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Management of Occupational Health and

Safety 6th Edition by Lori Francis


Bernadette – Test Bank
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Management of Occupational Health and Safety 6th Edition by Lori Francis Bernadette – Test Bank

Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-1


Chapter 6—Chemical and Biological Agents
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. What size is the typical airborne particle found in fumes and smoke?
a!
1000 microns
b!
100 microns
c!
10 microns
d!
less than 1 micron
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: 146
BLM: Remember
2. By which four routes can chemicals enter the body?
a.
respiration, inhalation, skin absorption, and skin penetration
b.
ingestion, skin penetration, inhalation, and lungs
c.
respiration, skin absorption, skin penetration, and ingestion
d.
lungs, nose, skin absorption, and ingestion
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 148
BLM: Remember
3. Which of the following is most likely to create a synergistic effect with airborne chemicals in
a manufacturing plant?
a.
the other chemicals used in the plant
b.
inadequate safety training
c.
inconsistent use of respirators
d.
the plant being located in a valley
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 146
BLM: Higher order
4. Besides record keeping, what control measure ensures that baseline tests will be available
when needed?
a.
medical surveillance
b.
engineering controls
c.
work practices
d.
good housekeeping
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 160
BLM: Higher order
6-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
5. Employees with diabetes and other conditions often need to inject themselves at work to keep
their condition under control. What is an administrative control that the human resource
management department can implement to protect everyone from needlestick injuries?
a.
install “sharps” disposal bins in restrooms
b.
provide education and training to all employees
c.
ask these employees to inject themselves in an off-site location
d.
change work schedules, so they can inject at home before and after work
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 161
BLM: Higher order
6. What is the recommended remedy for occupational asthma (e.g. crab asthma experienced by
the snow crab workers in Newfoundland)?
a.
transferring to a different job in the same plant
b.
changing to employment in another industry
c.
taking asthma medication via a bronchial inhalator “puffer”
d.
taking antihistamine medication (e.g. Benadryl, Claritin)
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 148
BLM: Higher order
7. Rob’s doctor has told him that his alveoli are seriously damaged. In what shape are his cilia
likely to be?
a.
undamaged
b.
slightly damaged
c.
severely damaged
d.
completely destroyed
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 150
BLM: Higher order
8. What characteristic of a solvent is related to its speed of evaporation?
a.
surface tension
b.
flammability
c.
volatility
d.
vaporization
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 153
BLM: Remember
9. What type of biological agents, which if inhaled, can cause occupational diseases in
farmworkers?
a.
bacterial
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-3
b.
viruses
c.
chlamydiae
d.
fungal
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 159
BLM: Remember
10. In the lab, HIV (I and II) requires the same level of control as what other biohazard?
a.
rabies
b.
hepatitis
c.
legionella
d.
tick-borne encephalitis
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 158
BLM: Higher order
11. What is the difference between a fume and a vapour?
a.
vapours are lighter in colour
b.
fumes come from the evaporation of solids
c.
vapours come from the evaporation of liquids
d.
the material in a fume condenses with air contact
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 146
BLM: Higher order
12. The carbon monoxide detector suddenly goes off in the car dealership’s administration
offices due to leaking fumes from the automotive service area. What type of toxicity should the
dealership manager be concerned about for his office workers?
a.
acute toxicity
b.
local toxicity
c.
chronic toxicity
d.
systemic toxicity
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 152
BLM: Higher order
13. What toxic substance is most likely to produce dermatitis?
a.
sensitizer
b.
mutagen
c.
teratogen
d.
contact irritant
6-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 153& 154
BLM: Higher order
14. Through what physiological system would poison ivy have an effect on gardeners and
agricultural workers?
a.
nervous system
b.
immune system
c.
respiratory system
d.
metabolic system
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 154
BLM: Higher order
15. If Julia has developed a work-related occupational disease involving the central nervous
system, what organic compound is mostly likely to be the cause?
a.
glycols
b.
esters
c.
ketones
d.
hydrocarbons
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 157
BLM:
16. Evan is the OH&S manager for a research lab that has Biosafety Level 1 (BSL 1) organisms.
What does he need to do to protect himself from these type of organisms?
a.
wash his hands before he eats lunch at work
b.
put in a separate lunchroom/restroom for lab workers
c.
make sure his office is on a different ventilation system
d.
make sure the lab has a negative pressure environment
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 158
BLM: Higher order
17. Sanjay is looking forward to his new job as a Conservation Officer working at Point Pelee
National Park. What disease is he at higher risk for when working at Point Pelee and how can he
protect himself?
a.
rabies; report wild animals acting strangely
b.
tick-borne encephalitis; wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts
c.
