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The Histories
Jan M. Ziolkowski, General Editor
Alice-MaryTalbot, Byzantine Greek Editor
Byzantine Greek Editorial Board
Chatles Batber
John Duffje
Niels Gaul
Richatd Greenfield
Anthony Kaldellis
Translated by
Derek Krueger
Eustratios Papaloannou
Claudia Rapp

Byzantine GreekAdvisory Board

AJbrecht Berger Antony Littlewood
Wolfram Brandes Margaret Mullett
Elizabeth Fisher Jan OlofRosenqvist
Clive Foss Jonathan Shepatd
John Haldon Denis Sullivan


201 4

Copyright © 2014 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College

Introduction vii
Printed in the United States of America

Library ofCongress Cataloging-in-Publication Data THE HISTORIES

Chalkokondyles, Laonikos, approximately I43o-approximately 1490. BOOKI 2
{De rebus Turcicis.}
The histories / Laonikos Chalkokondyles ; translated by Anthony
Kaldellis. BOOK3
volumes em. - (Dumbarton Oaks medieval library ; doml33)
(Dumbarton Oaks medieval Iibrary ; dom134) BOOK 4
In Greek with English translation on the recto. BOOKS
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-674-599I8-5 (volume I , alkaline paper)-
ISBN 978-0-674-59919-2 (volume 2: alkaline paper) r. Byzantine.
Empire-History-ro8r-I453-Ear1yworks to 1800. 2. Turkey- Note on the Text 47I
History-I288-1453-Ear1yworks to 1800. 3. Istanbul (Turkey)- Notes to the Text 47S.
History-Siege, I453-Ear1yworks to 1800. 4. Greece-History- Notes to the Translation 479
323-1453-Ear1yworks to 1800. I. Kaldellis,Anthony. II. Title.
DF600.C47 2014
949·5'04- dc23 2014004768


Nikolaos Chalkokondyles, the real name of our author "Lao-

nikos," was born around '430 into one of the leading Greek
families of Athens, a city that was then ruled by the Acciai-
uoli of Florence; his father's name was Georgios.! When the
duke fultonio I died in early '435, his widow tried to secure
power for herself and Georgios Chalkokondyles, but fulto-
nio's nephews Nerio II and fultonio II prevailed in the en-
suing struggle and expelled the Chalkokondyles family from
Athens. 2 Theyare attested in the summer ofI447 at Mistra,
the court of the despot Konstantinos Palaiologos (subse-
quently the last emperor of Byzantium, I449-I453). The·
traveler and antiquarian Ky:riacus offulcona met "the youth"
Nikolaos there in the company of the despot and the great-
est philosopher of the age, Georgios Gemistos "Plethon."
Kyriacus says that Nikolaos was fluent in both Greek and
Latin and that he gave him a tour of the antiquities of nearby
Sparta. 3 In the years before this encounter, the despot had
been building up his power in southern Greece at the ex-
pense of the Ottoman sultan Murad II (I42I-I45I) and the
Acciaiuoli, and having the leading Greek family of Athens
by his side would have been advantageous. Those ambitions,


however, were shattered in I446, when Murad smashed them in our inquiries. They {the Greeks} were also
through the Isthmia wall and subjected the despotate of the fortunate to have a herald who himself did not fall far
Morea to vassal status. The young Nikolaos may have been short in worth of the deeds themselves, I mean He-
present at that battle, which he vividly described later as the rodotos ofHalikarnassos, who recounted these events
historian Laonikos; his father had been used by Konstanti- in the way in which each happened, in a manner akin
nos as an envoy to Murad. 4 to a divine procession {i.e., of events}. 7
We have no more definite information about the life
of Nikolaos-Laonikos, except for the fact that he stopped Laonikos's astonishment at the valor displayed by the
work on his monumental Histories sometime between I464 Greeks against their oriental assailants in Herodotos could
and I468.5 The work cannot be said to be finished, as it pe- have stemmed only from his personal experience of their
ters out in the midst of discussing the opening phases of the dismal failure to repel the Ottoman Turks in his own day. In
first great Venetian-Ottoman war in I464, but we do not his Histories, which begins with the saroe classical naming
know why the author stopped working on it. formula, he asserts that the Greeks have historically enjoyed
The influence of the neopagan Plethon on Laonikos's a better fortune than their virtue would warrant. 8
thought is pervasive, including the idea that the Byzantines It was probably in the I450S that Laonikos conceived the
were really Greeks and not Romans, an indifference to project of writing an imitation of Herodotos replete with
Christian belief and ritual, an acceptance of the World Soul, ethnographic digressions, but one in which the barbarians
and the ability to break from Byzantine tradition and view of Asia prevail, especially under Mehmed II (I45I-I48I).
Islam not as a theological error but, in Herodotean terms, Unfortunately, we have no information about Laonikos's
as a legitimate set of cultural norms given by the nomothetes movements after I447. Scholars have wanted to situate him
Oawgiver) Muharomad to his people. 6 Laonikos also ob- against a Western humanist context and place him (on no
tained from Plethon his personal copy of Herodotos, Lauf. evidence whatsoever) either in Venice or in Venetian Crete.
Pluto 70.6 (Florence), a manuscript created in I3I8, corrected This bias is partly due to the attraction exerted by the ca-
in Plethon's own hand, and used by Bessarion in I436 to reer of his faroous cousin (?) Demetrios Chalkokondyles,
make another copy. Laonikos added his own subscription to who relocated to Italy, took up the chair of Greek estab-
the end 040v): lished at Padua by the Venetian senate in I463, and was a
major player in the dissemination of Greek learning. 9 We
{Belonging to} Laonikos the Athenian. It seems to me should resist this reading. Laonikos was not writing in the
that the Greeks displayed a virtue greater than what I490S, as used to be believed, but in the I460s, when there
is merely human, and that they made a demonstra- were few Italians who could read his level of Greek. At-
tion of deeds such as to amaze us when we learn about tempts to identifY him with individuals mentioned in other

viii ix

sources fai1. l0 Laonikos was writing for a Greek audience,


rodotos for the fifteenth century. The backbone of the nar-

most likely in postconquest Constantinople. That was rative is the sequence and conquests of the Ottoman sul-
where the first extant manuscript of the Histories was cop- tans, exactly the role played in Herodotos by the Persian
ied,ll only a few years after the work acquired its final form. kings. Greek history is again related in pieces and inter-
Moreover, he reveals no bias against the Turks or Islam and ludes, against the backdrop of barbarian history. Laonikos
does not overtly support a Crusade, which his cousin was does write as a Greek-praising the Greek language and
calling for at the same time. In his reporting and some of hoping for the restoration of a national Greek kingdom in
his sources, Laonikos is rooted in the transitional world the future-but his narrative focus is Turkish. He presents
of the postconquest Balkans; for example, he had access to the conquest of Constantinople, for example, through Ot-
Mehmed Irs accountants and may have attended the cir- toman eyes, just as Herodotos's narrative follows Xerxes's
cumcision of the sultan's sons at Adrianople in 1457. 12 His expedition from Asia into Europe. Moreover, Laonikos crit-
knowledge of the West, by contrast, is spotty and often gar- icizes no one in his work as harshly as he does the Greek
bled. The Histories is a post-Byzantine work, not a protohu- kings and rulers, for the incompetence that cost them their
manistone. freedom. He praises many Ottoman conquerors, especially
the early sultans, and seems to be neutral toward the Turks
and Muslims in general, though he criticizes the cruelty of
Mehmed II, especially in Books 9-10.
The Histories begins by tracing the prehistory of both
Laonikos is one of the four Greek historians of the Fall of Greeks and Turks (starting with the god Dionysos and the
Constantinople: the other three are the anti-Turkish and Oguz, respectively), their stories slowly coalescing at some
pro-Union Doukas, writing at the same time but indepen- point in the early fourteenth century. The narrative be-
dently; Kritoboulos, who wrote a panegyrical account of the comes increasingly more detailed and focused. Book 1 ends
early years of the reign of Mehmed II, studiously avoiding with the first battle ofKosovo.in '389, after which a steadier
the question of religion throughout, and who may have sequence of historical events follows the succession of the
known Laonikos's Histories; and the anti-Turkish and anti- sultans, except for Book 3, which focuses on the reign of
Union Sphrantzes, whose scattered notes about his own ca- Timur. The narrative becomes more detailed as it reaches
reer are not exactly a work of history. These works are dra- the time of composition (ca. 1464); the final three books are
matically different from each other in terms of structure, devoted to the first twelve years of Mehmed II.
style, and outlook, and Laonikos is the least studied among There is not a single date in the Histories, probably the
them. result of a zealous attempt to imitate Herodotos, which re-
The Histories is basically an attempt to write a new He- sults in many chronological errors. Book 1 is especially gar-

x xi

bled: Laonikos has no framework (other than the sequence kos tends to make generic comments about abstract cultural
of the sultans) by which to coordinate events, and so he was categories: e.g., the French are arrogant and have a more
often unable to integrate Ottoman and non-Ottoman his- luxurious way of life than the Italians; the Russians follow
tory when his sources did not do it for him. He seems to the Greeks in religion, the Germans the pope. His coverage
have relied primarily on oral sources in any case. There is no of the recent history of Italy is the fullest (though an Ital-
evidence, for instance, that he had access to the works of ian might cringe at some of the errors), followed by that of
the last Byzantine historians, Nikephoros Gregoras and 10- Spain and France (and the Hundred Years' War). Book 3 con-
annes Kantakouzenos, whose narratives end in the 13605, so tains most of his information on Muslim peoples and Asia,
he was just as much on his own before that decade as after. 13 including an excursus on the tenets and practices of Islam.
His coverage of early Ottoman history bears the imprint There are some mistakes (e.g., Muhammad's tomb is not at
of Turkish oral (or at least poetic) tradition, as shown by a Mecca, and the hajj does not involve a pilgrimage to it), but
comparison between his account and the earliest Ottoman he also attempts to counter Christian slanders against Islam
sources. 14 Laonikos was essentially an Ottoman historian, (e.g., the accusation that the tomb was believed to float in
albeit one writing in Greek and enmeshed in the classical the air). Laonikos can also be shown to have used the West-
tradition. In his coverage of the early phase of Turkish ex- ern roman tradition for his information about Charlemagne
pansion, many of his episodes are clearly modeled on pas- and possibly also about battles in Spain and the Hundred
sages in Herodotos, which he has adapted. But this feature Years' War. IS This complements his use of oral Turkish tra-
rarely appears after Book I (e.g., in Book 3, Timur's war dition, making him a valuable source for oral history in the
against the Golden Horde is modeled on Darius's campaign fifteenth century. It seems that he preferred this type of ma-
against the Skythians). And as he comes closer to the pres- terial over histories and chronicles, resulting in an episodic
ent, his narrative becomes less garbled chronologically and and romantic coverage of foreign history, all transposed
more detailed. It is especially valuable as a primary source onto a high Thucydidean register of Greek prose.
for events after '42' (the accession of Murad II). Laonikos's foreign information peters out for all regions
Another Herodotean feature of the Histories, which also in the mid-1450s, which suggests that he had by then col-
sets it apart from the middle Byzantine tradition, is its eth- lected most of that material, possibly with the aim of writ-
nographic and geographic digressions. Laonikos pauses to ing nine books that would begin, like Herodotos's Histories,
comment on the location and customs of many people, from with ethnography linked to barbarian expansion, and end
Britain to Arabia and Central Asia. He characterizes most with the final conquest of Constantinople, the Pelopon-
nations positively and reveals no religious bias. These di- nese, and Trebizond.
gressions are fascinating for being the products of a Byzan- The Histories tacitly breaks from Byzantine tradition. La-
tine, but they are not always reliable or informative. Laoni- onikos does not mention any previous Greek or Byzantine

xii xiii

historian. He was not at all interested in the Roman and Laonikos's style presents many challenges, in part be-
Christian dimensions of Byzantine civilization, preferring, cause the Histories was left unrevised and probably uncor-
like his master Plethon, to view the Byzantines exclusively rectedYThere are numerous grammatical errors, and these
as Greeks. For example, he calls their former capital Byzan- may be attributable more to the author than to the few
tion and not Constantinople, and he tries to avoid mention- cOpyists who transmitted the text between him and our
ing Constantine. He has no interest in the details of Chris- (very early) first witness, Par. gr. '780. Case endings often
tian disputes, as he probably stood with Plethon outside the have to be changed so that sentences make sense; the sub-
Christian tradition. While he does not mention Herodo- ject of genitive absolute clauses is sometimes also the sub-
tos and Thucydides, his prose style imitates and combines ject of the main clause of a sentence, violating the rules of
theirs in curious ways.16 He emulates the syntactical com- Greek grammar; there are abrupt and unannounced changes
plexity and obscurity ofThucydides, making his text some- of subject even within individual sentences, and subjects are
times difficult or impossible to understand. The prose is re- not always identified, so that translation requires an uncom-
petitive, minimalist, and dry. There are hardly any poetic fortable degree of guesswork. There are often two "kings" or
allusions, metaphors, or images. More generally, Laonikos "rulers" interacting in some passages, and it is sometimes
exhibits a kind ofThucydidean austerity that moderates po- hard to know who is meant each time, and other passages
tential Herodotean flights of fancy. There are no tall tales in are syntactically garbled or corrupted in the transmission.
the Histories, or strange creatures at the ends of the earth, no As a result, there are many parts of the text whose mean-
dreams, visions, miracles, or gods; there are few anecdotes ing remains opaque despite the best efforts of expert phi-
and almost no humor. Motivation of his protagonists is re- lolOgists to decipher them. I have tried to give what we take
stricted to the ambition to conquer and the fear of being to be the intended sense, but there is room for more guess-
conquered. It is in such terms that the ancient drama of work. Still, most of the Histories is not in such a bad state.
East versus West, or of Asia versus Europe, plays out in the The prose, as mentioned above, is repetitive, minimalist,
Histories. and dry, and so the translation will sometimes have those
qualities too. Punctuation is one area where a new edition of
the Greek text can be dramatically improved. As it stands,
the punctuation feels almost as if it was randomly placed,
In the sixteenth century Laonikos's Histories was translated but in English I have tried to break the text into coherent
loosely into Latin and French. In the twentieth century it sentences and clauses. I have introduced the term "sultan"
was translated fully only into Romanian and partially into to clarity passages full of generic "kings" (see below), and I
English, Turkish, and Modern Greek (see the Bibliography). often name subjects where they are not specified by Laoni-
This is the first complete English translation. kos and are unclear from the context.

xiv xv

The text is divided into ten books (the first five of which easily glance over at the Greek version. The exceptions are
appear in this volume, and the remaining five in volume 2, a few names that cannot easily be deciphered (e.g., the As-
DOML 34), but the section divisions beyond that (between syrians in 2.9, 3.36) and the Skythians, by whom Laonikos
60 and lID per book) are introduced here for the first time. means the Mongols, but not only them: like many Byzantine
The corresponding volume numbers and page numbers of writers, he seems to have believed in a Skythian type that
the latest critical edition of the Greek text, that by E. remained in existence from antiquity to the present. So I
Dark6, which is reproduced here (see the Note on the Text), have left that term as is, because "Skythian" was a charged
are given in square brackets within the facing Greek text. ethnonym in the Byzantine worldview; designating the no-
The notes also posed a challenge. The policy of the Dumbar- madic alternative to settled agricultural and urban life.
ton Oaks Medieval Library is to limit notes to what is ab- I have also used the geographical names that correspond
solutely necessary, but the Histories range over the entire to the modern ethnonyms, except where Laonikos uses
known world from Portugal to Central Asia, and readers well-known classical toponyms. In a few cases, I have con-
cannot be presumed to know all the people, places, and verted his classical place names to Byzantine ones, e.g.,
events mentioned in the narrative. In these days of extreme Sparta to Mistra and Epidauros (Limera) to Monembasia.
specialization, there is no guarantee that even Byzantinists Some of his place-names cannot easily be deciphered and so
will know the basics of Ottoman history, or vice versa, to say they have been left as they are, e.g., what he calls "Hun-
nothing of material that ranges farther afield. Therefore, to garian Wallachia" (Paionodakia), which must roughly corre-
make the two volumes accessible to the broadest possible spond to Transylvania, except that he also uses the name Ar-
audience, the notes clarity most references in the text and deal, which means roughly the same. I have used the term
correct some of the major errors. I have stopped short, how- Byzantion for the city ("Byzantium" is a modern term,
ever, of giving a detailed commentary, because there is no which refers to the empire as a whole). The Appendix lists
space and that is not the goal of the series. A separate note the "classical" forms of place-names and ethnonyms that La-
must now be made on how I have rendered names, places, onikos used.
titles, and some technical terms. As for personal names, I have generally used the forms
that correspond to their current "native" spellings, though
in this matter there is much variation in scholarly conven-
tions,18 and culturally sensitive spellings that are established
Laonikos uses classical ethnonyms for contemporary peo- today were not always the forms used in the fifteenth cen-
ples (e.g., he calls the French Celts, the Hungarians Paioni- tury, In any case, there is no justification for the Latinization
ans, the Wallachians Dacians). In most cases, I have used the or Anglicization of Byzantine names, which I have spelled
modern names in the translation; the reader can in any case as they are in the Greek (e.g., Ioannes, Theodoros). The ex-

xvi xvii

ceptions are Manuel and Michael, which Laonikos, going to clarifY the narrative is to supply their names more often
against Byzantine convention, renders as Emmanouelos and than Laonikos does, and I call the protagonists of the Histo-
Michaelos, possibly in order to formalize or further Helle- ries, namely the Ottoman rulers, sultans rather than kings,
nize them. I use their more familiar forms. again for the purpose of clarity. It is important for the reader
Laonikos's political vocabulary is minimalist, again be- to know that Laonikos does not distinguish them in this
cause of his imitation of Herodotos. He has "kings" (basi- way.
leus), autonomous or subordinate "rulers" (hegemon), and Finally, Laonikos uses ancient units of measurement for
"lords" or "governors" under them (archon). He does not use distance, weight, and volume. There is no way to know
the plethora of distinctive titles that we encounter in mod- whether he understood their values to be the same as those
ern histories, e.g., sultan, emir, emperor, tsar, voivode, etc. that we assign to them today based on the ancient sources
The only exception to this pattern is what we call "the em- and archaeological evidence. Some he uses only once, and
peror of the Romans," but this title he reserves only for the they are explained in the notes to those passages. These two
Western emperors. He marks the difference between a king he uses often: a "stade" is a unit of length roughly equal
(basileus) and an emperor by using for the latter the Byzan- to 183 meters (600 feet), and a "talent" is a unit of weight
tine title basileus kai autokrator. What we call the "emperor of roughly equal to 26 kilograms (57 pouuds). Turkish terms
Byzantium" was for him only a national king, and the "king from the Ottoman administration and army that Laonikos
of the Greeks" at that (or "the king of Byzantion," meaning occasionally uses are explained in the notes the first time
the city). Laonikos was among the first theorists to argue they occur: readers can find those passages by looking up
that the Byzantines were not Romans as they claimed to be, the terms in the Index.
but Greeks (1.5), a thesis that has been very influential in the
modern field of Byzantine Studies from Edward Gibbon to
Konstantinos Paparrigopoulos and Speros Vryonis. He was I have incurred many debts while working on this project.
emphatic that the ruler of these Greeks was not an "em- Ian Mladjov drew up about a quarter of the notes, and, if
peror," so it would be a distortion of both his practice and the series allowed for a "busier" title page, his contribution
that of the Byzantines to use the term "emperor of the might have been acknowledged there too; he also helped
Greeks." There has never been such a thing. me resolve problems of dating and spelling and made the
Laonikos's minimalism is deliberate and we should not excellent maps that accompany the volume. I have not al-
lightly override it, imposing a host of terms on his text that ways followed his recommendations, which may have been a
are foreign to its outlook. However, so many kings are diffi- mistake. The first draft of my translation benefited from a
cult to tell apart, especially when they appear in the same thorough scouring by the most intimidating team of philol-
sentence without their personal names. What I have done ogists a Byzantinist can ask for: Alice-MaryTalbot, the mov-

xviii xix

ing force behind the Greek subseries; Richard Greenfield; 3 Cyriac of Ancona: Later Travels, tr. E. D. Bodnar (with C. Foss) (Cam-
Niels Gaul; and]ohn Duffy. I thank all the members of this bridge, .Mass., 2003), 298-301.

"dream team" for their detailed comments that corrected 4 Histories 7.19-25.
5 Kaldellis, "The Date."
errors in the translation and improved the flow of my Eng-
6 For these aspects of Plethon's influence on Laonikos, see Kaldellis, A
lish. Their many hours of work are appreciated, and Laoni- New Herodotos.
kos cannot have been an easy assignment. Further help with 7 For the text, see A. Turyn, The Byzantine Manuscript Tradition ofthe Trag-
difficult passages was provided at all stages by Charis Messis edies ofEuripides (Urbana, Ill., 1957), 230 n. 212a. The translation is my own.
and Stephanos Efthymiades.]ane Hathaway, my colleague at The history of the manuscript is discussed in detail in Kaldellis, A New
OSU, deserves special mention for reading the entire trans- Herodotos, Appendix 4.
8 Histories I.3.
lation and providing detailed information on matters Ot-
9 D. J. Geanakoplos, Interaction of the "Sibling" Byzantine and Western Cul-
toman and Islamic, much of which I have included in the tures in the Middle Ages and Italian Renaissance U30-I600) (New Haven,
notes. A reliable and enthusiastic source of information on Conn., 1976), 241-64-
all matters relating to the fifteenth century has been Marios IO Kaldellis, A New Herodotos, Appendix I.
Philippides, whom I have consulted frequently; he has of- II See the Note on the Text below.

12 Histories 8.78 and 8.69-71, respectively.

ten set me straight." Finally, I thank also all those whom I
13 Kaldellis, ''The Greek Sources."
have pestered over the years with questions about Laonikos
14 Kaldellis, A New Herodotos, ch. 4.
and his age and who have given me both information and 15 E.g., M. Morfakidis and E. Motos Guirao, "Un pasaje de Laonicos
insight: Ashhan Alu§Jk, Alexander Alexakis, Patrick Baker, Calcocondylas relativo a la batalla de la Higueruela y a sus consecuencias
Daniele Bianconi, Bruce Fudge, Thierry Ganchou, Tim inmediatas," in Relaciones exteriores del Reino de Granada: IV Coloquio de His-
Greenwood, Walter Hanak, Scott Kennedy, Han Lamers, toria medievalAndaluza, ed. C. Segura Geaino (Almeria, 1988), 71-82.
Scott Levi, Tim Miller, David Niremberg, Inmaculada Perez 16 For specific borrowings from Herodotos, see the list in Kaldellis, A
New Herodotos, Appendix 3; and from Thucydides, see F. Rodel, "Zur
Martin, Parvaneh Pourshariati, Steve Rapp, Dean Sakel,
Sprache des Laonikos Chalkondyles und des Kritobulos aus Imbros," Pro-
Stefan Stantchev, Rudolf Stefec, Niketas Siniossoglou, gramm des kOniglichen humanistischen Gymnasiums Ingolstadt I904-I905 (Mu-
Vasileios Syros,]ulia Verkholantsev, and Diana Wright. nich, 1905), 12-34.
17 See the Note on the Text below.
18 I have followed the scholarly conventions for late Seljuk studies for the
rendering of Turkish proper names, although they differ from those used
I We infer Laonikos's date of birth from the territories remaining to By- by Ottomanists; thus :Ala' ai-Din for the Seljuk sultan, versus Alaeddin for
zantium that he lists at Histories 1.8. His father's name is given by Kyriacus: an Ottoman Turk of the same name.
see below. The family name was probably Chalkokondyles, which "Laoni- 19 In fact, many decades ago Marios had himself hammered out a draft
kos" classicized to Chalkokandyles. translation of the Histories on a typewriter, but he did not have enough
2 Histories 6.50-52. confidence in its reliability to publish it. It was subsequently lost,

xx xxi

but Marias remembered that he had sent a copy to Stephen Reinert

(now at Rutgers). I contacted Stephen who graciously tracked it down,
scanned it, and sent it to me. Marios warned me not to rely on his trans-
lation, and I did not, but in the treacherous prose of Laonikos all help
is welcome.


A' Book!

