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Design of Baggage Handling

Systems
Overview
Presentation Overview

1. Considerations when designing a


Baggage Handling System (BHS)
2. Departure Systems
3. Arrivals Systems
4. Specifying a System
5. Typical Project Timeframes and Team
6. Lifetime, Maintenance and through life
costs
7. BHS Controls
8. Case Studies
1

Considerations when designing a


Baggage Handling System (BHS)?
Why have a Baggage Handling System (BHS)

Why have a baggage handling system?

2 (Two) simple reasons

1. On Passenger departure
To take bags from passengers at check in, comply with
security regulations and transfer all bags to the correct
Aircraft in a quick and efficient manner.

2. On Passenger Arrival
To quickly reunite the passenger with all their bags
So what size of BHS does an Airport need?

The size and type of Baggage handling system is


determined by the following:

A. The Passenger numbers (existing and future)


B. Frequency and nature of Flights
C. The type of Terminal i.e.
Domestic and / or International.
D. Security requirements domestic and
International.
E. The project type i.e. A new or expanded or
redeveloped Airport
A. Passenger Numbers and Bag Size

Key to determining the BHS size is.


• The peak number of passengers now and in the
future.
• The nature and type of travel
• The anticipated number of bags per passenger.
• Typical size of bags (Standard Gauge bag)
Airport Size Definition

BHS Terminal / Airport Size broad definition

• Small less than 2million passengers per annum

• Medium between 2 to 15 million passengers per annum

• Large Greater than 15 million passengers per annum


Bag Sizes

As defined in IATA Airport development reference manual (9th edition)

Standard Gauge baggage


Length 450 - 900mm
Width 150 - 300mm
Height 400 - 750mm
Mass 10 - 60 kg

Oversize Baggage (OB)


Length 901 - 2500mm
Width 301 - 600mm
Height 751 - 1500mm
Mass 10 - 70 kg
B. Number and types of Flights

Domestic Flights
•Generally smaller planes
•Higher frequency
•Shorter check In times required
•Less tolerance for delays both at check in and arrivals
•Generally less checked in baggage

International Flights
•Larger Planes
•Less frequent
•Check in process starts earlier
•Greater number and generally larger checked in bags
C. Type of Terminal

Domestic Terminals
•Tend to be simpler in design and concept
•Require less dwell time for passengers
•Less retail space
•The passenger has less tolerance for waiting.
•Generally less security requirements

International Terminals
•Tend to have more complex in design and concept
•By nature international travel requires more time for passenger check
in and processing.
•More retail space and complicated terminal facilities
•The passenger has more tolerance for waiting.
•More security requirements
D. Security Requirements

Baggage Security needs to consider the following:

Terror protection, contraband prevention, general security and law


enforcement

•Local Laws and security


•National Laws and Regulations
•International laws
•The laws applicable to the final destination of the flight
E. The Project Type

There are different considerations depending on the type of BHS project.

New Terminal (Green Field)


•Opportunity to start design on a “clean sheet” of paper
•Opportunity to use the best and latest BHS technologies.
•Opportunity to save money through less staff and labour
•Opportunity to change work processes and become more efficient
•Easier Installation and commissioning of the BHS

Existing Terminal (Brown Field)


•Normally a requirement to use or modify either existing baggage system.
•Opportunity to improve the existing BHS
•With good design there is the opportunity to save costs
•More difficult Installation and commissioning of the BHS
2.

Departure Systems
Process Overview

Security Flight
Check in Sortation
Screening Make-up
Model System

View in 3D with Deep View


Free at
www.righthemisphere.com/dv
Model System
The Bag Departure Process

Typical Bag Departure Process

The steps…….

•Step 1 Passenger Check In


– Bags Weighed
– Bags Tagged
•Step 2 Bags Transported
•Step 2A Bags Tracked
•Step 3 Bags Security Screened
•Step 4 Bags transported and Sorted to Flights
Departure Systems

Step 1 Passenger Check In.


Departure Systems: Styles of Check In.

Inline Style.
•Simple and Typical for most airports
•Economic use of space for small to medium size airports.
•Most commercially economic

•Picture Here
Departure Systems: Styles of Check In.
Island Style
•Generally used in large Airports for high passenger numbers
•More expensive but is used to stop a terminal elongating.
•Requires a large check In hall space
Passenger Check In Conveyors

Types of Check In Conveyors

Static Scale.

