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Contents

PROJECTS ...................................................................................................................................................... 2
OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
REDUCING BREAKDOWNS BY IDENTIFYING THE REASONS & PROVIDING SOLUTIONS FOR THEM ............. 4
MACHINE CATEGORIZATION ..................................................................................................................... 4
BASIS OF CATEGORIZATION .......................................................................................................................... 5
OBSERVATION ............................................................................................................................................... 6
MONTH WISE BREAKDOWNS ANALYSIS: .................................................................................................... 10
Reasons for Increasing Breakdowns: ...................................................................................................... 19
Reasons of breakdowns & their solution: ............................................................................................... 20
MTBF CALCULATION ................................................................................................................................... 28
MODIFICATION OF MACHINE BREAKDOWN FORMAT ............................................................................... 30
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKLISTS FOR CRITICAL MACHINES ......................................................... 32
PROPOSAL OF PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE SYSTEM .................................................................................. 50
1. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSED SYSTEM ........................................................................ 53
FUSING PARTICLES REMOVAL FROM PRESSING MACHINE BED ................................................................. 59
MAINTENANCE PERFORMANCE MATRIX .................................................................................................... 62
STRING DIAGRAM OF MAINTENANCE STORE ............................................................................................. 64
References .................................................................................................................................................. 65

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PROJECTS

1. Reducing breakdowns by identifying the reasons & providing solutions for


them.
 Mean Time Between Failure & Mean Time To Repair calculation
 Modification of Machine breakdown format
 Preventive maintenance checklists for critical machines
2. Proposal of predictive maintenance system
3. Maintenance performance matrix
4. Fusing particles removal from pressing machine bed
5. String diagram of maintenance store

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OBJECTIVE

Proper asset care is critical to ensure that equipment is available to meet production
schedules, support process flows and comply with environmental, health, safety,
and regulatory requirements. Asset care is the execution of the most cost effective
control strategy to address the predominant failure modes of that particular asset
with its operating envelope. The intent of this strategy is to provide the required
asset utilization at the lowest life cycle cost while also ensuring the asset makes it
to the budgeted end of life. This care could be an operator care task; a predictive
technology, a preventive maintenance task or job plan, and even doing nothing at
all (run to failure). The asset care strategy is an output of an engineered system that
includes a business process, & properly configured management information
system to ensure sustainability of the strategy.

Mathematical Calculations as MTBF & MTTR is also vital to keep records of


breakdowns time and duration.

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REDUCING BREAKDOWNS BY IDENTIFYING THE REASONS & PROVIDING
SOLUTIONS FOR THEM

MACHINE CATEGORIZATION

 Machines of all departments are categorized as A, B and C on the basis of

 Machine availability
 Production
 Quality

 Machine categorization is done in order to know which machines are critical.

 A category machines represents “critical machines”, B category machines


represents “semi critical machines” and C category machines represents “non
critical machines.

 Hence “A” category machines are given more importance.

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BASIS OF CATEGORIZATION
“A”
“B” “C”
Category Parameters Category
Category M/C Category M/C
M/C

Machine complexity High Medium Low

Availability of alternative
Low Medium High
in case of breakdown
Production

Availability of machine in
case additional Low Medium High
requirements

Level of rework required in


Quality case of quality defect found High Medium Low
in next M/C

Degree of injury in case of


Safety High Medium Low
accident

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OBSERVATION

 Total 65 machines are there in trouser line 3, from assembly to finishing.


 9 machines are critical machines among them.
◦ Auto dart
◦ pocket welting
◦ Auto serging
◦ Button hole
◦ Bottom blind hem
◦ Curtain felling
◦ Pin tack m/c
◦ Auto welting
◦ Loop Making m/c
 6 machines were not in working condition among 65 m/cs.
 1 mechanic is there for one line.