[I.I} AaOV[KCjJ 1\8'1va(CjJ 1:WV Ka1:a 1:0V ~[ov ol e~ btl Laonikos the Athenian has written here, in the form of
8Eav n Kal aKof]v a<j>IYflevwv e~ l<Trop[av ~uyyeypan1:al a history, the events that came to his attention during his
1:a8E, W(nE 8f] xpeo~ 1:0U1:0 EK1:IVUVal -rft <j>U<1El ilfla o[oflE- lifetime, both those that he witnessed and those he heard
about. He thought in this way to pay back the debt that he
VO~ Kal fl'18ev aU1:wv aKAEw~ EXEIV e~ 1:oiJ~ e1ClYlyvoflEVOU~
owed to Nature, believing also that none of the events he
!;UvEvEx8ev-rwv, w~ eflol 80KEl, ou8aflfi EAa<1<1oVWv 1:WV
included should be forgotten by future generations. In my
Ka1:a -ri]v OiKouflEV'1V n01:e YEvoflEVWV flvi]fl'1~ a~[wv. Tij~ opinion, those events are in no way less worthy of being re-
1:E 'Elli]vwv <j>'1fll1:EAEV1:ij~ 1:a E~ [I.2} -ri]v apxf]v all1:wv membered than any that have ever tal<en place anywhere in
E1Cl<1Vfl~E~'1K01:a, Kal ToupKwv Enl flEya 8uvaflEw~ Kal enl the world. I am referring to the fall of the Greeks and the
fltYI<TrOV 1:WV nWn01:E ~8'1 a<j>IKoflevwv. 1\<j>' wv 8f] 1:f]v events surrounding the end of their realm"and to the rise of
1:0U8E 1:0U ~[ou Eu8atflov(av Enl1:avav-r[a <j>EPOflEV'1V Enl- the Turks to great power, greater than that of any other pow-
AEyoflEVO~ lO"XEIV au-rft Kal illlo1:E illlw~, 8Efll~ t1yoUflat erful people to date. Realizing that the happiness of this life
ElVat nEpl afl<j>olv 1:0U1:0IV flvi]fl'1v nOIEI<18al OUK aEIKij. tends to reverse itself, being sometimes in one state and at
others in its opposite, I believe it is proper to leave a fitting
Suyypa<j>i]v 8e 1:i]V8E an08ElKvuflEVOl Enlflv'1<10flE8a Kal
record of these two peoples. In writing this history we will
nEpl ilAAWV 1:WV Ka1:a -ri]v OiKouflEV'1V YEvoflEVWV, ollK
recount also other events that happened throughout the
afl<j>l1:ov8E 1:ev En' EfloU Xpovov, ol~ 1:E all1:o~ napEYEvofl'1v world, not all of which occurred during my own time; some
8ea<1aflEVO~, Kal 1:aAAa ano 1:E 1:0U elK01:0~, flCLAI<Tra 8e I was able to witness personally, others I describe based on
<1Vfl~all6flEvo~, Kal w~ E1:lnapa 1:WV 1:a afleLvw <j>povouv- the most reasonable conjecture that I have been able to
1:WV E86KOUV nU8E<18at nEpl aU1:wv, CIA" ii ltv el~ flCLAI<Tra form about them. Moreover, it has seemed to me appropri-
EXOI w~ a<1<j>aAe<Tra1:a Enl1:o ilflEIVOV CIA'18eLa~ elpij<18al. ate to consult those who know better about these things,
2 Mi] 8e EKElVO yE nCLVV eK<j>aUAW~ EXOV t1 fllV, w~ 'Ell'1- but only insofar as that might enable me to speal< as accu-
VIKfi <j>wvfi 1:aU1:a 8IE~lflEV, Enei ~ ye 1:WV 'Elli]vwv <j>Wvf] rately as possible and with the highest degree of veracity.
Let no one disparage us for recounting these matters in 2

the Greek language, for the language of the Greeks has

2 3

reOAAaXfi ava TIJv OLKOUflEV'lV 8ltemap'tat Kat cruxval, Ey- spread to many places throughout the world and has mixed
Ka'taflEfllK'tat. Kat KAto, fli:v ao'tn flEya 'to reapau't[Ka, with many other languages. It is already exceedingly presti-
flElSOV 8i: Kat t, aUe", oreo'tE 8~ ava ~acrlAdav 00 'l'aUA'lV gious and will be even more so in the future, when a king
who is Greek himself, along with the kings that follow af-
"EAA'lV n ao'to, ~acrlAEu, Kat E!; ao'tou EcrofiEvol ~acrlAEl"
ter him, will rule over a substantial kingdom. There the sons
or 8~ Kat ol 'tWV 'EAA"VWV rea18E, ;UAAEYOfiEVOl Ka'ta 'ta
of the Greeks may finally be gathered together and govern
cr'l'WV au'twv te'fla w, ~8lcr'ta fli:v cr'l'LcrlV ao'tol" 'tol, 8i: themselves according to their own customs, in a manner
liAAOl, w, Kpa'tlcr-ra reoAl'tEUOlV'tO. that is most favorable for themselves and from a position of
3 "EAA'lVE, flEV ouv ocra areo8ElKVUflEVOl tpya flEyaAa 'tE strength with regard to other peoples.
Kat {L3] reEp"pavij Eret flEya a'l'iKOV'tO KAto, Ka'ta 'tE liAAa Many others have, at various times, made records and 3
Kat Eopwre'lv Kai 8~ Kat Al~U'lV, Erei famv 'tE Kat 'ilKE- written the history of each of the deeds of the Greeks as
avov Kat Eret KauKacrov £'tl tAauVOV'tE" Eret 'tau'ta 8i: repo- they occurred: their great and glorious achievements by
EA'lAUeO'tWV liAAWV n reOAAWV Kat 8~ Kat 'HpaKAEOU, Kat which they attained such great fame in so many places, in-
cluding Europe and Africa, and then when they marched
t'tl reponpov L).LOVUcrOU 'tou LEfltA'l' uito" Kai repo, yE t'tl
even as far as the Ganges, the surrounding Ocean, and the
AaKE8atflov[wv Kat Ae'lva[wv, flE'ta 8i: 'tau'ta MaKE86vwv
Caucasus. l Among many others, Herakles especially had
'tou ~acrlAtw, Kat TIJV 'tOU'tou ilcrnpov ~yEflovLav EX0V'tWV,
reached such places and, even earlier, Dionysos, the son of
reOAAOt reoAAaXfi £Kacr-ra, W, tyEVOV'tO, liAAOl Erelflv'lcraflE- Semele; then again, the Lakedaimonians and the Athenians,
VOL Kat cruvEypa",av'to. "EAA'lVE, fli:v ouv 'tau'ta 8lErepa't- and after them the king of the Macedonians 2 and those who
'tov'to Eret reoAu W, flaAlcr-ra 'tou Xpovou 8laYEvofiEVOl Kai succeeded to his throne later on. The Greeks accomplished
Eret cruXVa, YEVEa, ""'X1']v apE~, Ev8EC! crxOV'tE, clreav'ta- these things over a long period of time and in the course
XOU, ;UflflE'tPOV 8i: 008aflou. of many generations, but their virtue was everywhere lack-
'Eret 'tou'twv 'tE yap reoAAaxn ava TIJv OLKouflEV'lV E08al- ing in comparison to the fortune they enjoyed, and nowhere
commensurate to it.
floVOUV'twv Acrcrup[ou, fli:v 'to reaAato'ta'tov EreUeoflEea
While they were enjoying this good fortune in many 4
aKOn tret 'to flV"fI'l, flaKpo'ta'tov a'l"KofiEVO' Eret 't~v ~,
places throughout the world, it was the Assyrians who first
Acr[a, apx~v repoEA'lAuetVat, flE'ta 8i: 'tau'ta M,,80u, E,
attained dominion over Asia. We have heard this byextend-
'tou'to Kae,cr'tafltvou,j~Y'lcrafiEvou Ap~aKEW 'tou Lap8a- ing our inquiries into the most remote depths of human
vareaAou Acrcrup[wv ~acrlAtw, TIJv "YEflovlav a'l'EAofltvou, memory. After that, the Medes took their place under the
ileJ'tEpov lJTCO I1EPcrWV TIJv ~acrlAdav areo~aAElv "youfltvou leadership of Arbakes,3 who seized control from Sardana-
palos, the Assyrian king. 4 Later they too lost this hegemony

4 5

Kupcv 'tcv KIlfl~uO'ew, Kill IUpO'Il<; 'to curo 'tcvSe btL fleYIl to the Persians, whO' were led by Cyrus, the scn of Camby-
XWpijO'Ill Svvaflew<; 'ta 'te aAAIl KilL S~ KilL e<; Evpw7t1'JV ses. From this point cn, the pcwer of the Persians became
Slll~av'te<;. Me'ta Sf; 'tllV'tll iJO"tepcv cv nCAAIlI<; yevelll<; great as is seen in many ways, but especially by their crossing
over into Europe. Not many generations after that, Alexan-
l\Ae~IlVSpCV 'tov <PlA[nncv, (I.4J MIlKeS6vwv ~IlO'lAEIl
der, the son of Philip and king of the Macedonians, seized
ITepO'Il<; a<peA6f1evcv ~v ~yeflcv[Ilv KilL 'IvScu<; KIl'tll-
control from the Persians and conquered the Indians as well
O"tpetaflevcv KilL Al~U'l<; flclPllv CVK OA[Y']V, npo<; Sf; KilL as a large porticn cf Africa, in addition to Europe. He left
Evpwn'l<;, 'tcI<; fle9' '"V'tOV ~v ~Il<YlAelllV KIl'tllAmelv. this kingdcm to his successcrs.
5 'E<; il S~ 'Pwfl"[cv<; EnL 't~v 'tij<; clKcvflev'l<; fley[O''t'lv At that point the Romans attained the greatest realm in 5
apx~v a<plKoflevov<;, lO'c'taAIlV'tcv f.XCV'tll<; ""X'lv 'tfi ape'tfi, the world, because their virtue was in proportion to' their
E1Cl'tpet"V't"<; 'Pwfl'lv 't<ii fley[O"t'l' IlV'tWV apXlepel KilL Slll- fcrtune. They entrusted Rcme to their great pontiff and
~av'tll<; e<; ElpqK'lv, u<P'lYCVflEVOV enL 'taSe 'tcv ~IlO'lAew<;, crossed over into Thrace under the command of their king.'
KaL ElpqK'l<; Enl xwpav, ~'tl<; e<; ~v AO'[av Eyyv'ta'tw <!\K'l- In the land ofThrace, which is the closest to Asia, they made
'tal, Bv~av'tLOv 'EAA'lv[Sa n6Alv fI'l'tp6ncAlv O'<pqv anc- the Greek city ofByzantion their capital for carrying on the
struggle against the Persians, at whose hands they had suf-
SelKvuv'ta<;, npo<; ITepO'a<;, u<p' wv aV~KeO''ta Enen6vgelO'av,
fered such terrible things. From this point on, the Greeks
'tov aywva nOlelO'91ll, "EAA'lva<; 'te'to ano 'tcvSe 'Pwfla[Ol<;
mixed with the Romans in this place, and because many
av'tcv Enlfllyvuv'ta<;, yAwnav fI£v Kal ~9'l Sla 'to nCAAQ mcre Greeks ruled there than Romans, their language and
nAecva<; 'Pwfla[wv "EAA'lva<; au'tcv EnlKpa'telv Sla 'teAcv<; customs ultimately prevailed, but they changed their name
<pVAa~al, 'tcllvcfla flev'tCl fI'lKe'tl Ka'ta 'to na'tpLOv KaAcv- and no longer called themselves by their hereditary one.
flevcv<; aAAa~aO'91ll, KaL 'tcu<; ye ~a<YlAel<; Bv~av't[cv EnL't<ii They saw fit to call the kings of Byzantion by a title that
O'<pii<; av'tcu<; 'Pwfl"[wV ~aO'lAel<; 'te KaL av'tcKpa'tcpa<; dignified them, "emperors of the Romans," but never again
O'eflvuveO'91ll anCKaAelV, 'EAA~VWV Sf; ~aO'lAel<; oUKE'tl "kings cf the Greeks.'"
We have learned that, after the Romans and their great 6
cuSaflfi a~LOvv.
pontiff had diverged for many years and in many ways from
6 Tcu<; flev'tCl 'Pwfla[ov<; Env96f1e9a Kal IlV'tWV apXlepea
the Greeks with respect to religion, they also set themselves
'tov fleYlO''tOv CVK OA[Yll ana Ka'ta ~v 9p'l<YKelav ano
apart in cther matters, especially in electing for themselves
nCAAwv hwv Slevexgev'ta<; SlaKeKp[O'9al 'ta 'te aAAa a<p' a king of the Romans, sometimes from among the French
'EAA~VWV, KaL S~ KilL ~a<YlAEa 'Pwfla[wv En"lt'1<pl~cflevcv<;, and sometimes among the Germans, and they have contin-
o't£ flEv ano raAa'twv, o't£ S£ (I.5J ano repflavwv, E<; 't6vSe ued to appoint one down to the present time. Yet they are
ael 'tov Xp6vcv ancSelKvuvlll. blllnpeO'~eueO'91ll S£ alel

6 7

1tpO, -rou, "EAAlpa" OUK g'TTlV o-re SlaAei1tov-ra" wcr-re-ra always sending embassies to the Greeks-indeed, there has
been no time when they let up in this effort-in order to es-
E, ep1']<YKeiav crcplcrl ;ufLcpwva -re Kat ;ov'!'Sa Ka-racr-r~crat
tablish religious concord with them and an accord between
aAA~AOl" Ka-ra -rau-ro ;ovlov-ra,. Kat fLtV-rOl "EM1']va, fL~ I
I the two sides, and thus create unity concerning this. But af-
EeeA~crat 'PwfLalol, Sla Xpovoo crofLcpepOfL£vOl,' -ra 1thpla
ter they had thus treated with the Romans for some time,
crcplcrl Kaeecr-rw-ra crorxtat. Kat a1to -rau-r1'], S~ -r~, Sla- \ the Greeks were unwilling to mix up their own established
cpopa, croxvou, -re -rwv Ecr1teplwv Kat S~ Kat 'Eve-rou" ! ancestral customs with theirs. Because of this disagreement
Evayov-ro, E1tt -raSe -roil 'PwfLalwv apXleptw" cr-roA,!, cr-rpa- and at the instigation of the pontiff of the Romans, many
-reuecreat fLeyaA,!, E1tt -rOU, "EM1']va, Kat E1tlov-ra, E, -ro westerners and especially the Venetians mustered a great ex-
Bo~av-rLOv acplKtcrea, Kat Bo~av-rloo -r~v 1tOAlV Ka-ra pedition against the Greeks 7 They set out, came to Byzan-
Kpa-ro, EAe'iv. BacrtAta -re Bo~aVTloo Kat 'EAA~vwv -rOU, tion, and seized the city of Byzantion by force. The king
aplcr-roo, olxecreal Sla~av-re, E, ~v Acrlav, acplKofLtvoo, of Byzantion and the leading Greeks departed and crossed
over into Asia. When they arrived, they chose the Greek
Sf. C<1tOSelKVuval crcplcrl NlKalav ~v 'EAA1']vlSa 1tOAlV, Tit
city of Nikaia for themselves, and established their royal
~acrLAela EV au-rft 1tOLOofLtvoo,. Me-ra Sf. -rail-ra ou 1tOAAOt,
court there. A few years later they recovered Byzantion
g-recrlV ucr-repov a1toAa~e'iv -re ailel, Bo~av-rLOv, Kpucpa etcr- again by secretly entering the city,8 and, crossing back into
eA1']Aoeo-ra, E, ~v 1tOAlV, Kat E, -r~v Eupw1t1']V ail Sla~av­ Europe, they once more ruled from there.
-ra, Slayevtcreat EV au'rft ~acrlAeuov-ra,. After this Ioannes was the king of the Greeks and he real- 7
7 BacrlAta Sf. 'EM~VWV fLETa -rail-ra 'Iwavv1']v E1tt ;opoil ized that the affairs of the Greeks stood already upon the
aKfL~' ~S1'] alcreofLevov Tit 'EAA~vwv 1tpaYfLa-ra, Aa~ov-ra razor's edge.' He thus took the senior clergy from Byzan-~
-re -rOU, Bo~av-rloo apXlepe'i, Kat 'EM~VWV -rOU, EMoylfL oo " tion and the most learned Greeks and set sail for Italy, hop-
Sla1tAeilcral a1tlov-ra t, 'I-raAlav, E, ye -rov a1tO ToupKwv ing that he would receive assistance against the impending
Turkish threat, proVided that he reached an agreemeM with
£1t1']P-r1']fL£vOV ot KlvSovov E1tlKooplav olofLevo, olcrecreat,
them on religious matters. He arrived in Italy and consulted
[r.6} ~v EKeiVOl, -ra Ka-ra ~v ep1']<YKeiav ;OfL~ft. revofLevov
with the pontiff of the Romans regarding their religious dif-
Sf. EV '!TaAlq Kat KOlvwcrafLevov -rQ 'PwfLalwv apXlepe'i ~v ferences. This led to long and detailed discussions of many
1tep! -r~v ep1']crKeiav Slacpopav, ei, SlaAe;lv fL£V-rOl Ka-ra- matters, but, finally, he reached an agreement with him and
cr~Vat 1toAo1tpaYfLovoilv-ra" -reAw-rwv-ra Sf ;ofL~~val au- at the same time with the Greeks, and they made";; accord
-rQ afLa -rOt, "EM1']crl Tit Ka-ra -r~v Slacpopav crcplcrl ;ov'!'Sa regarding the differences between them. HaVing resolved
a1tOSelKWfL£voo, Ka! ~v Slacpopav crcplcrl SlaAoofLtvoo" their differences, the king secured partial assistance and
E1tlKoopla, Sf. -roxov-ra EV fLtpel a1toKofLl~ecreat ailel, E1t!

8 9

BtJsav'rlotJ, Tou, l'EVTOl "EAAt]va, t7t' OtK()1J yeV0l'EVOtJ, l'~ returned to Byzantion. But when the Greeks got home they
tl'l'elVaL -rol<; tv 'ImA[" Kat tv O'tJVOSOl<; 7te7tpaYl'EVOl<;, a;l- did not abide by what had been worked out in Italy and at
the councils, holding that it would not be right at .all for
oiiv-ra<; O'<p[O'l l't]Sal'fi .euayE<; elVaL 'PWl'a[Ol<;, W<; S~ l'~
them to be fully united with the Romans, who did not make
atO'la SL1"XtJP'SOl'EVO'<;, O'1Jv-r[ge0'9aL -ro 7tapa7tav, Kat OVTW
a proper affirmation of the faith, Thus the Greeks remained
SE Sla<popa S,it -r£AOtJ<; yeVE0'9al "EAAt]O'l Tit 7tpO<; 'Pwl'a[-
at odds with the Romans to the end. As far as I am con-
OtJ<;. Taii-ra ~V t<; -roO'oii-rov l'Ol a7t0xpWVTW<; exov-ra t1tl- cerned, I trust this is a sufficient account, for my part at
SeSelX9w 7tep[ -re 'tij<; 'EAA~VWV ~aO'lAela<; Kat Tfj<; t<; 'Pw- least, regardmg both the kingdom of the Greeks and their
l'a[otJ<; tX01'O'1']<; aUTWV Sla<popii<;, W<; S~ OUK op9w<; -ra ye differences with the Romans, and why theyLO do not call the
t<; ~aO'lAelav Kat t<; -rOUVDl'a au-ro 7tpOO'1']YOpeVeTO -rOVTOl<;. kingdom by its proper name.
8 IIapayeV0l'eVO<; l'EV ouv aUTo, eywye t7tt -rOvSe -rOV When I myself was born, I found the Greeks and the 8
~[OV KaT£Aa~ov "EAAt]va<; 'te Kat 'EAA~VWV ~aO'lAea V7tO-re king of the Greeks reduced, first by the peoples who live in
-rwv tv 8pQ:Kn yevwv 7tpw-ra, l'e-rit Si: Taii-ra Kat ti7t' av-rwv Thrace ll and after that by the barbarians!2 who drove them
out of the rest of their territory, to a small realm, namely
ye S~ -rWV ~ap~apwv -rfj<; aAAt]<; apxfi<; a7teAt]Aa l'EVOtJ<;,
ByzantlOn ~nd the coast below Byzart'tion as far as the city
apxfiv 'tijVSe ~paXelav -rlVa 7tep'£7te'V, BtJsaVTlOV Kat BtJ-
of Heraklela; the coast above by the Black Sea as far as the
Sav-r[otJ 'tijv Ka-rw 7tapaA[av IIXP'<; 'HpaKAela<; 7tOAeW<;, city of Mesembria; the entire Peloponnese except only for
[1.7} Ka-ra Si: EU;ElVOV 7tonov 'tijv IIvw 7tapaA[av IIXPl Me- three or four cities of the Venetians; and Lemnos, Imbros,
O't]l'~p[a<; 7toAeW" IIeA07tOvvt]O'ov -re au ;vl'7taO'av 7tA~V ~ and other inhabited islands of the Aegean in that area.13 I am
-rPlWV ~ 'tenapwv 7tOAeWV -rWV 'EVeTWV, wO'av-rw, Afjl'vov, thus going to provide a detailed account, as accurately as
"Il'~pov Kat v~O'OtJ<; -rit<; au-roii Tav-rn tv T<ii Aiya[", ';'Kt]- I have been. able to ascertain it, of how these things hap-
l'Eva<;. D<; ouv EKaO'Ta -rov-rwv !;tJv£~t] yevE0'9aL, w<; -ra -rWV pened, each m Its turn; that is, how the affairs of the Greeks
'EAA~VWV 7tpaYl'aTa Ka-ra ~paxU cmwAe-rO, <pgelp Ol'eva were quickly ruined, destroyed by the Turks, and how the
latter rose to greatness, continuously reaching new peaks of
U7tO TOVPKWV, Kat w<; -ra tKelVWV l'eyaAa tYEVe-rO, t<; l'Eya
prosperity during this period.
ad t<; TOVSe -rOV XPOVOV iov-ra eUSall'0V[a<;, t1tll'vt]O'ol'e9a
I do not know by what ancient name to call the Turks 9
E7te;lOVTe<;, E<p' 1SO'0v S~ t<; TO aKpl~£O'TePOV t7ttJ9ol'e9a. that would not fall short of the truth about the matter. Some
9 TOVPKOtJ, S~ ouv eYWye OUK o1S' I) -rl iiv KaAeO'a,l" Ka-ra believe. that the Turks are descendants of the Skythians,'4
-ro 7taAalOV, WO'Te -riiAt]90ii<; l'~ Slal'apTelv. Ot l'EV yap which IS quite a reasonable conjecture about them, given
LKtJ9wv a7toyovotJ<; -rou<; TOVPKOtJ<; olov-raL dVaL, 6p96-re-
pov S~ O'tJl'~aAAOl'eVOl7tept au-rwv, S,it TO E<; ~9t] ou 7tOAU


SlEcr't'lKo'ta Ka8lcr-raflevou<; YAwTItj mlVEYYU, flaAa Sla- that their customs are not all that different and that their
Xp~creal E'tl Kat VDV 'tfi au'tfi. LKu8a, 'tE yap <pMl 'to e~So­
languages are even now closely related. They say that the
Skythians burst out of the Don region for the seventh time"
flOV ~S'l al'O Tava',So, wPfl'lflevou, Ka'tacr-rpe<pEcr8at 't1)v
and subjugated Greater Asia when the Parthians l6 held sway
iivw Acr[av, IIap8wv 't1)v ~YEflov[av exov'twv, ~v n IIEp-
there, and then the land of the Persians, Medes, and Assyri-
crwv xwpav Kat M~Swv Kat Acrcrup[wv, flE'til S£ 'taD'ta El'l- ans. After this they attacked Asia Minor, specifically Phry-
Ka'ta~ana, E, 't1)v Ka'tw Acr[av, El't <ppuy[av, AuS[av 'tE gia, Lydia, and Kappadokia, and made these lands subject
Kat Kal'l'aSOK[av, 'til E, ~VSE 't~v xwpav Ul'0xdpla cr<p[crl to themselves. Even today, so they say, it is possible to see
1'0l~cracr8al. Kat VDV i'cr'tlV tSdv, ii Atyoucrl, 1'0AAiI 'tOD numerous offshoots of this people roaming about in many
yevou, 'tou'tou 1'0AAaxfi 't~, Acr[a, tl'lVEfloflEva, l'pO, parts of Asia, who tend to follow the ways and customs of
LKU8wv [loS} 'twv vOflaSwv ~8'l n Kat S[at'tav 'tE'tpaflflEva the nomadic Skythians and have clearly not settled down in
ouSaflfi 't~, Acr[a, i'crxov Ka'ta<pav~ 't~v Sla'tpl~~v. KaKdvn any particular part of Asia. And they also add that the bar-
barian nations of the Turks who live in Asia Minor, I mean in
S£ i''tl crufl~aAAov'tat, w, Acr[a, 't1)v KCl'tW xwpav EVOl-
Lydia, Karia, Phrygia, and Kappadokia, speak the same lan-
KODna ~ap~apa i'8v'l ToupKwv,AuSlav, Kap[av, <Ppuy[av
guage and have the same dress as the Skythians who roam
'tE Kat Kal'l'aSOK[av, LKu8al, 't~v al'O Tava',So, El't Lap- the lands from the Don into Russia.
fla't[av xwpav tl'lVEfloflevOl, ofloYAwna 'tE Ecr-rl Kat Ofl6- Others say that the Turks are the descendants of the Par- 10

O1<Eua. thians. They were pursued by the nomadic Skythians and

10 "EvLOl S£ IIap8wv emoyovou, ToupKou, <pacrtv dvat. moved down into Asia Minor. Turning to a more nomadic
Tou'tou, yilp Ul'O LKU8wv 'twv vOflaSwv SlwKoflevou, EC; way of life, they became dispersed among the cities there,
't1)v Ka'tw Acr[av tl'lKa'ta~~vat, Kat E, 'to vOflaSlKw'tEpOV and since then these people have been known as the no-
al'oKAlvav'ta, crKESacr8~vat 'tau-rn avil 'til, l'OAEl" Kat madic Turks. Others again say that this people had its origin
ill'O 'tou'tou w, S~ vOflaSa, ToupKou, 'to ytvo, 'tOD'tO in Tourke, a large and prosperous city of the Persians. l7 They
affirm that they left it for Asia Minor and became scattered
KaAdcr8al. l\AAol Se <pacrlv al'o ToupK'l' 'twv IIEpcrwv
there, maintaining control over Asia. There are some, how-
l'OAEW, flEyaA'l' 'tE Kat EuSalflovo" l'poEA8dv n 'to ytvo,
ever, who would have it that the Turks came to this land
'tOD'tO SL'crxUp[~ov'tat, Kat ct, 't1)v Ka'tw Xwpav ~, Acr[a, from Koile Syria and Arabia, rather than from the Skythi-
al'aAAanOflevou, crKESacr8~vat 'tau-rn avil 't1)v Acr[av t1tl- ans, and that they did so in the company of 'Umar, who
Ka'tacrxov'ta, 't1)v xwpav. Etcrt S£ Ot ~oUAov'ta, ToupKou,
al'O Lup[a, fli'iAAov~, KOlA'l, Kat Apa~[a, ~ emo LKU8wv
tnt 't~VSE 't1)v xwpav a<plKoflevou, flE'til 'OflapEw 'tOD 't1)v

