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Process Industry Practices Civil PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria TECHNICAL CORRECTION June 2007

Process Industry Practices Civil

PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

TECHNICAL CORRECTION

June 2007

PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES

In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time.

© Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin, Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written authorization of PIP.

PRINTING HISTORY

June 1999

Issued

February 2005

Complete Revision

June 2001

Technical Correction

June 2007

Technical Correction

Not printed with State funds

Process Industry Practices Civil PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria TECHNICAL CORRECTION June 2007 Table of

Process Industry Practices Civil

PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

TECHNICAL CORRECTION

June 2007

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2

1.1 Purpose

2

1.2 Scope

2

2. References

2

2.1 Process Industry Practices

2

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards

2

2.3 Government Regulations

3

3. Definitions

3

4. Requirements

4

4.1 Environmental Protection

4

4.2 Geotechnical Engineering Investigations

5

4.3 Site Preparation and Grading

6

4.4 Excavation and Backfill

6

4.5 Erosion Control

6

4.6 Railroad Work

6

4.7 Roads, Paving, and Surfacing

7

4.8 Curbs, Gutters, and Walkways

12

4.9 Sewers

13

4.10 Fencing

15

4.11 Landscaping, Seeding, and

Sodding 15

PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

1. Introduction

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1.1 Purpose

This Practice provides the civil engineer with requirements for designing civil sitework within process facilities.

1.2 Scope

This Practice describes the minimum requirements for the design of civil sitework of process industry facilities at onshore U.S. sites. This Practice covers all work related to preparation of the site such as grading, roads and railroads, and sewer work and related facilities, and all work related to finishing the site.

2. References

Applicable parts of the following PIP Practices, industry codes and standards, and government regulations shall be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of contract award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles will be used herein where appropriate.

2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP)

– PIP CVC01017 - Plant Site Data Sheet

– PIP CVC01018 - Project Data Sheet

– PIP CVS02010 - Geotechnical Engineering Investigation Specification

– PIP CVS02100 - Site Preparation, Excavation, and Backfill Specification

– PIP CVS02350 - Roadway and Area Paving Construction Specification

– PIP CVS02700 - Underground Gravity Sewers Specification

– PIP CVS02830 - Fabrication and Installation of Chain-Link Fence and Gates

– PIP PNC00003 - Process Unit and Offsites Layout Guide

– PIP STS03001 - Plain and Reinforced Concrete Specification

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)

– AASHTO-GDPS-4-86/93 - Guide to Design of Pavement Structures (plus supplement)

American Concrete Paving Association (ACPA)

– EB109P - Thickness Design for Concrete Highway and Street Pavements

American Railway Engineering Association (AREA)

AREA Manual for Railway Engineering

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American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)

PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

– ASTM A184 - Standard Specification for Welded Deformed Steel Bar Mats for Concrete Reinforcement

– ASTM A185 - Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain for Concrete

– ASTM A615 - Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement

American Welding Society (AWS)

– AWS D1.4 - Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel

The Asphalt Institute

– Manual Series No. 1 - Thickness Design - Asphalt Pavements for Highways and Streets

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

– NFPA 30 - Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code

Portland Cement Association (PCA)

PCA IS009 - Guide Specification for Construction of Roller-Compacted Pavements

PCA IS233 - Structural Design of Roller-Compacted Concrete for Industrial Pavements

2.3 Government Regulations

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

– EEOC-BK-19 - Americans with Disabilities Act Handbook

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

– EPA 40 CFR - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulations

U.S. Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

– EM-1110-3-132 - Engineering and Design - Rigid Pavements for Roads, Streets, Walks, and Open Storage Areas

Joint Departments of the Army and Air Force

– TM 5-822-5/AMF 88-7 Chapter 1 - Pavement Design for Roads, Streets, Walks, and Open Storage Areas

3.

