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THERMAL DESIGN OF TANK COILS :

The thermal design of tank coils involves the determination of the area of heat-transfer surface
required to maintain the contents of the tank at a constant temperature or to raise or lower the
temperature of the contents by a specified magnitude over a fixed time.
Nomenclature :
Ab = area of tank bottom;
Ac = area of coil;
Ae = equivalent area;
A1 = equivalent area receiving heat from external coil;
As = area of sides;
At = area of top;
D = diameter of tank;
F = Design factor or safety factor;
Us = overall coefficient at sides;
Ut = overall coefficient at top;
Uc = overall coefficient of coil;
Ub = overall coefficient at tank bottom;
Ud = overall coefficient of dead air to the tank;
Ui = overall coefficient through insulation;
U2 = overall coefficient at area A2;
L = Length of tank;
T = Temperature difference in hot phase;
t = Temperature in cold phase;
t’= Temperature of surroundings;
ta = Temperature of ambient air;
td = Temperature of dead-air space;
th = Temperature of heating medium;
Maintenance of Temperature :
Tanks are often maintained at temperature with internal coils if the following equations are
assumed to be applicable :
Area of Sides :
𝐴𝑠 = 𝜋DL
= π x 3.2 x 7
As = 70.3717 m2
Area of Tank :
𝐴𝑡 = 𝜋r 2
= π x 1.62
At = 8.0425 m2
Equivalent Area Receiving Heat From External Coils :
A1 = 0.7(At) + As + 3.9(Dt)
= (0.7 x 8.0425) + 70.3717 + (3.9 x 3.2)
A1 = 88.48 m2
Overall Coefficient Through Insulation :
1 1 1
Ui = [ ℎ𝑎′ + ℎ𝑖𝑛𝑠 + ℎ𝑎 ] -1 Since ha’=1.84; hins=0.468; ha=5.9;
1 1 1
= [ 1.84 + 0.468 + 5.9 ] -1

Ui = 0.351
Heat Transfer Rate :
q = (A1) (Td – T) (Ud) + (A1) (Td – Ta) (Ui) Since Ud=1.55; Ui=0.351;
= (88.48) (160 – 30) (1.55) + (88.48) (160 – 20) (0.351)
q = 22176.63 W
Area of Coil :
𝑞𝐹
Ac = 𝑈
𝑐 (𝑡ℎ −𝑡𝑑 )𝑚

22176.63 𝑋 1.2
= 20 𝑋 (230−160) Since, safety factor F = 1.2 for heating coil ; Uc=20;
Ac = 19.0085 m2
Therefore area of coil, Ac = π D L
19.0085
L = π X 0.063

Length of coil, L = 100.342 m

REFERENCE :
Based on a paper “The Design of Heating Coils for Storage Tanks” presented at the Second
National Heat Transfer Conference, Chicago, Aug. 17-20, 1958.

Process Heat Transfer, by D.Q.Kern, McGraw-Hill Book Company,1950.

Chemical Engineers Handbook, by John H. Perry, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 3rd Edition, 1950.