12 13


vOfloSe<rlav SLaSe!;aflEvou btl 't~v 'tfj<; A<rla<; apx~v TtpO- succeeded as lawgiver,!' aud so established their realm in
eA'1AuSeVaL, Kal 'tav'tY] au'tou Ka'taAwpSEV'ta<; t<; 'to vOfla- Asia; when they had been left behind there by him, however,
they turned to a more nomadic way of life. I am not able to
SLKw'tepov aTtoKATvaL. :0.<; flEV OUV 'tov'twv EKa<J"'ta "XeL
say with certainty how much truth each of these views con-
aA'1Sela<;, Kal Eq>' Ii {r.9} SEt] 'tov'twv Xwpouv'ta<; Tte18e<rSaL
tains or to what degree one should trust in each. But this
lifl£LVOV, OVK "xw !;ufI~aAE<rSaL w<; a<rq>aAE<J"'ta'ta. To<rovSe
much, at least, can be said, that it would be better to side
flEV'tOL etp~<re'taL, w<; 'toT<; aTto LKUSWV yeve<rSaL 't~v apx~v with those who ascribe a Skythian origin to these people,
'tOV'tOL<; SLYrrxupL~oflevoL<; "XOL liv 'tL<; <J"Uflq>epe<rSaL lifl£LVOV, because the Skythians who even now remain in the eastern
SLU 'to LKvSa<; 'tou<; tv 'tfi Eupw1t!] Ttpo<; EW E'tL Kal VUV parts of Europe in the so-called Horde!' have no difficulty in
SLayevoflEvoU<; Ka'tu 't~v ayopuv KaAouflev'1v 'tWV tv 'tft understanding the Turks ofAsia. Both nations have one aud
A<rlq TovpKwv ETtal£Lv ou xaAeTtw<;, SLal'tY] 'te Kal <rKWft E'tL the same way of life and use the same dress even now, be-
Kal VUV 'tn au'tfi liflq>w 'tw yevee SLaxpwflevou<;, SLU 'to cause the Skythians prevailed throughout Asia. Anyway, the
name Skythian itself obviously designates anyone who fol-
LKvSa<; EltLKpa't~<raL aTtav'taxu 'tfj<; A<rla<;. Ll.'1AoT St Kal
lows a nomadic way of life aud spends most of his time do-
'toilvofla au'to 'tOv2 'tfjv VOflaSLK~V SlaL'tav Ttpot]p'1f1evov
Kal 'tOY 'tav'tY] 'tou ~lOU TtAEOV au't<!' TtoLOvflevov.
I do know that this people, the Turks, being large and n
n To S~ ytvo<; 'toum, 'tou<; TovpKou<; fleya 'te OV Kal ETtI having spread far and wide, is divided into separate tribal
TtOAU SL~KOV E<; flolpa<; ETtl<r'taflaL SLaKeKpl<rSaL 'tLva<;, liA- groups, including, among others, that of the Ogoz, a noble
Aa<; 'te S~ Kal "Oyou~lwv 'tfjv flo[pav, yEVO<; ou q>auAov, people not to be despised,20 The Ogoz produced Giindiiz-
ouSt ayEvvE<;. ATto 'tov'twv St 'tWV "Oyou~lwv YEVE<rSaL Alp, a decent man who became the leader of the Ogoz tribe.
'IovSou~aA1t1'jv, livSpa tltLELK~ 'tE Kal 'tfj<; 'tWV 'Oyou~lwv It is recorded that this man was praised for his virtue, was
flolpa<; ~Y'1<raflEvov. Tou'tov St ETt' apE'tfi Euq>'1f1ovflEVOV most just, aud was chosen by the Ogoz to be their arbiter
aTt0flv'1f10VEVOU<rL SLKaLo'ta'tov 'tE lifla YEyoveVaL Kal 'to[<; and to adjudicate all manner oflegal cases for them. When-
ever he adjudicated a dispute for those who came to his
"OyOU~lOL<; SLaL't1'j't~v Ka'ta<J"'taV'ta tAoflevOL<; SLKa<raL <rq>l-
court, he would reconcile them to each other before they
<rLV au'to[<; SlK'1v ~V'tLVOUV, OTtO'tE EltLSLKa<raL'to 'toT<; Ttpo<r-
departed, even concerning those matters about which they
LOU<rLV [I.IO} au't<!', aTtaAAa't'tE<rSaL ayaTtwv'ta<; tKa'tepou<;, were in dispute. And they say that because the Ogoz dis-
oT<; liv EltLSLKa<raL'to. Kal'tou'to q>a<rLv EVLSoV'ta<; au't<!' 'tou<; cerned the man's quality, they mauaged to get the ruler of
'OYOUSlou<;, SLaTtpa!;aflevou<; Ttpo<; 'tOY 'tfj<; xwpa<; ~a<rL­ that laud to appoint Giindiiz-Alp over them as their judge
AEvoV'ta, ETtL<J"'t~<raL <rq>l<rLV au'to[<; 'tOY 'IovSoU~aA1t1'jv SL- and, after that, they permitted themselves to be ruled by
Ka<J"'t~v, flE'tU Sf 'tau'ta EltL'tpe'itaL <rq>ii<; au't<!' SLaSeTVaL, n

ltv airrQ SOKOl'l e1tl-ro Ilflelvov. Me-ra SE -rau-ra -rOY -rou-rou him in whatever way he deemed best.21 After that his son
Ognz-A1p succeeded him as ruler of the Ognz tribe. Al-
1tatSa 'Oyou~aA1t'lV SlaSe;aflevov -r~v ap)(i]v 'tij<; 'OyOU~lWV
though he ruled in a more tyrannical way, he still enjoyed
flo,pa<; E1tI-ro -rUpaVVlKW-repOV E;'lY'1O'a0'8al, 1tpo<; -re -rou<;
great success in fighting against the Greeks in Asia.
"EAA'lVa<; 1toAeflouv-ra Ka-ra ~V 1\O'laV fleya eUSoKlflijO'al. Ertogrul,22 the son of Ognz-A1p, was dynamic in every- I2

I2 'Op8oypoUA'lV Se 'Oyou~aA1teW 1tatSa SpaO'TIJplOV -re e<; thing that he did. He enjoyed success while fighting wars in
-ro. 1tav-ra yevoflevov Kal e1tl1toAEflou<; ~Y'lO'aflevov IlAA!] many places and he even built ships in order to sail to the is-
-re 1tOAAaXfi euSoKlflijO'al, Kal S~ Kal1tAota vau1t'lY'lO'afle- lands of the Aegean, both those near Asia and those near
vov emAllO"teuElv v~O'ou<; Em1tA£ov-ra -ra<; EV -rQ Aiya[4J -rfi Europe, and pillage them. He ravaged Europe: among other
-re 1\0'[" Kal Eupw1t!] E1tlKelfleva<;, Kal TIJv -re Eupw1t'lv exploits, he even entered the river Tearos, the one by Ainos,
1top80uv-ra, -ra -re IlAAa Kal E<; T£apov Efl~av-ra 1to-raflov and sailed his ships up a long stretch of it. He is also said to
have made landings at many other places in Europe, reach-
-rOY Ka-ra -r~v Alvov E1tI1toAU -rou 1to-raflou O'iJv -raT<; vauO'I
ing the Peloponnese, Euboia, and Attica, where he plun-
1tpoeA8eTv. A£ye-ral Se au-rov Kal IlAlll -re 1toAlaXfi 'tij<;
dered the land and made huge profits by carrying off as
Eupw1t'l<; a1tO~aO'el<; 1tol~O'a0'8at, Kal E1t1 ITeA01tOvv'lO'ov
many ca~tives as possible as slaves.23 After that, they say,
a<plKoflevov Kal E1tl Eu~olav Kal 1\TIlK~V, TIJv -re xwpav thiS Ertogrul turned his attention to ravaging the lands that
SllwO'at, Kal avSpa1toSa w<; 1tAeTO'-ra a1teveYKaflevov lay next to his own in Asia. He hurriedly assembled an army,
fLeyaAa KepSaVal. '0 p80YPOUA'lV Se -rou-rov fle-ra -raii-ra EV ~arched out from there, and attacked both the neighbor-
-rfi 1\0'[" -rpa1toflevov <pamv £1tl Slap1tayft 'tij<; 1tepLOlKlSO<; mg Greeks and the people who lived in their vicinity, From
Xwpa<; e1te;l£Vat -re Kal a1to -rou-rou opfLWfLevov ;uvayeTpat then on, because he soon made his followers rich by plun-
-re O"tpa-reufLa Kal Emov-ra Ka-raO'-rp£<pe0'8al -rou<; -re ofLo- dering, nomads flocked to him in great numbers to fight
pou<; "EAA'lva<; Kal -rou<; [LII} -rav't!] O'<p[O'lV au-rwv 1tepl- alongside him and keep up the war against his neighbors. He
thus quickly acquired a substantial realm, and because of
O[KOU<;, Kal-ro a1to -rouSe A'l'i~ofLevov -roi><; Se £1tlO'1t0 fl£vou<;
this he was also held in high esteem by 'Ala' al-Din.24 Some
aiJ-rQ EV ~paxeT S~ 6A~[OU<; a1tOSelKVvval Kal oil-rw S~
say that under the leadership of Ertogrul the Ognz tribe
O'U)("ou<; -rwv vOflaSwv EmyevofL£vou<; au-rQ O'ufL1tOAeflijO'a[ captured some fortified places by the Tauros Mountains and
-re au-rQ llfla Kal O'UvSlev£YKal -rOY 1toAeflov E1tl -roi><;
ofLopou<;, Kal -raxu SE oil-rw<; E1tl ap)(i]v 1tapeA'lAu8£val ou
<paVA'lV, Sla S~ -rau-ra Kal1tapaAAaS[vll fL£ya eUSoKlfLijO'al.
"EVlOl S£ <paO'lv 'OyOU~lWV ~v fLoTpav ~youfL£voU 'Op80-
ypollAew xwp[a epufLva 1tepl-rov Taupov Ka-raAa~6v-ra E1tl

,6 '7

"* Ta{YCf] "flopoU x,opao; KaTaerTpO<pfi £VTEilElEV ,opflfjerElal, used them as bases for subduing neighboring lands, driving
out the neighbors of the Greeks and greatly increasing their
Kat TOUO; yE <EAA~VWV nEpLOlKOUo; liyElV, Kat £nt flEya
xwpfjeral SuvaflEwo;. Do; floV ODV apx~v ""XE TOUTOlo; Ta own strength. But how their history began, and whether it
was in this or in some other way, I could not easily say. I will
npaYflaTa, Kat ,00; TaUTf] fj IiAAfJ £ytVETO, OUK iiv OUTW
only go so far as to say that these things are reported by
p"Slwo; £lnciv "xolfll, uno nOAAwv fltVTOl AEyoflEva TailTa
many others.
So EO; ToeroilTOV E1tlflv'leraflEvoo; napl'lfll. As for the Ottomans of the Oguz tribe, I have ascer- '3
13 Do; So 'OTouflavlSm Tfjo; 'Oyou~lwv flolpao; Ent TfjVSE tained that they rose to their current position of power in
a<plKOv-ro T~V apx~v, WSE yEvterElm EnuElofl'lv, "EerTl ~o­ the following way. There is a prosperous little town in Mysia
youT'lnapa Muerlav K,ofl'l OUTW KaAoufltv'l EuSalflwv, Kal called Siigut, next to a river with the same name. It is situ-
nOTafloo; nap' au-rft OUTW KaAouflEvOo;. "",tXEl So cma Ela- ated about two hundred and fifty stades away from the
AaTI'lO; Tfjo; Toil Eu;£lvou nov-rou erTaSlouo; ,oerd nEv-r~­ Black Sea; this town would be called Itaia {in Greek}.25
KOVTa Kat S,aKoerlouo;' KaAOlTO S' iiv aUT'l '!-ralao; K,ofI'l· 'Eo; When the Oguz arrived, they lived in this area for some
time. Osman, Ertogrul's son," was not terribly successful as
TauT'lV Se ~v x,opav a<plKofltvouo; TOUo; 'Oyou~louo; Evol-
a leader but he had a most liberal disposition and, making
Kfjerm Enl Tlva Xpovov. 'OTouflavov So TaV 'OpEloypouAEW
indulgent use of the local resources, he made every possible
nalSa, ou navu Tl ED npaTIOVTa T~V ap~v, {LI2} YEvterElal
effort to win over the townspeople. As a result, when a dis-
T~V TE 'itu~v EAwElEp,,oTaTov, Kat TOUO; tv Tft K,oflfJ <plAO- pute arose between them and their Greek neighbors, the
<ppOVOUflEVOV EK TWV npoerOVTWV, ,00; olov T' fjv flaAlCTTa townspeople asked Osman, the son of Ertogrul, to assume
aUTQ, TOUO; T£ EV -rft K,oflfJ avaKTfjeraerElm, werTE Sla<popa, command. He fought a battle and routed the local Greeks.
er<plerl npa, TOU, "EAA'lva, aUTwv nEpLOlKoU, YEvofltv'l, After this he started going after the Greeks much more ag-
~ycierElal KEAEUElV TOU, EV -rft K,oflfJ 'OTouflavov TaV 'OpElo- gressively and was held in high esteem by 'Ala' al-Din, who
ypOUAEW' Kat flaXEeraflEvov Tpt'itaerElal TE TOU, TauTf] "EA- praised him greatly. He was appointed to a military com-
mand and performed notable deeds. When Sultan 'Ala' al-
A'lva" Kat ana TOUTOU "Pfl,oflEVOV £ntnoAu EnE;EAElciv TE
Din died" and his leading men started disputing among
TOU, "EAA'lva" Kat napa 1\AaSlvf] ED flaAa EU<P'lflouflEVOV
themselves, Osman is said to have entered into negotiations
fltya EuSoKlflfjerm, Enl erTpaT'lyla, TE KaEl,erTaflEVOV Kat
with them, and they among themselves. He managed to
"pya anoSElKVUflEVOV Ii;la AOyOU. TEAwTfjerav-ro, So 1\Aa-
SlVEW ~aerlAeW" Kat TWV aplerTWV aUToil E, S,a<popav
er<plerlV a<plKvoufltvwv, AtyETm a<plKterElm TE E, Myou,
aUTOl" Kat EK£lvou, aAA~Aolo;, ;uflflaxlav T£ Kat "flalXfllav

18 19
EKdvOl, cruv8Eflevov ;ufl~i']vaL au'tor" ilpKLa nOLllcraflevov, i~ forge a mutual military alliance with them and took an oath
Ecp' cJi ofloil nana, KOLVft cruvSLacptpELV 'tOV nOAeflov Kat that he would wage war in common with them all. They
Ka'ta<1'tptcpecr8aL TIJv xwpav, ocrllv av Svvwv'taL, iI<111v S' av would subjugate as much territory as they possibly could,
aud however much land they conquered they would divide
unaywv'taL, tnLSLeAecr8aL crcplm Ka'ta 'ta KOlVft crcplcrLv
among themselves in accordance with their common agree-
au'tor, SeSoYfltva· Kai OV'tw S~ afla EKdvOL, EAauvona
ments. And so he marched out with them and subjugated
Ka'tacr'tpttacr8aL xwpav OUK OAlYllv, Kai epya ImoSeLKvv- a large area, performing great deeds and amassing much
flevov fleyaAa Kai xp~fla'ta cruxva EnLK'twflevov, «Jcr'te EV money, so that in a short time he acquired a considerable
~paXel tni apx~v napeAIlAu8tvaL ou cpaVAllv. realm.
I4 Tov'tou, Sf. ~yeflova, en'ta yevofltvou" ocrllv unllya- There were seven leaders and, after this, they divided I4
yono apmv, SLaveflercr8aL fle'ta 'tail'ta crcplcrLv au'tor,. Aa- among themselves whatever territory had come into their
Xerv S~ [1.13} Kapaflavov TIJv flecroYaLav 'tf], <Dpuyla, axpL power. Karaman was allotted the interior of Phrygia all the
KLALKla, Kai <DLAaSeAcpda" Lapxavllv Sf. Ev'teil8ev TIJv way to Kilikia and Philadelpheia,28 and Saruhan the coast of
the Ionian region as far as Smyrna. 29 Kalamshah and his son
napaALOv 'ti'], 'Iwvla, xwpav e<1'te tni Lflupvllv EA8elv, 'ta
Karas! were allotted Lydia as far as Mysia,JO while Mount
S1: AuSla, ecr'te Eni Mucrlav KaMflllv oUv't4\ naLSi au'toil
Olympos and Bithynia were given to Osman and Teke,3l The
Kapacrft 'ta npo, "OAuflnov 'te Kai BL8uvlav 'O'touflavov
sons of Umur were allotted the lands toward the Black Sea
AaXelV fle'ta TeKlew' 'ta Sf. npo, 'tov Ev;eLvov nov'tov Kai and Paphlagonia. J2 They say that Gerrniyan was not among
IIacpAayovlav AaxerV 'toil, 'Oflovpew narSa,. Tov Sf. Kep- the original seven but had already become the king of Iko-
flLavov ou 'twv En'ta'tou'twv yeyovtvaL cpacrlv, aAAa ~acrL­ nion, a city of Karia, where they used to have their court for
Ata npocr8ev yevoflevov 'IKovlou 'tf], Kapla, nOAew" EV i'i a long time. JJ But when he was driven out from there, he
'ta ~acrlAeLa Eni cruxvov 'tLva XP6vov SLeyeve'to 't01J't0l" went to Ionia, where he lived a peaceful private life. So these
ImeA'1Aaflevov Ev'teil8ev Eni 'Iwvlav anapaL, KaKel tSLW- seven were the ones who together subjected this whole land
'tevov'ta ~cruxlav ayeLv. Ol fltV'tOL En'ta E'tVrxavov ilv'te, to themselves. However, there is no point iu concerning
oneselfwith whether each acted on his own or in agreement
ol oUflnacrav ~vSe KOLVft unayoflevoL crcplcrL TIJv xwpav· i'i
with someone else in some other way, when each obtained
xwpi, 0, EKacr'to" Kai i'i aAA'P aAAIl ;uvt~aLvev, Enl 't~v his realm.
au'toil apmv napeytve'to EKa<1'tO" OUK av S~ ov'tw, EV I do know that the Ottoman sultans used to honor the I5
StOV'tL noAunpaYflovol'1v. town of S6gut, for it was where they came from, and would
I5 LOYOU'""1V flenoL Enlcr'taflaL KWfl'1v W, 01 an' EKdv'1,
yevOfleVOL 'O'touflavISwv ~acrLAel, hlflwV 'te Eni nAeTcr'tov

20 21

bn<pol'rwV'rE<; 't"ai"'ll 't"fj KWf% Ka1 't"oT<; tVOLKOUOW au't"~v often visit it; and they gave its inhabitants appropriate priv-
ileges. I have heard that Osman, the son of Ertogrul and
emOSLSOaCYL yepa 't"a voftL1;6ftEva.1Ur0 't"au't"1"]<; So brlo"'t"aftaL
founder of this people, was from there. But he subjected
ClKOfj YEveer8aL 'O't"ovftavov 't"ov 'Op80ypouAEw 1I:aTSa,
other cities in Asia to himself, among them Prousa, the then
1I:pw't"ov S~ 't"ou yevov<; 't"ou't"ov aAAa<; 't"e Ot 1I:OAeL<; u1I:aYOftE-
prosperous city in Mysia. He took this city by starving it in
vov tv 't"fj Aer[q, tv So S~ Ka1 I1pouerav 't"~v tv Mver[q 1I:0ALV a siege and set up his court there.)4 Using it as his base, he
Kal 't"0't"E EuSa[ft0va 1I:apaCY't"'1eraftEvov, U1I:0 ALftou tK1I:OAL- accomplished great and glorious deeds. He also died at
OpK~eraL £A6v't"a ~v 1I:0ALV, Ka1 £v au't"ft 't"a ~aero..ELa [ LI 4} Prousa,35 leaving behind children and a substantial realm. I
1I:OL'1eraft£Vov, Ka1 emo 't"au't"'1<; 6pftWftEVOV <pya ftEyaAa't"E know that he arranged matters as excellently as possible for
Ka1 1I:EpL<pav~ a1l:0SEL~aftEVOV, 1I:aTSa<; 't"E Ka1 ap;o1v ou his people and set up its government in the most suitable
<pauA'1v Ka't"aAl1[ov't"a 't"EAEV't"~eraL £v I1pouCYl]. Tou't"ov So way. He instituted a superb administration around himself
which they call the "king's Porte."J6 And from then on with
'{erftEv fj ftET<; 't"ou yevov<; 't"ouSe 't"a 't"E aAAa w<; olov 't"E apLer't"a . '
thiS power, the intimidation produced by the awe that sur-
Ka8Ler't"aV't"a, Kal ~v ap;o1V t<; 't"0 £1[l't"1"]SeLo't"a't"ov au't"4'
rounded him kept everyone in his realm under control. In
Ka't"aCY't"'1eraftevov, 't"a~LV 't"E ap[er't"'1v cmoSel~aer8aL aft<p' au-
short, they presented themselves to him wherever he saw
't"ov, f]v 8upa<; ~aerLAew<; KaAouerL, Ka1't"au't"1l ye't"fj SuvafteL fit, carried out whatever the sultan decreed, and swiftly
't"o a1l:0 't"ouSe SeSLnoftevov SeeL 't"4' aft<p' au't"ov Ka't"exeLv went about the orders from the sultan's Porte. We have dis-
't"oil<; U1I:0 ~v ap;o1v au't"(Ju ~uft1l:av't"a<;, £v 't"aXeL 1I:apayevo- covered that he was extremely courageous in all circum-
ftevov<;, o1l:l] ltv au't"4' SOKO['1, Ka1 t1[l't"eAouv't"a<;, an' ltv stances, and because of this he was generally believed to
t1l:L't"a't"'t"oL 6 ~aerLAeu<;, Ka1 £11:1 't"n 1I:apayyeAAofteva U1I:0 't"wv have supernatural powers. He passed his name on to his de-
~aerLAew<; 8vpwv Ka't"a 't"ax0<; [ov't"a<;. Tou't"ov S~ oiSv £1I:v80- scendants, who are even now called "the sons of Osman "37
fte8a yevvaLo't"a't"6v 't"e t<; 't"a 1I:av't"a yevoftevov, 't"au't"ll 't"e w<; During his reign, eight thousand Turks crossed over 'into 16
Europe at the Hellespont and seized a Greek fort in the
£11:1 1I:AelCY't"ov v0ftLer8~vaL SaLftovLOv, Ka't"aAl1[elv 't"e Imo
Chersonese. They made it their base and advanced through
't"ou't"ov ~v £1I:wvvft[av 't"oT<; a1l:' £KelVOV yevoftevoL<;, 'O't"ou-
Thrace all the way to the Danube, devastating the land as
ftavov 1I:aTSa<; £'t"L Ka1 vuv KaAeler8aL. they overran it. They looted most of it and, taking as many
,6 'E1I:1 't"ou't"ov ~aerLAeuov't"o<; oK't"aKLerxo..LOL ToupKwv £<;
~v Eupw1I:1]v SLa~aV't"e<; 1I:ep1 'EAAfjer1l:0v't"ov, Ka1 tv Xep-
povfjer", Ka't"acrxoV't"e<; <ppOUpLOV 'EAA'1vLKov, Ka1 a1l:0 't"ou-
't"ou 6pftwftevoL, -cf]v 't"e Elp<j:K'1V £<; "Ier't"pov £Aauvov't"e<; tA'1-
t1;ov't"o ~v xwpav t1l:LSpaftov't"e<;, 't"a't"E 1I:0AAa SLfjp1l:a1;ov,

22 23

Kat avSpcl1toSa W<; "AeT<1'ta tMf'eVOl e<; TIJV A<1lav Sle~l~a­ prisoners as they could enslave, transported them over to
SOV, 'tou<; 'te "EAA'1va<; Kat Tpl~aAAou<; ~yOV Kat e<pepov. Asia; and so they despoiled the Greeks and Serbs. At this
point, however, a large contingent of Skythians advanced
'Ev 'tou't'!' S~ LKU9wv f'oTpa OUK OAlY'] a"o Lapf'a'tla<; e"t
from Russia to the Danube. They crossed the Danube and
'tov ''I<1'tpOV eAa<1av'te<; Kat 'tov ye ''I<1'tpov Sla~av-re<;, 'tou<;
met the Turks in Thrace where they routed them in bat-
'te ToupKou<; ev "tfi 6pQ:Kn Ka'teAa~ov Kat f' axe<1af'evol tle. Except for a few, they mercilessly slaughtered them all.
e-rpetav-ro, Kat "A~V oAlywv 'tlVWV Slexp~<1av'to ( LI 5} Those who were not killed sought refuge in the Chersonese,
<1Vf'"av'ta<; a<pelSe<1'ta'ta. "0<10l Se OUK e<p9ap'1<1av, ola- and then they crossed over into Asia and never returned. 38
<1wgev-re<; f.<; 't~v Xeppov'1<10V, e<; TIJv A<1lav av9l<; ola- At that time the affairs of the Greeks hung in the bal- 17

~av'te<;OUKE'tl "aAlv a<plKOv-ro. ance, as there was a dispute between two kings, both named
17 T6'te ovv 'ta 'EAA~VWV "paYf'a'ta f.'taAav-reue'to e,,' Andronikos, regarding the throne in Byzantion; they were
af'<po-repa, S,a<pepoflEvwV <1<pl<1l Ka'ta TIJv Busav'tlou ~a<1l­ grandfather and grandson, of the Palaiologos family.39 When
the dispute arose between the two of them, the rest of
AelaV af'<poiv ~a<1lAtolv 'toiv AvSpovlKOlV, 'tOU 'te "a""ou
the Greeks also took sides, and their affairs were greatly
Kat ul'loou, 'tWV IIaAaLOAoywv. 'E<p' wv Se f.<; S,a<popav
harmed. The elder Andronikos had a son, Michael (IX},
<1<pl<1lV a<plKoflevwv ot 'te "EAA'1ve<; "po<; EKa'tepou<; SlE<1't'1-
who died before he could come to the throne. After his
<1av, Kat au'toT<; 'ta "paYf'a'ta ~S'1 "afl"av e<p9elpe'to. T<\i death, his son Andronikos decided that he should hold the
yap "pw't'!' AvSpovlK,!, eyeyovel "al<; Mlxa~Ao<;, 8<; throne himself, as his grandfather had already grown old,
e'teAeu't'1<1e, "piv ~ e<; 't~v ~a<1lAelaV eA9eiv. Me-ra Se 't~v and so they fell out with each other. He was too stubborn
eKelVOU 'teAeu't~v AVSPOVlKO<; " "aT<; au'tou yeY'1paKo'tl to submit and caused endless trouble. He brought in the
~S'1 't<\i "a"",!" a;lwv au'to<; eXElv 't~v ~a<1lAelaV, Ka9- Serbs 40 and allied himself with the leading Greeks in his
l<1'tav'to e<; Sla<popav, au9aSe<1'tepo<; wv ~ w<1'te "elge<19aL, struggle for the throne. As a result they could do nothing to
prevent the Turks from crossing over into Europe. It was at
Kat "paYfla'ta "apeixev av~vu'ta, 'tou<; 'te Tpl~aAAou<;
this time that Prousa was besieged, starved out, and taken
e"aY0f'evo<; Kat 'EAA~VWV 'tou<; apl<1'tou<; ol "po<1e'taL-
by Osman,4! and other cities in Asia were captured.
P'Soflevo<; e<; 't~v ~a<1lAelav, w<; Ola 'tau'ta fl'1Se f.;eTvaL
Thus the Turks acquired great power in Asia and crossed 18
au'toT<; 'to "apa"av 'tou<; ToupKou<; f.<; TIJv Eupw"'1v S,a-
~av'ta<; aflUve<19aL. Ka9' DV S~ Xpovov ~ 'te IIpou<1a e;-
e"oALOpK~9'1 Alfl<\i aAOU<1a u"o 'O'touf'avou, Kat aAAaL
Ka'ta TIJv A<1lav "oAel<; EaAW<1av.
18 "0gev ot 'te ToupKol f."t f'eya exwpouv Suvaflew<; Ka'ta