Picture Here

Cost Low
Space Low
Labour High
Ergonomics Bad
Terminal Suitability Small
Passenger Check In Conveyors

Single Check In Conveyor

Picture

Cost Medium
Space Low
Labour Low
Ergonomics Good
Terminal Suitability Small to Medium
Passenger Check In Conveyors

Double Check In Conveyor

Picture

Cost Medium
Space Medium
Labour Low
Ergonomics Good
Terminal Suitability Medium to Large
Passenger Check In Conveyors

Triple Check In Conveyor

Cost High
Space High
Labour Low
Ergonomics Good
Terminal Suitability Large to Hub
Passenger Check In

Collector Conveyor
Check In: Architectural Interfaces

Issues to consider in the check In area.

•There will be a need for Scale readouts on desks.


•Power to the scale.
•Control panels on desks (Stop/start switches etc.)
•Gap between desks
•Clearances between scales and desks
Check In: Architectural Interfaces
Check In: Architectural Interfaces
Departure System

Step 2 Bags Transported


Baggage Transport From Check In to Airside

Baggage handling providers should be able to provide the full range of


baggage Handling transport conveyors.

Key Criteria for Mechanical Equipment:

•Simple slider bed Construction


•Well Proven track record within the Airport Baggage environment
•Reliable
•Modular and Compatible across the range
•Able to be expanded and modified in the future
•Use Airport standard conveyor fire rated belting
Baggage Handling Equipment

¾ Industry Averages for Baggage conveyor throughput

¾ Check In conveyors “rule of thumb” 1 bag per check In per minute

¾Typical Average conveyor line operate 1800 bags per hour (30 bags per
minute)

¾ Maximum peak 3600 bags per hour (60 bags per minute)
General Transport: Architectural Interfaces
General Transport: Architectural Interfaces

Key Considerations for BHS

• Maintenance access and space


• Walking Space adjacent to conveyors for un jamming bags.
• Head clearance
• Dolly Clearance
• Clearance from adjacent services
• Ceiling and Floor loads
• Building Structure for hanging platforms and conveyors
General Transport: Architectural Interfaces
General Transport: Architectural Interfaces
General Transport: Architectural Interfaces
General Transport: Architectural Interfaces
General Transport: Architectural Interfaces
Baggage Hall Architectural Interface
Departure System

Step 2A Bag Tracking


Bag Tracking

Why do we need bag Tracking?

•To ensure that security screened bags are in fact verifiably cleared
•So bags can be sorted to their destinations if automated sortation is used
•To Allow for Baggage reconciliation in the baggage make up process.

Types of Bag Tracking.

Simple Bar Code readers 95% read rate


•Very low cost and universally used

Radio Frequency Identification RFID Claimed read rate 99.99%


•High cost per unit (5 cents each)
•Still waiting on industry standard
Bar Code Reader
Manual Encode Station

When using Bar Code tags and read rate of 95% as 5% will not be read then…..

It is necessary to allow for a manual Encode station or


Departure System

Step 3 Baggage Security Screening


Baggage Security: Applicable Type.

There are many types and National codes for baggage security screening.
The applicable security practice for the Country, region or airport must be
used.
Some Examples………
National Security Codes

make up make up make up


carousel carousel carousel

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3


CT (#1) CT (#2) *ETD
automatic automatic manual
machine machine inspection
decision decision

*ETD : Explosive Trace Detection (Handheld)


National Security Codes

make up make up make up make up make up


carousel carousel carousel carousel carousel

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5


Multi-view Multi-view CT CT reconcile
automatic operator automatic operator with
machine decision machine decision passenger
decision decision
National Security Codes

make up make up make up make up make up


carousel carousel carousel carousel carousel

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5


Multi-view Multi-view Multi-view *ETD reconcile
automatic 1st operator 2nd operator manual with
machine decision decision inspection passenger
decision

*ETD : Explosive Trace Detection (Handheld)


Explosive Detection Devices

Tunnel
Exterior Geometry (excl Geometry
maintenance area) (mm) Max. Baggage Size

Lengt Belt Lengt


Width h Height Width Height RL Width h Height Weight Security Screening
Make Model (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (kg) Authority Acceptance

L3 Communications eXaminer 3DX TSA certified

Optional Algorithm
L3 Communications 1,000 800
Turning - TSA centified
MVT-HR

L3 Communications VIS-108

GE InVision CTX 9000 Dsi

(1) (1)
760 600
GE InVision CTX 9400 Dsi 2,413 4,759 2,223 1,020 600 1,400 7,779 TSA certified
(2) (2)
1,020 400

GE InVision CTX 5500 DS

HI-SCAN 10080
Smith Heimann
EDtS

HI-SCAN 10080
Smith Heimann
EDX-2is

UK Department of
Rapiscan Systems MVXR5000 1,650 4,344 2,003 1,003 802 816 990 2,500 750 5,000
Transport (DfT) Accepted

Rapiscan Systems Rapiscan 528


Baggage Security Layouts

Small System Single Line Manual Inspection.