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List of machines in trouser line 3 with their asset code:

LINE 3 OPERATION WISE ASST CODE

SL.NO OPERATION ASST CODE


1 LOOP ATTACH SSAL II SNLSDF PF-077
SSAL II 1TBSBL MR-
2 LOOP MACKING
001
SSAL IITNCSMC HL-
3 ZIPPER M/C
008
SSAL II 3TOLMC JK-
4 FACING O/L
001
SSAL II SNLSWT-HL-
5 PANEL O/L
021
SSAL II SNL SDF HL-
6 SERGING O/L
020
SSAL II SNL SDF PF-
7 DUMMY SITITCH
010
SSAL II ATHSMC DA-
8 AUTO SERGING
003
9 AUTO DART SSAL II ADMC PF-002
10 DART PRESS SSAL II PPM WS-004
11 FRONT POCKET ATTACH SSAL II SNLSNF PF-022
SSAL II APWMC ASS-
12 AUTO WELTING
001
SSAL II SNLSWT HL-
13 BACK RISE BINDING
024
14 WELT PRESS SSAL II SBPMC WS-003
15 FRONT POCKET PRESS SSAL II FIT WS-006
SSAL II SNL SWT HL
16 FRONT POCKET TOP STITCH
024
SSAL II SNL SDF HL-
17 IDIL
008
18 FRONT POCKET TOP STITCH SSAL II SNLSDF PF-279
19 BACK POCKET KINARY SSAL II SNLSDF PF-278
20 BUTTON HOLE SSAL II EBH WK-001
21 TOP WELT SSAL II SNLSNF PF-026
22 BACK POCKET POINTED SSAL II SNLSDF PF-277
SSAL II SNLSWT HL-
23 BACK POCKET POINTED
010
24 BACK POCKET BARTACK SSAL II BTMC DA-014
25 BUTTON ATTACH SSAL II 2TCSBH DA-

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001
26 MAIN LABEL ATTACH SSAL II SNLSDF PF-152
27 SIZE LABEL ATTACH SSAL II SNLSDF PF-276
SSAL II SNL SDF PF-
28 FRONT POCKET ATTACH
268
SSAL II 5TOLMC JK-
29 COIN POCKET O/L
004
30 FLY ATTACH SSAL II SNLSDF PF-223
SSAL II 5TOLMC JK-
31 SIDE SEAM JOIN
019
SSAL II 5TOLMC JK-
32 SIDE SEAM JOIN
006
33 IN SEAM JOIN SSAL II DNLS HL-003
34 SIDE SEAM PRESS SSAL II SBPMC WS-007
35 IN SEAM PRESS
ASSEMBLY 1
36 POCKET BOOCKING SSAL II SNLSDF PF-019
SSAL II SNNFEC HL-
37 LOOP ATTACH
005
SSAL II 2 ZZAMC PF-
38 W/B LINING ATTACH
003
SSAL II SNL SDF PF-
39 W/B LINING
018
SSAL II SNLSDF DA-
40 W/B ATTACH
019
SSAL II SNLSDF DA-
41 W/B ATTACH
100
SSAL II SNLSDF DA-
42 RIHGT FLY LINING ATTACH
098
43 R.FLY LINING PRESS SSAL II FIT SN-001
44 HOOK & BAR SSAL II HK WL-002
45 J. STITCH SSAL II SNLSDF PF-003
46 FRONT RISE SSAL II SNLSDF PF-116
SSAL II SNL SNF PF-
47 R.FLY KINARY
002
48 SLIDER & BRAD ATTACH
SSAL II TNCSMC HL-
49 BACK RISE
012
50 LABEL ATTACH SSAL II SNLSDF PF-018
51 BACK RISE & W/B PRESS SSAL II CBIT WS-005
ASSEMBLY 2
52 DOWN BARTACK SSAL II ABMC DK-001
53 FLY BARTACK SSAL II BTMC DK-010
54 CURTEIN FELLING SSAL II BSCF SL-003