't~V Aer[av, Kat t, ~V Eupw1!J']V Sla~aV't£, KaKw, tno[ovv over into Europe, where they caused trouble in Thrace.
~v 8p<iLK1'}V, aAAOl 't£ OUK OA[YOl Kat S~ Kat XaAlA1'}" 0,
There were many of them, including Hali!, who was block-
aded by the Greeks in a fort of the Chersonese and sum-
S~ t, 'to Ka'ta ~V X£ppov1'}erov <ppOUpLOV vno 'EAA~VWV
moned Turks over from Asia. He defended himself against
cruv£Aa8el, f'£'t£ntf'n£'to ToupKov, ano 'tfj, Aer[a" Kat'tOV
the attacks of the king, and then marched out and heavily
't£ ~aerlAta tnlOV'ta ~f'uva'to, Kat tnt nOAV t~£Aauvwv 't~, plundered Thrace. 42 At that point the king of the Greeks
8p<iLK1'}, tA1'}T£;£'to, ono't£ S~ tnayof'£vo, 'tov 't£ Tpl~aAAwv brought in the ruler of the Serbs and the men from Italy and
{I.I6] ~yef'0va Kat 'tOV, ana 'I'taA[a, 'to 't£ <ppOUpLOV t~­ besieged the fort by both land and sea. 43 But the Turks es-
£noAlopK1'}er£ Ka't' ~n£lpov Kat Ka'ta 8aAanav, Ot f'EV ouv caped without being detected and crossed over to Asia at
ToiipKOl t'Aa80v Spaerf'<;i tmX£lp~erav't£, t, 't~v Aer[av night. 44 As these kings had bad relations with each other
VUK'tO, Sla~av't£<;. AVWf'aAw<; f'EV ~<; 't£ 'ta aAAa er<p(crtv over other matters, they did not make good use of the Turk-
£XOV-r£<; OU'tOl O[ ~aerlAeT<;, Kat aU'tOf'OAOl<; ToupKwv ish leaders who had defected to their side, such as 'Izz al-
Din and the others. 45 Thus they had to make an alliance with
~Y£f'0erl, 't<;i 't£ A£;a't[vn Kal aAAOl<;, ou KaAw<; txp~eraV'to,
the men from Aragon and Italy,46 whom the king of the
wer't£ tm't1'}Selw<; i'X£lV er<p[erlv 'tou<; 't£ ana TapaKwvo<; Kat
Greeks sent against Orhan,47 the sultan of the Turks, who
'haA[a<;, oil<; S~ f'£'t£m:f'n£'to tnt 'tOY ToupKwv ~aerlAta was besieging Philadelpheia,48 and use them to garrison
'OPxav1'}v, 0<; <PlAaStA<p£lav tnoAlopK£l, Kat t<; ~V tnt'tfi Gallipoli in the Chersonese.
X£ppov~er4' <pvAaK~V 't~<; KaAALOvnOA£w<;. These Aragonese and Italians who had been stationed to '9
'9 OU'tOl f'EV OUV ot TapaKWV£<; Kai ot ano 'haA[a<; t<; ~V garrison Gallipoli cut a deal with the Turks who had de-
KaAALOvnoA£w<; <pvAaK~V 't£'taYf'tvOl, 'toi<; f'£'ta A£;a't[v£w fected with 'Izz al-Din, and arranged to attack the city to-
au'tOf'OAOl<; XP1'}eraf'£VOl TOUPKOl<;, ervv£~erav'to aAA~­ gether. But when they learned that they had been exposed-
AOl<; w<; 'tft nCA£l tnl81'}erof'£VOl, Kal tn£lS~ £yvwerav Ka'ta- for they were betrayed by one of their own people to the
S1'}AOl ilV't£<;, tf'1'}vu81'} yap un' au'twv 'tlVO<; 'toi<; "EAA1'}erl, Greeks-they went through Thrace, crossed Rodope, and
arrived at Kassandreia,49 which was formerly called Pydna. 50
Sla 't* 8P<iLK1']<; l£v'to, Kal ~v 'PoSon1'}v Sla~aV't£<; a<p-
But then the Turks with 'Izz al-Din, however many there
[KOV'tO t<; KaereravSP£lav, ITuSvav3 'to naAat KaAovf'tv1'}v.
were, went over to the king of the Serbs, while those from
'EV't£ii8£v SE 'tWV f'EV f'£'ta A£;a't[v£w ToupKwv, oerol nap- Asia turned around and went back on foot to the Cher-
~erav, a<p[Kov'tO t<; 'tOY Tpl~aAAwv ~aerlAta, ot SE ana 'tfj<; sonese with the intention of crossing straight over to Asia,
Aer[a<; 'ta £f'naAlv y£v0f'£voll£V'to n££;oi tnl 't~v X£ppov1'}- in whatever way they could. 51 But even though they had
erov, au8l<; tv v<;i i'xov't£<;, 0't4' av Suvatv'to 'tpon4', t<; made a treaty with the Greeks, the Greeks were apparently
~v Aer[av Sla~~Val. Ka[ :n:n Kai ernovSa<; 'toi<; "EAA1'}erl


1tOl'l<YaflevOl , w<; E1te~OUAeUOV au'tou<; ot "EAA'lVe<; fAeiv plotting against them, as they wanted to catch them, and so
the Turks protected themselves in some fort in the Cher-
~oUA6f1eVOl, ~<; 'tl 'I'POUPLOV 'to Ka'ta 't~V Xepp6v'l<Yov Sl-
sonese. And thus they caused trouble for the Greeks again. 52
e<Ywsov'to. Kat OO'tOl avel<; KaKw<; E1tolouv 'tou<; "EAA'lva<;.
As for the men from the far west and from Italy, they 20
20 Ot flEnOllmo f.<Y'Jt£pa<; 'te Kat haA(a<; IivSpe<;, [LI7} S,a
passed through Macedonia and Thessaly and arrived in
MaKeSovla<; 'te Kat ElenaAla<; E<; BOlW't(av a'l'IK6f1evOl, Boiotia, which they occupied. They also enslaved Thebes
Ka't£<1)(Ov au~v Kat 'ta<; El~~a<; ~vSpa1toS(<Yav'to a'l'po- through the ineptitude of its ruler, who thought they would
<YUvn 'tOD ~yefl6vo<;, 0<; SeSI6'ta<; au'tou<; tmOAOYls6f1evo<; be afraid and marched out to overpower them. However,
E1ttlel w<; avap1ta<Y6f1evo<;. OU'tOl flEV oov 'ta'l'peu<Yane<; 'to they dug a ditch at the place and filled it with water, thereby
xwplov, Kat vSwp E<; au'to EfI~aA6v'te<;, E1tt1tOAU Ii~a'tov making the place mostly impassable for cavalry. The com-
'toi<; t1t1teDmV E1tol'l<Yav 'to xwplov. Ot flEV oov t1t1tei<; ot mander's knights charged in to overpower the westerners,
fle'ta 'tOD fJyeflovo<; f9eov Sp6f1'l' E1tt 'tou<; f.<Y1teplou<; w<; but they found that the terrain which they had entered was
working against them. The men of Aragon shot at them
avap1ta<Y6f1evOl, EfI~av'te<; SE E<; 'to xwplov xaAe1tW<; EXP~­
with catapults, bows, and spears and killed the majority of
<Yav'to <Y'I'l<YlV au'toi<;' ot SE TapaKwve<; Ka'ta1t£A'taL<; 'te Kat
the Boiotians right there. 53 Then they came to the city, cap-
't6~01<; ~aAAov'te<; Kat aKonlol<; 'tou<; 1tOAAOU<; 'twv BOlW-
tured it without a blow, and enslaved it. Later each of them
'twv au'tOD 'tau-rn Slexp~<Yav'to, v<Y'tepov SE E1tt ~v 1t6AlV crossed over to Italy and returned home. 54
EA96v'te<; au'to~oel 'te 't~v 1t6AlV dAOV Kat ~vSpa1toSl­ Thus the Greeks and King Andronikos made bad use "
<Yano. Oo'to<; flev oov v<Y'tepov E<; 'haA(av 1tepaLOuflevo<; both of the Turks who defected to their side and of the men
E1t' olKou E'tpa1tOv'to EKa<Y'tO<;. from Italy. Not only did they fail to obtain any benefit from
21 "EAA'lve<; Se fle'ta AVSpOV(KOU 'tOD ~a<YlA£W<;, Kat 'toi<; them, they even had to face them as enemies. They squan-
a1to ToupKwv £1tt <Y'I'iX<; au'tofl6AOl<; Kat 'toi<; Imo haAla<; dered the revenues of their realm by using them solely to
gratify their own nobility, and neither enlisted an army nor
KaKw<; XP'l<Yaflevol, OUX 01tW<; ouStv evpano E1tl~SeLOV,
hired foreign mercenaries. They showed no will to avenge
aAAa Kat1tOAefllou<; <Y'I'(<YlV £xov'te<; 'tou'tOU<;, E1tt 'to 'tou<;
themselves on the enemies who were attacking them.
<Y'I'wv euyevei<; gepa1teUelV flOVOV 'tpa1tOfleVOl 'tii<; -re apXii<; I return now to that point of my narrative from where 22
el<Y6Sou<; Ka'tav~Al<YKOV, Kat oil'te <Y'tpa'twfla <Yuv£Aeyov, I had digressed. Osman, the son of Ertogrul, having con-
oil'te ~£vou<; fll<Y9w<YaflevOl, Kat 'tou<; 1toAefl(ou<; E1tlov'ta<;
<Y'I'l<Yl 'tlflwpeiv fJ~OUAOV'tO.
2> 'E1taVelfll St E1t' EKeivo 'tOD AOYOU, 11gev flO I E~£Ame.
'O'touflavo <; flev oov 'Op90ypouAew, 'ta 1tAEW 'tii<; E<; ~v

28 29

AJlav 'EAA~VWV xwpa~ Ka-raJ-rpE'itaftEVO~, E~ NlKal<iv -rE quered most of the Greek lands in Asia, attacked Nikaia and
EJE~aAE Kat E<; <PIAaOEA,!,Elav, ou ftEV-rOI yE £1AE -ra aJ-ru' Philadelpheia but did not capture them. 55 And he fell out
with the Turks of Umur,56 and fought against them too. He
Kat 1tpa~ TOUpKOU~ -roil~ ftE-ra 'OftOUpEW 0IEVEX9£l~
ruled from Prousa, where he established his court, and died
E1tOAEftYJJEV' ap;a~ O£ EV I1pouOl1, {LI8} EV n-ra ~aJLAEla leaving behind him sons, a substantial territory, and a formi-
E1tE1COlr]-rO ol, £-rEAEU-rYJJE, Ka-raAl1Cwv 1Cal0a~ Kat xwpav ou
dable army. 57 When Osman died, the youngest of his sons
,!,aUAl']V Kat mpa-rav OUK ayEvvfj. TEAw-r~Jav-ro~ O£ {i.e., Orhan} had done everything he could to gain the favor
'O-rouftavou 6 VEW-rEpO<; -rWV 1Calowv au-rou YEVOftEVO<; of his father's innermost circle and especially to make them
-roil<; <hI EyyU-ra-ra 1Capa -rQ 1ta-rpt Olat-rWftEVOU~, w<; olov his own supporters. It was from them that he was instantly
-r' ~v au-rQ, avaK-rwftEvO<; E1tl-rl']odou<; 1:£ au-rQ dXE Kat E<; informed of Osman's death-the latter was already, as they
-ra ftaAIJ-ra JUV~9EI<;. A1Ca -rou-rWV O~ E1Cd -rE -raXIJ-ra say, on the threshold of old age58 -and he escaped at once
Ew9E-r0 -rEAW-rfjJat 'O-rouftavov, ov-ra ~Ol'], n
,!,aJIV, E1tt from his brothers, taking himself off to Mount Olympos
~pao<; OuOQ, a1Co'!'uY£lV ft£V au-rlKa -roil<; aOEA,!,oil<; in Mysia. As he was traveling along the road, he happened
upon a herd of horses grazing in that area and distributed
EK1tOOWV YEV0ftEVOV4 E1Ct "OAVft1COV -rfj<; MUJla<; opo<;, Ola-
them among the men who were coming from the mountain
1tOpWOftEVOV O£ Ka-ra -rfjv 60bv 1CEPI-ruX£lV 11C1tWV '!'0p~ii
to join him. Going down onto the plain, he allowed them to
-rau-rn 1COV -rfj<; xwpa<; E1CIVEftOftEVn, Kat OlaV£lft at -rau-rl']v plunder whatever they came across. Using the mountain as
aVOpaJI -rol<; a1Ca -rou opou<; E1t' au-rav JUAAEY0ftEVOI<;, Kat his base, he despoiled the city.59
E1tIKa-ra~alvov-ra E<; -ra 1CEOlov E1tI-rPE1CEIV athol<; Olap1ta- Now, Orhan's brothers were fighting against each other 23
SEIV, OJa y' av -rOU-rOI<; 1Cpoxwpoll'], 6pftWftEVOV O£ -rau-rn and were preoccupied with their own wars, to the point
a1Cc -rou opou<; ayElv Kat ,!,EPEIV -rfjv 1tOAIV. where many people joined up with him from the city and
23 Twv O£ aOEA'!'wv au-rou J'!'lJIV aAA~AOl<; Ola1tOAEft°UV- from the followers of both his brothers. So he went down
-rwv -rE Kat aft,!,t -roil<; OlKdou<; txov-rwv 1tOAEftOU<;, E<; il O~ onto the plain and made war against his brothers, who were
divided into two sides and encamped across from each other
Kat OUK oAlywv -rWV a1Ca -rfj<; 1COAEW<; Kat aft,!,t -rw aOEA'!'W
about to join battle. He overcame and then killed both his
E1ClYEVOftEVWV au-rQ, E1tlKa-ra~fjval -rE E<; -rb 1CEOlov, Kat E<;
brothers, and thus assumed the throne. Although I have
1tOAEftOV Ka9IJ-raftEVOV -rol<; aOEA,!,ol<; OUJI Olnpl']ftEVOl<; made a thorough inquiry, I have been unable to confirm this
Kat ava ftfpO<; EKa-rEp'¥ J-rpa-r01CEOw0ftEV'¥ ft aXEJaJ9at,
Kat 1CEPlYEV0ftEVOV aVEA£lv aft'!'w -rw aOEA,!,w, Kat ou-rw
-r~v ~aJlAdav 1tapaAa~Elv. Tou-ro O£ eywyE ava1Cuv-
9avoftEvo<; EUpOV ou yvwftl']v {I.19} -rau-rl']v 1tEpt -rwv

30 31

view of the brothers, namely that they were treating each

aSEAo/WV, xpijcr9al cro/(crlV aireDu,; W'; 1tOAEfI(OU';, a1t0o/'l-
other as enemies, but this is the usual story that is told about
VaflEVOl'; VOfl(~Ecr9al 1tap' aUTol'; hI Ka\ E'; TOVSE TOV them even now. 60 What I did find out was that Orhan had
Xpovov' aAX U1tO TWV TOl'; 'OyOU~(Ol'; ijYEfloVWV Ka91""a- been established in power by the rulers of the Oguz in ad-
flEVOVS Kat 1tPOcr9EV YEvoflEVOV SIE1tu90fl'lV' , vance. 61
24 'OpXav'l'; fl1:v OOV E1tEl TE d.; -rijv ~acrlA£lav 1tapn E1 , When Orhan had gained the throne, he conquered all of 24
crUfl1tacrav TE T~V AuS(av KaTE""pEo/ETO, Kat 1'01.; tv Tn Lydia" and made war against the Greeks in Asia. He took
1\cr(a "EAA'lcrl Ka9(""aTo E'; 1tOAEflOV, Kal cruxva.; TWV many of the Greek cities there by siege and subjected them
Tau~ 'EAA'lV(SWV 1tOAEWV 1tOALOp1«c,1tapacrT'lcraflEVo,; lJ1t- to himself, for the kings of Byzantion were at odds with the
'lyaYETo ot, TWV yE Bu~aVT(ou ~acrlAeWV 1tpo.; TOU'; EV Tn Serbs in Thrace and with the Bulgarians, and they were wag-
ing a bitter war against each other at that time. After that,
Gp<j:Kn Tpl~aAAou,; TE Itfla Kat Mucrou.; KaTa TOUTO TOU
he advanced on Kappadokia, occupied some of its towns,
Xpovou E1tlKElflEVOU'; cro/(crlV E'; Ta flaAlcrTa TOV ~O~EflOV
and then marched against Nikaia, the city in Bithynia. 63
Slao/EpoVTWV. METa S1: TaUTa E1tt Ka1t1taSoK(av EAauvwv, Orhan laid siege to the city, but the news reached Androni-
~crTlV It TWV 1tOAlcrfl"'TWV Uo/' aUT<ii 1tOI'lcr"'flEVO ';, E1t\ kos [III}, the king of the Greeks, that Nikaia was being be-
N(KalaV T~V EV Bl9uv(c, 1tOAlV EcrTpaTEUETo. 'E1tOAlOPKEI sieged and that the people in the city would go over to the
fl1:v OVV -rijv 1tOAlV. 'EVTau9a W.; ij arrEA(a ijA9EV E'; TOV barbarian if no one came to their aid. As he had just come to
'EAAijVWV ~acrlAEa, TijV TE N(Kalav 1tOALOpK£lcr9al Kat TOU'; the throne, he raised an army, for it was not his intention to
EV -rfi 1tOAEl, d fll\ 1'1'; E1taflUVOl cro/(crl, 1tP 0"XWpl\crElV T<ii neglect Nikaia. He was prepared to fight back so that he
~ap~ap4', crTpaTEufl'" TE cruVEAeYETO E'; -rijv ~acrlA£lav ijS'l could demand nothing less from Orhan, the son of Osman,
than his departure from Nikaia.
1taplWV, OU 1tEplm!r0flEVo,; -rijv N(KalaV, W.; TlflwpijcrEIV
Andronikos had not previously advanced to the throne 25
1tapEcrKEua~ETo SlaflaxouflEVO'; ouS1:v I\nov 1tpo.; '0 PXav'lV
because the others had contrived all sorts of things. 64 But he
TOV 'OTOUfl"'VEW ij avacr"'1croflEVO'; a1to -rij.; NlKa(a.;. turned the Greeks against his grandfather {Andronikos II}
25 0"1'0'; fl1:v S~ W.; TWV ItAAWV 1toAAaxW.; E1tlXE1p'lcravTwv and overturned the established order. He made an alliance
ou 1tPOEXWP'lcrEV E1tt T~V ~acrlAElaV, TOU'; TE "EAA'lva.; cruv- with Mihail, the ruler of the Bulgarians, establishing a mar-
I""WV E1tl TOV 1ta1t1tOV Kat VEWTEpa 1tpacrcrwv 1tpaYflaTa, riage connection by giving him his sister in marriage, al-
M1XaijAOV Tbv {I.20} Mucrwv ijYEflova E1tY]yaYETo ot E'; though Mihail had previously married the sister of the king
cruflflax(av, E1tlya fl(av 1tOI'lcr"'flEVO ';, -rijv aSEAo/~V aUT<ii E'; of the Serbs." For this reason the king of the Serbs marched
Y"'floV £KSOU'; nflaVT1 1tpocr9EV T~V TOU ~acrlAEW'; Tpl-
~aAAWV aSEAo/l\v. "09EV " Tpl~aAAWV ijYEflWV E1t' aUT6v

32 33

out against Mihail, having with him Mihail's nephew, Alek-

,otT WPflYJ'rO mpa'rEVE<r8at, ~XWV flE8' ea1J'rou 'rOV Mlxa~A01J
sandiir. He defeated Mihail in battle and put his nephew
aSEA<plSOUV hlt;avSpov' 'rOV 'r£ MlXafjAOV flax!] EKpa'rYJ<rE, Aleksandiir on the throne. Citing the offense that the
Ka! hle;avSpov 'rOV aSEA<plSOUV aiJ'rou E<; TIjv ~a<rlAdav Greeks had given him in this matter, he then marched
Ka'ra<r'rYJ<raflEVo <;. Tfj<; E<; au'rov U~PEW<; ai'rla<raflEVo<; ollv against them and seized some towns before returning home.
'rOU<; "EAAYJva<; E<r'rpa'rEvE'ro En' au'rov<;, Kat nOAl<rfla'ra Later they made a treaty, and agreed to be friends and al-
dna e;EAWV anExwpYJ<rEV En' O'LK01J. "Y mEpov flEV'rOl lies."
<r1tovSa<; Enol~<rav'ro, E<p' 4> ;tVOl Kat <pLAOl £Tvat aAA~AOl<;. It was at this point that Andronikos learned that Orhan 26

26 'Ev'rau8a En1Jv8avE'ro 'OpxavYJv E1tlSpaflov'ra 'ra Ka'ra who was raiding the region of Bithynia and taking slave~
there, was besieging Nikaia and was relentlessly attacking
'rfjv Bl81Jvlav Xwpla Ka! avSpanoSl<raflEvov nOAlOpKclv 'rE
Its walls. Andronikos raised an army, crossed over into Asia,
TIjv NlKataV Kat OUK aVltVat npo<r~UAAoV'ra 'r<i> 'rdXEl.
and marched to Nikaia, intending to defend those in the
L'rpaTWflu TE ;1Jvaydpa<; Kat E<; TIjv l\<rlav Sla~a<; fjAa1J-
city.67 But when Orhan learned that a Greek army was com-
VEV ent NlKataV, aflvvElv ~01JAOflEVO<; 'rol<; EV Tf\ nOAEl. ing against him, he assembled his forces and came out to
'OPxavYJ<; fltv, EnElSfj ~yytA8YJ E1tltVat En' aUTov <rTpUTE1Jfla meet them. He advanced with his army in battle formation
'EAAYJVlKOV, <r1lvTa;aflEvo<; aV'rE7t{JEl, TO TE <rTpu'rwfla and found the king of Byzantion encamped at Philokrene.
"x wv tv Ta;El w<; flaxovflEvO, 'rov mpa'rov aVTE~yayE Kat Shortly afterward there was an evenly matched battle,68 and
EV <DlAoKP~V!] YEVOflEVO, dipE <rTpa'ronESwoflEVOV TOV the king himself was wounded in the leg. Many Greeks were
B1JsaVT[01J ~a<rlAta. Ou nOA" Se U<rTEPOV flUXYJ, l<roppono1J also wounded and they decided that they should go into
Philokrene, so that they could regroup and fight back from
YEvofltvYJ, aUTO<; TE 0 ~a<rlAEU<; ETpw8YJ d, 'rOV naSa, Kat
there. As they turned to go to the city, the barbarians came
'EAA~VWV OUK OA[YOl 'rpa1Jfla'rlat YEVOflEVOl ~yvw<rav SElv
up from behind and attacked them, killing many of the
t<; <DlAoKP~VYJV d<rEA8clv, W<r'rE avaAa~clv <r<pii, aUTOU,
Greeks. The Turks corralled the rest in the city and besieged
Kat avaflaXE<ra<r8at EVTau8a. '0, Ent TIjv nOAlv ETpanovTo, the~ b~t, as this is a coastal city, Orhan could do nothing
KaTa VWT01J YEvoflEVOl oi ~up~apOl Kat E1tlKdflEVOl agamst It. So he went back to Nikaia and besieged it again
<r1JXVOV<; TE 'rWV 'EAA~VWV SlE<p8EtpOV, Kat 'rOV<; yE AOl1tOU, f~r a while. Shortly afterward he captured it through a nego-
E<; 'rfjv {I.2I} nCAlv <r1JVEAU<raVTE<; EnoAl6pK01JV, End Se tiated surrender. Thus Nikaia came under Orhan's control. 69
napaAlO<; ~v aUTYJ fj nOAl<;, w, ouSEv npOEXWpEl T<i> 'Op-
xav!], au8l, En! N[KataV EA8wv EnoAlopKEl 'rE Enl Tlva
Xp6vov Kat dAE 'rE OU nOAA<i> U<rTEPOV 0floAoylq: napa-
<rTYJ<rUflEVO,. OUTW NlKala En! 'OpXUV!] eytVETO.


27 Et<Yt~aA£ St Kal ei, <l>lAaSEA'll£lav, aXil OUK ~Suv~9'l Orhan also attacked Philadelpheia, but was unable to 27
take it by siege because it had too many defenders'?o After
1tapa<Y1:~<Ya<y9at 1tOALOPKWV Sla 1:0 1tAij90, 1:WV t1tlK01JPWV.
this they say that he fell out with the barbarian rulers in
M£1:a Se 1:aU1:a SL£v£X9d" c;" <pam, 1tpO, 1:0U, tv 1:ft A<YLq
Asia: taking some as his allies, he waged war relentlessly
~ap~apou, ijY£f'0va" 1:0U1:WV EVLOU, <YUf'f'axou, ol1tpo<r-
against the others. Much later, he married the daughter of
Aa~0f'£Vo, 1:0i, aAAol, 1tOA£f'WV OUK aVL£1. "Y <Y1:£POV f'EV- Kantakouzenos, who had just become king of the Greeks. 71
1:0l XPOVOU <YUXVOU SL£A96v1:0" KaV1:aKoUS'lvOu ~amAtw, Through this marriage Orhan made peace with the Greeks,
'EAA~VWV apn Y£V0f'EVOU E'Y'lf'£ 9uya1:Epa, Kal t1tlyaf'Lav and from that point on he fought against the barbarian rul-
1tOl'l<Yaf'£vo, 1:au1:'lv eip~v1']v 1:£ 1:0i, "EAA1']<YlV t1tOl~<Ya1:0, ers in Phrygia,72 with whom he was in dispute. When King
Kal1:ou AOl1tOU 1tpO, 1:0U, tv 1:ft <l>pUyLq ~ap~c<pwv ijy£- Andronikos [III} died, he left a son who was about twelve
f'ova, SL£V£X9el, t1tOAEf'£1. '0., 1:£A£U1:~<YaV1:0, yap AvSpo- years old. 73 He also left Kantakouzenos, who was a wealthy
VLKOU 1:0U ~a<YlAtw" Ka1:£Ad<p91'] 1:£ aU1:<!' 1tai, af'<pl 1:a and very powerful man, to act as the boy's guardian until he
came of age and to supervise the realm. Given Kantakouze-
SuoKaLS£Ka E1:1'] y£yovw" Kal 1:0V y£ KanaKous1']vOv
nos's great fortune, and because the king liked him person-
Ka1:EAl1t£V, avSpa £uSaLf'ova Kal f'Eya Suvaf'£vov, 1:0V 1:£
ally, he entrusted him with both the kingdom and his son,
1taiSa t1tl1:P01t£U£LV, axpl S' ltv t1tl1:o 1:ij, ijAlKLa, a<pLK1']1:al but bound him with oaths to supervise honestly both the
tn£At" Kal1:~v ~a<YlAdav 1t£plE1t£lV, f'Eya 1:£ 6A~LOV, Kal kingdom and the child and to keep his son safe until he
ap£<YKof'£vo, 1:0U1:4> t1tE1:P£'\t£ 1:a af'<pl ~v ~a<YlAdav 1:£ should ascend to the throne,?4 But shortly after the king
Kal1:ov 1taiSa, tf'1t£Sw<Ya, OPKOl, ~ f'~v aSoAw, t1tl1:pO- died, Kantakouzenos took the throne at the instigation of
1t£U£lV -rij, 1:£ ~a<YlAda, af'a Kal1:ou 1talSO" Kal a~Aa~ij some of the Greeks who sided with him. Although he did no
1:0V 1taiSa t, ~v ~a<YlAdav Ka1:a<Y~<Y£lV. '0., St £1:£A£U1:1']- harm to the child and made him his son-in-law, he marginal-
<Y£V 6 ~a<YlA£U" XP6vou ou 1tOAAOU [I.22} SL£A96v1:0, ized him, hoping to win the Greeks over to his side more. So
Kantakonzenos deprived the child of the throne and made
'EAA~VWV 1:E 1:lVWV tvayov1:wv t, 1:0U1:0 Kal <YuV£1tlAa~O­
a marriage alliance with Orhan to acquire a powerful friend
f'EVWV ~v 1:£ ~a<YlAdav Ka1:E<YX£ Kal1:ov 1taiSa KaKov f'ev
and ally.7s
ouStv 1:l eipyMa1:o, K1']S£~V St Ol1tOl1']<YC<f'£vo, oAlyWpW,
1:a 1:0U 1talSO, £TX£, Kal eau1:<!' 4\£1:0 1:0U, "EAA1']va, f'aAAOV
1:l avaK~<Ya<y9al. '0 f'ev ovv KaV1:aKoUS1']vO, ~v ~a<Yl­
Adav a<p£AOf'£vo, 1:0V 1taiSa, 1tpO, 'Opxav1']v 1:~V t1tl-
yaf'Lav 1tOl1']<Yaf'£vo, eau1:<!' ;tvov 1:£ Kal <pLAOV tK~<Ya1:0
E, 1:a f'c<Al<Y1:a.