Lyme disease; use insect repellant containing DEET
d.
brucellosis; make sure cuts on hands/arms are covered
ANS: c
PTS: 1
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-5
REF: p. 144
BLM: Higher order
18. The Globally Harmonized System is a system that would establish consistency around in
world in terms of what?
a.
the purchase and control of biological agents
b.
specifying the toxicity levels of chemical agents
c.
dealing with epidemics due to biological agents
d.
classification and labelling of chemical products
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 47
BLM: Higher order
19. Bruce Hsieh has a job servicing office printers and copiers in downtown Vancouver.
According to recent research, what occupational disease may he be at higher risk of acquiring
than his brother who is a zookeeper?
a.
chlamydiae
b.
salmonella
c.
streptococcus
d.
MCS
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 145& 150
BLM: Higher order
20. Rafael has worked in a metal processing facility for six months and believes he has suffered
toxic exposure to chromic acid. What symptom would help his doctor assess this claim?
a.
irritated eyes
b.
changes to his skin
c.
difficulty breathing
d.
loss of feeling in fingertips
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 156
BLM: Higher order
NARRBEGIN: Scenario 6-1
Read the following scenario and answer questions 21–25.
Custodial staff (also known as janitors or cleaners) are the unsung heroes of the workplace.
Going about their work while many of us are in bed, they deal with a whole host of situations
that bring them into contact with a wide range of chemical and biological agents. They are
exposed to residues left in the air and on surfaces from manufacturing processes, from service
operations, and from human excretions (sweat, body oils, from sneezing, and so on). While
employees of the firms that they service receive training about specific chemical and biological
hazards, the custodial staff is often unaware of some of the hazards that they may encounter.
6-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
NARREND
21. Custodial staff may be at more risk of acquiring an illness/injury from acute, rather than
ambient, exposure to a chemical or biological agent. How would the cleaning manager know if it
was an acute exposure?
a.
The cleaner had not worked at that location before.
b.
The cleaner could not continue working that day.
c.
The cleaner had to go to the hospital right away.
d.
The cleaner could not return to work for a week.
ANS: a
NAR: Scenario 6-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 144
BLM: Higher order
22. The owner of the cleaning company tries to protect his workers by getting as much
information as he can about chemical hazards when meeting with new clients and renewing
contracts with existing clients. In general, for what percentage of chemicals will he be provided
with toxicity data?
a!
10%
b!
20%
c!
40%
d!
80%
ANS: b
NAR: Scenario 6-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 145
BLM: Higher order
23. Custodial staff are exposed to aerosols through the cleaning products they use and as a by-
product of mechanical and human activity at each workplace where they clean.What is the part
of the respiratory system that is spiral shaped and could be protected from aerosols by wearing a
face mask?
a.
cilia
b.
alveoli
c.
turbinates
d.
macrophages
ANS: c
NAR: Scenario 6-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 150
BLM: Remember
24. What characteristic of chlorinated solvents could ultimately result in liver problems from
cleaners?
a.
acidity
b.
alkalinity
c.
fat-solubility
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-7
d.
low surface tension
ANS: c
NAR: Scenario 6-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 153
BLM: Higher order
25. What two food-related biohazards could cause custodial staff to fall victim to food poisoning
if they do not have a way to properly store the food they brought from home for their meal break
at 3 a.m.?
a.
ricksettia and brucellosis
b.
brucellosis and salmonellosis
c.
staphylococcus and ricksettia
d.