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55 LOOP FINISHING SSAL II BTMC DK-014
SSAL II 2TCSBH BR-
56 BUTTON HOLE
003
SSAL II ABS M/C DK-
57 BUTTON ATTACH
005
58 PINTACK SSAL II 1TBSSP SL-006
SSAL II ABSMC DA-
59 CROTCH ATTACH
001
SSAL II 5TOL M/C JK-
60 BOTTOM SERGING
022
SSAL II SNL SDF HL-
61 BOTTOM CUFF TACKING
008
SSAL II BSBH M/C SL -
62 BOTTOM HEMMING
004
LOOP CUT & BUTTON SSAL II W & KMC LA-
63
WRAPPING 091

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MONTH WISE BREAKDOWNS ANALYSIS:

MARCH 2018:

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BREAKDOWN SUMMARY

Total
1000 930
900
800
700
600
500
Total
400
300
200
100 45 60
15
0
AutoSerging Button hole WaistBandAttach Zig zag

Line No. 3

Section (All)

Sum of Breakdown
Row Labels Duration (mins)

AutoSerging 930
Button hole 45

WaistBandAttach 60
Zigzag 15

Grand Total 1050

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April 2018

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BREAKDOWN SUMMARY

Total
300
240
250
200
155 150
150
100
45 45
50 20 Total
0

Line No. 3

Section (All)

Sum of Breakdown Duration


Row Labels (mins)

AutoWelting 45

FrontRise 20

Auto Zig 45

Pintack 155

RightFlyLiningAttach 240

LoopDownBartack 150

Grand Total 655

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May 2018

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BREAKDOWN SUMMARY

1000 900 Total


900
800
700
600
500
400
300 210
200 Total
100 30 30
0

Line No. 3

Section (All)

Sum of Breakdown
Row Labels Duration (mins)

AutoSerging 210
AutoDart 900
WaistBandLiningAttach 30
Back pkt edge cutter 30

Grand Total 1170

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June 2018

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BREAKDOWN SUMMARY

Total
2000
1440
1500 1050
1000
500 10 115 60 20 15 60 35 30 30 10 40 20
0 Total

Line No. 3

Section (All)

Row Labels Sum of Breakdown Duration (mins)

AutoSerging 10

AutoWelting 115

AutoDart 1440

CurtainFelling 60

LoopFinish 20

FrontRise 15

Button hole 60

Pintack 1050

Front pkt booking 35

JStitch 30

FrontPktAttach 30

BackPktPointed 10

ButtonAttach 40

KneeLining 20

Grand Total 2935

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BREAKDOWN SUMMARY

OVERALL SUMMARY

So, actual Breakdown


time for June = 1495
min.

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Reasons for Increasing Breakdowns:

a) Spare parts are not available most of the times.


(Major Problem)

b) Cleaning of floor (by air gun)

c) Improper cleaning of machines

d) Lack of skill of mechanic.

e) Lack of attention of mechanic towards the problem.

f) Irresponsibility of mechanics in preventive maintenance.

g) Wrong data in breakdown report.

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Reasons of breakdowns & their solution:
a) Spare parts are not available most of the times.
(Major Problem)

Parts unavailability is a major problem of increasing the breakdowns & breakdown


time also.

In case if the parts of machines are not available then mechanics make some
manageable parts to keep running the machines, since those self made parts are
made of paper, rubber, metal &woods so they don’t last as much as original parts
last. So the machines get frequent breakdowns due to unavailability of parts.

Most of the exported parts take at least 1 month of lead time after requirement.

Solution:
A list of critical parts made, so that to identify the parts which must be in stock
always so that if the breakdowns happens then it will be resolved shortly.

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This is the list of those critical parts which should always be available.