Definitions

contract documents: Any and all documents, including design drawings, that have been transmitted or otherwise communicated, either by incorporation or reference, and made part of the legal contract agreement for civil/structural work

DOT: The department of transportation or the equivalent government organization for the state, province, or country in which the project site is located

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noncontact cooling water: Cooling water that does not have direct contact with process fluids or materials. Cooling water may be recirculated or used only once and conveyed through gravity drainage systems.

owner: The party who owns the facility where the sitework will be installed

process sewers: Any waste collection/drainage system carrying materials (exclusive of sanitary waste) requiring treatment before discharge

RCRA: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

4.

Requirements

4.1 Environmental Protection

4.1.1 Groundwater Protection

4.1.1.1 Storage facilities and process infrastructure (e.g., process loading/unloading, petroleum storage, and hazardous material storage) shall be designed to protect against groundwater contamination. Examples of protection methods include drip pans, paving, and concrete containment.

4.1.1.2 New tanks below grade shall meet the underground storage tank regulations in EPA 40 CFR, Part 280 UST.

4.1.1.3 RCRA Storage

1. Tank farm areas for RCRA hazardous materials storage shall be floored and diked with materials that are impervious to the stored material for spill containment.

2. Diked areas shall be designed to contain the sum of the following:

a. 100% of the largest RCRA tank volume

b. Runoff from a 25-year, 24-hour rainfall

c. 6 inches (150 mm) of freeboard

3. RCRA hazardous materials storage tanks shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of EPA 40 CFR, Parts 264 and 265.

4.1.2 Surface Water Protection

To facilitate the control of contaminants and to minimize the mixture of flow constituents, drainage and sewer systems should be segregated where possible. Optimally, complete segregation of clean storm, sanitary, process, firewater, and noncontact cooling water sewers should be provided.

4.1.2.1 Sewers that carry water that is not normally subject to contamination (noncontact cooling water or storm water) and that have the potential

Comment:

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PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

to receive spills shall be designed to include monitoring and diversion capabilities.

4.1.2.2 Building floor and roof drains and other areas not subject to process spills shall connect to the clean storm water drainage system.

4.1.3 Public Safety

Facilities for the storage, handling, and use of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with NFPA 30.

4.2 Geotechnical Engineering Investigations

4.2.1 If sufficient geotechnical information is not available, geotechnical engineering investigations shall be performed in accordance with PIP CVS02010.

4.2.2 If available and appropriate, the following technical information shall be provided to the geotechnical consultant:

a. Site plan showing proposed facilities and adjacent existing facilities

b. Topographic plan or relative elevations of existing grades and facilities to planned grades of proposed facilities

c. Descriptions of proposed and existing facilities, including the following:

1.

Types of structures

2.

Anticipated design loads for various design cases including static compression, uplift, horizontal shear, vibratory, dynamic, and blast

3.

Any settlement sensitivity of structures or equipment

4.

Any sensitivity to vibration from external sources of both proposed and existing facilities

5.

Special or unusual conditions such as pits, basements, elevator shafts, reciprocating compressors, retaining walls, etc.

6.

Elevations such as building ground floor, bottom of pits, basements, elevator shafts, walls, tanks, etc.

7.

Proposed finish grade elevation adjacent to facilities

8.

For tanks, load condition (empty, full, test, and operating weights); operating condition, i.e., full most of the time, empty most of the time plus time/duration when full, percentage full under operating conditions, etc.); and settlement tolerances

9.

Pavement loading and traffic data if pavement recommendations are needed

10.

Information regarding any known or potential soil/groundwater contamination at the site

11.

Drawings and other information for adjacent or on-site existing facilities, including underground utilities and structures

PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

4.3 Site Preparation and Grading

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4.3.1 The site preparation activities, including clearing and grubbing, stripping, and general site grading, shall be in accordance with PIP CVS02100.

4.3.2 Excavation, fill, stockpile and disposal areas, and the extent of clearing and grubbing areas shall be defined in the contract documents.