salmonellosis and staphylococcus
ANS: d
NAR: Scenario 6-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 159
BLM: Higher order
TRUE/FALSE
1. No toxicity data is available for about 80% of the chemicals that are used commercially.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 145
2. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is also known as twenty-first century disease.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 145
3. Toxicity is the main determinant of assessing the potential degree of seriousness of a chemical
hazard.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 147
4. Most of the negative effects of chemical exposure are derived from airborne respiratory
contaminants known as aerosols.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
6-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
REF: p. 148
5. Organic solvents fall into two classes—acids and bases.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 155
6. The main route of entry for biological agents is through ingestion or penetration.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 156
7. People most at risk of exposure to biohazards are employed in unique or specialized jobs, such
as medicine, research, and farming.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 156
8. Requiring workers to work overtime on a regular basis could produce a synergistic effect.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 146
9. Exposure to toxic gases can produce acute and systemic toxicity.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 152
10. Hearing loss can be caused by exposure to chemicals in the workplace.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 152
SHORT ANSWER
1. Differentiate between chemical and biological agents. Identify a biological or chemical agent
present in your workplace or in a workplace with which you are familiar (either by knowing
someone who works there or by being a customer/patient). Explain the route of entry, type(s) of
toxicity involved, and the health effects that this specific agent can have on the human body.
Describe the controls that should be put in place to control this hazard.
ANS:
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-9
Chemical agents are hazards created by any one or any combination of a very large number of
chemicals and/or their physical reactions. Biological agents or biohazards are natural organisms
or products of organisms that present a risk to humans.
The chemical and biological hazards that students may have observed/know about should reflect
terminology from one of the following sources: Types of Contaminants (OH&S Notebook 6.1, p.
146); Classification of Toxic Substances (OH&S Notebook, 6.4, p. 154–155); Organic Solvents
(Table 6.1, p. 157); or Biological Agents (Table 6.2, p. 159) and Classification of Biological
Agents (OH & Notebook, 6.5, p. 158).
Students should clearly identify route(s) of entry (inhalation (respiration), ingestion, penetration,
or skin absorption, p. 149–151) and provide a clear description of the toxicity (acute versus
chron-ic, local versus systemic, p. 152), in addition to the actual health effects (injury or illness).
Descriptions of controls should mention more than one approach (see Fig. 6.2, p. 160) for an
over-view of engineering, work practices, PPE, personal hygiene practices, good housekeeping,
medical surveillance, and record-keeping controls.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 144–160
2. List the seven types of chemical contaminants found in workplaces. Describe an example of
one chemical hazard that office workers may be exposed to and one example of a chemical
hazard that manufacturing workers may be exposed to. Describe a workplace human resource
practice or policy that could address each of these health and safety issues.
ANS:
1.
Dust
2.
Fumes
3.
Smoke
4.
Mist
5.
Vapour
6.
Gas
7.
Liquid
There is a growing concern about the quality of air in the workplace from environmental
illnesses, leading to the adoption of controversial scent-free practices (refer to OH&S Today
6.3—Good Scents?) and legally required second-hand tobacco smoke policies. In manufacturing
settings, most human exposure to chemicals comes from breathing aerosol byproducts related to
the use of organic and inorganic solvents.
Office equipment such as photocopiers, computers, fax machines, laser printers, and ink/bubble
jet printers may have ozone and hydrocarbon emissions. These must be labelled on MSDSs.
Refer to: Types of Contaminants OH&S Notebook 6.1, p. 146; Classification of Toxic
Substances (OH & S Notebook, 6.4, p. 154–155); and Organic Solvents (Table 6.1, p. 157).
Descriptions of controls should mention more than one approach (see Fig. 6.2, p. 160) for an
over-view of engineering, work practices, PPE, personal hygiene practices, good housekeeping,
medical surveillance, and record-keeping controls.
PTS: 1
6-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
REF: p. 146–160
3. Recalling the 12 toxic substances, what three would be the most likely to result in adverse
health effects for firefighters.
ANS:
Refer to the OH&S Notebook 6.4—Classification of Toxic Substances.
Irritants
Neurotoxins
Asphyxiants
Sensitizers
Anesthetics and Narcotics
Lung Toxicants
Systemic Poisons
Mutagens
Liver Toxicants
Teratogens
Kidney Toxicants
Carcinogens
Students should mention carcinogens (See OH&S Today, 6.1, p. 145). Other probable substances
include irritants, asphyxiants, lung toxicants, and possibly sensitizers.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 153–154
4. List the eight general characteristics and properties that make solvents effective. Pick two of
the eight and explain how that characteristic/property would make a solvent hazardous.
