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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of The Research


Language is a sign of sound among community-members, as symbol of
sound that produce by humans’ utterance tool (Keraf 2001 : 1). As a tools of
communication, language from times to times has a progressing experienced.
In a general term language is a means to think of human that expressed in a
speech. Human share their thought and expressing their feelings almost every
day in their interaction using language. Every human in this world use different
language according to their national language. It should be realize that language
is unique, having its own structural, cultural and meaning system.
The most language that spoke by people around the world is English,
because English is a universal language; the language is spoken and understood
almost everywhere on the earth. It constitutes the channel or medium of
communication among the people, since communication requires a sender,
receiver and a channel. In the other words, English language is the
communication means using by people over the world that known as
international language, which could be used as the instruction of expressing and
conveying ideas in many aspect of life, including in education field. In addition
it might help them interact and communicate for making mutual understanding
and then leads to benefits each other.
Moreover, in present day, English language becomes the language learnt
by people in every country over the world, including in Indonesia. Indonesian
Students learning English as a foreign language, because Indonesia is country
that speak English as Foreign Language or EFL. It could be said that Bahasa
Indonesia is as the mother tongue language of student, and English language is
as the target studied by students.
Consequently in this country English language must be learnt and it is one
of compulsory subject in every education level that is, Sekolah Menengah
Pertama (SMP) or Junior High School, Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) or
Senior High School, Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) or Vocational High
School and even in universities. In addition, English language include as local
content subject in education level of Sekolah Dasar (SD) or Elementary School
in the country. The teaching process in education levels is based on the guideline
of rules that stated by the government in the curriculum. The latest one named
Kurikulum 2013 or K-13 and famously called as Kurtilas.
Kurtilas provides some rules about teaching English for each level of
education. According to Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan
(Permendikbud) or The Regulation of Education and Culture Ministry (2016)
states the objective of teaching and learning process in English are consist of
Kompetensi Dasar (KD) or Basic Competence and Kompetensi Inti (KI) or Core
Competence for each language skill such as Reading, Writing, Speaking and
Listening. They exactly explain about minimum materials should be reached as
the outcome of teaching and learning process.
In Kurtilas itself, learning English has some sub-skill besides the four skill.
The sub-skill is consist of language component such as, Vocabulary Building,
Grammar Comprehension and Pronunciation. Those sub skills are include the
integrated skill (the four skill). Integrated skill is the paradigm that looking at
the forth language skills as a unity and cannot be separated. In the other hand,
learning English language is not easy for Indonesian student, because of its
complexity.
Furthermore Indonesia and English languages consist of some element that
built language itself, including its grammatical aspect that constitutes one of
language learning materials. In grammatical of English language, sentence is
one of basic element followed by morpheme, words, phrase, and clause. In
communication also sentence has an important thing since it can express
someone’s idea that will be understood by listener. A sentence is a group of
words that are put together to mean something. A sentence is the basic unit of
language which express a complete thought. In non-functional linguistic, a
sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically
linked. In functional linguistic, a sentence is a unit of written texts delimited by
graphological features such as upper case letters and markers such as periods,
question marks, and exclamation marks. In linguistic, sentence function refers
to a speaker ‘s purpose in uttering a specific sentence, phrase, or clause.
Whether the listener is present or not is sometimes irrelevant. It is means that
through sentence, people can deliver their messages -in certain way- that would
be understood by others depends on their needs, for this case, by using sentence
patterns had been formed which consciously or not is similar. And then leads to
existence of communication among them.
Actually, there is a diversity of sentence in English language, relating to its
purpose, it is classified into five. They are a declarative sentence or declaration,
a negative sentence or negation, an interrogative sentence or question, an
exclamatory sentence or exclamation, and an imperative sentence or command.
And the most important type is declarative sentence that always used far more
often than the other four types of sentences. A declarative sentence (also known
as a statement) make a statement and ends with a period. Declarative sentence
states or declares something, it is states a fact or argument, states an idea,
without demanding either an answer or action from the reader, it does not give
a command or request and ask a question.
Therefore, in English Grammar book cited from Anita Kusumawati paper
explained that the declarative mood usually used for: giving information,
expressing opinion, making promises, and emphasis. In addition, it can be used
for confirming that something is true, giving an instruction in a fairly informal
way. Declarative mood is an epistemic mood that signals the proposition
expressed by a speaker’s utterance is offered as an unqualified statement of fact
and discussion. The term indicative is used in a narrow sense as a synonym of
declarative.
Remembering its functions, it is very important for the students studying
language to learn about declarative sentence of the language. In short, for
learners who are learning a language, they have to study declarative sentence in
their own language besides declarative sentences in the foreign language
studied. In view of every language has its basic structure of sentences, both
Indonesian and English. So certainly there are differences between the rules of
declarative sentences in each language that can lead some difficulties faced by
the students. In this case, the difficulties faced by Indonesian students who
learning English as the target language.
Hence, comparing both declarative sentence patterns between the two
languages will help to find out their differences and similarities, and then allow
for prediction of the difficulties faced by students (Indonesian native speaker)
in learning the target language (English).
To compare the both language, Indonesian and English, the writer uses
Contrastive Analysis since it is a linguistic enterprise aimed at producing
inverted (i.e. contrastive, not comparative) two-valued typologies (a Contrastive
Analysis always concerned with a pair of languages), and founded on the
assumption that language can be compared (Carl James 1980 : 3) cited from
Anita Kusumawati paper. Contrastive analysis is the systematic study of a pair
of languages with a view to identifying their structural differences and
similarities. Contrastive Analysis was extensively used in the 1960s and early
1970s as a method of explaining why some features of a Target Language were
more difficult to acquire than others. According to the behaviorist theories,
language learning was a question of habit formation, and this could be
reinforced by existing habits. Therefore, the difficulty in mastering certain
structures in a second language depended on the difference between the learners'
mother language and the language they were trying to learn (Katharina Ruspita
“CA, EA, Interlanguage and The Implementation of Language Teaching
Journal 2011).
In contrastive linguistic the focus is on general or on language specific
features. The term 'contrastive linguistics', or 'contrastive analysis', is especially
associated with applied contrastive studies advocated as a means of predicting
and/or explaining difficulties of second language learners with a particular
mother tongue in learning a particular target language.
Actually Contrastive Analysis has many different levels of comparison,
such as in phonology, morphology, syntax, lexis and culture those differ
between languages each other. It identifies points of differences and provided
results that will be important in language teaching. In this research the
researcher identifies the sentence pattern of declarative sentence using
contrastive analysis.
Based on Description above, the researcher determine to conduct the
research entitles “Contrastive Analysis Between Indonesia and English
Declarative Sentences”

