series resonant frequency.
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Unijunction Oscillator

Unijunction transistor( UJT) can be used in a single stage oscillator circuit to provide
a pulse signal suitable for digital circuit applications. The UJT can be used in
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relaxation oscillator.
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The operation of the circuit is as follows: C1 charges through R1 until the voltage
across it reaches the peak point. The emitter current then rises rapidly, discharging C1
through the base 1 region and R3. The sudden rise of current through R3 produces the
voltage pulse. When the current falls to IV the UJT switches off and the cycle is
repeated. Oscillator operating frequency fo = 1/{RTCTln[1/(1-)]} where,  is
intrinsic standoff ratio, typically the value of it is between 0.4 and 0.6.
Using  = 0.5, fo = 1.5 / RTCT

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Capacitor is charged through resistor RT toward supply voltage VBB. As long as the
capacitor voltage VE is below a stand – off voltage (VP) set by the voltage across
B1-B2 and the transistor stand – off ratio .
• VP = VB1VB2 – VD.
When the capacitor voltage exceeds this value, the UJT turns ON, discharging the
capacitor. When the capacitor discharges, a voltage rise is developed across R3.
The signal at the emitter of UJT / across the capacitor is saw tooth, at the base 1 are
positive going pulses and at the base 2 are negative going pulses.

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Summary:

• Phase shift Oscillator, f = 1/2RC6 ,  = 1/29

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• Wien bridge Oscillator f = 1/2RC
• Colpitts Oscillator, f = 1/2 LCeq
• Ceq = C1C2/(C1+C2)
• Hartley Oscillator, f = 1/2 LeqC
• Leq = L1+L2+2M

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UJT Oscillator: f = 1/{RTCTln[1/(1-)]}
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