28 'Opxavl]<; ftev S~ ~a(nAEvera<; hI] {...}' E-rEAEv'tl]erE, Orhan died after reigning for [ ...} years," and left be- 28

1CaISa<; Ka'taAl1Cwv LouAa'iftavl]v 'tE Kal Aftoupa'tl]v. LOU- hind two sons, Siileyman and Murad. Siileyman, the son of
Orhan, succeeded to the throne and immediately started
Aa'iflavl]<; ftev ouv 6 'OpXavEw 't~v ~aerlAEiav 1CapaAa~wv
waging war against the Greeks." He took as many captives
'tol<; 'tE "EAAl]erlv £1ClWV £1CoAtflEl av't[Ka, Kal avSpa1CoSa
as he could from Greek territory into Asia, and he also
a1Co 'tfj<; £<; 't~v Aer[av 'EAA~VWV Xwpa<; w<; 1CAElcr'ta ayoflE- crossed over into Europe. The followers of Halil78 who had
VO<; Kal £<; EVPW1CI]V Sla~a<;, 'tWV flE'ta XaAlAEw 1CpO'tEpOV earlier fallen out with the Greeks in the Chersonese led him
Ka'ta 'tfjv XEppovl]erov 1CpO<; "EAAl]va<; S,EVEX8tv-rwv there and told him all about the crossing, saying that Eu-
£vayov'twv 'tE Kal £~I]youfltvwv av't<ii 't~v Sla~a",v, w<; ~ rope was a very beautiful land and would easily fall to Sultan
EVPW1C1] Ell] 'tE Xwpa 1CEplKaAA~<; Kal EUXEP~<; XElpWeraer8aL Siileyman. He transported a small army there and plundered
V1CO LouAa'iflavEw ~aerlAtw<;. 'EV'tEU8EV Sla~l~aera<; er'tpa- the Chersonese. They took the fort that they had held pre-
'tOY ov 1COAUV ~v 'tE XEppoVl]erov Al]t~Eer8aL, Kal'to 1CPO'tE- viously" along with Madytos and some other towns in the
pov hl <ppOVpLOV Kal MaSu'tov Ka'tacrxoV'tE<; Kal aXI< ana Chersonese. Then they raided in Thrace as far as the river
Tearos, and transported their captives to Asia. All the Turks
1CoA[ erft a'ta Ka'ta 'tfjv XEppovl]erov, £1CtSpaft0v 'tE 'tfjv Elpq-
in Asia who learned about this immediately crossed over
KI]V [er'tE £1Cl Ttapov 'tOY 1Co'taflov, Kal 'ta 'tE avSpa1CoSa £<;
into Europe to join Siileyman, and many of them gathered in
'tfjv Aer[av SlE~[~a~ov. Kal ot £V 'tft Aer[" TOVpKWV, oerol the Chersonese. Here they turned to farming, sparing the
£wv8avov'to 'tau'ta, au't[Ka £<; 'tfjv EUpW1CI]V 1Capa LouAa- lands in Asia, their own country.so Later on the king of the
'iftavl]v Slt~aLVOV, Kal eruvEAtyoV'tO El<; 'tfjv XEppovl]erov Greeks sent envoys and made a treaty with Siileyman, the
OUK OA[YOl' [v8a S~ Kal £1Cl YEwpy[av 'tWV a1CO 't~<; {I. 23} son of Orhan, urging him against the Serbs. The terms were
Aer[a<; <pElSOI 'tfj<; eau'twv xwpa<; £'tpa1COV'tO. "Y cr'tEpOV that they would be friends and allies to each other and pro-
fltV'tOl 6 'EAA~VWV ~a(:nAEu<; Sla1CpEer~EueraflEvo<; ""ovSa<; vide mutual support in the war against the Serbs. Some even
'tE £1COl~era'to 1CpO<; LOUAa'iflav'lv 'tOY 'OpXavEw, Kal £V~yEV say that, while he was still alive in Asia, Orhan had sent his
son Siileyman to cross over into Europe when the king of
£1Cl 'tou<; Tpl~aAAov<;, £<p' 4i 'tE au'tou<; ~tvou<; 'tE Kal <plAou<;
the Greeks summoned him against the Serbs S !
civaL aAA~Aol<; Kal 'tOY 1CpO<; 'tou<; Tpl~aAAou<; 1COAEfloV
I have learned that the rulers of the Serbs became 29
eruvSla<ptpElv afla afl<po'ttpou<;. "EVLOl flEV ouv <paerlV, w<;
['t'1CEP'OV'tO<; '0 PXaVEW £V 'tft Aer[" 'tOY 1CalSa au'tou LOU-
Aa'iflav'lv £<; 'tfjv EUpW1C'lV Sla~~val ftE'ta1CEfl1Cofltvou £1Cl
'tou<; Tpl~aAAou<; 'tou 'tWV 'EAA~VWV ~aerlAtw<;.
29 Tou<; fl£V'tOl Tpl~aAAwv ~yEft0va<; &JSE £A8eTv £1Cl 'ta 't~<;


involved in the affairs of Europe in the following way. Ste-

Eupw1t'l<; 1tpaYfla'ta E1tV90fle9a. L'te1taVO<; EyeVe'tO ~a<1l­
fan82 became king of the Serbs and advanced from his terri-
AeU<; Tpl~aAAWV, 0<; opflwflevo<; ~v emo 'tii<; E<; 'tov'IovIOV
tory by the Adriatic Sea. He conquered the area around
xwpa<;, 'ta1tepl 'E1tlbaflvov Ka'ta<npevaflevo<;, Kal E<; 'ti]v
Durres, pushed into Macedonia, and made Skopje his royal
MaKebovlav ~Aa<1a'tO, Kal E<; 't~v 'twv LK01tlwv 'ta ~a<1LAela capital. 83 As far as one may infer, the Serbs may well be an
E1tOI~O'a'tO. Elev b' av OU'tOI, O<1a ye ~;e<nl 'tEKflalpe<19at, Illyrian people [i.e., the Slavs}, given where they came from
09EV 1tpoayayelv E1tl 'ti]v 'tii<; Eupw1t'l<; ijYEflovlav a'l'- before they acquired dominion over Europe. 84 They thus
lKOV'tO, 'IAAUPlwv yevo<;, a1to 't* 1tpo<; £<11tepav 'tij<; E<; 'tov came to Skopje from the lands to the west, by the Adriatic
'lOVIOV xwpa<; 1tPOEA9ov-re<; E1tI'ti]v 'twv LK01tlwv 1tOAIV, 'tfi Sea, and speak a language similar to that of the Illyrians. The
'tE 'l'wvfi 1tapa1tA'lO'l<;t XpwflevOl EKelVOI<;, Kal yevo<; b£ Illyrian people is populous and has spread far and wide along
EKelVO 'twv 'IAAUPIWV fleya 'te Kal E1tI1tAel<1'tov bliiKOV 'tou the Adriatic Sea, as far as the Venetians. It would, then, not
be difficult to infer that it was from them that the Serbs
'lovlou 1tEAayou<; £<1'tE E1t1 'EVE'tOU<;, w<; av EXElV ou xaAE-
came to be dispersed across Europe. Even today both of
1tW<; 'tEKfla(pE<19al a1t' EKelVWV b£ 'to'tE ava 'ti]v Eupw1t'1v
them speak the same language and have the same customs
<1Keba<19tv'ta<; ax9iival. <1>wvfi 'tE yap afl'l'o'tEpOI -rfi au'tfi and way of life, so that those who venture an opinion about
xpWV'tal £'tl Kal vuv, Kal ~ge<11 'tol<; au'tol<; Kal bla('tn, "'<1'tE the Illyrians would be wrong were they to say that they are
OUK bp9w<; av Atyo lEV ot yvwfl'lV cmobw(vuflEVOI 1tepl the present-day Albanians. I do not accept the premise of
'IAAuPIWV, w<; e'i'l<1av ot [I.24} vuv .t\A~avoL Apmv b' EYo, the argument, that the Albanians are au Illyrian [i.e., Slavic}
oub£ 1tpOO'lEflat 'tov A6yov, w<; E'{'l<1aV 'IAAuPIWV yevo<; ot people. I know perfectly well that they too came out of
.t\A~avoL '0<; flEV ouv .om' 'E1tlbaflvou Kal OU'tOI "'Pfl'lv'to Durres and moved to the more eastern lands of Europe,
E<; 'ti]v 1tpo<; ew xwpav 'tii<; Eupw1t'l<; E1t1 ElenaA(av 'tE reaching Thessaly, Aitolia, and Akarnania, and that they in-
habited many regions of Macedonia after they had con-
a'l'IKoflevol KaL E1tL At'twAlav Kal AKapvavlav, OUK oAlya
quered them, I have inferred this from much evidence and
ana 'tij<; MaKebovla<; xwpla u'l" au'tol<; 1tE1tOI'lflevol
heard it from many people. But whether they originally
<i\KOUV, olba 'tE au'to<; E1tl<naflEvo<;, a1to 1tOAAWV 'tEKflat-
came to Durres from Apulia, as some say, after they had
pOflEVO<;, KaL1toAAwv bij aK~Koa. El'tE flEV ouv a1to 'Ia1tu- crossed to the territory which they subjected to themselves,
yla<;, w<; £vlOl 'l'aO'lv, E<; 'E1tlbaflvov bla~av'te<; E1tL 'ti]v each in a different place; or whether they were originally
xwpav, ~v u1t'lyayov'to <1'l'l<1IV, aAAO<; aAAn a'l'lKov-ro, e'i'te neighbors of the Illyrians right there, around Durres, and
au'tou 1tEpl 'E1tlbaflvov 'ti]v apxijv 'IAAuPIWV OflOpOI 1tpO- set out from there, gradually taking over the lands to the
'(bV'tE<; Ka'ta ~paxu Ka'terrxov 't~v 1tpo<; £w 'tii<; 'E1tlbaflvou east of Durres, I cannot conclude with certainty. What I
xwpav, OUK EXW, o"n <1UfI~aAAWflal a<1'l'aAw<;. 'lI1 flEV

af'<pw -rw l'eVEE -rOU-rW, Tpl~aAAol -rE Katl\A~avol, aTCO -r~<; will relate is how both of these peoples, the Serbs and the
Albanians, set out from the lands by the Adriatic Sea, and
E<; -rov 'IovlOv xwpa<; Wpf'l']f'evw, -ro f'EV TCpO<; £W -r~<;
how the latter went to the eastern parts of Europe, settled
EUpWTCl']<; iOV-rE<; -ri]V -rau-rn xwpav 4\Kl']crav Kat OUK oAll'a
7 that land, and conquered a considerable realm for them-
er<plcrlv E<; -r~v apx~v uTC1']l'al'oV'ro, -ro SI: TCpO<; eerTCEpav
selves, while the former pushed to the west" so that theyal-
Wpf'l']f'EVOV crxESOV £er-rE EU~ElVOV TCOV-rOV a<plKOV'rO Kat most reached the Black Sea, and advanced from the Danube
ETCt "Ier-rpov axpl eE-r-raAla<; tAaerav-rE<;, WSE f'0l dp~erE-ral. all the way to Thessaly.
30 '0 ~aerlAEU<; aTCO ~<; -rwv LKOTClwv TCOAEW<; Wpf'l']f'EVO<;, The ki~g [Stefa~ Dusan} set out from the city of Skopje, 30
£XWV f'E9' eau-rov avSpa<; -rE -ra E<; TCOAEf'OV al'a90u<; Kat accomparued by hiS warriors and a large army. First he sub-
cr-rpa-rlav OU <paUAl']V, TCpw-ra f'ev -ra TCEpt Kaer-roplav Ka-r- jugated the region around Kastoria and then advanced into
Eer-rpt'ita-ro xwpla, Kat [I.25} ETCt MaKESovlav EAaera<;, TCA~V Macedonia, conquering all of it except for Thessalonike. 86
He pushed on to the Sava River and the region by the Dan-
etpf'l']<; -ra aAAa U<p' au-rQ TCOll']eraf'Evo<;, ETCt La~av -rE
ube, performing great deeds, and he conquered that entire
TCpOEAauvwv Kat ETCt -ra Ka-ra -rov "Ier-rpov xwpla, f'El'aAa
land. After appointing other men among his subordinates to
aTCESElKvU-rO ~pya, Kat n']v -rE xwpav -rau-rn crUf'TCaerav
govern Europe, he became very powerful. He also attacked
Ka-raer-rpE'itaf'EVO<; dXE. Ta~a<; Se ava -ri]v EUpWTCl']V -rwv the Greeks in order to take over their realm, often send-
UTCOXElplwv aAAOU<; aAAn ETCt f'El'a'rE EXWPEl Suvaf'Ew<;, Kat ing armies against the areas near Byzantion,87 and then with-
ETCt "EAAl']va<; ~AaUVE -ri]v apmv a<palpl']erOf'Evo<;, Kal TCOA- drawing and racing back home. At this time the affairs of
Aaxft ETCt -ra Ka-ra -ro BusaV'rlOv Xwpla er-rpa-rov ETCa<pEl<; the Greeks seemed to have reached a state of ultimate peril,
aTCESpaf'e -rE Kat avqwpEl. Kat ~v eTCt -rou-rou -ra 'EAA~VWV as they were undermining themselves by the indolence of
TCpal'f'a-ra TCpoerSoKlf'a eTCl -rov £crxa-rov a<pl~£Cf9al KlvSu- their royalty. I am referring to the licentious and dissolute
way of life to which the elder king Andronikos [II} had
vov, UTCO er<pwv -rE au'twv TCEpl-rpETCof'Eva Ka-ra -ri]v ~<; ~a­
turned." So the Greek people made a decision not to go out
CflAEla<; p'l'er'twvl']v, ETCt 'to aKOAaer'tOv Kat aVElf'evov ~<;
and attempt battle, but instead decided that the surest way
Slal'tl']<; AvSpovlKOU, -rou TCpEer~u'tEpoU ~aCflAEw<; <pl']f'l,
to keep safe, whatever this might mean, was behind their
'tE-rpaf'f'Evou 'tav-rn. 'E<; f'aXl']v f'ev ouv 'to 'EAAl']VlKOV walls.
l'EVO<; aTCEA9Elv Kat SlaTCElpiier9al yvWf'l']v OUK eTCOlEl'tO, Stefan raided into Aitolia and captured the city of Ioan-
erWSElv ftEV'tOl 'ta 'tElXl'] 'tpOTC<!', ih<!, i'<v SUValv-ro, aer<pa- . BH P
mna. e entrusted the region around the Axios River in
31 "HAaerE ftEv ouv Kat eTCt Al'twAlav, Kat 'Iwavvlvwv 't~v
TCOAlV ELAE. Kat 'ta f'ev Ka'ta -ri]v MaKESovlav TCEptA~lOV


Macedonia to Zarko, a man he held in the highest honor;90

the region from Serres to the Axios River to Bogdan, a good
man and an experienced warrior;'! and the region from
Serres to the Danube to two brothers, the Kral and Ugljesa,
the former being the royal wine-pourer, the latter his
groom. 92 As for the lands by the Danube, he entrusted them
to Vuk Lazar, the son of Branko;93 the area around Trikala
and Kastoria to the zupan Niko1a;'4 and those in Aitolia to
Preljub. 95 The governance of the region around Ohrid and
the land called Prilep he entrusted to Mladen, a noble man. 96
It was to these men, we have ascertained, that King Stefan
entrusted his European territories.
When the king [Stefan} died," each man remained in 32
command of the territory that had been entrusted to him,
and they agreed on a peace with each other and so avoided
hostilities. 98 But they continually attacked the Greeks and
fought a war against them, each one of them in whatever
way he could. As for Mihail, the ruler of the Bulgarians who
lived long before Stefan, he occupied the territory south of
the Danube and toward the Black Sea, and established his
royal court at Tarnovo." I have discovered from my inquir-
ies that this was how the Bulgarians, whom we call Mysians,
and the Serbs, whom we call Triballians, came to be distin-
guished from each other with regard to their names from
then on. These two peoples are regarded as entirely differ-
ent from each other and separate. But how each of them
was stripped of his realm by the barbarians and how they
were themselves defeated, my narrative williater reveal.

44 45

33 LouAa"lflav1']e; flEV OUV Eree! -rE -ra Ka-ra TIJV XEPpOV1']<YOV After SiUeyman acquired and then established himself in 33
reoAi<Yfla-ra reAiF KaAALOUreOAEWe; Ka-rt<YXE -rE Kat Ev1']UAi~E-rO, the towns of the Chersonese, except for Gallipoli, he used
them as a base for pushing into the region of Thrace and
w<Y-rE EXELV 6pflwflEVOe; areo -rOu-rWV -ra erel -rfje; ElpQ:K1']e;
subjugating it. As he had made peace with the Greeks, he
xwpia eAaUVWV Ka-ra<r-rpt<pE<Y9aL, we; -rore; "EAA1']<YLV ElpfjV1']v
marc~~~ out against the Kral and Ugljesa, the rulers of the
ereOLfj<Ya-rO, e<Y-rpa-rEUEV {I.27} eret KpaA1']v -rE Kat OuyyAt<Y1']V Serbs, who were attacking the Greeks and were causing
-roue; TpL~aMwv fjYEfl6vae;, olSfJ -rore; "EAA1']<YLV EreE-ri9Ev-ro problems because they would never leave them alone. They
Kat xaAEreot fj<Yav SLa -ro fl1']Streo-rE fj<YUXiav /iym, aAX aEl were always up to no good, making war against the Greeks.
KaKWe; reOLElV reoAEfloiiv-rae; -rOle; "EAA1']<YLV. OU-rOL flEV ouv When the Kral and Ugljda learned that Siileyman had
we; erct'J90v-ro LouAa'iflav1']v SLa~av-ra ee; TIJv Eupwre1']v ~rossed over mto Europe and was ravaging their own lands
Sn oiiv n erel-rft 'EAA1']VLKft TIJv <Y<pE-rtpav au-rwv xwpav Kat m accordance with the Greek treaty, 101 and was plundering
SLaprea~ELV fl1']SEVOe; <pELSOflEVOV, e<Y-rpa-rEUOV-rO erel -roue; them, sparing no one, they marched out against the Turks
and Jomed them in battle. They prevailed and slaughtered
ToUpKOUe;, Kal <YUfI~aA6v-rEe; flaXtl n eKpa-r1']<Yav Kat SL-
many in their assault.102 After that, when they realized how
e<pgeLpov OUK aAiroue; ev -rft ereLSpoflft· ME-ra SE -raii-ra, we;
the power of the Turks was rapidly growing and that Turks
fi<Y90v-ro ~S1'] -ra TOUpKWV repaYfla-ra -raxiJ erel fleya repo- from ASia were constantly crossing over to J'oin Siileym
Xwpoiiv-ra SuvaflEWe;, Kal -roue; areo l\.<Yiae; ToupKOUe; aiEl tili
o e pomt h
. were ~
they could besiege cities in Europe, and
SLa~aivov-rae; repo<ryive<y9aL au-r<ji, W<r-rE Kat ee; reoALOpKiav that they were advancing into the interior ofThrace both
-rWV Ka-ra TIJV Eupwre1']v reOAEWV Ka9i<Y-ra<Y9aL, Kat repo- men assembled their armies. Ugljda advanced again~t the
'iov-rae; Eret TIJv flE<Y6yaLOv -rfje; ElpQ:K1']e;, <YUVEAerOV-rO -re Turks from Serres, where he had his royal conrt, while his
<r-rpa-rEufla afl<pOnpOL. OUyyAt<Y1']e; flEV ouv wPfl1']-ro areo brother
. the Kral, who had an army from the ThraC1an. 1nte-
<lJeppwv erel -roue; TOUpKOUe;, ev ale; -ra ~a<rtAELa fjv au-r<ji' nor: joined his brother so that they could campaign together
agamst the Turks .
KpaA1']e; -re /ifla au-r<ji 6 aSeA<pOe; <Y-rpa-rEUfla fXWV a'lto -rfje;
. Siileyman happened to be besieging a town by the Tearos 34
fle<Yoyaiou -rfje; ElpQ:K1']e; <YUVtlEL -r<ji aSEA<p<ji we; <Y-rpa-rEU-
River, about seventy stades distant from Adrianople. He had
<YOflEVOL /ifla eret-roue; ToUpKOUe;. pitched many tents there made of goat skins in which th
34 '0 flEV oiiv LOUAciiflav1']e; hUXE reoALOpKwV reoAL<Yfla -rE nomadic Skythians of Asia as well as the T~rks who hav:
reap a Ttapov reo-raflov, SLtXOV areo l\.SpLavoureoAEWe; <r-ra- adopted that way of life are accustomed to camp. He was
Sloue; w<YEl e~SoflfjKov-ra, Kal O'K1']vae; flEV au-roii OUK aAiyae;
areo retAwv aiywv erefj;a-ro, ev ale; SfJ ot Ka-ra TIJv l\.<Ylav
LKu9aL -rE oL vOflaSEe; Kat TOUpKWV oL repoe; -r6VSE -rov ~iov


vigorously pressing the siege of the place. Although he was

'tE'tpaflflEvOl O'Kl']voiiv eiweaO'l, Kat btOAlOpKEl 'to Xwp[ov
busy with this, it is said that as soon as he learned the enem
1tpOcrEXWV Ev'tE'taflEvw<;. [I.28} ~la'tp[~ov'ta Se au'tov AEYE- . . hi Y
was commg agamst m, he took eight hundred men picked
'tal, w<; 'tclX'O''ta E7t1leE'tO t1tlov'ta<; ol 'tou<; 1tOAEfllOtl<;, Aa- from the best of those who were with him and marched out
~ElV 'tE t1tlAE;aflEvov avSpa<; t<; oK'taKoO'lOtl<; 'twv afl<p' at night. Creeping up to the enemy camp just as dawn was
au'tov apl<r'twv, Kal VtlK'tO<; t1tEAaO'av'ta e<; 'to 1tOAEfllWV b~eaking: he observed that the enemy had not posted sen-
O''tpa't01tESOV Ka'taStloflEVOV, w<; ~Sl'] ~ ~w<; U1tE<paLVE, Kal tries. As It was summertime, most of them were by the river
Oii'tE <ptlAaKa<; Exov'ta<; 'tou<; 1tOAEfllOtl<; ewpa au'tou<; 'tE 'ta Tearos, which provides the purest and healthiest drinking
1tOAAa 1tapa T£apov 1to'taflov, w<; iiSwp KaAAlO''toV 'tE 1tap- water, and he saw that they were careless with their weapons
EXE'taL 1tlelV Kat UYlElvO'ta'tov, eEpOtl<; SE rjv 6\pa, OAlYWPW<; and hors~s and had become lazy, because they held their op-
ponents m low esteem. So there, at a place called Cerno-
'tE 'twv 111tAWV O'<p[O'lV au'tol<; Kat 'twv l1t1tWV EXov'ta<;, oTa
men, Siileyman and his eight hundred suddenly attacked the
'tou<; 1tOAEfllOtl<; tv ouSEvl AOY'!' 1tOLOtlfl£VOtl<;, t1tt P\lO''twvl']v
S:rbs and destroyed the entire army, slaughtering them mer-
'tE'tpaflfl£VOtl<;, Ka'ta KEPfllavov' xwpov t1tEl(f1tEO'elV 'tE cilessly. Most of them fen into the river and not knowin
Ii<pvw crUv 'tot<; 6K'taKOO'lOl<; Kat Sla<peelpal crUfl1tav'ta 'tOY hi h ' g
w c way to turn, died there. VgljeSa perished in this bat-
O''tpa'tov K'tdvov'ta<; a<pElSEO''ta'ta, 6\O''tE 'tou<; 1tAdova<; au- tle, as did his brother the Kral. No one knew exactly how he
'twv 1tEO'elV t<; 'tOY 1to'taflov, Kal tv a1top1\l e'lxov'to, 01tOl died, however, so that his followers thought that he had sur-
'tpa1twV'tal YEVOflEVOl, Kat'tau'tl] Sla<peapijval. "'Evea II 'tE Vived for some time thereafter. 103
OUYYA£O'l'], a1tWAE'tO Kat 0 KpaAl'], 0 aSEA<po, au'toii tv After Siileyman had won this glorious and famous vic- 35
'tau'tl] "tfi flaxn. ''O't'!' S' /tv 'tp01t'!' Sl£<peapl'], OUK nOel tory, the city that he had been besieging earlier surrendered
and he then pressed forward to besiege Orestias which i~
ouod" O)<r'tE o'(eO'eaL 'tou, 1tpO~Kov'ta, au'ttii 1tEplElVal E'tl
called Adrianople. He happened to besiege the c;ty at har-
au'tov t1tt1tOAVV 'tlva Xpovov. vest time. He did not let up in his continual attacks on the
35 :0, oov 'tau'tl']v ~v vlKl']v EVKAEij Kat1tEpl<pavij avdAE'to walls but could not break them. While Siileyman was in this
~OtlAa"ifl(lvl']" 'to 'tE 1tOAlO'fla, il t1tOAlOPKEl1tPO'tEPOV, 1tap- predicament, they say that a young man of the city snuck
E~O'a'tO, Kat 'OpEO''tlaoa 'ti]v AoplaVOV1tOAlV KaAOtlt'£vl']v out at flight through an opening that led to the outside,
tAauvwv t1tOAlOpKEl. "'E'ttlXE SE 'n']v 'tE 1toAlV 1tEpt afll']'tov
1tOALOPKWV, Kat1tpoO'~aAAwv 'ttii 'tdXEl eafla OUK avb. 'Ev
'tOV't'!' SE Ilv'to, ~otlAa'iflavEw 'ttlXelV veav[av AEYOtlO'l 'twv
tv"tfi 1tOAEl Ka'ta 61t~v 'tlva a1to 'tij, [I.29} 1tOAEW, <pEPOtl-
O'av i';w AaeN 'tE t;lov'ta VtlK'tO, "flwv'ta wpou, Ka'ta