Baggage Security Layouts

Small System Single Line Manual Inspection.


Large Screening Matrix

Drawing Required here


Baggage Security Matrix
Departure System

Step 4 Bags Sorted to Flights


Baggage Hall Architectural Interface
Types of Sort Systems

Types of Sort Systems is dependent on


• Terminal Size
• Number of bags to be sorted
• Number and frequency of flights

So Types of Sortation
1. Small to medium Size Terminal
• Manual from the end of a conveyor or Carousel

2. Medium to Large Size


• Automatic sortation
• Pusher type sortation
• TiltTray Sorter
Manual Sort Examples

End of Conveyor type


Manual Sort Examples

Carousel Sortation
Belt/Pusher Sortation

•Picture Here

•Lower investment cost


•System redundancy potential
•Turning radius is relatively smaller
•Lower power consumption, economy mode
•Common spare parts with main BHS system
•Ease of system expansion or modification
Tilt Tray Sortation

• Expensive
• Single point of failure
• Difficult to expand and modify
• High energy consumptions
Automated Sort Destinations

Laterals
Picture
Automated Sort Destinations

Carousels
Oversize Baggage

It is necessary to allow for oversize baggage.

Key points
• Conveyor is generally wider than standard 1200-1370mm
• The system should be as straight as possible and avoid curves if possible
• It will be necessary to allow for security screening
Transfer Baggage

Can be handled in 2 ways.

1. Small Terminals

•Generally handle Transfer baggage manually

2. Larger Terminals

•Injected bags into the system prior to security screening after manually
encoding

•Manually after security screening bags sent to a Transfer carousel.


Sometimes a dedicated security area on the ground floor.
3

Arrivals System
Arrivals Systems

Key Considerations when designing an Arrivals System


•Number of arriving passengers and size of Aircraft.
•Size of bags typical of destinations
•Peak Arrival Times
•Passenger congestion in the baggage reclaim Area
•Passenger flow in the baggage reclaim area
•Noise

These factors will determine


•The type and size of Carousels
•The layout and configuration of the carousels within the reclaim area
•The carousel feed system
Arrivals Systems

Typical Bag Arrival Process

The steps…….

• Step 1 Passenger Arrives on aircraft

• Step 2 Bags Transported from Aircraft to baggage hall

• Step 2a Bags Security Screened (option)

• Step 3 Bags placed on Arrivals conveyor or reclaim Carousel

• Step 4 Bags picked up by passenger


Arrival System

Step 2a Arrival Baggage Security Screened

Generally very simple.


Generally manual processes
Usually Labour Intensive
So….

Normally consists of an EDS machine sited near reclaim


Carousel.
Arrival System

Step 2a Arrival Baggage Security Screened


Baggage Reclaim Carousels

Reclaim Carousels.

Design considerations.
• Number of arriving passengers and size of Aircraft.
• Size of bags typical of destinations
• Peak Arrival Times
• Passenger congestion in the baggage reclaim Area
• Passenger flow in the baggage reclaim area
• Noise
Baggage Reclaim Carousels

Typical Carousel Shapes


Baggage Reclaim Carousels
Baggage Reclaim Carousels
Arrival Systems Reclaim: Carousel Options

Sloped Plate Type. (Inclined Dispenser)


•Suitable for remote feeds.
•Good for large bags
•Good for high density and large number of passengers
•Slightly more expensive than other options
•Can have a bigger footprint compared to other carousels
Arrival Systems Reclaim: Carousel Options

Crescent Plate Type. Pallet Loop


•Robust construction.
•Not generally recommended for remote bag feed
•Good for small to medium size airports
•Slightly more economic than other options
•small footprint compared to Inclined Plate
Arrival Systems Reclaim: Carousel Options

Overlapping Slat Type. Multipath


•Slightly Wider conveying width than pallet loop
•Not generally recommended for remote bag feed
•Good for small to medium size airports
•Slightly more economic than other options
•Small footprint compared to Inclined plate
Baggage Claim Devices vs. Aircraft Seat Capacity

Direct Feed ft (m) Remote Feed ft (m)


Pallet Loop or Multipath Incline Dispenser (Sloped plate)

Aircraft Claim length Bag off Total Claim length Bag off loading Claim length Bag Off loading
Seating Exposure to Offloading Length Incline length 1 or 2 feeds Pallet loop or length 1 or 2 feeds
Capacity Public length Dispenser Multipath
Exposure to Exposure to
Public Public

420 205 (62.5) 90 (27.4) 295 (90) 250 (76) 2 feeds 40 (12) 270 (82) 2 feeds 40 (12)