Trouser Model No Important spare parts


Auto Serging 1365 motor belt
looper holder
needle holder
step motor belt
cylinder
transport belt
top feed dog
lower feed dog
lower knife
moving knife
thread trimming knife
Auto Dart 3586 trimming cylinder
big cylinder
tension post releasing cylinder
cylinder
Welting 3500,100/68,100/58 motor belt
center knife
corner knife
center knife cylinder
hook set
trimming knife
cylinder
Button Hole 580,579,981 looper
spreader
timing belt
Curtain Feeling 103 looper
plunger
trimming coil
feeding belt
feed dog
pressure foot
Bottom Hem 103 looper
plunger
trimming coil
feeding belt
feed dog
pressure foot
Loop Sewing cutting knife(upper,lower)
looper

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plunger
feed
pressure foot
thread guides
takeup camp
Pintack 560 knife
looper

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b) Cleaning of floor (by air gun)

Micro fiber particles

Dust accumulations in machine Dust cleaning from the machine

Because of dust accumulations in motherboard, sometimes mother board


doesn’t work properly.

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a) Improper cleaning of machines

Because of improper cleaning of machines, cut threads get tangled in the machine
parts like, shaft, bearings, gear etc.

Those threads affect the movements of the parts and sometimes it also caused to
break that part because of jamming the movement.

Solution:
Operators should be trained to maintain small issues of the machines by giving
them training, for that Autonomous maintenance should be practiced in a regular
basis.

Now everyday all the power is cut from 11:55 am to 12:00 pm for autonomous
maintenance.

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d) Lack of skill of mechanic.
There are only 2 mechanics, who are able to solve all issues related to machines in
trouser lines.

Apart from these there are 4 other mechanics, who are not fully trained to solve all
the issues, they need help most of the time from other mechanics to repair the
machines whenever some breakdowns happens.

Solution:
A training module should be there for the mechanics, who are not fully trained
with the skilled mechanics.

e) Lack of attention of mechanic towards the problem.


Whenever some breakdowns happens, all the mechanics gather together to solve
the issue and in between if some other breakdowns happens they take time to go
there and solve the issue.

Solution:
Mechanics should be trained that they don’t need other mechanics to solve the
issue.

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f) Irresponsibility of mechanics in preventive maintenance.
In the preventive maintenance schedule sheet they used to mark green symbol as
the status of machine is good, without doing the preventive maintenance.

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Solution:
In the new format of preventive maintenance sheet they have to check all the
critical parts of the machines, and they have to report to the Mechanic In-charge &
HOD.

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MTBF CALCULATION
I found that MTBF formula in machine breakdown monthly report was not correct,
means if only one breakdown happens in a line within a day then the value of
MTBF will come correct, but if more than 1 breakdown happens then the value of
MTBF will come wrong by that formula.

In this report there are 2 breakdowns in line 2 on 11 may 2018 & the MTBF value
is 450, 460

But according to the formula it MTBF should be, 480-(30+20)/2 = 430/2 = 215.

So the MTBF formula is not correct.

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Solution:

This is the suggested modified breakdown report format, in which MTBF formula
is corrected and MTTR is also added.

In this report we can see that the previous issue is solved, as the value of MTBF is
coming 215.

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MODIFICATION OF MACHINE BREAKDOWN FORMAT

 The machine breakdown report is filled by the mechanic and line In-charge,
when a machines breakdowns.

 It includes data such as in the fig.

 In this format, there are three options such as


1. Problem solved
2. Temporarily solved
3. Parts not available.

 But the problem is when it is temporarily solved there is no any information


about the further permanently solution.

 And if the reason of not solving the problem is lack of spare parts, then there
is no mention of which part/parts is not available.

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Solution:

 The new format of machine breakdown report will include all the
related data.
 It is also linked with daily breakdowns report in excel.