4.3.3 Consideration shall be given to balancing the cut and fill for earthwork.

4.3.4 All demolition shall be defined in the contract documents.

4.3.5 Vehicular traffic detours shall be designed to provide a safe routing and a satisfactory means of controlling traffic.

4.4 Excavation and Backfill

4.4.1 The design of excavation and backfill shall be in accordance with PIP CVS02100.

4.4.2 Areas requiring differing levels of compaction shall be noted on the drawings. These areas include structure areas, roadways, railroad subgrades, paved area subgrades, utility trenches, embankments and dikes, and general graded areas outside the process or work areas.

4.5 Erosion Control

4.5.1 Because of the condition of the site according to forecasted construction activities, erosion, and sedimentation controls shall be given special consideration in design.

4.5.2 Soil erosion control shall be designed to comply with federal, state, and local regulations and shall be in accordance with PIP CVS02100.

4.5.3 If determined to be necessary, erosion control permitting documentation shall be submitted to the owner.

4.6 Railroad Work

4.6.1 Railroad design shall be in accordance with the AREA Manual and the local operating railroad requirements.

4.6.2 Railroads shall be standard gauge and shall meet design, condition, and maintenance requirements for class II (minimum) track systems as defined by AREA.

4.6.3 Loading, unloading, and scale stations shall be designed to be level.

4.6.4 The rail unit weight and rail type shall be selected to be compatible with the existing rail system and to provide the desired design life according to the intended service and availability.

4.6.5 A drainage system shall be designed to meet individual job requirements. Perforated underdrain systems with standpipes at 50-ft (15-m) intervals shall be provided between parallel tracks and if adjacent grade is near the same elevation or higher than the railroad track.

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PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

4.6.6 A geosynthetic material shall be installed between the subgrade and ballast if required to prevent fouling.

4.6.7 Ballast section shall remain level with top of tie between adjacent tracks to provide level walking surface area for trainmen or as required by local

authority.

4.6.8 Unless specified otherwise in PIP CVC01017 and PIP CVC01018, railroads shall be designed in accordance with the following.

a. Railroad clearances shall be in accordance with PIP PNC00003.

b. Unless otherwise specified, rail shall be AREA No. 1 prime relay.

c. The minimum turnout (frog number) shall be AREA No. 7.

d. The maximum grade, unless otherwise required by local topography, shall be 2%.

e. The maximum degree of curvature shall be 12 degrees.

f. Ballast shall be size AREA No. 5 furnace slag or equivalent.

g. Ballast depth shall be a minimum of 6 inches (150 mm) from bottom of tie.

4.7 Roads, Paving, and Surfacing

4.7.1

Roads and paving shall be in accordance with PIP PNC00003.

4.7.2

Disabled accessible (handicapped) parking spaces shall be provided and designed in accordance with the ADA EEOC-BK-19.

4.7.3

Area paving and roads shall be designed using materials and methods specified in PIP CVC01017 and/or PIP CVC01018.

4.7.4

Surfacing for the following areas shall be as specified in the PIP CVC01017 and/or PIP CVC01018 data sheets or as otherwise designated by the owner.

a. Sidewalks

b. Roads, streets, or drives

c. Process equipment areas

d. Maintenance areas

e. Loading or unloading areas

f. Parking or storage areas

4.7.5

Roads

4.7.5.1

Unless otherwise specified by the owner, roads shall be designed using portland cement concrete for the following applications:

a. Main roads

b. Roads regularly subjected to drips of petroleum or other solvent products

c. If construction costs are less than costs for asphalt

PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

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d. Where track-mounted equipment is anticipated

4.7.5.2

Unless otherwise specified by the owner, roads shall be designed using asphalt concrete for the following applications:

a. Secondary roads if construction costs are less than concrete

b. Projects with staged construction

c. If significant differential settlement is expected

4.7.5.3

If approved by the owner, off-site roads subject to light traffic may be made from low-cost pavements such as soil-lime mixtures, soil- cement mixtures, untreated gravel, or asphalt surface treatments.

