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Marketing of High Technology Products and Innovations 3rd Edition by Jakki J. Mohr -Test Bank

Chapter 6: Marketing Research in High-Tech Markets

Mohr, Sengupta, Slater (3/e, 2010)

Test Bank

6-1 Which of the following is most useful for developing information that might lead
to breakthrough products?

1. survey research
2. focus groups
3. conjoint studies
4. customer visit programs
5. concept tests
Answer:
D Page: 191 moderate

6-2 Which of the following is most useful for developing information that might lead
to incremental innovations?

1. customer visit programs


2. empathic design
3. focus groups
4. lead user research
5. guided intuition

Answer:
C Page: 191 easy

6-3 Which of the following is not a particularly useful process for idea generation?

1. surveys
2. observation
3. brainstorming
4. focus groups
5. depth interviews

Answer:
A Page: 191 easy

6-4 Conjoint analysis

1. is particularly useful for developing breakthrough products.


2. enables the analyst to assess how potential customers make trade-offs among different product
attributes.
3. is not useful when there are more than three attributes under consideration.
4. should not be used for making pricing decisions.
5. both a & b

Answer: B Page: 192-


193 moderate

6-5 A well-designed customer visit program offers the following benefits except

1. interactive conversation.
2. inclusion of multiple decision makers.
3. firsthand knowledge.
4. cross-functional understanding.
5. statistical conclusion validity.

Answer:
E Page: 194 moderate

6-6 The most successful customer visit programs

1. are freeform in nature.


2. focus on a specific customer type.
3. are conducted by market researchers.
4. are really “disguised” sales calls
5. take every opportunity to ask questions.

Answer:
E Pages: 195 moderate
6-7 ______________ is a research technique that focuses on understanding user
needs through observation rather than from users’ direct articulation of their needs.

1. Lead user research


2. Conjoint analysis
3. Empathic design
4. Beta testing
5. None of the above

Answer:
C Page: 196 easy

6-8 ______________ should perform observational studies.

1. Cross disciplinary teams


2. Anthropologists
3. Product development engineers
4. Marketing researchers
5. Product managers

Answer:
A Page: 198 moderate

6-9 Empathic design is a research technique based on the idea that:

1. intuition is not an effective guide for decision making.


2. standard research tools provide the most useful information.
3. customers should be able to quantify their needs.
4. users may not be able to articulate their needs clearly.
5. customers can envision the way new technology might be used.
Answer:
D Page: 198 easy

6-10 Which of the following is not identified as an insight from empathic design?

1. work-arounds, or ways that users have developed to cope with imperfect situations
2. ways in which users have customized the product to their own needs
3. unique usage situations for the product
4. identification of what the high-tech company is technologically capable of delivering
5. circumstances that prompt people to use a product or service

Answer: D Page: 197-


199 easy

6-11 All are part of the five-step process to conduct empathic design except:

1.
2. quantifying the data.
3. developing prototypes of possible solutions.
4. reflection and analysis.
5. brainstorming for solutions.

Answer:
B Page: 198 easy

6-12 ______________ are customers that may face needs months or years before the bulk of
the marketplace and, as such, are positioned to benefit significantly by obtaining solutions
to those needs now.

1. Innovators
2. Early adopters
3. Beta testers
4. Lead users
5. Pioneers
Answer: D Page:
199 easy

6-13 All are steps in the four-step process to incorporate lead user into market
research except:

1. conducting pragmatic visits to lead users.


2. identifying and questioning lead users.
3. identifying important market/technical trends.
4. developing the breakthroughs.
5. projecting the lead user data onto the larger market

Answer: A Page: 143-


144 easy

6-14 The following are steps in the Quality Function Deployment process except

1. collect the voice of the customer.


2. collect customer perceptions of competitive products.
3. transform customer insights into specific design requirements.
4. conduct a conjoint study to determine the importance of different attributes.
5. all of the above are steps in the QFD process.

Answer:
D Page: 203 moderate

6-15 The Kano concept:

1. is a planning approach that links customer requirements, competitive data, and design
parameters.
2. uses the voice of the customer to ensure a tight correlation between customer needs and
product design specifications.
3. is a graphical representation between types of product attributes and levels of customer
satisfaction (dissatisfaction).
4. reduces design time by 40% and design costs by 60%.
5. identifies the types of attributes that must be present in order to ensure the product is
functional.