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PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKLISTS FOR CRITICAL
MACHINES

List of critical machines in trouser line:


1. Auto dart

2. Pocket welting

3. Auto serging

4. Button hole

5. Bottom blind hem

6. Curtain filling

7. Pin tack m/c

8. Auto welting

9. Loop Making m/c

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1. Autodart
Machine specifications:

PFAFF 3586 AUTODART M/C SPECIFICATIONS


Max. dart depth 30 mm (37 mm from 80 mm darts
length)
Max. waistband pleat depth 70 mm (max. 40 mm waistband pleat
depth with special clamping unit)
Dart- / pleat length 9.0 - 250 mm
Stitch type 301
Max. sewing speed 4,500 s.p.m.
Max. stitch length 1.0 - 3.0 mm
Needle system 134 KK
Needle Size in 1/100 mm 80 - 100
Stitch length basting seam 6.0 - 9.0 mm
Working height 760 - 1,140 mm
Motor speed 200 - 4,500 r.p.m.
Power requirement ca. 1,200 VA
Connection voltage E 230 V, 50/60 Hz
Working air pressure min. 6 bar

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Preventive maintenance card

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2. Auto Pocket Welting
Machine specifications:

Pocket welting machine


M/C head Class 0246992002
Needle system 2134-85
Needle distance 10, 12,14,16,20,24,26,30 mm
Needle size Nm 80 to Nm 110
Threads
Stitch type Twin needle lock stitch
Speed min. 2000 rpm, max.3000
No of stitches/ condensed stitches 1-10 stitches
No of stitches/ bartack stitch 0-5 stitches
Stitch length condensed stitches/bartack 0.5 – 3.0 mm
Pocket length max 220 mm
Seam offset max +/- 13 mm
Operating pressure 6 bar
Air consumption Approx 6 NL/ workcycle
Rated voltage (3×230/400 V/ 50/60 Hz)
M/C vacuum blower 0, 8 KW
Dimensions 1540×925×1200mm (L×W×H)
Working height 790…1100 mm(upper edge of table)
Weight 280 Kg
Rated noise level 81 dB

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Preventive maintenance card

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3. Auto serging
Preventive maintenance card

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4. Button hole
Machine specifications:

BUTTONE HOLE SPECIFICATIONS


Model no. DURKOPP ADLER DH4-B980
Sewing speed 1,000 - 2,000 rpm (100 rpm steps
Button hole length 10 – 50 mm
Stitch pitch 0.5 - 2.0 mm (0.1 mm steps)
Stitch width 1.5 - 3.2 mm
Tacking length 3 – 43 mm (1 mm steps) or none
Cloth presser height 12 mm
Stitch shape changing Selected by a program
Cut timing selection Selected by a switch
Dual switch (cloth presser switch and start switch) or
Starting method
single switch
Feed method Intermittent feed by three pulse motors (X, Y, )
Needle DO x 558 Nm 80 – Nm 120 (Schmetz)
Built-in emergency stop function and automatic
Safety equipment stopping device which stops the machine when the
safety circuit is activated
Main regulator: 0.5 MPa
Air pressure
Knife pressure regulator: 0.3 MPa
Air consumption 43.2 l/min. (8 cycles/min.)
81 dB at max. speed of 2,000 rpm, measured according
Noise level
to ISO 10821
Dimensions 1,200 mm (W) x 590 mm (D) x 1,120 mm (H)
Work table legs T-shaped height-adjustable type
Single-phase 110, 200, 220, 230, 240 V
Power supply 3-phase 220, 380, 415 V
Maximum electric power consumption: 1 kVA
Weight 175 kg

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Preventive Maintenance card

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5. Bottom blind Hem machine
Machine specifications

BOTTOM HEMMING TH-5500 SPECIFICATIONS

Application Bottom hemming - pants or skirts


(lockstitch type)
Machine head Cylinder bed, needle feed, lockstitch
machine
with extra large hook and automatic
thread trimming
Dimensions 1030
Max. Sewing Speed 3,500 rpm
Stitch Lenght 1...10 mm (can be set from touch
panel)
Hemming Parameters
Top Puller 400 W servo motor
Bottom Puller 400 W servo motor
Sewing Head Motor 750 W direct drive servo motor
Hook Exclusive automatic lubricating
full+rotary
productivity 200 - 250 pants in one hour
Noise Workplace-related noise at sewing
speed
n=3,500 min: Lpa≤ 84 dB (A)
Noise measurement according to DIN
45635-48-A-1
Dimensions 1030 (W) x930 (L) x1370 (H) mm
Weight 225 KG