4.7.5.4

Roads shall have a vertical curve if the algebraic difference of the road gradients is 2% or greater.

4.7.5.5

The minimum length of a vertical curve shall be 100 ft (30 m).

4.7.5.6

The maximum grade for roadways shall be 6%.

4.7.5.7

The minimum cross slope for roadways shall be 2%.

4.7.5.8

The minimum turning radius shall be 45 ft (13.7 m) for tractor- trailers, 42 ft (12.8 m) for straight body trucks, and 24 ft (7.3 m) for passenger cars and pickup trucks. Turning radius is defined as the circular arc formed by the turning path radius of the front outside tire of a vehicle.

4.7.5.9

The minimum sight distance shall be 200 ft (60 m).

4.7.5.10

Design of roadways shall include clearance and loads for construction and maintenance equipment (e.g., cranes).

4.7.5.11

The roadway pavement design shall include a drainage system to prevent saturation of the base and subgrade.

4.7.5.12

Guide rails along roadway embankments shall be designed in accordance with DOT specifications.

4.7.5.13

Guide rails or bollards shall be designed to protect equipment (e.g., electric substations, natural gas valves) along plant streets.

4.7.5.14

Subgrade stabilization methods to improve the subgrade resilient modulus and to reduce required pavement thickness shall be specified if appropriate.

4.7.5.15

Design drawings shall show all pavement and road requirements including location, width, thickness of base course and pavement, pavement type, grades, geometry, joint types and locations, shoulder details, curbs, drainage features, and materials.

4.7.6 Concrete Area Paving

4.7.6.1 For concrete materials and construction, see PIP CVS02350 and PIP STS03001. Unless specified otherwise in PIP CVC01017 and/or PIP CVC01018, roads and paving shall be designed in accordance with the following requirements:

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PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

a. Concrete area paving may be of the following types:

(1) Jointed plain concrete paving (JPCP) (Section 4.7.5.2)

(2) Jointed reinforced concrete paving (JRCP) (Section 4.7.5.3)

(3) Roller-compacted concrete paving (RCCP) (Section 4.7.5.4)

b. Rigid pavement shall be designed so that the upper 6 inches (150 mm) of subgrade and the base course (if used) are compacted to 90% in accordance with the Modified Proctor Compaction Test. The modulus of subgrade reaction (k) shall be determined at the top of the base course.

c. Design procedures for concrete pavements are found in the following: AASHTO–GDPS-4 86/93, EM-1110-3-132, TM 5-822-5/AFM 88-7, PCA IS233, and ACPA EB109P. Computed thickness shall be rounded to the next full inch or half inch.

d. Pavement not subject to vehicular traffic, piping, or equipment loads shall have a minimum thickness of 4 inches (100 mm). Crack-control joints about 0.75 to 1 inch (20 to 25 mm) deep shall be spaced at 1.25 times the width of the walk. Fiberboard having 0.5-inch (15-mm)-thick expansion joints shall be placed between the pavement, building, curb, or other structures.

e. Unless otherwise specified or required by the geotechnical report, area paving subject to vehicular traffic, piping, or equipment loads shall have a minimum thickness of 6 inches (150 mm). This is a medium-duty pavement that can carry the occasional three-axle heavy truck but not heavy forklifts, cranes, or tracked equipment.

f. Heavy-duty area paving that regularly carries three-axle class 8 trucks, 30-ton (27-tonne) tracked vehicles, and 15,000-lb (6,800-kg) capacity forklifts shall have a minimum thickness of 8 inches (200 mm) unless the specific subsoil conditions are shown to allow use of a thinner pavement. Pavements for heavier equipment require special design.

g. Expansion joints are not required except at foundations and for other items penetrating through the paving. Note that a pair of #3 bars (10 mm bars) shall be embedded mid-slab at 6 and 12 inches (150 mm and 300 mm) in from a re-entrant corner.

