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國立台灣海洋大學

國立台灣海洋大學 National Taiwan Ocean University

National Taiwan Ocean University Amplitude Modulation


 Amplitude modulation1 (AM) is formally defined as a
通訊與導航工程學系 process in which the amplitude of the carrier wave c(t)
where c (t )  Ac cos( 2f c t ) is varied about a mean value,
通訊原理 linearly with the message signal m(t).
Fundamental Communications Theory s (t )  Ac [1  k a m (t )] cos( 2f c t )
Fall 2018
 Let m(t)  M(f), where the Fourier transform M(f) is
吳家琪 助理教授 called the message spectrum.
Ac k A
S( f )  [ ( f  f c )   ( f  f c )]  a c [ M ( f  f c )  M ( f  f c )]
2 2
Lecture 6. QAM, SSB and VSB

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Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier Modulation


 Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSB-SC)
modulation consists of the product of the message signal
m(t) and the carrier wave c(t), as shown in the equation
s (t )  c (t ) m (t )  Ac cos( 2f c t ) m (t )
With m(t)  M(f),
1
S( f )  Ac [ M ( f  f c )  M ( f  f c )]
2

Figure 3.2 (a) Spectrum of message signal m(t). (b) Spectrum of


AM wave s(t).
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3.4 Costas Receiver


 Coherent detection of a DSB-SC modulated wave
requires that the locally generated carrier in the receiver
be synchronous in both frequency and phase with the
oscillator responsible for generating the carrier in the
transmitter.
 One method of satisfying this requirement is to use the
Costas receiver shown in Fig. 3.16.

Figure 3.11 (a) Spectrum of message signal m(t). (b) Spectrum of


DSB-SC modulated wave s(t).

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 The detector in the upper path is referred to as the in


phase coherent detector or I-channel, and the detector in
the lower path is referred to as the quadrature-phase
coherent detector or Q-channel.
 These two detectors are coupled together to form a
negative feedback system
 With negative feedback acting around the Costas
receiver, the control signal tends to automatically
correct for the local phase error  in the voltage-
controlled oscillator.

Figure 3.16 Costas receiver for the demodulation of a DSB-SC


modulated wave.
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3.5 Quadrature-Carrier Multiplexing


 The quadrature null effect of the coherent detector
may also be put to good use in the construction of the
so-called quadrature-carrier multiplexing or
quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM).
 Quadrature-carrier multiplexer is therefore a
bandwidth-conservation system.
s (t )  Ac m1 (t ) cos( 2f c t )  Ac m 2 (t ) sin( 2f c t )
 A block diagram of this system is shown in Fig. 3.17.
 The receiver part of the system is shown in Fig.
3.17(b). Figure 3.17 Quadrature-
carrier multiplexing system:
(a) Transmitter. (b) receiver.

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3.6 Single-Sideband Modulation  which is characterized by two side-frequencies, one at fc +


 This modification of DSB-SC modulation is precisely is fm and the other at fc – fm.
done in single sideband (SSB) modulation. 1
Ac Am cos[( 2 ( f c  f m )t ]
sUSSB (t ) 
Theory 2
m (t )  Am cos( 2f m t ) 1 1
sUSSB (t )  Ac Am cos( 2f c t ) cos( 2f m t )  Ac Am sin( 2f c t ) sin( 2f m t )
2 2
 With the carrier c(t) = Ac cos(2πfct), the resulting DSB-
SC modulated wave is defined by

s DSB (t )  c (t ) m (t )  Ac Am cos( 2f c t ) cos( 2f m t )


1 1
 Ac Am cos[( 2 ( f c  f m )t ]  Ac Am cos[( 2 ( f c  f m )t ]
2 2
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1 1 The Fourier series representation of a periodic signal


s LSSB (t )  Ac Am cos( 2f c t ) cos( 2f m t )  Ac Am sin( 2f c t ) sin( 2f m t ) 
2 2 converges to the Fourier transform of a nonperiodic
1 1 signal;
s SSB (t )  Ac Am cos( 2f c t ) cos( 2f m t )  Ac Am sin( 2f c t ) sin( 2f m t )
2 2
 The signal m ˆ (t ) is the Hilbert transform of the signal
m (t )   a n cos( 2f n t ) m(t).
n
1 1 a Hilbert transformer
s SSB (t )  Ac cos( 2f c t )  a n cos( 2f n t )  Ac sin( 2f c t )  a n sin( 2f n t )
2 n 2 n  H(f) =-j sgn(f)
 where sgn(f) is the signum function;
mˆ (t )   a n sin( 2f n t )
n  The Hilbert transformer is a wide-band phase-shifter:
Ac A  The magnitude response is unity for all frequencies, both
s SSB (t )  m (t ) cos( 2f c t )  c mˆ (t ) sin( 2f c t )
2 2 positive and negative.