harvested some grain, and took it back into the city through
that opening; and he was seen doing this repeatedly by
someone in the camp. The Turk who saw where the young
man entered, followed him to the opening, tried it out, and,
after going into the city, returned to the camp. He came be-
fore SUleyman, told him about the entrance, and led him
there straightaway. His ruler tried out the entrance, cap-
tured the city in this way, and subjected it to himsel£104 After
this he pressed forward to Philippopolis and took posses-
sion of this city too through a negotiated surrender.l05 But
there is said to have been a man with this sultan who was
a most remarkable military strategist and an extraordinary
leader in battle and during assaults. Some say that he dis-
played extreme and almost instantaneous speed in the exe-
cution of most matters to which he gave his attention. 106
Siileyman fell ill and, when he was rushed back to Asia, 36
his illness became worse and he died. When he was dying,
he ordered his attendants to bury his body in the place at
the isthrnos of the Chersonese lO7 where he had previously
buried with appropriate magnificence the body of his own
son. And this was done. He also imposed taxes for the tomb
so that their priests would conduct all-night services at the
monument, and he ordered that he be buried there together
with his son. lOB
When Siileyman died, as soon as Murad, who was Orhan's 37
son and SUleyman's brother, learned of his death, he took
the janissaries and the other men of the Porte, crossed over
into Europe, and took command of the entire army. He


h to Adrianople
109 U . . and established his royaI court
<Y't"pa't"W!l a au't"ou !brav, Kat btll\SpLavou:JtOALV £Aa<Ya<; 't"a
t ere. . sing It as his base, he plundered the interior of
~a<YLA£la O[ au't"ou £:JtoL~<Ya't"O. Kat £V't"EUeEV °P!lW!lEVO<;
Macedoma, took many slaves, and enriched his soldiers. He
£Al'ft~E't"O 'tf]v -rij<; MaKESovia<; !lE<YoyaLOv Xwpav, Kat made grfts of slaves and pack animals, which he had seized
avSpa:JtoSa CTlJ)(Va aY0!lEVO<; £:JtAOU't"L~E 't"OU<; !lEe' eau't"ou from the Bulgarians and the Greeks, to all the Turks who
<Y't"pa't"Lw't"a<;, Kat ToupKwv O<YOL £:Jt' £A:JtiSL 't"ou KEpSaVaL followed him in the hopes of personal gain. It is also said
O't"LOUV El:JtOV't"O ath4i, £SwpE1't"o avSpa:JtoSo L<; 't"E Kat u:JtO- that when . SiHeyman
. realized the Serbs and BuIganans
. were
~Uy(OL<;, it ~A(<YKE't"O a:Jto Mu<Ywv 't"E Kat 'EAA~VWV. AEyE't"aL assembling against him in force, he negotiated {with the
!lEnOL Kat 't"OSE, w<; LOUAa'!lav'l<;, £:Jtel 't"E ij<YeE't"O -rij<; TpL- Greeks} and proposed that in exchange for sixty thousand
~aAAwv Kat Mu(l'wv Suva!lEw<; £:Jt' au't"ov aepOL~O!lEV'l<;' drachm~s he would give back to them the towns that he had
appropnated and would leave and go back to Asia d I'f
Kat £:JtpanEV, W(l''t"E Soefjvai ot £;aKL<; !lupia<; SpaX!la<;, th .. ,an It
e ongoing sieges of the Greek towns in Thrace. When the
w<Y't"E ImoSouvaL au't"ol<;, o<Ya 't"WV :JtOAL<Y!la't"WV :Jtpo<Y']ya-
Greeks learned this they accepted, and were prepare d to
yE't"O ot, Kat au't"ov O"XE<YeaL cmaAAan6!1EVOV £<; 't"~V l\<Yiav
make a treaty on these terms. But a major earthquake oc-
cmoxwp~<YELV 't"'lVLKau't"a :JtOALOpKouV't"a 't"a £V EJp4K u curred and demolished the walls of the cities, so that in con-
:JtoAi(l'!la't"a 'EAA~VWV. D<; oiiv :JtIJe0!lEVOL ot "EAA'lVE<; a:Jt- sequence the Turks captured most of those that they had
ESEXOV't"O 't"E Kat "'t"OL!lOL ~<Yav £:Jtt 't"OU't"OL<; <Y1tEVSE<YeaL, under siege. Once they took these towns from the Greeks
;UVEVExefjvaL <YEL<Y!l0V 't"E !lEyav Kat 't"a 't"elX'l 't"WV :JtOAEWV they were henceforth well established in Europe, and never
SLappayi'jVaL, W<Y't"E au't"ou<; eAEIV a:Jto 't"ou't"ou 't"a :JtAEW, oI<; made such an offer again. liD
£~Aauvov :JtOALOPKOUV't"E<;. Kat £A6na<; :Jtapa 't"WV 'EAA~­ After this Murad marched against the Bulgarians and the 38
Serbs. This race {I.e., the Slavs} is the most ancient and larg-
vwv 't"a :JtOA(<Y!la't"a £XE<YeaL 't"ou Aomou -rij<; Eupw:Jt'l<;, !I'lSEV
est among all the peoples in the world. They either broke
't"L 't"OLOU't"OV £-rL :JtP0<YLE!lEVOU<;.
away from the IlIyrian tribe and settled in this land
3 ME't"a Sf. 't"aii't"a ~AaUVEV £:Jtt Mll<You<; Kat £:Jtt TpL~aA- I' ~u
8 some c aim, came from beyond the Danube and the farthest
AOU<;. To Sf. yEVO<; 't"ou't"o :JtaAaL6't"a't"ov 't"E Kat !lEyL<Y't"OV 't"WV
ends of E~rope, namely from Croatia1lI and the territory of
Ka't"a 'tf]v O[KOU!lEV'lV £eVWV, EhE Imo 'IAAUPLWV !l0ipa<; the PrussIans, by the Arctic Ocean and by Sarmatia (
a:JtE<YXL<Y!lEVOV 't"au't"'lv ",K'l<YE 't"~V xwpav, e'i't"E, w<; £VLOL, called Russia), as far as the land that isuninhabitabl:~:
a:Jto 'tfj<; :JtEpav 't"ou "I<Y'tpou {l.3I} £:Jt' £<yxa't"WV -rij<; Eupw:Jt'l<;,
Imo 'tE Kpoa't"ia<; Kat I1pou<Yiwv 't"WV £<; 'tOY apK't"4'ov WKE-
avov Kat Lap!la't"ia<; -rij<; VUV ov't"w 'Pw<Y(a<; KaAou!lEV'l<;
£<Y't"E £:Jtt Xwpav 't"~v SLa 'to ¥ix0<; cLOiK'l't"OV, KaKE1eEV

52 53

account of the cold. Advancing from there, they crossed the

Wpf'1']f'EVOl Kat 'tOV 'tE "I(HpoV Ola~~~'tE<; t~t, ~~ t<; 't~V
Danube and arrived at the lands by the Adriatic Sea before
'IOVlOV Xwpav a<plKOV'tO Kat 'tau'tfl E7tl 7tOAU E7tl EVE'tOU<;
they spread out over most of it as far as the Venetians, con-
8l~KouO'av Ka'taO"tpEyaf'EVOl <l>K1']O'a~, ~h~ O~ 't~uv,a~'t[OV quering and then settling it. Or perhaps it would be bet-
f'CiAAOV £i7t£lV Iif'ElVOV, w<; EV'tE09EV a7tO 't1']<; ,E<; 'tOY Io~LO~ ter to say the exact opposite: that they moved out from the
xwpa<; Wpf'1']f'EVOl Kat "IO"tpov Ola~aV'tE<; E7tEKElVa EY_E- lands by the Adriatic Sea, crossed the Danube, and then
vono TIj<; OtKOUf'EV1']<;, OUK liv oh AEYOf'EVOV a~<paA~<; went out beyond the inhabited world. But I could not state
AEYOl'tO o<p' ~f'wv, TOO'OVOE f'EV'tOl t7tlO'~af'aL,,, W<; 'to,l<; that with any certainty. This much I do know, however, that
'VOllaO'l 'tao'ta oh 'ta yEV1'] OlEO"t1']KO'ta aAA1']AWV 1']eEO'l f'EV although these peoples have different names they do not
o ,. ,~ , '
have different customs, and it is quite clear that they speak
OUKE'tl, yAW't'tf] O£ Kat <pWvij 'tfj au'tfj XPWf'EVOl Ka'tao1']"Ol
the sam"e language even now.1I2 As they spread throughout
£iO'lV E'tl Kat VOv. D<; f'EV'tOl OlEO'7tap'taL ava 'thy Eupw7t1']v,
Europe, they settled in many places, including some parts
7tOAAaxn <l>K1']O'av, IiAAn 'tE oh Kat EV 'tlVl TIj<; IIEA07tOV~
of Lakonia in the Peloponnese, on Mount Taygetos and at
V~O'OU xwpa<; 'tE TIj<; AaKWVlKij<; e<; 'to TailyE'tOV opo<; ~a~ Tainaron, just as another group of this people settled from
e<; 'to Taivapov ¢K1']f'EVOV. TIL oh Kat a7tO L>aKia<; E7tl Wallachia about the Pindos range, extending down to Thes-
IIlvoov 'to t<; E>EnaAiav Ka9ijKOV eVOlKijO'av E9vo<;. saly.113 Both groups are called Vlachs, although I cannot pro-
BMxol O£ af'<pO'tEpOl ovof'a~ov'taL' Kat OU~ liv ,Oh .E~W Ol- vide any detailed argument for saying which of the two was
E~lEVaL, C)7tO'tEPOU<; liv 'tOU'tWV AEYOlf'l em 'tOU<; E~EPOU<; first to arrive. But I know that Serbs, Bulgarians, Illyrians
a<plKE0'9al. Oihw 8h Kav'tao9a 'tou<; 'tE Tpl~aAAOU<; Kat [here Bosnians}, Croatians, Poles, and Russians speak one
MuO'ov<; Kat 'IAAUPLOV<; Kat Kpoa'tiou<; Kat IIoAavou<; Kat and the same language. So if we must draw a conclusion
from this evidence, it would be that they are all one and the
~apf'a'ta<; TIjv auTIjv e7tiO"taf'al [EV'ta<; <pWV~V' £i O,EO,'
same people, being of the same race. But over time their
'tau'tfl 'tEKf'aLpOf'EVOV AEyElV, £'(1'] ltv 'too'tO 'to YEV~<; ,'ta~'to
customs began to deviate from each other and they settled
'tE Kat ~V Kat Of'O<pUAOV eau't<;i. 'Y7tO oe'too KaLpOU E<; 1']91'] in the different lands in which they had arrived. But nothing
'tE OlEV1']vEYf'Eva aAA~AWV Kat e7tt xwpav ilAA1']V a<plKOf'E- clear is said about them by anyone that we could present as
VOL <l>K1']O'av. OUKOOV oh AEYE'tal 7tpo<; OUOEV~V, OJO"tE reliable history.
O'a<pE<; 'tl 7tEpt au'twv [I.32} EXElV ~f'Ci<; e<; [O''top,av (<?to- The Slavs possess kingdoms both on this side of the Dan- 39
8£lKVUO'eaL. ube and beyond it, for their race is very large and very widely
BaO'iAEla f'Ev EO''tlV au'tol<; Kav'tao9a 'tOO "IO"tpou Kat extended. As a result, it would be better to conclude that
39 7tEpaV 'tE, 'to 'tE yEVO<; 'too'tO 7tOAV f'El~ov Kat e7tt 7tOAV
f'CiAAOV 8lijKOV, OJO"t' ltv f'CiAAOV eK£l9EV <paVaL KaAALOV


they set out from there and came here, and settled in the
7tap£xOV t7tt 1'aSE a<pu<£0"8at 1'0 Y£vo<; 1'OU1'O, Kat OiK~O"at
lands by ~he Adriatic Sea before crossing the Danube and
7tpo<; 1'n Ka1'a 1'OV 'IovLOV xwpq, Kat7tapa 1'OV "I<11'poV Sla-
also settling more there , rather than that they starte d out
~~vat, Kat au1'OU flanov oiK~O"al, ~ tV1'Eu8EV wPfl'1fl£VOV f~om here and arrived at those parts of the world that are
t7tt 1'a tKii ~<; OiKOllfl£V'1<; "!(ESOV 1'l aOlK'11'a a<plK£0"8at. virtually unInhabited. H4 Whether dr'1Ven by some necessIty,.
~r motivated by choice in self-defense, they now happen t~

E11'E fltv OUV avaYKn 1'lVt 7tp0'1Yfl£VOV, E"l1CE Kat £KOUO"LOV

t7t' iiflllvav O"1'EAAOflEVOV xwpt<; oi)1'W a7t' aAA~AWV hve separately from each other, as can be seen, based on the
a 7t'l'KlO"fl£Vov ~1'llXEV, w<; £<11'lV iSiiv, 1'EKflaipE0"8at flaAAOV preponderance of the evidence; or, at any rate, one may rea-
1'l, ~ Sli,,!(llPlSE0"8at SEOl iiv. 'EV1CEU8EV fltv OOV Kat 1'~V 1'£ sonably
. assert itY' Therefore some think that I't IS
. appro-
iivw MllO"lav Kat Ka1'W MllO"lav <paval KaAW<; "XElV o'{OV1'at prIate. to speak of upper Mysia and lower Mysia; upper My-
~Ia be~ng not along the upper Danube but the land that is
~VLOl, w<; 1'~V iivw MllO"lav ou ~V t<; 1'a iivw 1'OU "I<11'pOll
a1 beyond the Danube,and Y lower
St Ma . b eing
. not
ana ~V t<; 1'0 7tEpaV 1'OU "IO"1'poll ci>K'1fl£v'1v xwpav, 1'~V
ong the lower Danube but the laod on this side of th
St d1'w M1l<1laV ou ~v t<; 1'a Ka1'W 1'OU "IO"1'poll aAAa ~v
Da~ube which extends as far as Italy. I know that the Bul~
t7tt 1'ouota 1'OU "IO"1'poll Xwpav, £0"1'£ t7tt 'haAlav Ka8~KOll­ garlans, whom those who understand the better sort of
O"av. Tou<; fl£V1'Ol BOllAyapOll<;, oil<; Ka1'W MllO"lav KaAouO"lV Greek call1ower Mysians, inhabit the Danube area from the
ot iiflElVOV 'EAA'1VlKfj<; t7ta:toV1'E<; <pwvfj<;, t7tl<11'aflal Ka8- City ~fVidIn to the Black Sea, and have their royal court at
~KElV t7tt 1'ov"IO"1'poV a7to BlSlV'1<; 7tOAEW<; £0"1'£ t7tt Eil;El- the City of Tarnova.
vov 7tOV1'OV tv Tplva~'l' 7tOAEL 1'a ~aO"iAEla O"<plO"lV cmo- When the kral of Serbia, the ruler of the Triballians, es- 0

tablished Aleksandiir on the throne for them (the Bulg . 4

SELKVllfl EVOll <;. } H6 h i ' . arl-
40 TOU1'OL<; fltv OUV 67t01'E AA£;avSpov 6 ~<; LEp~la<; ans "'" t e atterreIgned In this way until he died and left his
son Sisman to reign over his people. ll7 It was against him
KpaA'1<;, 6 1'WV Tpl~anWV fjYEflwv, t<; ~v ~acrLAdav
then, that Murad, the son of Orhan, was campaigning. H~
Ka1'E<11''1O"EV, (L33} t~aO"iAE1l£ 1'E oi)1'w<;, E<; 0 Sfj 1'EAE1l1'~O"a<;
attacked the Serbs, defeated them in battle, and captnred
Ka1'£Al7tE ~ao"lA£a 1'OU Y£VOll<; 1'OV 7taTSa au1'ou LOUO"fla - t~e prosperous city of Serres. lIB He also subjugated the re-
vov, e<p' ov S~ E<11'pa1'EUE1'O Aflollpa1''1<; 6 'OPXavEw . 'E7td g~on by Rodope, performing great deeds. He entrusted the
e<; TpL~aAAou<; EO"£~aAE, Kat flaxn Kpa~O"a<; au1'WV q:,Eppa<; City of Serres 0
So.. to Shahin
' H9 a good man,marc
aod h e d agaInst
1'E U7t'1yaYE1'O 7tOAlV EuSalflova, Kat 1'a E<; 1'~V 'PoS07t'1V Isman, the kIng of Bulgaria. He joined battle with him and
Xwpla Ka1'aO"1'pnvaflEVo<; flEyaAa a7tESdKV1l1'O ~pya, Lcii'vn
1'E 1'~V q:,EPPWV £7tl1'p",va<; 7tOAlV, avSpt aya8Q, E<11'pa-
1'EUE1'O E7tt LOUO"flavov 1'OV MllO"la<; ~ao"LA£a, Kat o"llfl~aAWV


au'tou 'tao'tl] e-rpeya'to 'tE 'toil<; Mu<Yoo<;, Kal Sleq>9ElpEV 00 routed the Bulgarians,I2O but did not kill many, as they fled
1tOAAoo<; SlMwgev'ta<; E1tl 'ta E<; 'tOY "1<Y'tpov xwpia. ll.la- . to various regions along the Danube. Sisman, the son of

1tpE<Y~EV~af'EVO<; Se 1tpO<; Af'oupa'tl1v LOO<Yf'aVO;, " AA~;­ Aleksandar, then entered into negotiations with Murad, and
made a treaty and an alliance with him whose terms were
avSpou <Y1tovSa<; 'tE E1tOl~<Ya'tO Kal <rVf'f'a~iav, w~'rE 'tOY
that they would have the same friends and enemies. He also
au'tov EX9pOV 'tE Kal q>o..ov VOf'i~ElV, Kal E1tlyaf'laV 1tOl- made a marriage alliance with him by giving Murad his
l1<Yaf'Evo<; 9uya'tepa au'tou, KaAAEl 'tE t'J1tEpq>epO~<Yav Ka~ daughter, who was exceedingly beautiful and born of aJew-
a1tO 'E~pa:tSo<;, ~v ~yayE'tO 'tpw9d<;, YEvv119E,<Yav 't4' ish woman whom he had married after falling in love with
Af'0upa'tl], E;eSO'tO f'EV'tOl Kal e'tepav 't<ji 'EAA~vwv ~a~l­ her.'2' He gave another daughter to the king of the Greeks,
AEl, 0<; 'tl1vlKClu'tCl ['tou} 'EAA~vwv 'tOY Kav~ClKou~l1VO~ who at that time was reigning over the Greek people, having
aq>EAof'Evo<; 'tf]v apxiJv E~Cl<yo..EVE yevou<; 'tou EAAl1V'~OU. removed Kantakouzenos from power over the Greeks.'"
4' '0 f'eV'tOl KClv'tClKOU~l1VO<;, E1td 'tE E~Cl<yo..EVE 1tCllSCl<; Kantakouzenos had two sons: while he was reigning, he 4'

ex WV SOO, 'tOY f'EV VEW'tEpOV 'Ef'f'ClVOUij~OV ~1tEf'YEV ,E<; I1E-

sent the younger, named Manuel, to the Peloponnese to be
the governor of Mistra, 123 while the elder he established as
A01tOVVl1<YOV ~yEf'0VCl 'tou MU~119pa, 'tOY SE 1tPE<Y~U'tEpOV
king over the Greeks."4 But when loannes [V}, the son of
KCl9i<Y't11<Yl ~a<YlAECl 'tOL<; "EAAl1<YlV. 'Iwavvl1<; SE 0 'tou Andronikos [III}, came of age, he organized the Greeks and
AvSpoviKOU 1taT<;, w<; E1tl 'to lKClVOV 'tij<; ~AlKia<; ~q>i~E~O, prepared them for his accession to the throne.''' He hap-
<YUVi<Y'tCl'tO 'tE'tOL<; [I-34} "EAAl1<Yl KCll <YUVE'ti9E'tO ClU'tOlS w<; pened then to be residing in Macedonia. 126 The Greeks were
p. 34 E1tl 'tf]v ~Cl<YlAdClV aq>l;Of'EVO<;. "E'tUXE SE SlCli'tCl<; EXWV EV discontent at the king's way oflife and his overbearing man-
'tfi MClKESovi ... Ot SE "EAAl1VE<; ax90f'EVOl ~ Sl~i":1 KCll ner, and each person had his own grievance against him, so
U~PEl 'tOU ~Cl<YlAtW<;, W<; EKCl<Y'tO<; dXEV Clt'tlCl<; ClU't4', E1t- they brought the young man back from Macedonia and set
ClYOf'EVOl a1tO MClKESoviCl<; 'tOY VEClViClV E<; 'tf]v ~Cl<YlAEiClv him on the throne. When he was set on the throne, he
forced Kantakouzenos to become a monk with the name
KCl'tE<Y~<YClV'tO. D<; SE E<; 'tf]v ~MlAdClv KCl'tE<Y'tl1, ~OV
Matthaios.''' Kantakouzenos's elder son, however, the one
f'EV'tOl KClv'tClKOU~l1VOV NCl~l1PClLOV E1tOl~<YCl'tO, MCl't9CllOV
whom he had made king of the Greeks, went first to Rhodes
'tollvof'Cl. '0 'too'tOU SE 1tPE<Y~O'tEpO<; 1tClL<;, OV a1teSEl;E
and to the bishop there,'28 asking for his help and begging
~M'AeCl 'tOL<; "EAAt]<Ylv, aq>iKE'tO f'ev 't~ 1tPW'tCl E<; 'Po~OV him to restore him to the throne. He made many promises
1tClpa 'tOY 'tClO'tn ClU'tOU apXlEpeCl, SEO,f'EVO<; E1tl~OUPlCl<; to secure some aid, but obtained nothing useful. So he then
-ruXELV, KCll ESEl'tO Ka'taYElV ClU'tOV E<; 't1']V ~Cl<Y'AE'ClV., K~l
1tOAAa 1tPO"O-X0f'EVO<;, a><Y'tE 01 YEVE<Y9Cll 'tlf'wpiClV 'tlVCl, w<;
ouSev EUPCl'tO E1tl~ SELOV, 1tClpijV au'tiKCl f'E'ta 'tClU'tCl E<;


went straight to the Peloponn:ese , t a h'IS b roth er Manuel

IIeAo1tovv1']crov 1tapa 'tov aSeA<pOV ati'toii 'EflflavovijAoV,
the governor of Mistra, and lived there with him.12' Ioanne~
'tov iiTeflova 'tij, L1tap't1']" Kat 1tap' ati'toii 'tijv Slat'tav then made an alliance with Murad' who h ad recentIy crossed
E1tOlel'tO. 'Iwavv1'], flev ovv 't<jJ 'te 'Aflovpa'tn vew()"tt E, ~v o:er mto Europe, and he arranged for the daughter of the
Etipw1t1']V Sla~av'tl ;vflflaxlav E1tOl~cra'to, Kat ~v 'toii kmg of the Bulgarians to marry his own son And ik
Mvcrwv ~acrlAEw, 9vTa'tEpa ~TaTe'to E1tt 't<jJ 1tatSt ati'toii [IV} .130 She b ore him sons'. the oldest was AndranI'kron os
as and
'AVSPOVlK'l', a<p' ~, ETEVOV'tO ati't<jJ 1tCuSe" 1tpecr~u-repo, the 13lH
younger ones were Demetrios" Manuel
eo and Th
o d-
flev 'AVSPOVlKO" L'.1']fI~'tpLO' Se Kat 'EflflavovijAO, ot vew- ros. e followed M~radwherever he was campaigning, for
'tepol, Kat 8eoSwpo,. Kat el1te'to 't<jJ 'Aflovpa-rn 01tOl iiv they too were Murad s tnbutaries, and attended upon him
cr'tpa'teu1']'tat, Kat <popov 'te u1to-reAel, iifla Dv'te, 't<jJ wherever he happened to be campaigning.
After that Murad attacked Dragas, the son of Zarko,132
'Aflovpa-rn, E1tlcr1t0flevOl, D1tOl iiv cr-rpa'teUol'to.
:"ho ruled the lands by the Axios River. He conquered him 42
Me'ta Se 'taii'ta E1tt L'.paTacr1']v 'tov ZapKov ~Teflova ~v
Imposed.the payment of tribute on him, and forced him t~
EV 't<jJ 'A;l<jJ 1to'tafl<jJ Xwpav cr'tpa'twcraflevo, Ka'tecr-rpbl'a'to, follow
, with , a fixed number of cavalry wh en h e campaigned
E, <popov 'te iifla E1taTWnV, Kat ati'tovot cr'tpa'twoflevov agamst
ul' hiS h enemies,l3J After that he subJ'ected Bogan,te
d h
£1te0'9at E1tt 'tou, 1toAefllov" E, 'toO'OU'tov, 'tov apl9f1ov r er :3~ t at area, so that he too had to follow him with his
£Xov'ta i1t1tea,. Me'ta 'taii'ta [I.35} M1t0TSavov 'tov 'tau-rn army. In all thiS he performed great deeds and displayed
iiTeflova lJ1taToflevo" "'O''te ot £1te0'9at O"iJv 'tfi ati'toii O''tpa- the same sort of decency as Cyrus, the son of Cambyses. He
'tlq, a1teSel;a'to fleTaAa £PTa, e1tlelKelav flev Ka'ta ~v thus treated the rulers of the Serbs ' the Bul'
G ganans, and t h e
Kupov 'toii Kafl~uO'ew E1tlSelKvuflevo" Kat w, fle'tplw'ta'ta re,eks whom he had subjected to his authority in the most
eqUitable and liberal way.
-re Kat tAwgeplw'ta'ta 1tpoO'<pepoflevo, 'tol, U1t' au'tov
,When Murad had ~pent some time in Europe and was
Tevoflevol, iiTefl6O'l Tpl~aAAwv Kat MvO'wv Kat Sij Kat
still fightmg agamst his enemies there, news reached him
'EAA~VWV. that the chiefs of the barbarians in Asia had made an alli-
43 Ka'ta flev ovv ~v Etipw1t1']V Sla'tpl~ov'ta O'vXV ov 'tlva ance and had provoked a large part of his territories there to
Xpovov Kat 1tpO, 'tou'tov, £'tl Sla1tOAefloiiv'ta a<plKe'to rebel against him. They had assembled as large an army as
aneAla , 'tou, tv -rf\ 'AO'lq ~ap~apwv iiTeflova, an~AOl, they could, and had seriously disrupted his affairs in Asia'
O'uvgeflEvov, a1toO''tijO'al 'te a1to 'Aflovpa-rew Xwpav OUK they would not stop taking over his lands and besieging hi~
OAlT1']v au'toii, Kat au'tou, O''tpa'tlav crDAAe;av'ta" DO'1']V
ijSuvav'to, flaAlcr-ra 'tapa;al 'te 'ta EV -rf\ 'AO'lq 1tpaTfla'ta
ati'toii, Kat Xwpa, 'tij, eav'toii 'ta fI£v Ka'taO''tpe<poflevov ,