h. Paving concrete shall have a minimum design flexural strength of 550 psi (3.8 Mpa) or minimum design compressive strength of 4,000 psi (27.5 Mpa) at 28 days. The maximum water/cement ratio (w/c) shall be 0.45 and the maximum aggregate size shall be 1.5 inches (38 mm).

i. Paving concrete shall be in accordance with PIP STS03001 or as otherwise approved by the engineer. Fly ash replacement at a maximum of 25% portland cement is permitted. Ground

PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

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granular blast furnace slag (GGBFS) at a maximum of 40% shall be permitted if the concrete supplier has provided a similar

mix to the local DOT.

j. Paving concrete shall have average acceptance strength values of 550 psi (3.8 Mpa) flexural or 4,000 psi (27.5 Mpa) compressive provided that no values are below 500 psi (3.45 Mpa) flexural or 3,500 psi (24.1 Mpa) compressive.

k. Workability shall be indicated by slump measurements. Unless

otherwise specified, slump limits for fixed forms shall be 1 to

3 inches (25 to 75 mm) and for slip forms 1 to 2 inches (25 to 50 mm).

l. Joint spacing shall be 24 to 30 times the pavement thickness. Joints shall be formed or cut with an early entry (0-2 hours after finishing) saw (Soff-Cut saw). If a Soff-Cut saw is not used,

saw

cut depths shall be 1/4 to 1/3 the thickness of the pavement

and

shall be cut within 6 to 16 hours of placement.

m. Diagonal skew joints of 1:6 to 1:10 provide good load transfer for transverse contraction joints in concrete. Dowels or reinforcing may be used at the joint.

n. Proper curing is essential. The design shall contain a specification for moist cure for 7 days or shall use a curing

compound at twice the manufacturer’s recommended rate placed in two directions. The design shall ensure that joints and

saw cuts receive special attention.

o. Area paving shall be curbed where needed to contain chemicals or hydrocarbons. Containment curbs shall be a minimum of

6 inches (150 mm) wide and as tall as required to contain the material.

p. Pavement shall be divided into sections or catchment areas. Catchment areas shall be sloped to sewer inlets to provide rapid removal of storm water, firewater, or hydrocarbon spills.

q. Minimum slope for area paving shall be 1% unless otherwise specified.

r. Pavement subject to chemical attack shall be designed with an appropriate protective coating or admixture.

4.7.6.2 Jointed Plain Concrete Paving (JPCP)

1. JPCP is unreinforced and shall be designed according to the methods and procedures of AASHTO, EM-1110-3-132, or TM 5- 822-5/AMF 88-7. The provisions of Section 4.7.3 shall be applied to the design.

2. Diagonal skew joints without dowels or reinforcing are preferred for JPCP.

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PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

4.7.6.3 Jointed Reinforced Concrete Paving (JRCP)

1. JRCP is reinforced and shall be designed according to the methods and procedures of AASHTO, EM-1110-3-132, or TM 5- 822-5/AMF 88-7. The provisions of Section 4.7.3 shall be applied to the design.

2. Reinforcing bars shall be in accordance with ASTM A615 grade 60 or better. Mats shall be tie-wired at all exterior intersections and alternate interior intersections. Welded mats shall be in accordance with ASTM A184 and AWS D1.4. Welded wire mats shall be in accordance with ASTM A185.

3. The minimum required reinforcing bar area for longitudinal steel (with traffic) shall be equal to or greater than 0.10 inch 2 per lineal foot (65 mm 2 per 300 mm) of the slab. The minimum required area for the transverse steel shall be 0.05 inch 2 per lineal foot (32.5 mm 2 per 300 mm) of slab.

4. Reinforcing shall be placed in the top half of the slab but with adequate concrete cover when saw cuts are considered.

5. Bar spacing shall be not greater than three times the slab thickness.

6. Joint spacing can be increased but should never exceed 75 ft (23 m). Long slabs require special joint design and sealants.