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Modulators for SSB


 The phase response is +90° for negative frequencies and  Frequency Discrimination Method
-90° for positive frequencies.  One straightforward method for SSB generation, called
Ac A the frequency discrimination method, is depicted in Fig.
s (t )  m (t ) cos( 2f c t )  c mˆ (t ) sin( 2f c t )
2 2 3.19;
 where Accos(2πfct) is the carrier, Acsin(2πfct) is its -90°
phase-shifted version;

Figure 3.19 Frequency-discrimination scheme for the


generation of a SSB modulated wave.
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Phase Discrimination Method


 The second method for SSB generation, called the phase

discrimination method, is depicted in Fig. 3.20;

Figure 3.18 (a) Spectrum of a


Coherent Detection of SSB
message signal m(t) with  The coherent detector of Fig. 3.21 applies equally well

energy gap centered around to the demodulation of both DSB-SC and SSB; the only
zero frequency. Corresponding difference between these two applications is how the
spectra of SSB-modulated modulated wave s(t) is defined
waves using (b) upper
sideband, and (c) lower
sideband. In parts (b) and (c),
the spectra are only shown for
positive frequencies.

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Frequency Translation
 The basic operation performed in single sideband

modulation is in fact a form of frequency translation,


which is why single sideband modulation is sometimes
referred to as frequency changing, mixing, or
heterodyning.
 As depicted in Fig. 3.21, the mixer is a functional

block that consists of a product modulator followed by


a band-pass filter, as it is in a conventional SSB
modulator but with an important difference.
Figure 3.20 Phase discrimination method for generating a SSB-
modulated wave.
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Figure 3.21 Block diagram of mixer.

 The signal s’(t) may be viewed as the sum of two


modulated components: one component represented by
the shaded spectrum in Fig. 3.22(b), and the other
component represented by the unshaded spectrum in this
figure. Figure 3.22 (a) Spectrum of modulated signal s1(t) at the mixer input.
(b) Spectrum of the corresponding signal s’(t) at the output of the
product modulator in the mixer.

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3.7 Vestigial Sideband Modulation


 (i) Up conversion. Motivation
f2 = f1 + fl  Vestigial sideband (VSB) modulation distinguishes

fl = f2 – f1 itself from SSB modulation in two practical respects:


 Instead of completely removing a sideband, a trace or

vestige of vestige of that sideband is transmitted;


 (ii) Down conversion
hence, the name “vestigial sideband.”
f2 = f1 – fl
 Instead of transmitting the other sideband in full,
fl = f1 – f2 almost the whole of this second band is also
transmitted.
 Where fv is the vestige bandwidth and W is the

message bandwidth.
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Sideband Shaping Filter  Two properties of the sideband shaping filter follow
H(f + fc) + H(f – fc) = 1, for –W  f  W from Eq. (3.26):
 The transfer function of the sideband shaping filter
exhibits odd symmetry about the carrier frequency fc.
 The transfer function Hv(f) is required to satisfy the
condition of Eq. (3.26) only for the frequency interval –
W ≤ f ≤ W, where W is the message bandwidth.
H(f ) = u(f – fc) – Hv(f – fc) = 1, for f – fv  |f | < fc +W
1, for f  0
u( f )  
Figure 3.23 VSB modulator using frequency discrimination.  0, for f  0
Hv(–f) = –Hv(f)

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Example 3.3 Sinusoidal VSB


The sinusoidal modulating wave and carrier wave are:
m (t )  Am cos( 2f m t )
c (t )  Ac cos( 2f c t )
The VSB spectrum is therefore:
1
S( f )  kAc Am [ ( f  ( f c  f m ))   ( f  ( f c  f m ))]
Figure 3.24 (a) Amplitude response 4
of sideband-shaping filter; only the 1
positive-frequency portion is shown,  (1  k ) Ac Am [ ( f  ( f c  f m ))   ( f  ( f c  f m ))]
4
the dashed part of the amplitude
response is arbitrary (b) Unit-step
function defined in the frequency
domain. (c) Low-pass transfer
function Hv(f).
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The sinusoidal modulated wave is then, Coherent Detection of VSB


 For an exact recovery of the message signal m(t) from

the VSB modulated wave s(t), except for some


amplitude scaling, we may use the coherent detector
shown in Fig. 3.12.
 Then setting the phase  in the local sinusoid in Fig.

3.12 equal to zero, we express the Fourier transform of


the product signal

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 Shifting the VSB spectrum to the right and left Example 3.4 : Coherent detection of sinusoidal VSB

 The low-pass filter in the coherent detector has a cutoff


frequency just slightly greater than the message bandwidth.
 The result demodulated signal is a scaled version of the
desired message signal.
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Summary and Discussion


 The example modulated wave is
s (t )  Ac m (t ) cos( 2f c t )
 Amplitude modulation (AM), in which the upper and lower
sidebands are transmitted in full, accompanied by the carrier
wave
 Demodulation of the AM wave is accomplished equally
simply in the receiver by using an envelope detector
 Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSB-SC)
modulation, in which only the upper and lower
sidebands are transmitted.
 This advantage of DSB-SC modulation over AM is, attained
at the expense of increased receiver complexity.

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 Single sideband (SSB) modulation, in which only the


upper sideband or lower sideband is transmitted.
 It requires the minimum transmitted power and the minimum
channel bandwidth for conveying a message signal from one
point to another.
 Vestigial sideband modulation, in which “almost” the
whole of one sideband and a “vestige” of the other
sideband are transmitted in a prescribed
complementary fashion
 VSB modulation requires an channel bandwidth that is
intermediate between that required for SSB and DSB-SC
systems, and the saving in bandwidth can be significant if
modulating signals with large bandwidths are being
handled.