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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

University of the City of Manila


College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Emulsification of Polystyrene from Waste Styrofoam


and Trihydroxypropane from Crude Glycerol for the
Production of Fire and Heat Resistant Foam Sheet

Submitted by:
DIONISIO, Charles Amiel P.
MENDOZA, Marian D.
RAYMUNDO, Karl Joshua O.
SALIGUE, Mikho Yves M.
YUMUL, Maria Lara Angela B.

BS ChE V

____________________________
Engr. Milagros R. Cabangon

____________________________ ____________________________
Dr. Denvert C. Pangayao Engr. April Anne Tigue

19 November, 2018

Catalytic Conversion of Trihydroxypropane derived from Crude Glycerol


for the Production of Epichlorohydrin Title Proposal 1
Dionisio, Mendoza, Raymundo, Saligue, Yumul
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
University of the City of Manila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

PROCESS

Catalytic Conversion of Trihydroxypropane derived from Crude Glycerol


for the Production of Epichlorohydrin Title Proposal 2
Dionisio, Mendoza, Raymundo, Saligue, Yumul
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
University of the City of Manila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

PRODUCT

Epichlorohydrin

Epichlorohydrin, a traditional fossil based bulk


chemical commodity for industrial purposes, is an
epoxide made from synthesizing allyl alcohol, allyl
chloride, dichlorohydrin or propylene (Giri, 1997).
Epichlorohydrin is largely used in production processes
including epoxy resins and manufacturing polymers,
giving it a worldwide scale of around 2 million tons per
year (Lari, Pastore, Mondelli, & Pérez-Ramírez, 2018). Figure 2.7 - Epichlorohydrin
One of the applications is to strengthen paper as a strength additive. Using
epichlorohydrin enables a paper producer to use less pulp and more fillers while
maintaining strength and stiffness (Bower, 2000). Epichlorohydrin usage also can be
found in adhesives, elastomers, plastics and rubbers as well. (Pembere AM, Yang M,
& Luo Z, 2017).

Applications of Epichlorohydrin

Currently, approximately 50% of the total annual market demand for


epichorohydrin is consumed by medical applications, 30% is allocated for
polymeric flocculant and water softening agent, and the remaining 20% is used
on other applications. These current applications of sodium polystyrene sulfonate
are enumerated in the succeeding table:

Table: Applications of Epichlorohydrin

Application Information

Catalytic Conversion of Trihydroxypropane derived from Crude Glycerol


for the Production of Epichlorohydrin Title Proposal 3
Dionisio, Mendoza, Raymundo, Saligue, Yumul
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
University of the City of Manila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

In this study, the researchers will focus on the production of Sodium


polystyrene sulfonate as a polymeric flocculant and water softening agent.

Table 1.1 - Standard and Commercial Properties of Epichlorohydrin


Property Unit Standard a Commercialc Proposed
Color - Colorless
Odor - pungent, garlic-
like
Boiling Point °C 116-118
Flash Point °C 31-34
Solubility - soluble in water
(50- mg/mL at
20-25 °C);
miscible with
most organic
solvents
Density g/cm3 1.18-1.20
Viscosity poise 0.0103 at 25 °C
Infrared Spectra cm-1 2,960 (CH2,
asymmetric),
2,906 (CH2,
symmetric),
2,867 (C-H) b
Mass Spetrometry (Gas m/z Top peak: 57
Chromatography) 2nd highest: 27
3rd highest: 29
a PUBCHEM Open Chemistry Database, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/epichlorohydrin

Catalytic Conversion of Trihydroxypropane derived from Crude Glycerol


for the Production of Epichlorohydrin Title Proposal 4
Dionisio, Mendoza, Raymundo, Saligue, Yumul
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
University of the City of Manila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

b Shodhganga, FTIR and FTR Spectral Analysis of Epichlorohydrin

TESTING

Aside from its physical properties, Epichlorohydrin may also be tested by the
following EPA methods:
Table 2.3 – Laboratory Tests Available for Epichlorohydrin

Source: ALS Global


REFERENCES
Almena, A., & Martin, M. (2016). Technoeconomic analysis of the production of
epichlorohydrin from glycerol. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 55,
3226-3238.

Bell, B. M., Briggs, J. R., Campbell, R. M., Chambers, S. M., Gaarenstroom, P. D.,
Hippler, J. G., et al. (2008). Glycerin as a renewable feedstock for epichlorohydrin
production. the GTE process. CLEAN – Soil, Air, Water, 36(8), 657-661.

Bower, B. K. (2000). Polyamidoamine/epichlorohydrin resins bearing polyol


sidechains as dry strength agents. Washington, DC: U.S.: U.S. Patent No. 6,165,322.

Giri, A. K. (1997). Genetic toxicology of epichlorohydrin: A review


doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5742(96)00042-7

Ilham, Z. & Saka, S. (2016). Esterification of glycerol from biodiesel production to


glycerol carbonate in non‑catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate. DOI:
10.1186/s40064-016-2643-1

Kosmider, A., Leja, K., & Czaczyk, K., (2012). Improved Utilization of Crude Glycerol
By-Product from Biodiesel Production. Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland.

Catalytic Conversion of Trihydroxypropane derived from Crude Glycerol


for the Production of Epichlorohydrin Title Proposal 5
Dionisio, Mendoza, Raymundo, Saligue, Yumul
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
University of the City of Manila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Lari, G. M., Pastore, G., Haus, M., Ding, Y., Papadokonstantakis, S., Mondelli, C., et al.
(2018). Environmental and economical perspectives of a glycerol biorefinery. Energy
& Environmental Science,

Tan, H. W., Abdul Aziz, A. R., & Aroua, M. K. (2013). Glycerol production and its
applications as a raw material: A review
doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.06.035

Wang, M., Zhou, J., Mao, G., & Zheng, X. (2012). Synthesis of TS-1 from an inorganic
reactant system andits catalytic properties for allyl chloride epoxidation. Industrial &
Engineering Chemistry Research,51(39), 12730-12738.

Wang, S., Wong, D. S., Jang, S., & Huang, S. (2017). Novel plant-wide process design
for producingdichlorohydrin by glycerol hydrochlorination
doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2016.05.055

Catalytic Conversion of Trihydroxypropane derived from Crude Glycerol


for the Production of Epichlorohydrin Title Proposal 6
Dionisio, Mendoza, Raymundo, Saligue, Yumul