ANS:
1.
Low surface tension—allows for more effective skin absorption
2.
High vapour pressure—increases inhalation hazard, especially at higher temperatures
3.
Low boiling point—increases the rate of evaporation or generation of vapours
4.
Low heat of vaporization—increases rate of transformation into a gas/vapour
5.
High volatility—increases speed of evaporation and increases health and fire risk
6.
Ability to dissolve fats—dissolves skin’s surface oils making it more susceptible to infection or
skin trauma
7.
Flammability (flashpoint, lower explosion limit, upper explosion limit, auto-ignition tempera-
ture)—substance (gas, liquid, solid) will ignite (take fire)
8.
Vaporization—amount (volume) of vapour that will form from a small amount of liquid
PTS: 1
REF: p. 152–155
PROBLEM
1. Chris’s restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia has just received a substandard evaluation from the
Ministry of Agriculture’s restaurant inspector. The report cited the following problems: dirty
con-ditions in the kitchen, leaking refrigeration units, unclean restrooms, cross-contamination
(e.g. cut-ting raw meat and vegetables without cleaning or replacing the cutting board/knife), and
inade-quate ventilation in the kitchen. There have been a number of cases of food poisoning in
the past six months (staff and customers). The restaurant’s negative rating has been posted on an
online website available to current and potential customers, so Chris wants to get the problems
fixed as soon as possible and have the notice removed. For each problem, identify the form and
type of
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-11
chemical and/or biological hazard involved. Discuss what controls Chris should put in place so
that next time around the restaurant will receive a much more positive rating from the inspectors,
making special note of new hazards that might arise while he is fixing the problems.
ANS:
Dirty kitchen—bacteria in solid form (e.g. salmonella, streptococcus, E. coli, infectious
heptatitis) and airborne solid form fungal agents (spores—aspergillis and pencillium)
Leaking refrigeration units—organic solvent in vapour form (aliphatic hydrocarbon)
Unclean restrooms—bacteria is solid form or suspended in liquid (e.g. E. coli) and solid form
virus (e.g. infectious heptatitis A)
Cross-contamination—solid form bacteria and fungal agents (e.g. anthrax, brucellosis, dermato-
phytosis) if meat is infected
Inadequate ventilation—solid form fungal agents and as well as smoke and vapours from
cooking which may contain metal particles from the pots being used
Engineering controls include—buying new units or getting the refrigeration and ventilation sys-
tems fixed and tested by a professional as well as buying a large supply of dedicated cutting
boards for each type of food (colour-coded).
Administrative controls include education and training about food hazards (cross-contamination,
hand washing) and good housekeeping, starting with a complete and in-depth cleaning of all sur-
faces in the restaurant.
Personal protective equipment—gloves (change regularly)
New hazards that could arise while they are cleaning the restaurant and fixing/replacing the units
are disturbance of mould (on walls or in dust), further leakage from the units, and irritation or as-
phyxia from solvents used in cleaning. He should provide disposable protective clothing, gloves
and respirators to everyone involved in the cleaning or hire a professional cleaning crew. Fixing
and replacing the refrigeration and ventilation units should be left to the professionals.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 144–162.

Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 7-1


Chapter 7—Psychosocial Hazards
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Stressors may vary along which of the following dimensions?
a.
duration, frequency, intensity, and type
b.
duration, intensity, type, and predictability
c.
frequency of occurrence, intensity, duration, and predictability
d.
frequency of occurrence, duration, type, and environment
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 170
BLM: Remember
2. What two categories of stressor have, or can have, a long duration?
a.
acute and chronic
b.
daily and catastrophic
c.
acute and daily
d.
chronic and catastrophic
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p.170
BLM: Remember
3. What is the definition of stress?
a.
an individual’s internal response to, or evaluation of a demand that arouses negative feel-ings
b.
a consequence of any action and a non-adaptive process moderated by individual differ-ences
c.