370 175 (53.3) 80 (24.4) 255 (78) 210 (64) 2 feeds 40 (12) 235 (72) 2 feeds 40 (12)

270 130 (39.6) 70 (21.3) 200 (61) 150 (46) 2 feeds 30 (9) 170 (52) 2 feeds 30 (9)

200 100 (30.5) 50 (15.2) 150 (46) 120 (37) 1 feed 40 (12) 130 (40) 1 feed 40 (12)

170 80 (24.4) 40 (12.2) 120 (37) 90 (27) 1 feed 40 (12) 100 (30.5) 1 feed 40 (12)

140 70 (21.3) 35 (10.7) 105 (32) 75 (23) 1 feed 30 (9) 80 (24) 1 feed 30 (9)

100 50 (15.2) 25 (7.6) 75 (23) 60 (18) 1 feed 30 (9) 65 (20) 1 feed 30 (9)

Assumptions
85% load factor
75 to 35% Terminations
Baggage ratio 1.3 per passenger
12.5 bags per minute per handler
4

Specifying a System
Specifying a system & BHS Vendors

Q. When is the best time to get a Baggage Handling system supplier


involved in a project?
A. As soon as possible.

Q. Performance based or product based solution?


A. Generally a performance based solution is better however the
disadvantage to the airport is it makes it difficult to compare “apples
with apples”

Q. Should all vendors be pre-qualified?


A. Absolutely, all vendors should be able to demonstrate the completion of
successful projects of similar size to your project.
Specifying a system & BHS Vendors

Q. Should we engage a baggage Handling Consultant?


A. This depends on the size of the project, small to medium size projects
can be handled by a competent BHS provider

Q. What about Larger projects?


A. Again these can be designed by a experience BHS vendor but generally
it is also best to engage a consultant as part of the design team.

Q. Where can I find a BHS consultant?


A. Sadly they a few and far between. The biggest gap in industry knowledge
right now is in the area of security screening
Useful Reference Documents and Books
5

Typical Project Timeframes


Typical Project Times from Start to Finish

Start. Defined as Initial concept design in a designed building


Finished. Defined as handed over to the end user after
commissioning

Typical areas the BHS vendor does not have timeline control over

• Building design and iterations


• Finance for the project
• Staged Installation requirements
Typical Project Times from Start to Finish

So some very broad examples of time frames

¾ For a simple reclaim loop or small check In area


Start to finish time 6-8 months

¾ A small domestic terminal 1 to 2 million passengers per annum


Start to finish time 12-24 months.

¾ Medium size International Airport 5-10 million passengers per annum


Start to finish time 30-48 months

¾ Large International Airport 30 million plus passengers per annum


Start to finish time 36-60 months
6

Lifetime
Maintenance and through life costs
BHS Lifetime

Generally Accepted Lifetime of a BHS is 10 or 15 years

Key to longevity, lower through life costs is:

• A Well designed layout in terms of conveyor/sub system duties


• Keeping BHS component suppliers to a minimum
• The use of variable frequency drives for stop/start conveyors
• The use of Economy mode type functions in large systems
• Well trained and Skilled Operational and Maintenance Staff
• Commonality of parts across the site
• A planned maintenance program
7

BHS Controls

Control System
Drive System
Safety Systems
PLCs
Field Bus
Control Systems

PLC based conveyor control: GlideControl


Human Machine Interface: GlideView SCADA
Flight Sortation & Allocation: GlideSort SAC
Baggage Reconciliation: GlideScan BRS
3. Control Systems
Control System Elements

What is a control system?


What defines it?
What does it do?

Conveyor control
Conveyor drive
Operator control panels
Bag Tracking
HMI panels
Safety Systems
I/f to EDS systems
I/f to GV, GS
GlideControl
Field Devices

Photo Sensor (PE)


Pulse Wheel (PX)
Beacons/Sounders
Push Buttons/Indicators
Conveyor Drive System

Motors
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)
Motor Isolator
Thermal Overload
Distributed or centralised
Safety Systems

Guaranteed Safe Operation,


Electrical control
Safety Categories
CAT 1 Minor Injury
CAT 2 Minor injury
CAT 3 Chance of serious injury
CAT 4 Injury causing death
Emergency Stop Zoning
Independent Reset function
PLC

Industrial Computer, Very reliable


Compact Size
Designed for modular operation
Centre of the System
Bag Tracking

Belt Tracking
Bag Identification

PLC – On the Belt Tracking


Conveyor A Tracking Model Conveyor B Tracking Model

Rotary Encoder Rotary Encoder 4


1 2 3 5

Head Conveyor A Tail Head Conveyor B Tail

Photo Eye Photo Eye


Field Bus Systems

DeviceNet
ASi
ProfiBus
Ethernet I/O