Answer: C Pages: 203-


204 moderate

6-16 The attribute of laptop computers to be fairly immune to bumps and roughness
in handling is an example of:

1. one-dimensional quality.
2. must-be quality.
3. attractive quality.
4. customer-defined quality.
5.

Answer:
B Pages: 204 moderate

6-17 The difference between prototypes and beta versions is that beta versions are

1. tested in the lab.


2. tested in the field.
3. conceptual models.
4. not as useful for identifying problems.
5. ready for commercial release.
Answer: B Pages: 205-
206 moderate

6-18 Customer-driven innovation differs drastically from concept testing in that it:

1. taps the collective wisdom of a community for product development and innovation.
2. it better uses the resources of the firm.
3. it concentrates the research on a specific customer group.
4. it creates a “control” for all R&D done in the lab
5. it segregates the research process in order to better analyze customer input.

Answer A Page: 206 Moderate

6-19 Which of the following factor(s) explain the interest in customer-


driven innovation:

1. Technology tools to facilitate it.


2. The economics of product development costs and high failure rates.
3. Customers’ expectations about their role in the business strategy.
4. All of the above are factors that explain the interest in customer-driven innovation.
5. None of the above are factors that explain the interest in customer-driven innovation.

Answer: D Pages: 206-207 Easy

6-20 Biomimicry is of interest to high-tech firms because:

1. it will be pivotal in addressing ecological stress on the planet.


2. it is well on the way to inventing the first affordable, high volume alternative fuel source.
3. it provides biological insight to new product innovations that solve a vast array of problems.
4. it is a cutting-edge science focused primarily on biotech innovations.
5. it is the leading source of comparative information on the interconnectedness of science and
technology.

Answer: C p. 211-212 Moderate

6-21 Which of the examples below describe biomimicry?

1. The solutions provided by biomimicry are generally free of hazards to the environment.
2. Biomimicry calls on expertise from multiple disciplines to work together to solve problems.
3. Biomimicry often generates disruptive technologies.
4. Biomimicry offers sustainable solutions, because it mimics the earth’s solution to a given
problem.
5. All of the above examples describe biomimicry.

Answer E p. 211-212 Easy

6-22 Which of the following is FALSE with respect to the seven-step biomimicry
process? The seven-step process:

1. mimics nature, which every industry can potentially learn from.


2. focuses on feedback loops that identifies new challenges after one set of issues has been
addressed.
3. after identifying the problem and looking at it from a variety of angles, finds “experts” in nature
(organisms) that solve a particular problem.
4. identifies outliers which provide novel insights to the problem at hand.
5. tends to be most useful for those industries that are more “biological” in orientation, rather
than industries that rely on chemicals or industrial goods.

Answer E p. 214-215 Moderate


6-23 All of the following are examples of using customer co-creation in product design
except:

1. Apache, Linux, Firefox.


2. Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
3. Staples (office supplies retailer).
4. VW’s payment to past customers to join a forum for product upgrades.
5. Sun Microsystems’ Java Center.

Answer D p. 207 Moderate

6-24 User-driven innovation is often resisted by companies for many reasons. Which one
of the following is NOT one of those reasons?

1. Companies believe customers lack the skill base that the product requires.
2. Companies believe customers lack sophisticated knowledge.
3. Companies believe it gives customers too much power.
4. Engineers view customer innovators as rivals who undermine or challenge their creativity.
5. Customers come up with great ideas that the company may not have thought of.

Answer E p. 208 Moderate

6-25 The Grupthink vignette from the text uses customer co-creation in what way?

1. Grupthink emails surveys to competitors to gauge their level of co-creation.


2. Grupthink functions as a feedback community for their own business as well as others.
3. Twice annually, Grupthink holds virtual focus groups to discuss applications for their
innovation.
4. Grupthink uses social networking sites such as Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter to obtain
feedback.
5. Grupthink sells capabilities to hold virtual meetings where customers are interviewed in
regards to their experience with certain products.

Answer B p. 209-211
6-26 Biomimicry exemplifies high technology and corporate social responsibility
by engaging in which of the business practices listed below?

1. Biomimicry allows their staff one day per month of volunteer time at other eco- friendly
organizations.
2. Biomimicry encourages their partners to donate a percentage of their sales from biologically
inspired products to habitat preservation of the organism from which the innovation was
derived.
3. Biomimicry buys sensitive habitat, turns it into conservation land and conducts biomimicry
research on it.
4. Biomimicry partners with organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund to conduct
research on the planet’s most highly endangered species.
5. All of the above are ways in which Biomimicry combines high technology with CSR.