a consequence of any action, moderated by individual differences and an internal event
d.
an adaptive response moderated by individual differences and a consequence of any ac-tion,
situation, or event that places several demands upon a person
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 172
BLM: Remember
4. What two personality characteristics are particularly relevant to stress?
a.
type A and B behaviour
b.
type A and competitive behaviour
c.
type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity
d.
negative affectivity and competitive behaviour
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 174
BLM: Remember
7-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
5. What type of moderator can aggravate an individual’s response to a stressor?
a.
buffer
b.
risk factor
c.
personality
d.
negative affectivity
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 173–174
BLM: Remember
6. What are the four categories of strain reactions?
a.
organizational, physical, mental, and cognitive
b.
behavioural, cognitive, organizational, and physical
c.
psychological, physical, cognitive, and mental
d.
psychological, physical, behavioural, and organizational
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 175
BLM: Remember
7. Which of the following serious physical conditions is the most prominent outcome of stress?
a.
ulcer
b.
stroke
c.
high blood pressure
d.
coronary heart disease
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 175
BLM: Higher order
8. According to the textbook, what is the main reason why stress is related to increased
workplace accidents in any job?
a.
risky environment
b.
impaired concentration
c.
increased technological demands
d.
work overload and fast pace of work
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 177
BLM: Higher order
9. Which of the following is an example of a primary stress intervention?
a.
talking with friends
b.
using relaxation techniques
c.
providing flexible working conditions
d.
providing employee assistance programs
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 7-3
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 179
BLM: Remember
10. What is an example of an individual tertiary stress intervention?
a.
yoga classes
b.
sick days and leave options
c.
talking with friends and coworkers
d.
seeing a psychotherapist
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 179
BLM:
11. What is an example of an organizational secondary stress intervention?
a.
offering PTSD counselling
b.
offering an on-site fitness centre
c.
helping sick days and leave options
d.
providing flexible working conditions
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 179
BLM: Remember
12. Why have primary stress interventions not been widely implemented in Canada?
a.
union resistance
b.
employee resistance
c.
supervisor resistance
d.
senior manager resistance
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 178
BLM: Higher order
13. What is experienced by an employee who feels that his salary is too low given his amount of
responsibility and the long hours he works?
a.
distributive injustice
b.
procedural injustice
c.
interactional injustice
d.
distributive inequity
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 180
BLM: Remember
Comment [LS1]: When each option contains a list of terms, ensure the terms in the keyed option
don’t appear too frequently (see author manual p. 39). The keyed terms “distributive” and
“injustice” appear two and three times, respectively. Please revise so that each term appears the
same number of times.
7-4 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
14. Which of the following is most likely to be an outcome of family-to-work conflict?
a.
presenteeism
b.
long lunch breaks
c.
excessive overtime
d.
telecommuting
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 185
BLM: Higher order
15. What are the four components that researchers and practitioners of occupational health
psychology focus on to reduce work-related psychosocial disorders?
a.
organizational change, information, psychological health services, and surveillance
b.
organizational change, information, psychological health services, and violence in the workplace
c.
information, stress moderators, surveillance, and violence in the workplace
d.
stress moderators, negative affectivity, depression at work, and information
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 173
BLM: Remember
16. Gianni’s manager has noticed that Gianni seems to be regularly engaging in presenteeism.
What is the most likely explanation for this behaviour?
a.
Gianni has insomnia.
b.
Gianni has negative affectivity.
c.
Gianni is worried about his job.
d.
Gianni is suffering from depression.
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 168
BLM: Higher order
17. Who is responsible for publishing the new voluntary standard for psychological health and
safety in the workplace?
a.
Canadian Standards Association
b.
Canadian Community Health Association
c.
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
d.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 177–178
BLM: Remember
18. Based on the factors identified in the NIOSH model of workplace stressors, whose job has
the most potential to be stressful?
a.
lower paid musician
Comment [LS2]: When each option contains a list of terms, ensure the terms in the keyed option
don’t appear too frequently (see author manual p. 39). The keyed terms appear more often than
the distractor terms. Please revise so that all terms ap-pear the same number of times.