4.7.6.4 Roller-Compacted Concrete Paving (RCCP)

1. RCCP may be used for most of the applications listed in the previous section for JPCP at the contractor’s or owner’s option. RCCP should be considered for area paving where heavy forklifts greater than 15,000-lb (6,800 kg) capacity or other heavy equipment operate, such as in container yards.

2. RCCP design is similar to that for JPCP. In particular, EM-1110-3-132, TM 5-822-5/AMF 88-7, or PCA IS009 and IS233 have good procedures for heavy-duty pavements.

3. RCCP concrete mixtures are generally not air-entrained, have lower water content, have lower paste content, use a larger fine aggregate, and have a maximum aggregate size of 0.75 inch (19 mm). Flexural strength shall be above 650 psi (4.5 Mpa).

4. Maximum lift thickness for RCCP shall be 10 inches (250 mm). Pavements of greater thickness shall be constructed in multiple lifts, the upper lift being about 1/3 the total thickness but no less than 4 inches (100 mm). The bonding between lifts shall be considered in the pavement design.

5. Joints in RCCP are limited. Expansion joints shall be used only at penetrations or existing structures. Contraction joints shall normally be left to occur naturally. In areas where frost damage is a concern, the joints shall be routed and sealed to prevent water intrusion. Construction joints shall be formed by

PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

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trimming older, stiffened concrete back to fully compacted concrete and then placing fresh concrete and rolling to density.

4.7.7 Gravel or Crushed Stone Surfacing

1. For area paving around exterior electrical equipment enclosures and at other locations that are not subject to leaks or spills, crushed stone or similar locally available material may be used.

2. Gravel or crushed stone surfacing shall be placed to a minimum compacted thickness of 3 inches (75 mm).

4.7.8 Asphalt Concrete Area Paving

1. Asphalt concrete area paving shall be designed for the anticipated equipment or traffic load but shall not be less than 2 inches (50 mm)

thick.

2. The thickness of asphalt concrete and aggregate base for area paving shall be in accordance with the Subgrade Resilient Modulus method in Asphalt Institute MS-1.

3. Unless otherwise specified, the following design criteria shall be used:

a. Mean annual air temperature shall be in accordance with Asphalt Institute MS-1 and project site data.

b. Design subgrade resilient modulus shall be in accordance with Asphalt Institute MS-1 and the soils report.

c. The number of equivalent 18 kip (80 kN) axle loads shall be established from an estimate of the weight and frequency of anticipated truck traffic, an appropriate growth factor, and a 20-year design life.

d. Truck traffic estimates shall include the number of vehicles for plant operation, plant maintenance, and new plant construction.

e. Minimum equivalent axle load values of 150,000 and 300,000 shall be used for the design of secondary and primary roads, respectively.

4.8 Curbs, Gutters, and Walkways

4.8.1 Walkways shall be provided to interconnect the parking lot, gatehouse, administration building, cafeteria, process buildings, etc., to adjacent roadways for safe pedestrian travel.

4.8.2 The walkway subbase shall be in accordance with PIP CVS02100.

4.8.3 Walkway grades without steps shall not exceed 6%.

4.8.4 Finished grades shall be shown on the design drawings.

4.8.5 Accessible routes including curbs, gutters, and walkways shall be designed to comply with ADA requirements.

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PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

4.9

Sewers

4.9.1

General

4.9.1.1 Sewers and drainage systems shall be designed to protect the atmosphere, soil, surface water, and groundwater from contamination and to provide safe, economical collection and flow of all sewage to treatment and/or holding facilities and subsequently to approved disposal.

4.9.1.2 If specified by owner, open channel ditches and basins that potentially convey or retain groundwater contaminants (e.g., firewater runoff) shall be lined. Lining material shall meet owner-specified permeability requirements.

4.9.1.3 If specified by owner, each sewer system shall be designed for increased flow from future sewer extension or from changes in surfaces that change the runoff coefficients.

4.9.1.4 Unless the owner has provided written notice that the downstream system can accommodate the additional flow, existing systems to which new systems will connect shall be reviewed to verify service compatibility and to ensure that sufficient capacity is available to accept the additional flow.