B. Identification of The Problem


Based on the background of research above, the researcher might conclude
the commons problems as follows:
1. There is the complex differences in sentence pattern of declarative sentence
between Bahasa Indonesia and English in Contrastive Analysis.
2. There is similarities sentence pattern of declarative sentence between
Bahasa Indonesia and English in Contrastive Analysis.
3. Student were lack of knowledge in English language.
4. Student made some error in translating declarative sentence Bahasa
Indonesia into English because of the different rules of sentence pattern.
5. The student had difficulties in translating Bahasa Indonesia and English,
because English had different writing and spelling.

C. Research Question
In this research, the researcher has three main points of the research problem
those are:
1. What are the differences between Indonesia and English declarative
sentence based on Contrastive Analysis?
2. What are the similarities between Indonesia and English declarative
Sentence based on Contrastive Analysis?
3. How are the errors made by student in making the declarative sentences?
D. The Aims of The Research
Concerning the research question of this research, the writer states the aims
of the research as follows:
1. To know the differences between Indonesia and English declarative
sentence based on Contrastive Analysis.
2. To know the similarities between Indonesia and English declarative
Sentence based on Contrastive Analysis.
3. To know the errors made by student in making the declarative sentences.

E. Benefit of The Research


The data finding of the research can be contributed and benefit for every
aspect in society those are:
1. Theoretically
a. Assisting the student to fluent and increase their ability in learning
English.
b. Enriching the teacher’s knowledge about the appropriate technique in
teaching grammar.

2. practically
a. Researcher
This research become a spirit in creating and researching a new topic
in the daily activity that purposed to become a solving problem for every
appearance problem.

b. Students
The research could help the student in learning a foreigner language
especially English. The finding of the research impact to students’
ability in learn English and become a reference in adding knowledge.
c. Teacher
From the research, the researcher hope that teacher could be able in
finding students’ error in English learning process that help them to
improve of what the error are to be correct. This research become a
reference in teaching English to student.