60 6,

-ca Sf. Kat nOALOpKotiv-ca<; OUK Imeval. 'End -co S~ -caXLcr-ca

cities.1J5 As soon as he learned this, he crossed over and set
about preparing himself against these rulers, going to the
t"",9no, SLa~a<; '(o-co tnt -cou<; ~yq.lova<; napacrKwacraf'o-
greatest possible lengths and exerting himself to the fullest
vo<;, Kat t<; -ca ~crxa-ca nElpacrof'ovo<;, ii £Suva-co Kpa-cLcr-ca,
in his struggle against them. He found them camped in My-
W<; SLaf'axouf'Ovo<;. Eupwv Sf. -cou-cou<; £v Mucrl,. cr-cpa-co- sia and drew up his army for battle. As he had a great deal of
noSwof'tvou<;, napo-ca;a-co £<; f'ax']v. Ola Sf. f'aX,]<; £f'- experience in battle, he contrived the following stratagem.
ndp'll nOAAaxfi yovof'tv'll £f'of'']Xav']-co -COLOVSO. Atynat It is said that he knew, because it was summertime, that a
yap, w<; £nEt 9tpou<; ~v wpa, Kat ~nlcr-ca-co f'O~,]f'~pla<; seasonal wind would blow from the west at noon. He thus
£nLyLYV0f'tV']<; £nL1tVoucroLV h']crlav iivof'ov ano ocrnopa<;, had his army position itself with their backs to that direc-
-cau'"Cl] Sf. napoyyuwv -eft cr-cpa-c,,~ -co f'tpo<; £KElVO Ka-ca tion and he joined battle in the late morning: he engaged
vw-cou Aa~ElV, £<; f'aX,]v -co Ka9lcr-ca-co nopl nA~90ucrav
with the enemy and fought fiercely. The battle was hanging
in the balance, however, when Murad is said to have climbed
[I.3 6} Ityopav, Kat cruf'f'l;a<; -col<; nOAof'loL<; tf'axo-co lcrxu-
up on a hill there and to have shouted this loudly to his men.
pw<;. MaX,]<; Sf. af'q>olv lcropponou yovof'tv,]<; £nl A6q>~v
"My children! Soldiers! Remember who you are, what you
-cLva au-coti nou Aeyo-caL ava~ijvat, Kal q>wvijcrat f'tya -COL<; have been through in Europe, your fighting for all these
eau-coti -caSo. "IIalSo<; £f'Ot cr-cpa-cLW-Cat, f'tf'v']cr90 uf'wv years! So why are you falling back? Don't you know that all
au-cwv ocra £nE1tOV90L-C0 £v -eft Eupw1t!l, -cocrati-ca 1'-c,] SLa- will be ours, if only we can overcome them? Come on now
nOAOf'~tiV-CO<;. Tl S~ 1J1t0XWPEl-COj OUK '(cr-co, w<; -ca nav-ca tq>' and follow me, because if you don't follow me right now, the
~f'1v 1'cr-caL, -cou-cwv nopLyovOf'tvOL<;j 'l\yO'tE S~ £f'Ot £nocr90, enemy are going to overpower us in no time." After saying
w<; ijv f'~ ap-clw<; £n,]cr90, -caxu nopLocrof'tvwv -cwv nOAo- this, the sultan charged straight at the enemy on his horse
f'lwv ~ f'a<;." Tati-ca dnov-ca -cov ~acrLAta £AauvoLv 6f'~cro and hurled himself into the heart of their throng. And at
that moment the wind starting blowing from behind his ar-
-c<\i Y1t1t'll £nt -cou<; nOA0f'lou<;, £<; -co f'tcrov cr-c1q>0<; £f'~aA.­
my's back right into the face of the enemy, and disconcerted
Aov-ca' Kat au-clKa £1tLnvtov-ca -cov iivof'ov ano vw-cou -eft
them. At the same time, his men also encouraged each other
cr-cpa-cLq £v0;xA0lv tnt npocrwnov -cou<; £vav-clou<;, Kal ou-cw<; and pushed forward. So they managed to overcome the en-
iif'a aAA~AOL<; SLaKoAwcraf'tvou<; Kat £<; -co npocr90v lov-ca<; emy at last and, putting them to flight, gave chase with all
Kat ~Lal;0f'tvou<; -ctAO<; S~ -cpetacr9al -co Kat £nLSLWKELV ava their might and destroyed them. It is said that most of the
Kpa-co<; anoAotiv-ca<; -cou<; noAof'lou<;. Kal SLaq>9apijvat f'EV army perished there, but the enemies who escaped went off,
AEyO-Cat -ca nAElw -coli cr-cpa-Couf'a-co<; au-coti, SLaq>uyov-ca<; each going to his own home. They sent envoys and asked
Sf. -cou<; nOAof'lou<; 0'(Xw9aL anaAAa-c-cof'Ovov £Kacr-cov
tnt -ca eau-coti. 'Ev-cati9a SLanpEcr~wcraf'tvou<; crnovSa<; -CE

62 63

for terms and Murad agreed to them, on the condition that

they follow him wherever he led his army in the future.
While Murad was spending time in Asia, going around, 44
p. 36 arranging his affairs in Asia, and making this treaty with the
chiefs of the Turks, SavCl, his eldest son, had been left be-
hind in Europe to look after his realm. If anything bad or
dangerous were to happen concerning his realm, his task
was to deal with this and thus hold it securely for him. But
Savcl now brought together, as best he could, the leading
men in Europe, treated them very well, and won them over.
He also opened discussions with Andronikos, who was the
eldest son of the king of the Greeks and whose father had
gone off to Murad, the son of Orhan, for the war in Asia
against his chiefs. Andronikos had been left behind in Byz-
antion and entrusted with the kingdom. Savcl approached
him and persuaded him that they should rebel against their
fathers and so both seize their fathers' realms. IJ6 They would
have the same friends and enemies and, if someone should
oppose them, they would be there to defend each other
with all possible force. As this seemed a good thing to do,
they made a pact and took oaths, binding themselves firmly
to this plan, which seemed as if it would be the safest thing
for them both. They did these things quite openly and pre-
pared to secure themselves in the case that Murad should
come to Europe to fight back.
As soon as these events in Europe became known, Murad 45
summoned Ioannes, the king of Byzantion, and said this to
him. "King of the Greeks, I have just now received news

sent by some of my most trusted men in Europe that my son

Savcl was forced by your son into plotting something terri-
ble with him against me. But how could your son have done
something so stupid without your knowing anything about
it? Not only did he make overtures to my son, but also got
the boy to actually agree to this. How could anyone imag-
ine that such things have happened without your approval?
However, if you impose whatever punishment I decree on
your son, and do not diminish it, then I will know for sure
that there is no reason for me to suspect that you had a hand
in this. But if you have other ideas and are not willing to in-
flict on your son the same punishment as it seems proper
for me to impose on my own, then you should know that
you yourself will then be considered guilty." The king of the
Greeks replied as follows: "May you never again have cause
to accuse me of being guilty of this crime, 0 sultan. For even
if it is my son who you say has started this business, I could
not possibly know less about it. It will become perfectly
clear to him that I am your friend and a supporter of your
regime. If you order me to punish him, I will not be crazy
enough to show any favors in imposing punishment on
someone who has made himself such a bitter enemy and op-
ponent to us both." After Ioannes had said this to the sultan,
Murad decided to impose the same punishment on both
sons, as both fathers were accusing their sons of the same
thing: each of them was to have his eyes gouged out.
When this was decided, Murad advanced on Europe 4 6
leading the largest possible army. He crossed over into Eu-
rope and moved against his son, having learned where he

was encamped with the son of the king of the Greeks Th

tnuvSavn:o ain:ov tver'rpa'ro:reeSwoflevov criJv 'r<i> 'EAA~VWV
had assembled the. army of Europe and were encampe. d atey a
~aerlAEW<; :realSL 01 S~ 'rb Eupw:re'l<; ""pa'rwfla erUAAE~aV­ place near ByzantlOn called Pikridion,137 They reckoned that
're<; t""pa'ro:reeSeuov'ro tv xwpl'l' 'rlvl Bu~av'rlou 'ra IIl- they had assembled most of the Greeks and the leading men
KPlSlou KaAouflEV'l', Or S~ 'rOU<; 're "EAA'lva<; afla Kal 'roil<; fro~ Europe, Savcl, the son of Murad, was encamped by a
apl""ou<; a:re' Eupw:re'l<; eruAAeyeerSal ot w<; flaAler'ra ravme that acted as a defensive wall, waiting for his father
eAoyl~ov'ro, 'Ev'rauSa S~ t:rel xapaSp<:< 'rlvl w<; t:rel XapaKl to launch an attack against him. When Murad reached th
ter'rpa'ro:reeSeue'ro Laou~ii<; Afloupa'rew :reca<;, 'rbv :rea'rEpa place where his son and the Greeks were encamped, he dre;
t7Clov-ra ot t:relSexoflevo<;, Afloupa'r'l<; St w<; tV'rauSa u~ his army s~ as to engage the enemy at once, But the ra-

Ka'reAa~e 'rbv :recaSa au'rou Kal 'roil<; "EAA'lva<; ""pa'ro:ree-

vme caused him difficulty, so he had to encamp as well. It is
said that, when they had the chance, some of the Greeks en-
SWOflEVOU<;, eruv'ra~aflevo<; E:reilel w<; eruflfll~wv aU'rlKa 'rol<;
gaged Murad's soldiers and routed them. Because it seemed
tvav'rlol<;, D<; St lmo -rij<; xapaSpa<; SleKwAue'ro, E""pa'ro-
a bad place to engage the enemy in battle, Murad moved
:reeSeUcra'ro Kal au'ro<;, Luvt~aAAov, EVexWp£l, 'EAA~VWV forward at mght toward the edge of the ravine opposite the
'rlvE<; 'rol<; 'rou Afloupa'rew ""pa'rlw'ral<;, Kal hpEtav'ro camp, When he was very close to the enemy camp so that
'rou'rou<;, W<; Atye'ral, D<; St E<palve'ro XaAe:rew<; "X£lV 'rbv he could easily be heard, he called each man by ~am .
I d . em
xwpov tKelVOV flam eruvatal 'rol<; :reoAefllol<;, vuK'rb<; EAa- a ou VOIce, praising the deeds of each one who had ever
era<; tvav'rlov 'rou er'rpa'ro:reeSou t:rel 'rb xerAo<; -rij<; xapaSpa<;, done anythmg noble or valiant, After praising each one, he
w<; tyyu'ra'rw yevoflevo<; 'rou er'rpa'ro:retSou 'rwv :reoAefllwv, rod~ to the h~, of the ravine and, it is said, spoke the fol-
~wmg words, Men! Heroes! Why have you gone and aban-
w<; pqer'ra t:reaKouol'rO, <pwvij 're fleyaAn E7ClKaAouflevo <;
oned me, your father? For some reason you have left the
6vofla",,1 avSpa eKaer'rov, W<; eUKAet~wv afla 'rwv :ree-
teacher who taught you and turned to his son, who is still
:repaYflevwv eKCt""'l', e'l 'r'l' <plAO-rlfloV :rew:reo-re ~ ayaSbv
Immature, When he falls into my hands I will tak hi d
;uv'lvexS'l yeveerSal, Me'ra Se, eu<p'lfll~ov'ra EKacr'rOV, h' h' , e man
w Ip ~m, but I will inflict no worse injury upon the young
:reapa'ro Xe1Ao<; S(l:re:reeuov'ra Atye'ral t:reel:reelV 'rOlaS£. {I.40} man, If mdeed you decide ' as you may, t h at It
.,IS possible
. to do
"AvSpe<; ijpwe<;, :reot S~ otxeerSe, a:reoAl7COV-re<; tflE 'rbv this to him alone,I3S However, if you want to make a trial of
:rea'rtpa uflwv; IIou 'rou SlSacrKaAou -rij<; SlSacrKaAia<; uflwV
a<peflevo, t:rel:recaSa hpa:reeerSe hl a:reaAov iSv'ra, 6v, t:reelSav
t<; Xelpa tfl~v a<piK'l'ral, eruAAa~wv fla""lywerw, ouStv 'rl
iiAAO AUfl'lvaflevo<; 'rbv veaviav, av flev'rO' floVOV ufllv ~ou­
AOflevOl<; E;ij tKelVOV 'rOlau'ra :reo liieral; "Hv SE aAAo


n£lp WfI£VOl1:ij<; yvwfI!,]<; eflou e8£A!']1:£ Ola flaX!,]<; i£vaL, 1<11:£ my resolve by going into battle, you should know that noth-
ing good will come of it for you in the future. So come over
oi] w<; ufllv ouotv UYle<; e<Y£l1:al1:0U AOL1COU. Ll.£upo oi] ouv
here to me. Do not feel dishonored in taking advantage of
ioV1:£<; nap' i] flii<; fI!']o' 61:LOUV unoAoyi~£<y8£ atoo1 -rij<;
:"y g~od n~ture,139 or feel shame at the whipping of a child
i] fI£1:£pa<; ap£-rij<;, Kal uno naloo<; fla<11:lyia aioxUv£<Y8£
III this fashLOn when it is done to good purpose. I swear by
1:OlaU1:a enl1:I]0£VOV1:£<;. Kal enoflWfll1:0V -rl]v ap)(1']v -n'J vo £ hIm who entrusted him with my realm that I will do no seri-
eflol e1tl1:pe",av1:a fI!,]o£va fI!,]otv £1:l aV~K£<Y1:0V 1:l epya<Y£- ous harm to anyone else."
creal." It is said that SavcI's soldiers were filled with shame when 47
47 Tau1:a aKou<YaV1:a<; 1:ou<; Laou~£w <Y1:pa1:lW1:a<; ato£<Y8ij- they heard the sultan's voice, for he spoke more menacingly
vai 1:£ A£Y£1:aL -rl]v ~a<YlA£w<; cpwv~v, CPWVelV 1:£ yilp Ola1:0- than anyone, and they feared for their own safety, because
pov flaAl<Y1:a oi] av8pwnwv, Kaln£pl <Ycpwv aU1:wv O£Ol£VaL, they well knew his good fortune and virtue. So they were
-rl]v ""X'1v aU1:ou Kal ap£-rl]v t~£1tl<Y1:afl£vou<;. Kal oihw won over and made a deal among themselves regarding what
had to be done. That night they got away from the camp
n£l<Y8£v1:a<;, w<; eoioo<Yav <Ycpi<YlV aU1:01<; AOYOV enl1:<lJ y£-
each one leaving in whatever way he could. Most went t~
YOV01:l, VUK1:0<; eKefvI]<; cL1CaAAa<Y<YoV1:o tK 1:0U <Y1:pa1:o-
Murad's camp and appealed to him by saying that they had
.n£oou, imlOV1:£<;, n EKa<11:'I' npo£xwp£l, 1:ou<; oe nAefou<; been forced to join SavcI's camp. When SavcI realized that
ilCPlKOfl£vou<; napil 1:0 Afloupa1:£w <Y1:pa1:on£oov napaL- his s~ldiers were d~serting his camp, he took off for Didy-
1:£1<Y8aL, w<; ilvayKn npo!']v£Yfl£VOl <YUV£A£YI]<Yav t<; 1:0 motelchon WIth hIS leading men, whom he thought were
Laov~£w <11:pa1:on£oov. {I.4I} Ai<Y8ofl£vo<; oe 0 Laou~ij<; most loyal toward him. He was also followed by the youths
ilnoolopa<YKOV1:a<; 1:0U <11:pa1:on£oou 1:ou<; <11:pa1:lW1:a<; au- who had been most eager to join him in this war, and he
1:0U, <rOv 1:01<; api<11:Ol<;, 01<; ewpa £uvOU<11:a1:0l<; aU1:<lJ, seemed just as eager to accept them in turn, as heartily as he
4JX£1:0 tnl 1:0 Ll.lOUflO1:£lXOV, <Yuv£nl<Y1t0fl£vWV Kal 1:WV
When Murad learned this, he advanced as fast as he could 48
naiowv a<Yol t<; 1:ovO£ o[ <Yuv£nlAa~ofl£vwv 1:0V nOA£flov w<;
and besieged the city. SavcI's men were pressed by hunger,
np o8u fl o1:a1:a, Kal <Yuflnpo8ufloufI£vo<; tOoK£l 1:0V1:WV
as they had not brought grain into the citadel in advance
aV1:lAa~e<y8aL, eOoK£l tpP wfl£v£<Y1:a1:a. and so quickly ran out. They surrendered themselves to be
48 ITu80fl£VO<; oeAflOUpa1:!,]<; ijAauv£ Ka1:ilnooa<;, Kal tno- treated in whatever way he decided. Thus Murad starved
AlOpK£l1:l]V noAlV. O[ Oe <rOV 1:<lJ Laou~fi Alfl<lJ nl£~ofl£VO',
a1:£ <Yi1:0U OUK el<Y£v£X8{v1:O<; e<; 1:l]v aKponoAlv npo1:£pOV
Kal ev ~paX£l enlA£AOL1C01:0<;, nap£oioo<Yav <Ycpii<; aU1:ou<;
,I Xpij<Y8aL, w<; CtV flaAl<11:a aU1:<lJ OOKoi!']. AflOUpa1:!,]<; Oe -rl]V


the city into surrender and captured his son SavcI. He took
1tOAlV Alfl4i 1tapa<1't1']eraflEVo<; £lAE -rev 1ta18a ati-rov Laov-
him and cut out his eyes. He ordered that the rest be tied
sfjv, Kal Aa~",v E;tKO"'E -r", oq>6aAfI'" ati-rov. Tou<; 8£ up and thrown headfirst over the precipice into the river
l\Uov<; KEAEveral ati-rov 8E8EfI£vov<; E1tl KEq>aA~v Ka-r" from the city. He set up his tent by the river and watched as
KP1']flvOV Ka-rEvEX6fjval a1to -ri'j<; 1tOAEW<; E<; -rOV 1to-ra fl ov. the leading men were brought to the precipice in twos and
Tov 8£ EcrK1']vwfI£vOV 1tap" -rOV 1to-raflov Kal 6EWflEVOV E1tl- threes, and burst out laughing as though at a hare that rushes
q>EpoflEVOV<; -rou<; -rE itpl<1'tov<; E1tl KP1']flvOV crUv8vo -rE l\fI~ about when it is being chased by hounds. He ordered his
Kal crUV-rPEl<; itvaKarxaSElv w<; Emer1tEU80v-ra Kverl Aayw own leading men, who were the fathers of the youths who
E1t,8,WKOver" 1t",8a<; -rWV 1tap' eav-r4i itpler-rwv crUv -r4i La- had followed SavcI, to kill their sons with their own hands.
It is said that when two of them did not want to kill their
ovsn it1tlOna<;, EKEAwerE 'rOu<; 1ta-rtpa<; ati-rwv ati-r°XElpl
sons, he gave orders to kill them along with their sons. He
8laxp~eraCT6al. buo 8£ -rou-rWV AEYE-rat, fI~ E6EA~erav-ra<;
maintained that the sons had gone over to SavcI with their
-rou<; 1t",8a<; ati-rwv it1toK-rclvat, ati-rou<; -rE l\fla "VEAclv Kal
fathers' consent, and that they had done so because they
-rou<; 1t",8a<; ati-rwv KEAEVerat itveAclv. fvwfln 8' Eq>aerKE were playing both sides. After he had done this, he sent a
-rWV 1ta-rtpwv itq>lKEer6at 'rOu<; 1ta18a<; E1tl -rOV Laovsfjv, Kal messenger to the king of the Greeks [loannes V} ordering
itq>lK£er6al -raAav-revofltvwv ati-rwv [I.42} Kal E1t' "flq>onpa: him to do the same to his own son, as they had agreed at the
Tav'!:a 8£ 1tol1']eraflEvov, Em-rE1Aal 1tEfI",av-ra l\yyeAov, -r'l' start. And they say that the king of the Greeks took his son
'EAA~VWV ~aerlAcl -rov 1ta18a -r" ati-r" -rou-r'l' 1tOlfjeral, n [Andronikos IV} and poured scalding vinegar over his eyes.
eruvt6e-ro ati-r4i ~v itpx~v. KitKclvov 8t q>aCTl Aa~ov-ra -rOV And that was how this war ended.
1t",8a ati-rov Ii;el stonl Ka-rEvEyKal -r", oq>6aAflw. Ton
After that, when Manuel, the son of the king of the 49
Greeks, had been entrusted with the governorship of
flEv oiSv oihw<; EnAEu-ra itflq>l -rov8e -rev 1toAeflov.
Therme, the city in Macedonia that is also called Thessalo-
49 Me-r" 8£ -rav-ra w<; 'EflflavovfjAO<; 0 -rwv 'EU~vwv ~a-
nike, he was exposed as plotting against the city of Serres
erlAEw<; 1t"'<; eEpfl1']v ~v EV MaKe80vll}, eeereraAovlK1']V after taking on a supervisor for that area, and he was also
emKaAovflevl]v, E1tl-rp01teUwv 8,t6vve, Kal -rlVO<; Aa~oflevo<; planning a rebellion against Murad. l4O So the latter sent
E1tler-ra-rov itflq>l ~V8E ~v xwpav -rn $EppWV 1tOAel E1tl- Hayreddin, a very powerful man, whose grasp of military af-
~ovAeuwv MAW, 1tpo<; 8£ Kal vew-repa 1tpanwv 1tpo<; Aflov- fairs was second to none among his men,141 with orders to
pa-r1']v, Em1tefl",a<; Xapa-rlv1']v l\v8pa fI£v fleya 8vvaflEvo,:, attack Thessalonike and subject it to his authority and so
8,,, crUveerlv 8£ -r" E<; 1tOAEflOV ou8evo<; -rwv 1tap' tav-r'l' capture King Ioannes's son. Hayreddin set about his task l42
AemoflEvov, E1t£-rEAAE ~v eepfl1']v ati-r4i 1tapaer-r1']eraflevov
i'jKElV, l\yov-ra -rov-rov ~aerlAtw<;'Iwavvov 1t",8a. Xapa-rlv1']<;


Manuel, however, realized that Hayreddin would quickly

take the city, l43 as conditions in the city were dangerously
unstable and were not going to turn out well for him, for the
citizens had grievances against him and had less respect for
him than they should. So he quickly made his escape by sea,
intending to go to his father. But when his father sent word,
publicly telling him to go elsewhere to seek refuge, for he
could no longer take him in out of fear of Murad, Manuel
realized then that he had to go to Murad himself and beg
forgiveness for anything that he had perforce plotted to do
against his interests,144
When Murad learned that the king's son had come to 50
him, he admired Manuel for his courage. He received him
just as he had done when he had come to him on previous
occasions, and spoke with him. He paused briefly and then
interrogated him. After that, he smiled as he said the follow-
ing to him. "King's son, I know full well that you have justly
been discovered to be intriguing for the territory that is now
mine but used to be yours, but I also know that, whatever
you plotted, you were plotting justly. I am offering you im-
mediate forgiveness for noW. But see to it that you are never
again caught plotting anything like this against me or my
realm. You are now convicted of having acted maliciously
against both me and the God who protected me from this.
It will be better for the affairs of Europe to be under our
controL"145 "But yes," said Manuel, "I came to you even
though I realize that God himself seems to be on your side,
arranging matters in the best way, and I am guilty of such a
great infraction. You can thus deal with me appropriately,

74 75

flO! btl ere Ked 'ti]v cri]v ~acrlAdav." Ou'tw Se KalAfloupa'tYJ<; given my crimes against you and your throne." So Murad
forga~e him this crime, and sent him back to his father, in-
eruv£yvw 'tE au't<!' 'ti]v aflap'tlav, Kat 't<!, 7Ca'tpt au'toii
structmg the latter to receive his son. Ioannes did as he was
£7Cl7C£fl7CWV £K£AEUE 'tov 7CaT8a au'toii SeXEer9al" " Se £7CoIEl
told and allowed his son back into Byzantion. 146
't£, iJ eVE'teME'to, Kat 'tov 7CaTSa au'tIKa [r.44} 7CpoerlE'to e<;
Hayreddin took over Thessalonike and enslaved the reb-
Bu/;av'tLOv. ~n
elS. I47 He was held high esteem by Murad, although previ- 51
51 Xapa'tlv'l<; Se 'tijv 'tE 8£Pfl'lv 7CapaAa~wv Kat 'tOU<; ;uv- ously too he had nsen high in his service and wielded great
a<pECf'tw'ta<; SouAweraflEvo<; fI£ya Eu80KlflEl7Cap' Afloupa'tU, power. Many worthwhile stories are told about Hayreddin,
Kat 7Cpoer9Ev fI£ya<; c;,v 7Cap' au't<!' Kat fI£Yler'tov 8uvaflEvo<;. about how he would advise Murad on what needed to be
i\£YE'tal flev 7CEpt Xapa'tlvEw 7CoAAa a;la AOyOU, w<; Imo'tl- do~e and accomplished great deeds in both Asia and Europe