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 7-5
b.
lower paid daycare worker
c.
highly paid executive
d.
highly paid assembly line worker
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 170–171
BLM: Higher order
19. What model would explain why Celeste is unaffected by a network outage, whereas Celine is
screaming loudly at the office’s network administrator?
a.
socio-technical model
b.
transactional model
c.
NIOSH stressor model
d.
general adaptation syndrome model
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 173
BLM: Remember
20. Ergun works from a home office as a salesperson for a large drug company. How can his
sales manager determine whether working from home is a psychosocial hazard for Ergun?
a.
monitor his inventory of drug samples
b.
monitor his nervous mannerisms
c.
monitor his email response time
d.
monitor his sales activity and results
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 177–178
BLM: Higher order
NARRBEGIN: Scenario 7-1
Read the following scenario and answer questions 21-25.
The life of a highly paid professional athlete would seem to be all positive, but evidence shows
that many elite athletes are exposed to a range of workplace stressors that are both similar to and
different from those experienced by those in more “typical” occupations. Many athletes
experience depression and other mental health issues both during and after their playing career.
NARREND
21. If there are 20 Canadian players on a National Hockey League team (the rest are American
and Europeans), according to Canadian statistics how many are likely to experience or be dealing
with a mental health problem?
a!
2
b!
4
c!
6
d!
8
7-6 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
ANS: b
NAR: Scenario 7-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 168
BLM: Higher order
22. Every athlete on a professional sport team is hired on a contract basis, with no guarantee of
permanent employment. What type of stressor is contract negotiation?
a.
acute
b.
daily
c.
chronic
d.
catastrophic
ANS: a
NAR: Scenario 7-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 173
BLM: Higher order
23. What is a social moderator that could buffer athletes from experiencing negative effects of
stress due to recent losses to other teams?
a.
money
b.
positive affectivity
c.
drugs and alcohol
d.
locker room jokes and pranks
ANS: d
NAR: Scenario 7-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 173–174
BLM: Higher order
24. If the team provides laptops with Skype for communicating with family and friends while the
team is on the road, what type of stress intervention would this be and what type of work-family
conflict could it help to reduce?
a.
individual primary intervention; work-to-family conflict
b.
individual secondary intervention; family-to-work conflict
c.
organizational primary intervention; family-to-work conflict
d.
organizational secondary intervention; work-to-family conflict
ANS: d
NAR: Scenario 7-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 179
BLM: Higher order
25. Playing time is something that athletes on sports teams monitor very closely and being
“benched”—not allowed to play their regular shifts—can be very humiliating. However, if the
coach does not “bench” an underperformer, what type of injustice might the rest of the team
experience?
a.
interactional injustice
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 7-7
b.
interpersonal injustice
c.
distributive injustice
d.
procedural injustice
ANS: a
NAR: Scenario 7-1
PTS: 1
REF: p.173
BLM: Higher order
TRUE/FALSE
1. Flexible hours that help workers who are looking after elderly parents take them to their
doctor’s appointments are a tangible form of social support.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 174
2. Isolation that comes from working at home will produce psychological strain in teleworkers.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 172
3. Cyberbullying (tweets, comments on Facebook) is a form of interactional injustice.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 180
4. Ruby Lee is always late to meetings, and her typical excuse is “I just tried to get one more
thing done.” Javier Suarez is always on time and drums his fingers on the table while he waits
for Ruby. Ruby and Javier are both Type A personalities.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 174
5. Constructive feedback is a tangible form of social support.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 174
6. Faculty members who talk negatively about “today’s students” are possibly suffering from
burnout.
7-8 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 175
7. Executives are more likely to get colds than garbage collectors.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 175
8. Inexperience and depression have some of the same symptoms.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 176
9. A manager who has a subordinate who is depressed is likely to intervene when that person’s
productivity starts to go down.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 176
10. GPS tracking systems on company vehicles that show the company where their driver is at
all times and how fast they are going are an example of an acute stressor.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 170 & 183
SHORT ANSWER
1. Describe and distinguish between the concepts of stressor, stress, and strain. Provide an
example to support your answer.