Answer B p. 212 Moderate

6-27 In Step 2 of the Biomimicry Design Spiral, scientists “biologize” the problem
by asking what question?

1. How does nature achieve this function in the environment?


2. How does nature NOT perform this function?
3. What are the climate and nutrient conditions where this function is performed?
4. Is there a social aspect for the organization in nature?
5. All of the above help biomimicry “biologize” the problem.

Answer E p. 214 Easy

6-28 Which of the following best describes how biomimicry derives solutions from
nature?

1. Solutions can mimic nature’s forms, processes and ecosystems.


2. Solutions are best derived from one category of organism at a time, as overlapping categories
inhibit a company’s ability to mimic.
3. Solutions are derived only from living organisms.
4. Solutions are extracted through a careful “hands-off” approach.
5. Solutions are derived separately from the relationships in nature by studying the biology of a
single organism at a one point in time.

Answer A p. 214-215 Moderate

6-29 Forecasting for high-tech products is difficult for all of the following reasons
EXCEPT:

1. No market research exists for disruptive technologies.


2. Oftentimes, no historical data exists.
3. Companies and inventors often have commitment biases about technologies.
4. There are no forecasting methods that are well-suited for the complications in high-tech
markets.
5. None of the above

Answer D p. 217-218 Moderate

6-30 The __________________ forecasting technique is used before preliminary


sales figures are available and for products for which there exists no closely related
competition.

1. Delphi Method
2. Analogous data
3. Bass Model
4. Bell Curve Method
5. Early Adopter Meter

Answer C p. 219 Moderate


6-31 The Bass Model assumes that new product adopters are influenced by which
two types of communications?

1. mass media and interpersonal communications


2. blogs and wikis
3. scholarly journals and reviews
4. competitor reaction and commercials
5. popular technology magazines and websites

Answer A p. 219 Moderate

Chapter 7: Understanding High-Tech Customers

Mohr, Sengupta, Slater (3/e, 2010)

Test Bank

7-1 Which of the following is not one of the critical issues in assessing the motivations of
customers to buy their products?

1. what affects customers’ purchase decisions?


2. who is likely to buy?
3. what affects the timing of customers’ purchase decisions?
4. which attributes do products have?
5. all of the above are

Answer:
d Page: 231 Moderate

7-2 What are the stages in the purchase process?

1. problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, post-


purchase dissonance
2. problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, post-
purchase evaluation
3. SWOT analysis, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, post-purchase
evaluation
4. problem recognition, information search, purchase decision, post-purchase evaluation
5. problem recognition, criteria definition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase
decision, post-purchase evaluation

Answer:
b Page: 232 Moderate

 Which of the following factors are not part of design thinking?

1. human factors
2. business factors
3. design factors
4. technology factors
5. all of the above

Answer: c Page 234 Easy

 Which of the following statements about design is not correct?

1. Good design does result in payoffs to business


2. Design combines functionality and aesthetics
3. Design is a multidisciplinary field based on applied art, technology, ethnography, and military
strategy
4. The Design Management Institute seeks to increase the awareness of design in business strategy
5. None of the above

Answer: c Page 234 Moderate

 All of the following are values that design contributes to an organization except:

1. differentiates product, brand, image by integrating aesthetics


2. integrates internal business processes to deliver a better customer experience
3. facilitates cultural change
4. incorporates sustainability issues into products
5. helps reduce cost of materials

Answer: e Page 234 Moderate

7-6 In the context of evaluation and adoption of innovations, ____________ refers to the
benefits of adopting new technology compared to the costs.

1. relative advantage
2. complexity
3. compatibility
4. trialability
5. observability

Answer:
a Page: 236 Easy

7-7 Which of the following comprise the influences on the evaluation and adoption of
innovations?

1. benefits provided, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability


2. relative advantage, usability, complexity, trialability, observability
3. relative advantage, compatibility, importance, trialability, observability
4. benefits provided, compatibility, complexity, importance, observability
5. relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability

Answer:
e Page: 236 Moderate
7-8 Technology enthusiasts are also known as:

1. geeks
2. early adopters
3. innovators
4. technovators
5. risk-takers

Answer:
c Page: 240 Easy

7-9 Early majority buyers:

1. are very price sensitive and need highly reliable solutions


2. want proven applications, reliable service, and results
3. seek substantial performance improvements relative to current solutions
4. tend to be skeptical about the value of innovations
5. are quite risk averse

Answer:
b Page: 241 Challenging

7-10 Which of the following is essential to generating a sale from an early majority buyer?