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Preventive Maintenance card

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6. Curtain filling machine
Preventive maintenance card

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7. Pin tack machine
Preventive maintenance card

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8. Auto welting
Machine specifications:

Pocket welting machine


M/C head Class 0246992002
Needle system 2134-85
Needle distance 10, 12,14,16,20,24,26,30 mm
Needle size Nm 80 to Nm 110
Threads
Stitch type Twin needle lock stitch
Speed min. 2000 rpm, max.3000
No of stitches/ condensed stitches 1-10 stitches
No of stitches/ bartack stitch 0-5 stitches
Stitch length condensed stitches/bartack 0.5 – 3.0 mm
Pocket length max 220 mm
Seam offset max +/- 13 mm
Operating pressure 6 bar
Air consumption Approx 6 NL/ workcycle
Rated voltage (3×230/400 V/ 50/60 Hz)
M/C vacuum blower 0, 8 KW
Dimensions 1540×925×1200mm (L×W×H)
Working height 790…1100 mm(upper edge of table)
Weight 280 Kg
Rated noise level 81 dB

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Preventive maintenance card

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9. Loop Making
Preventive maintenance card

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BENEFITS
In JULY & AUGUST breakdown time & response time has been reduced.

July 2018:

Breakdown summary
Line No. (Multiple Items)
Section (All)

Row Labels Sum of Breakdown Duration (mins)


AutoWelting 20
AutoDart 90
BackPktButtonHole 80
CurtainFelling 300
SideSeamJoin 20
Button attach 25
Grand Total 535

Total
400 300
300
200 90 80
100 20 20 25
0 Total

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August:

Breakdown summary
Line No. (Multiple Items)
Section (All)

Row Labels Sum of Breakdown Duration (mins)


AutoSerging 100
AutoWelting 85
Pointed 25
BackPktBartack 30
Pintack 30
CrotchAttach 80
LoopDownBartack 25
LoopAttach 25
FrontAndBkPktKinary 20
Ditchstitch 20
Sratach attach 20
Grand Total 460

Total
150 100 85 80
100
50 25 30 30 25 25 20 20 20
0 Total

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Overall Summary:

Breakdown time reduction in July = 64.21 %


Breakdown reduction in August = 14.01 %

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PROPOSAL OF PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE SYSTEM

Machines are important elements for an industries and their breakdown can affects
the performance of system. If the breakdowns are unexpected, then it is very
difficult for production engineers to achieve target. In the process of production, it
is very challenging to guess occurrence a machine breakdown, referred as
unplanned machine breakdown.

Machine breakdown can cause interruptions in the production process. Due to


these interruptions, production is completed later than the planned date. The
interruptions in machines affect the whole production and because of this
production target is not achieved. Due to situation customer requirements cannot
be achieved and production manager has to revise the deadlines. This situation
causes corporations to lose their customers, which also means yield loss.
Therefore, a production system has to meet deadlines with resources which are
available with them, in spite of a disturbed environment.

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Predictive maintenance for industry is a method of preventing machine failure
by analyzing machine data to identify patterns and predict issues before they
happen.

How does predictive maintenance work?

For predictive maintenance to be carried out, a product or machine requires the


following base features:

Sensors – data-collecting sensors installed in the physical product or machine

Communication protocols – the communication system that allows data to flow


between the unit and the data store

Data store – the central data hub in which data is stored, processed and analyzed,
typically a cloud-based data repository

Data analytics – algorithms applied to the machine data to recognize patterns and
generate insights in the form of dashboards and alerts

To implement this system effectively, we need to map the parameters of failure for
machines and create a blueprint for their connected system (the sensors,
communication protocols, gateway, cloud, and predictive analytics)

For machine and parts manufacturers, a relatively common predictive maintenance


use case is monitoring and analyzing the condition of a motor to get alerts about its
productivity levels, power consumption, health status, and internal wear.