4.9.1.5 Manholes

1. Manholes shall be located at spacing intervals to facilitate maintenance, inspection, and cleaning.

2. Manholes or cleanouts shall be provided at changes in horizontal direction.

3. Maximum spacing of manholes shall be 200 ft (60 m) for sewers less than or equal to 12 inches (300 mm) in diameter and shall be 500 ft (150 m) for sewers larger than 12 inches (300 mm) in diameter.

4.9.1.6 Sewer Proximity

1. Sanitary and process sewers shall be designed to cross under potable water lines.

2. Unless otherwise required by local codes, a minimum of 24-inches (600-mm) vertical clearance and 48-inches (1,200-mm) horizontal clearance shall be provided if sanitary or process sewers parallel a potable water line.

3. If a potable water line crosses a sanitary or process sewer line, one segment of the potable water line pipe shall be centered over the sanitary or process sewer line such that the joints of the potable water line pipe are equidistant and at least 9 ft (2.7 m) horizontally from the sanitary or process sewer line. The potable water line shall cross at least 24 inches (600 mm) above the sanitary or process sewer line.

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4.9.1.7 Minimum pipe sizes shall be 4 inches (100 mm) for lateral sewers and 8 inches (200 mm) for main sewers.

4.9.2 Storm Sewers and Drainage

4.9.2.1 Storm sewers shall be designed in accordance with PIP CVS02700.

4.9.2.2 Storm sewers and drainage structures shall be designed to carry runoff from the larger of a rain event or firewater discharge as specified in PIP CVC01018 provided by the owner.

4.9.2.3 Unless otherwise specified, maximum inlet times shall be taken as 15 minutes for process areas with catch basin spacing of approximately 100 ft (30 m).

4.9.2.4 Inlet times for large undeveloped areas shall be determined for each project with special consideration for future development but shall not exceed 30 minutes unless otherwise specified by the owner.

4.9.2.5 Piping design flow depth shall not exceed 2/3 of the pipe diameter.

4.9.2.6 The minimum design velocity shall be 3 fps (0.9 m/s) at design capacity.

4.9.3 Sanitary Sewers

4.9.3.1 Sanitary sewer systems shall be designed in accordance with PIP CVS02700.

4.9.3.2 The minimum design velocity shall be 2 fps (0.6 m/s) with pipe flowing half full at maximum flow rate.

4.9.4 Process Sewers

4.9.4.1 Underground process sewers shall be designed to protect against groundwater contamination.

4.9.4.2 Underground process sewers shall be designed to prevent potential leakage caused by anticipated corrosion, surface loads, shifting soils, water tables, etc., for the owner’s specified design life.

4.9.4.3 Underground process sewer joining systems shall be welded, fused, or glued unless otherwise specified.

4.9.4.4 Underground process sewers shall be designed in accordance with owner’s health and environmental requirements and with PIP CVS02700.

4.9.4.5 Process sewer designs shall be in accordance with regulations in EPA 40 CFR.

4.9.4.6 Vents

1. Sewers requiring vents shall be specified by owner or shall be required on the basis of the properties of the chemicals contained in the sewers.

2. Collection systems shall be trapped and sealed to prevent personnel exposure to emissions.

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PIP CVC01015 Civil Design Criteria

3. Sewers and sewer vents shall be designed to comply with regulations for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant emissions.

4. Vents shall be located away from normal operating areas and shall be equipped for secondary VOC emission disposal (e.g., scrubbed, flared, etc.) if required.

4.9.4.7 Design flow depth of gravity process sewers shall not exceed 3/4 of the pipe diameter with a minimum velocity of 3 fps (0.9 m/s).

4.10 Fencing

Chain-link fencing shall be in accordance with PIP CVS02830.

4.11 Landscaping, Seeding, and Sodding

4.11.1 Surface treatments shall be shown on the final earthwork drawings.

4.11.2 Seeding and sodding shall comply with DOT specifications.