1. low price
2. high levels of promotion
3. vision of achievement of a revolutionary breakthrough
4. reference from a trusted colleague
5. all of the above
Answer:
d Page: 241 Moderate

7-11 A group of customers that want proven applications and reliable service, and are apt to
buy only when other companies within their industry have already adopted a particular
technology solution is:

1. innovators/enthusiasts
2. early adopters/visionaries
3. early majority/pragmatists
4. late majority/conservatives
5. laggards/skeptics

Answer:
c Page: 241 Moderate

7-12 A group of customers that is willing to adopt revolutionary changes in the way they do
business, that communicate across industry boundaries, and require customized solutions to their
business’s needs are:

1. innovators
2. early adopters
3. early majority
4. late majority
5. laggards

Answer:
b Page: 241 Moderate

7-13 A group of customers who will tolerate initial glitches, appreciate technology for its own
sake, provide early revenue for marketers, and work with technical personnel to work on
alpha/beta test versions of a product are:

1. innovators
2. early adopters
3. early majority
4. late majority
5. laggards

Answer:
a Page: 241 Moderate

7-14 Which of the following is not true with respect to marketing to the pragmatists?

1. focusing on the whole product solution is vital


2. working with partners can fill in gaps in the solution
3. engineering brilliance is rewarded
4. engineers should focus more on customer service than on engineering
5. reference other adopters in the industry, as well as the availability of competitive solutions, is
reassuring to a pragmatist

Answer:
c Pages: 241 Moderate

7-15 A crucial strategy for “crossing the chasm” is to:

1. add additional features


2. provide customized products
3. reduce price substantially
4. sell product line extensions to current customers
5. offer a complete, end-to-end solution to the customer’s needs

Answer: e Page: 243 Moderate

7-16 The “chasm” between the early adopters and the early majority market is primarily due
to:

1. capital constraints
2. poor understanding of the needs of the early majority
3. the lack of credible references for early majority buyers
4. competition
5. early majority buyers wanting additional features

Answer: c Page: 243 Moderate

7-17 A beachhead:

1. is a market segment from which to attack the mainstream market


2. is part of the bowling alley strategy of market development
3. should be in the early majority stage of the market
4. a and b
5. all of the above

Answer: e Pages: 244 Moderate

7-18 A good beachhead requires that customers:

1. have the ability to purchase similar products from competitors


2. have a single, compelling reason to buy that will improve productivity on a critical success factor
3. come from many different vertical market segments
4. have many different options in what the “whole product solution” looks like
5. who buy the new technology will be able to change the competitive rules in their own industry

Answer: b Pages: 244 Moderate

7-19 The ___________ is the period when the general marketplace switches over to the new
technology.

1. chasm
2. bowling alley
3. tornado
4. beachhead
5. main street

Answer: c Page: 248 Moderate

7-20 Important criteria on which to evaluate segment attractiveness include:

1. size, growth rate, competitive intensity, ability to address segment needs


2. size, growth rate, competitive intensity, product line
3. size, growth rate, supplier power, ability to address segment needs
4. size, threat from substitutes, competitive intensity, ability to address segment needs
5. size, threat from substitutes, supplier power, competitive intensity

Answer: a Page: 252-253 Moderate

7-21 When customers “leapfrog,” they skip:

1. a generation of technology
2. from one technology to another
3. from one seller to another
4. from a basic product line to a full-featured product line
5. from one solution to another

Answer: a Page: 259 Easy

7-22 Tools that can help a company with its positioning strategies are:

1. conjoint analysis
2. regression analysis
3. multi-attribute models
4. perceptual maps
5. c and d

Answer: e Page: 254 Moderate

7-23 A migration path:

1. is an element of the bowling alley strategy


2. starts with the beachhead
3. helps the customer transition between product generations
4. should be based on incremental improvements
5. all of the above

Answer: c Page: 259 Easy

7-24 ____________ warrants migration assistance.

1. competitive intensity
2. customer uncertainty
3. incremental advances in technology
4. low buyer power
5. none of the above

Answer: b Page: 196 Moderate