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The proposed system is divided in two sections. The microcontroller section
consists of three sensors, potentiometer knob to set temperature, indicator and LCD
along with the sim900 module. MLX90614 is the temperature detector, the digital
output proximity sensor is the obstacle detector and ACS712 is the motion detector
of the system. The data from the sensors is continually processed by the
microcontroller and an alarm is sent to the mobile phone if something is detected
or something crosses the limit.

The Sim900 GSM module is present in between the microcontroller section and
the mobile phone and is responsible for the communication between them. This
module is use to send information from the microcontroller to the mobile phone. In
addition to the microcontroller section, the second section of the system is the
mobile a mobile phone. Any mobile phone can be use and it does not require any
special feature. The trigger from the microcontroller is received in the form of text.

( Block Diagram of the System )

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The proposed work design a machine breakdown detection system which detects
the breakdowns such as motor overload, different belts in machines, Temperature
of motor, direction of motor. Belt broken condition is determined when proximity
sensor output is high and motor current is below no load current. Motor overload
breakdown occurs when motor current is above full load current. By using non-
contact temperature and laser temperature of particular point is detected. If sensed
current is positive then motor is in forward direction otherwise motor reverse alarm
is generated. If faults occurs system stops the motor & sent the SMS to
maintenance engineer, at the same time, same message is also displayed on LCD at
machine.

1. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSED SYSTEM


The system is divided in two parts: the mobile phone and the microcontroller unit.
The mobile phone is a user interface and it is not a controlling the device. The
microcontroller is use to control the devices and to process information collected
from the devices. This means that microcontroller is the brain of the system.

1.1 Interfacing Sim900 GSM Module

The Sim900 module is a vital part of the system responsible for


communication between the microcontroller and the mobile phone.
Interfacing a GSM module to AVR is very simple. It needs only 2
connections between the module and AVR.

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1.2 Interfacing and Implementing Sensors

1.2.1 Current sensor ACS712

The Allegro ACS712 sensor gives accurate current measurement for both
AC and DC signals. Thick copper conductor and signal traces allows for
survival of the device up to 5 times over current conditions. Output of
ACS712 is an analog voltage signal that changes linearly with current which
is sensed by sensor. Analog voltage is send to pin no 23 (i.e. ADC pin) of
Atmega’s 328P controller and configure microcontroller to read the analog
value.

1.2.2 Temperature sensor MLX90614

This device can be used to measure temperature from -70 to +380 degree
Celsius. Connect four leads of MLX90614 to AVR to get an accurate
thermometer with a resolution of 0.01 and accuracy of 0.5 degrees. AVR
microcontroller is using TWI (Two Wire Interface) terms for I2C.I2C is
broadly used interface in embedded applications. I2C bus consists of two
lines called Serial Data Line (SDA) and Serial Clock Line (SCL).
Communication is fast and short distance which is mainly used to
communicate between sensors, RTC, EEPROM, and LCD. I2C protocol
permits up to 128 devices connected to SDA& SCL lines where each of
devices has unique address. Master and slave based communication is use in
between devices. Master produces clock signal, starts and ends data transfer.
From electrical point of view I2C devices usage open drain (open collector)
pins. SDA and SCL lines need pull up resistors to function properly. Usually
4.7kΩ resistors are used.

( I2C Interface )

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Each communication is started by START signal and finished by STOP. These are
always produced by master. START and STOP signals are produced by pulling
SDA line low while SCL line is high. In other cases when data is transferred data
line must be stable during clock high and can be changed when clock is low: I2C
communication packet comprises of following parts: START signal; Address
packet – It consists of seven address bits led by data direction bit (read or write)
and acknowledge bit; Data packet – It includes eight data bits and acknowledge bit;
STOP signal. Acknowledge bit is a ninth bit of every byte transferred. Receiver
always has to check proper receive with ACK by pulling SDA low or in case
receiver cannot receive data it will keep SDA high (NACK) so master could stop
transferring and do other situation if needed.