ANS:
A stressor is an objectively verifiable event that occurs outside the individual and has the
potential to cause stress. A stressor is an event appraised by the individual as taxing, exceeding
his or her coping resources, and negatively affecting his or her health. Stress is an individual’s
negative emo-tional response to, or evaluation of, stressors. It occurs when the individual feels
that he or she does not have the ability to cope with the stressor. Stress is moderated by
individual differences (e.g., personality and social supports). Individuals perceive and respond
differently to the same stressors (e.g., as proposed by the general adaptive syndrome and the
transactional model of stress). Stress is the function of both the individual and the situation.
Strain is the result of contin-ued stress, and is classified into four categories of reactions:
psychological, physical, behavioural, and organizational. Psychological strain reactions include
either a disturbance in affect (e.g., mood) or a disturbance in cognition (e.g., concentration).
Disturbances in mood resulting from stress can result in the experience of depression and
anxiety. Experiencing physical strain can lead
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 7-9
to coronary heart disease, hypertension, strokes, ulcers, asthma, and some forms of cancer.
Behav-ioural strain can manifest in avoidance of certain situations, increased smoking, and the
consump-tion of alcohol and drugs. Organizational strain can result in increased absenteeism,
decreased performance, and increased risk of workplace accidents.
Examples should follow the form of stressor–stress–strain. For instance: a boss who is always
yell-ing (chronic stressor)–leads to feelings of tension–manifested in feelings of anger or anxiety,
stomach ache, and nail biting.
PTS: 1
REF: p.169, 172, & 175
2. It is important for employers to detect mental health illness in order to help employees receive
an early medical referral and assessment. Describe the signs of organizational strain that could
help employers to detect and assess workplace mental illness after a traumatic event, such as the
premature death of the company’s CEO. Explain why primary stress intervention would not
work in that particular situation.
ANS:
Signs of organizational strain include increased absenteeism, decreased performance,
disturbances of interpersonal relationships at work, evidence of job search activity by current
employees, and an increase in workplace accidents.
Secondary and tertiary inteventions should be put into place to help employees deal with the
stress and/or strain they are feeling as a result of the loss. However, there is no way to eliminate
the cata-strophic stressor of someone important dying unexpectedly.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 177–180
3. Identify and describe four of the six major categories of workplace stressors identified in the
NIOSH model that would be found in the job of a restaurant dishwasher.
ANS:
The NIOSH model identifies the following major categories of workplace stressors:
1) workload and work pace: refers to the amount of work that must be completed and the speed
at which employees must work to complete their tasks.
2) role stressors: (conflict, ambiguity, inter-role conflict). Role conflict exists when individuals
face incompatibility from two or more sources. Role ambiguity reflects the uncertainty that em-
ployees experience about what is expected from them in their work. Inter-role conflict exists
when employees face incompatible demands from two or more roles.
3) career concerns: worries about job security, fear of job obsolescence, underpromotion, over-
promotion, and concerns about career progression.
4) work scheduling: working rotating shifts or permanent night shifts results in a disruption of
physiological circadian rhythms and a disruption of social activities.
5) interpersonal relations: poor interpersonal relations in the workplace are identified as a source
of stress. Having well-established sources of social support may reduce the effects of other work-
place stressors.
7-10 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
6) job content and control: jobs that are highly repetitive, or that do not make use of a variety of
workers’ skills or give workers a measure of control over how and when they complete their
tasks, can be a source of stress.
The most relevant stressors for a restaurant chef would be: workload and work pace, work sched-
uling, interpersonal relations, and job content and control. Potential arguments could also be
made for career concerns. However, because the role is very well defined and the incumbent is
unlikely to have multiple demands from different sources, role stressors are less likely to be an
issue, unless they have work–family problems.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 170–171
PROBLEM
1. How can an employer or human resource manager manage mental health illness in the
workplace?
ANS:
Employers and HRMs can apply a preventive stress management framework. The basic principle
of this framework is that the health of an organization and the health of its employees are
interde-pendent. Strategies can be implemented at both the individual and the organizational
levels. Ideal-ly, stress management programs will include both organizational and individual
interventions de-signed to reduce exposure to stressors, reduce the experience of stress when
stressors are unavoid-able, and swiftly provide treatment options to those individuals who are
experiencing the negative consequences of stress. Primary interventions are the only truly
preventative mechanism, but sec-ondary and tertiary interventions can prevent stress and strain
from getting worse.
Primary Interventions: involve reducing or removing the actual stressors and are highly effective
in reducing work-related stress and strain. The idea is that the removal of sources of stress from
the workplace should reduce employee stress and strain. (Individual Interventions: avoid taking
on an overload of work, take adequate leisure time, try to reduce Type A behaviour;
Organizational Interventions: redesign particularly demanding jobs, respect employees’ opinions
in management decision-making processes, provide flexible working conditions.)
Secondary Interventions: focus on minimizing negative outcomes once a person is feeling stress.
Techniques such as stress management and relaxation training help people identify the negative
health effects of stress. This approach often involves teaching effective coping strategies; appro-
priate strategies for managing stress can lessen the negative effects of stress on health.
(Individual Interventions: talk with friends and coworkers, make time to exercise, use relaxation
techniques; Organizational Interventions: provide comprehensive benefits programs, offer on-
site fitness cen-tres, ensure balanced nutrition on the cafeteria menu.)
Tertiary Interventions: include psychological therapy and medical attention strategies that are ap-
plied after the fact to help those individuals who have not been able to manage workplace stress
effectively and who are now experiencing symptoms of strain. In the event that stressors and
stress are not adequately dealt with via primary and secondary efforts, it is important to consider
tertiary interventions strategies that organizations and individuals can use to treat employees’
symptoms of strain. (Individual Interventions: seek medical treatment, participate in
psychological counselling;
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 7-11
Organizational Interventions: offer benefits packages with sick days and leave options, provide
counselling services following major stressors, support employee efforts to find appropriate
medi-cal or psychological care.)
PTS: 1
REF: p. 178–180
2. Imagine you are currently the human resource director for a small to medium-sized
organization. You are aware that perceived injustice in workplaces is a stressor and you would
like to minimize the extent to which your employees are exposed to this type of work stress.
Give some examples of how you might maximize employee-perceived distributive, procedural,
and interactional fairness. What outcomes would signal that employees are beginning to feel that
the workplace is unfair?
ANS:
An emerging employee stressor is injustice in the workplace, which is the concern that
employees who experience unfairness in their workplace also experience higher levels of
workplace stress and strain. As the human resource manager, you want to ensure that employees
are managed equitably by incorporating the following: interactional justice (fairness of
interpersonal treatment), distributive justice (fairness of outcomes), and procedural justice
(fairness of processes). The implementation of leadership training, performance management
systems, continuous employee feedback and participative decision-making processes maximize
employee-perceived interactional, distributive, and procedural fairness. Workplace practices that
increase employees’ perceived unfairness reduce employee commitment and retention, and
increase absenteeism.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 180–181
3. If an organization is concerned about work–family conflict, what aspects of work–family
conflict should it identify and address to fully understand the issue?
ANS:
More and more workers are facing childcare demands in dual-income households, resulting in
working parents being torn between work demands and their childcare responsibilities. Work–
family conflict is defined as a type of inter-role conflict in which the role pressures experienced
in the work and family domains are incompatible. Participation in one role is made more difficult
by virtue of participation in the other.
However, work–family conflict is bi-directional: work may interfere with a person’s ability to
meet family demands (work-to-family conflict), and family responsibilities may interfere with an
individual’s ability to keep pace with work demands (family-to-work conflict).
Several elements of work and family roles contribute to work–family conflict. One is the amount
of time a person spends in each role, or a person’s behavioural involvement in each role.
Generally speaking, the more time that is dedicated to one role means less time available to
spend in the oth-er role. A person’s psychological involvement, the degree to which a person
identifies with a par-ticular role and sees the role as central to his or her self-concept, can also be
a predictor of work–family conflict.
7-12 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
Both work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts are associated with negative consequences.
The outcomes tend to be in the opposite domain from the cause of the conflict. Work-to-family
conflict tends to affect family-related outcomes (reduced performance in the family role,
absences from family events), and family-to-work conflict tends to affect work-related outcomes
(decreased work performance and absenteeism from work).
PTS: 1
REF: p. 182–185