1.3 Interfacing LCD to AVR microcontroller

The Liquid Crystal library allows controlling of LCD displays. The LCDs have a
parallel interface; it means that several interface pins are handleby microcontroller
at a time to control the display. The interface comprises

1. A register select (RS) pin selects either the data register or an instruction
register.

2. A Read/Write (R/W) pin use to select writing mode or reading mode.

3. An Enable pin enables writing to the registers.

4. D0 -D7 are data pins.

There is also a display contrast pin (CONRT), power supply pins (+5V and GND)
and LED Backlight pins that can be used to power the LCD, control the display
contrast, and to turn on and off the LED backlight, respectively. The controlling of
display includes putting the data that form the image of what is to be display into
the data registers, then placing instructions in the instruction register. The Liquid
Crystal Library simplifies this.

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To wire LCD screen to Arduino, connect the following pins:

LCD RS pin to digital pin 13

LCD Enable pin to digital pin 12

LCD D4 pin to digital pin 11

LCD D5 pin to digital pin 10

LCD D6 pin to digital pin 9

LCD D7 pin to digital pin 8

Additionally, connect a 10Kilo-ohm potentiometer between +5V and GND, and


connect its output to LCD screens CONTR pin (pin3).

PROBABLE RESULTS:

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Required sensors & their price in the market:
 Digital output proximity sensor for obstacle detector

 Sim 900 GSM for Reading SMS on LCD

 ACS712 for current sensor

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 MLX90614 for temp. detector

 AVR Microcontroller

TOTAL COST OF SENSORS =


4516 RUPESS

Reference:
International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education.

IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 (Vol-1 Issue-4 2015)

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FUSING PARTICLES REMOVAL FROM PRESSING MACHINE BED

Fusing particles stuck on pressing M/C beds

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Problems due to those fusing particles:
o Steam was not passing evenly through the pressing machine.
o Temperature variation was occurring on the surface of M/C bed while
pressing.
o Quality issue was occurring in the garments.
o Fabric on the M/C bed has to be changed after 3 months or may be before 3
months if large amount of fusing particle sticks on the bed.
o Extra time & money was investing in changing the fabric.

Solution:

PROFESSIONAL STRENGTH Chewing Gum, Candle


Wax & Putty Remover (Easily & quickly remove gum
and sticky substances from any surface)

Properties:
EASILY REMOVES chewing gum, candle wax, putty
and other gummy substances from surfaces

MAKES the messy job quick and neat by freezing


substance to approximately -40°F so it will crack off

EFFECTIVE Remover

REMOVAL is easy and no staining or chemical residue


is left behind

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Benefits:
o There is no need of changing the fabric after times
o Only one has to spray this and wipe out with some wiper, and
stuck particles will be removed from the surface of M/C bed.
o Extra money in changing of the fabric will be saved.
o Extra time in changing the fabric will be saved.
o It doesn’t contain any stain mark or any chemical contain after
finishing the job.
o It will be easy and quick process of removing those fusing
particles.

Cost & Reference 61 | P a g e


MAINTENANCE PERFORMANCE MATRIX
On the basis of quality performance matrix, I was asked to make a maintenance
performance matrix.

(Quality performance matrix)

Steps involved in making maintenance performance matrix.

1. Observation of quality performance matrix


2. Parameters identification of maintenance department
3. Identifications of departments which will involve
4. Making the format

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Maintenance performance matrix

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STRING DIAGRAM OF MAINTENANCE STORE

String diagram is made in Autocad.

Implementation with process flow chart in maintenance store.

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References

 International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in


Education. IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 (Vol-1 Issue-4 2015)
 Silver Spark unit 2 Maintenance department.
 WWW.Amazon.in
 Epro labs

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