9EfI£vOU Afloupa'tU 'ta Seov'ta Kat 'ta 7CAdw u1t'lp£'tOiiV'tl while

M serving
. . him . in most matters . Some of h'IS sayrngs
. to
urad m diSCUSSIOns of judgment and strategy are recorded
Sla7CpaTI£Cf9al flEyaAa aTIa Ka'ta 'tE Aerlav Kal Eup W7C'lv'
It is thus said that he once asked , "0 Sultan M ura, d h ow.
Kat AOYOl Se au'toii 7CpO<; Afloupa't'lv a7Coflv'lfloVEUOV'tal,
should one best conduct a campaign so as to most easily ac-
£pl/;ov'to<; au't<!' 7CEpt eruv£erEW<; Kat er'tpa't'lyla<;. 'Epofl£vOU ~omphsh ~ne's goals?" It is reported that Murad answered,
yap au'toii AeYE'tal, "Afloupa't'l W ~acrlAEii, 7CW<; ltv Si] BY,;lannmg ,:ell and treating the soldiers as well as possi-
flaAler'ta er'tpa't'lyfi, EW<;, ltv ~OUAOl'tO ot YEv£er9al, 'tOU'twv ble. Hayreddm asked again, 'And how do you Ian
p,.Slw<; e7Cl'tuyxavOlj" Tov St <paval A£y£'tal, "£ii 'tE er'toxa - erl )" H .d "If P prop-
y. .e sal '. you use the right calculations and do not
/;OflEVO<;, Kat 'tou<; Cf'tpa'tlw'ta<; W<; olov 'tE flaAler'ta EUEP- make mistakes m them." At this point it is said that Hayred-
Y£:'t'wv." Tbv 8£ EnavepeO'eal, "Kat nw~ ltv 8~" el7tov'ta dm'ghlaughed loudly and said to him , "0 Suit an M ura, d you
"er'toXa /;Eer9al op9w<;;" Tov St <paval, "et flE'tpWV 'ta etKO'ta ml t seem to. be most wise. But how could one make these
calculatIOns without being present to actually observe both
fli] er<paAA'l'tal 7CEpt 'ta flt'tpa." 'Ev'taii9a Kayxacral A£YE'tal
what needs to be done and its opposite, and thereby avoid
Xapa'tlv'lv 7Cavu fI£ya, Kat e7CEl7CELV, "Afloupa't'l W~aerlAEii,
theh. latter while choosing to pursue the £0 rmer, and so
erw<ppovciv aplCf't' ltv SOKol'l<;' ITw<; S' ltv flE'tpol'l, ltv fli] ac leve what is necessary?" In this way he hinted that it was
7Capwv £Ka'tEpa 9EWpii, 'ta 't£ S£ov'ta Kat 'tavav'tia 'tou'twv, speed that accomplished great deeds, more so than other
Kat 'twv flev a7C£xol'tO, 'ta Se au't<!' flE'taSlwKol £AoflEVO<;, good qualities, and that there is nothing that a general
<p9avwv 't£ 'tou'twv 'ta Seov'ta;" ~la 'taii'ta Se 'taxu'tij'ta should practice more than speed and swift application, and
aiVlTIoflEVO<; 7CpO<p£p£lV fI£ya [r.45} 'twv ItAAWV aya9wv e<;
'to flEyaAa Ka'tEpya/;Eer9al, w<; ouSev aAAo 7CpO 'taxu'tij'to<;
't£ Kat =ouSij<; 'tov yE er'tpa'tl]yov xpijVal e7Cl't'l8EUElV, Kat


reav"taxou reapayev6 f'eVOV, oreol ltv OEOl ren reapeival. that he should be everywhere that he has to be. Conversing
Tau"ta f'tv ouv Ol£lAeYf'EVOU, aAA~Aol, cmoOel1CVU<Yeal about such matters with each other, they showed that they
did not lack Judgment about what was required.
yvwf'a, ou "tou oeov"to, eAAmei,.
Murad would, then, travel everywhere with the greatest
52 Af'oupa"tY], f'tv ouv O'lWV areav"taXii w, "taX'O""ta, OEOU,
speed, filling every place with fear and apprehension. He re-

"te EreA~pou Ilreav"ta Kal <puAaKij" Xapa"tlvn XpWf'eVO, l~ed on Hayreddin, who served him superbly in all things, as-
ureY] pe-rn "t<l' reav"ta apl<Y"t'!! Kal E, "to <YUAAaf'~av£lV au"t<ji sIstmg hIm and supporting him in any matter that was at
Kal 6nouv ;UVeTClAa~E<yeal, Kal eTCl"ty]Odw, EXOV"tl e, "ta hand; he was extremely useful to him and contributed in no
f'aAl<Y"ta, Kal OUK oAlya e, -rijv apmv au"t<ji reoly]<Yaf'Ev'!! small way to the creation of his realm in Europe. Thus Mu-
Ka"ta -rijv EupwreY]v. 'YreY]yaye"tO f'ev ouv "to<YaOe levy] Kal rad subjected many peoples and rulers in Europe to the sta-
~yef'0va, "tOU, ev"til Eupwren e, <popwv "te areaywnv, Kal tus of tributaries and made the kings of the Greeks attend
<YUVere0f'Evou, au"t<ji, oreOl ltv O""tpa"teUOl"tO, 'EAA~VWV ~a<Yl­ him in arms whenever he went on campaign. However, he
favored Manuel over all the Greeks. He also had with him
Aei, £lXE ol <Y"tpa"teU0f'EVOU,. 'Ef'f'avOU~A,!! Oe ~pE<YKe"tO
the king of the Bulgarians; Dragas, the son of Zarko;l48 Bog-
f'aAlO""ta Oij ;uf'reav"twv 'EAA~VWV. ETXe Oe Kal "twv Mu<Ywv
dan, who ruled over Rodope;149 and, in Europe, other rul-
~a<YlAEa, repo, Oe Kal t.paya<YY]v "tOY ZapKou rea10a Kal
ers of the Serbs, Greeks, and Albanians. In the end he was
Mreoyoavov "tOY -rijv 'Po06reY]v Ka"teXOV"ta KalIlAAOU, "tou, marching to war with all of them fighting under him, and at-
ev -rfi Eupwrcn ~yef'0va, Kal Tpl~aAAwv Kal 'EAA~vwv Kal tended by the Asian rulers as well. I also stated earlier that
hl~avwv. Tou"twv Oe imav"twv Ka"te<Y"tpa-reuf'EvwV, Kal the Greeks were defeated and enslaved by Murad, the son of
"twv tv -rfi A<Ylq ~yef'0VWV au"t<ji <YUVereof'tvwv e,
"tou, Orhan, but I say all this now byway of a brief reminder.
reoAEf'OU, ijAauVe Oe -reAeU"tWV. Xl, f'tv ouv "EAAY]ve, Ka-re- When Ioannes {V} had taken the throne, he forced Kan- 53

<Y"tpaf'f'Evol eOeOOUAWV"tO {I.46} Af'0upa"tn "t<ji 'OPxaVeW, takouzenos, who had previously reigned over the Greeks, to
Kal rep6-repov f'OlOeO~Aw"tal. Kal vuv Oe "to<YaOe ltv AtyOl"tO become a monk. 150 Ioannes saw that the power of the Turks
was greatly increasing, and sailed to Italy. He turned first to
e, ureof'vY]<YlV [Kavw,.
the Venetians but received no help worth mentioning, so he
53 'Iwavvy], yap ereel"te Ka"tE<YXe -rijv ~a<YlAelav, <YUVeAa<Ya,
borrowed money with the intention of traveling to the king
KaV"taKou~Y]vOv "tov repo<YeeV ~a<YlAeUOv"ta 'EAA~VWV e,
-rijv Na~Y]palwv olaL"tav, eVeWpa ye"ta TOUpKWV repaYf'a"ta
erel f'Eya Xwpouv"ta ouvaf'eW" areEreA£U<YeV e,'haAlav. Kal
repw"ta f'tv erel'Eve"tou, "tpareof'eVO" eTClKoupla, f'ev OUOEV
"tl a;la, Myou "tuxwv, eoavel<Ya"to xp~f'a"ta, ev v<ji EXWV erel


'tOV raAa'tLa, ~a<rLAEa altL£VaL. A<pLKE'tO fL£V'tOL Kat Ent of France. In fact, he visited the rest of the western rulers ,
'tOU, AOL1tOU, 'tWV npo, E<T1t£paV ~YEfLova" SEOfLEVO, 'tE begging for aid and testing the limits of their willingness to
help. But while he was with the king of the French, he real-
EltLKOUpLa, Kat anonELpwfLEVO, W, o16v 'tE fLaAL<T'ta au'twv.
ized that his domestic affairs were in bad shape and alto-
IIapLwv't£ Ent'twv KEA'tWV ~a<rLAEa Ka'tEAa~E fL"v'ta olKoL
gether unstable. He there accomplished none of the goals
au't4' SLE<p90po'ta Kat navu S" ~xov'ta fLOX91'] pw" 'tUXEtV
for which he had gone to Italy. A.s he was returning home,
OUSEVO" a;v EVEKa a<pLKE'tO Ent 'haAla,. 'EnavLWV S" en' when he reached the Venetians he could not pay back the
oIKOU, w, EY£VE'tO Ka'ta 'tou, 'EVE'tOU" Kat 'to SaVELOV OUK loan that he had taken out when he set out for France, which
£IXEV anaL'toufLEVO, anOSLSOVaL, (\ ESaVeL<ra'to cmLWv Ent they were now demanding from him.l5I So he was detained
raAa'tLav, Ka'tE<TX£91'] 'tE au'toii uno 'EVE'tWV, ou fLE9LEfL£VWV there by the Venetians, who would not let him sail home be-
au'tov cmonAEtV o'{KaSE, liXPL, iiv fLf] EK'tL"11 'to Xp£o, 'tOt, fore he had paid back the debt in full to his creditors. He
SaVEL<r'tat,. '0 S" EV anopLq YEVOfLEVO" EnL1t£fLnwv E, was now at a loss, and sent word to Byzantion to his sonAn-
Bu~av'tLOV napa AVSPOVLKOV 'tOV natSa au'toii EnL'tE-
dronikos, to whom he had entrusted the kingdom,152 asking
him to find money from the holy treasures and other state
'tpafLfL£vov -rfjv ~a<rLAeLaV, ~;LOU xp~fLa'ta E;eupov-ra ano
properties, and send him enough to secure his release, He
'tE 'tWV [EpWV KELfL1']ALWV Kat liAAWV 'twv Ka'ta -rfjv apxfJv
asked that he not be abandoned to spend a lot of time in
n£fLYaL o[ lKaVa anoAii<raL au'tov, Kat fLf] [1.47} nEpt'(Sdv prison. But Andronikos disregarded his instructions; he had
au'tov EV <pUAaKii ilv'ta 1t<lW nOAUV SLa'tpl~£LV XPOVOV. '0 grown self-indulgent on the throne and did not like his fa-
fLEV OVV AVSPOVLKO, EV OALYWplq EnOLEl-rO 'ta En£<T'taAfL£va ther much anyway. He replied by saying that the Greeks
au't4', ola nEpt 'tf]v ~a<rLAeLaV fLaAaKL~ofLEVO, Kat 't4' na'tpt would not allow him to use sacred treasures for this purpose,
ou naw 'tL apE<TK0fLEVO,. 'EnL<r't£AAWV E<pa<TKE fL~'tE 'tOU, nor could he raise money from any other source. He told his
"EAA1']va, EltL'tp£nELV au't4' Xpfj<r9aL 'toi, [Epoi" fL~'tE au'tov father to look elsewhere and not keep worrying himself
about how to be rid of the debt.
liAA09£v n09Ev olov't' £IVaL xp~fLa'ta E;eupdv, EK£AEU£ 'tE
When Manuel, the king's younger son, learned what a 54
liAAt] 'tpanOfLEVOV fLf] SLafL£AAELV K~SE<r9aL eau'toii, onw, tight spot his father, the king, was in with the Venetians,
iiv anOAuoL'tO 'toii XP£Ou,.
he raised money and, when he had procured as much as he
54 'EfLfLavoufjAO, S"" VEW'tEPO, ~a<rLA£W, nat, nuv9avofLE- could, immediately boarded a ship, set sail, and arrived at
VO" 01 avayK1'], a<plKE'to " na-rfjp au'toii ~a<rLAEu, uno Venice. He handed over to his father all the money that he
'EVE'tWV, EUpWV xp~fLa'ta Kat nopL<rafLEVO, Il<ra ~Suva'to,
Il'tL 'taXL<T'ta En£~1'] V1']O" Kat SLanA£WV E<; -rfjv 'EVE'tWV
nOALV a<pLKE'tO, 'ta 't£ xp~fLa'ta <p£pWV an£SWKE 't4' na'tpl,

80 81

ocm brop[<Ya'ro Ka'ra TIjv 6epfl'lv, ~v 'rlva b;nhpan'ro Kal had brought with him that he had raised in Thessalonike,
Ka'rEA£lcEl1C'rO Em'rponEUElv. Kal i-av'rov S£ aywv napdXE'ro which had been entrusted to him and left to him to gov-
ern.I53 He even offered himself to be used by his father in
xpij<Y9al 'r<!, na'rp[, a 'rl ltv ~OUAOl'rO. Kal 'ro ano 'rOUSE
anyway that he saw fit. And from that point on Manuel and
c!>KElw<Y9aL 'EfifiavouijAOV 'r<!, na'rpl E<; 'ra flaAl<Y'ra <Yuv~9'l
his father became very close, and the latter began to hate
I DV'ra, AVSPOVlKOV S£ anEx9aVE<Y9aL 'ro EV'rEU9EV flEyaAW<;'
Andronikos deeply. This was the origin of the great hatred
. Ii: , Kal 'r0 fleya S£ ex90<; ap~aflEVov ano 'rOU'rov ~vfl~ijVaL that existed between them, and caused them to be at odds
aAA~Aol<;, 'ra 'rE aAAa <Y<p[m Kal E<; TIjv ~a<YlAdav S,a<pE- regarding the kingdom and other matters.
pOfievOl<;. Thus the king of the Greeks paid back the loan to the 55
55 '0 fI£V OUV ~a<rlAEV<; 'EAA~VWV, oT<; ~KE <pepwv xp~flamv Venetians with the money brought by Manuel, and he re-
I;' 'EfifiavovijAO<;, 'rit xp£a anEAUE'ro npo<; 'rOV<; 'EVE'rOU<;, Kal turned to Byzantion154 He sent envoys to Sultan Murad, in

Enl 'ro Bv~anLOV EnaVlWV SlEnpE<Y~Euno npo<; ~a<YlAea fact sending his younger son for this purpose to the Porte.

t Afloupa'r'lv, neflnwv 'rOVSE 'rOV naTSa au'rou 'rOV VEW'rEPOV
Enl'rit<; 9upa<; au'rou. 'H~[ou 'rE au'rov W<; oTov 'rE flaAlO"ra
He asked his son to serve the sultan as best he could, to cam-
paign with him wherever he commanded, to heed his opin-
ion, and talce every precaution against offending the sul-
9EpanEUElV Kal [I.48} <YuO"rpa'rEUE<Y9aL, onol ltv KEAEUOl,
Iii tan in any matter in the future. Later on l55 he sent his son
Kal npo<YeXElV 'rE.au'r<!, 'r~V YVWfI'lV, W<Y'rE <pvAaTIE<r9aL Theodoros to the Peloponnese,'56 as Kantalcouzenos's sons
EnlElKW<; fI'lS' cmouv E<; 'rOV ~a<YlA£a 'rOU AOl1COU E~aflap­ had died in Mistra. I57 When Theodoros was in Thessalonike
'r£lv. "Y <Y'rEPOV fleV'rOl 6EOSWPOV 'rOV nalSa au'rou Enl- with his brother Manuel, who had been sent as governor
neflnwv £<; IIEAonovv'l<Yov 'rEAEU'r'lcrav'rwv 'rWV 'rOU Kav- of Macedonia and Thessaly, they began to discuss how they
'raKov~'lVOU na[Swv £V '!fi Lnap'tl], £yeVE'ro EV '!fi 6epfltl might rebel against Sultan Murad,''' but the one [Manuel}
crVv 'r<!, aSEA<p<!' 'Efifiavou~A'f, Kal au'rov 'rE 'rij<; MaKE- went to Byzantion, as his father had recalled him there to
Sov[a<; Kal 6ETIaA[a<; ~YEfiova. A<plKOfiEVOl £<; AOYOU<; assume the throne, while the other [Theodoros} entered the
Peloponnese and governed its affairs as best he could, malc-
anocr'racrlv £~ovAEuono a1!O Aflovpanw ~acrlAew<;, 'rov
ing it as secure as he thought was possible. All this happened
fI£V 0'(XE<Y9aL £mona £1!l Bv~an[ov flna1!Efl1!0fl£VOU au-
before Andronikos, the king's son, rose up with SavCl, the
'rov 'rOU 1!a'rp0<; £nl 'r~V ~acrlAdav, 'rOV S8 dcrEA9£lv £<; 'r~V
IIEAo1!OVV'lcrov Kal Em'rp01!EUElV 'ra Ka'r' auTIjv, ii ESuva'ro
Kpa'rlO"ra Kal ii £SOKEl au'r<!' e~ElV W<; acr<paA£O"ra'ra. Tau'ra
fl8V OUV ~uv'lv£X9'l, 1!plv ~ AVSPOVlKOV 'rOV 1!aTSa ~a<rl­
AEW<; a<plcr'rafiEVov crVv 'r<!, Aflovpa'rEw naLSI 'r<!, Laov~fi


E;eVEYKal nOAeflov afl<pw -r<ii AflouPCt-r!] Ka-ra -rau-ra. son of Mnrad, to wage war against Murad. I59 Later, when
"Y cr-repov flEv-rOl Kat -ra uno 'Eflflavou~Aou E<; vew-replcrflov Manuel's rebellious plot became known to the sultan, Hay-
reddm removed Thessalonike aod its surrounding territory
npacrcrofleva CtvCtnucr-ra f.yEvno ~acrlAel, Kat ~v -re 8EPfl'1v
from him.160 And then, when his father [Ioaones V} prohib-
Kat -ra -rau-r'1<; xwpia Xapa-riv'1<; Ct<pdAe-ro au-rov. Kat i\cr-re-
ited him from entering his own territory, Maouel went to
pov Ctnayopeuov-ro<; -rou na-rpo<; fl~ E1tl~ijVaL -rij<; xwpa<; Lesbos, but the ruler of Lesbos became terrified aod told
,II au-rou, Kat S~ Kat Ent Mcr~ov Ct<plKoflevov neplSeij yevofle- him to depart from his territory.161 He boarded a trireme aod
vov -rov Mcr~ou ~yeflova npoayopeueLv CtnaAACt-r-recr9aL EK crossed over to Asia, to Troy. He hired horses aod went to
-rij<; xwpa<; au-rou. Ka-racrxe1v -rPl~P'1 E<; Tpolav Sla~Ctv-ra Sultan Murad at Prousa. I62
E<; ~v Acrlav, Kat fllcr9wcrCtflevov lnnou<; Ct<plKEcr9aL E<; After that Murad marched against the Serbs and against 56
I1poucrav napa ~acrlAEa AflouPCt-r'1V' [I.49} Lazar, the ruler of the Serbs,I63 who had turned to the Hun-
56 Me-ra S£ -rau-ra Ecr-rpa-reue-ro Ent Tpl~aAAou<; Kat f.nt garians and aroused them to campaign against the sultan.
'EAeCt~apov -rwv Tpl~aAAWv ~yeflova, npo<; -re -rou<; I1al-
When Lazar learned that Murad was coming against him,
he assembled and prepared as large ao army as possible to
ova<; -re-rpaflflEvov Kat E;O-rpuvov-ra EK£lvOU<; cr-rpa-reue-
defend himself as vigorously as he could. Lazar had two
cr9aL En' au-rov. '0 flev oiiv 'EAeCt~apo<; w<; EnUge-ro
daughters, aod he had married one to Sismao, the king of
Afloupa't1']v E1tlEVaL En' au-rov, napecrKeuCt~e-ro cr-rpa-rlav the Bulgariaos, and the other to Vuk, the son ofBranko, the
cruvay£lpwv, iJ ESuva-ro, fleylcr-r'1v, Kal, iJ ESuva-ro, KpCt- son of Mladen, who was the ruler of Kastoria and Ohrid in
-rlcr-ra Ctfluvoflevo<;. 'EAeCt~apo<; Se 9uya-rEpa<; EXWV Ent Maced~nia.I64 He then also acquired the lands of the zupan
fltv -rft fl'~ -rou-rwv Loucrflavov -rov -rwv Mucrwv ~acrlAEa Nikola m Macedonia after the deaths of the rulers VgljeSa
K'1Se~v Enol~cra-ro, Ent S£ -rft E-rEpq: BouAKOV -rov -rou and the Kral, aod, after subjugating PriStina and the laod
I1pCtYKOU -rou MAaSEvew u[ov, Kacr-ropla<; -re Kat 'OXPISo<; called Nestea, advaoced as far as the river of Illyria now
-rij<; EV MaKeSovlq: ~yeflovo<;. 'EnlK't1']crCtflevo<; St fle-ra called the Sava. I65 Murad, the son of Orhao, marched against
him and found him camped in the region of Pristina called
-rau-ra -r~v EV MaKeSovlq: Xwpav N,KOAew -rou ~ounCtvou
Ent -rft -reAeu-rft OuyyAE<1lJ -re Kat KpCtAeW -rwv ~yeflovwv,
-ro -re I1plcr-rlvov Kat N~cr-reavlO oi\-rw KaAouflEv'1v xwpav
unayoflevov aXP' no-raflou 'IAAuplwv, LCt~a S1: -ra vuv
KaAouflEvou, npoeA'1Au9EVal. 'Ent -rou-rov w<; f.cr-rpa-reue-ro
AflouPCt-r'1<; 6 'OPXCtvew, Ka-rtAa~e cr-rpa-roneSeuoflevov EV
neSI~ Kocro~~ ou-rw KaAouflEv~ -rij<; I1plcr-rlvou Xwpa<;.

Kat w<; Ev-rau8a 1tap~v, E<; 1toAeflov 1tape'tcUY0E1:0, EXWV the Plain of KosoVO.1 66 When he arrived there, he arranged
flee' £all'tOu Kat 'tw 1taTSe Ctfl<po'tepw, IIala~~'t'1v 'te Kat h,S army for battle, with both of his sons at his side, Bayezid
'Iayou1t'1v, To Se Ev-reUeev TOUPKOl flev ollv <paolv Afloll- and Yakub. At this point, so the Turks say, Murad joined bat-
pCt't'1v flaxeoCtflevov ye Kat 'tpe'/tCtflevov 'tou<; 1tepl 'EAeCt~a­ tle, routed L~zar's men, and pursued them with all his might.
pov SlWKElV Ctva KpCt'tO<;, SlWKov'ta Se Ka'taAa~eTv avSpa In the pursUit he overtook a certain Serb and sought to ride
him down; but the latter, on foot, turned around and speared
Tpl~aAAOv, Kal E1tlKa'ta~Ctv-ra, 'tOY Se E1tlO'tpe'/tav'ta 1te~fi
him in the chest, and so Sultan Murad was killed.
{I.5 0 } aKov'tLoal Ka'ta 'tOU ~80ll<;, Kat ou'tW CtveAelV
But the Greeks say that he did not die after he had gone 57
~aOlAtaAflollpCt't'lV. out and fought the battle, while he was routing the enemy.
57 "EAA'1ve<; Se oil <paOl flaxeoCtflevov Kat E1te~eA8ov-ra, W<; Rather, they say that while he was still waiting in battle for-
hpe'/ta'to 'tou, evav'tLoll<;, Ct1t08avelv, CtAX Ev'tfi 1tapa'tCtSEl mation, a most brave man wanted, of his own volition, to
E'tl flEVOv-rO<; au'tou AeyollOlv avSpa yevvaLo'ta'tov E8eA~­ undertake the most valiant contest that had ever been at-
oal £Kov'ta U1tOO't~VaL Ctywva KCtAAlO'tOV 'twv 1tw1to'te ye- temp;ed. The man's name was Milos. They say that this
VOflEVWV. ToilVOfla Se eTval 'tCtvSpt 'ti;>Se M'1AO'1V. Tou'tov Milos, after asking permission and being allowed to do what
S~ 'tOY M'1AO'lv <paOLv, aL't'1oCtflevov, iloa E~ouAe'to ol ye- he wanted by his ruler Lazar, armed himself and rode out to
Murad's camp, pretending to be an enemy deserter. They say
vE08al U1tO 'EAea~Ctpov 'tou ~yeflovo<;, W1tAlOflEVOV EAau-
that Murad, hopmg that the man was deserting to his side
VElV oilv 'ti;> l1t1t'!J E1tt 'to AflovPCt'tEW O'tpa't01teDOV, W<; ltv
ordered his men to stand aside and allow him to pass, so tha;
au't0floAouv-ra Ct1tO 'twv Evav-rLwv. AflovPCt't'lv Se AEYOV-
he could approach and tell him what he wanted. Once he
OlV, EA1tl1;ov'ta au't0floAeTv 1tap' eall'tov 'tOY avSpa, Ke- was close to the sultan's Porte, where Murad was waiting, he
I AeUElV U1tOXWpelV au'ti;> E1tl'tpe1tElV, ",o'te EA8ov'ta E1temelV, drew hImself up, raised his spear, and launched himself in
, , it ~OUAOl'tO. fevoflEvoV Se Ctyxou 'twv ellpWV ~aOlAEW<;, ii the most valiant charge of any that we know. He killed Sul-
Efleve, 1tapa'taSCtflevo, apa08aL 'to SOP", Kal E1tlov-ra 6p- tan Murad and died himself at the same time in a most noble
fI~oaOea'OPfl~v 1taowv S~ KaAALO'tl]v, WV ~flel, 'ioflev, Kat manner. This is how the Greeks say it happened, but the
CtVeAOv'ta ~aOlAta AflollpCt't'1V au'tov 'te afla au'tou Ct1t08a- Turks say that he was killed by a Serb while he was in pursuit
after winning the battle. l67
VelV yevvaLo'ta'ta. "EAA'lve<; flev ouv ou'tW AtYOVOl yeve-
So Murad died there in Kosovo. His body was brought 58
08al, ToupKol Se E1te~epxoflevov fle'ta 't~v VLK'1V Ct1t08a-
back to Prousa, where the tombs of the earlier Ottomans
VelV U1t' CtvDpO, Tpl~aAAou.
58 'E'teAeu't'10e SeAflollpCt't'1<; Ev'tau8a EV Kooo~'!J. Kat 'to
flev oWfla au'tou Ct~yayov E<; IIpouOl]v, EV ii ot 1tP<l>'1v


't<iq>01 'tWV 'O'tovfLav[Swv 1tA~V LOVAa'ifL<ivEW <i1tOKEKA~­ were located, except for that ofSiileyman. l68 But Murad's in-
pWV'tal, 'ta Si: tV't00'91a AfLovP<i'tEW tv 1tES[CjJ KoO'o~CjJ ternal organs lie buried in a royal tomb on the Plain of Ko-
sovo. He died after reigning for thirty-one years,!" at the
KdfLEva ev 't<iq>CjJ au'toil ~aO'IAIK(/i. 'E'1"£AEo't'1O'E Si: ~aO'l­
hands of a Serb, a death that was not fitting for a sultan who
AEOO'a<; £'t'1 EV 'tE Kat 'tPI<iKov'ta, 01t' {r.5I} <ivSpo<; Tpl~aA­
had waged w~ for so many years and performed such great
Aoil, 'tEAW~V ou Ka'ta ~aO'IAea 'toO'ail'ta Si: E't'1 Sla1tOAE- deeds. For thIrty-one years he waged major wars in Asia and
fLoilv'ta Kat <'P'Ya fLEyliAa 'moSEI~<ifLEvov, 8<; 'tou<; fLE'Y<iAOV<; Europe, and so great were both his good fortune and his vir-
eV'tft AO'[<;t1tOAefLov<; Kat ev -rft Eupw"l1 Sla1tOAEfL~O'a<; E't'1 tue that he was never defeated in battle. He brought under
EV 'tE Kat 'tplaKona, e<; 'toO'oil'tov au't(/i fLE't~V -rOX'1<; 'tE iifLa hIS control a remarkable array of military force and terri-
Kat <iPE~<;, WO"tE fL'1S£1tO'tE ~n'19~val ev fL<i)(l], SovafLlv tory in both continents, and he did not stop waging war
S£ Kat xwpav <i~IOXPEWV ima'YofLEvo<;, Ka't' iiftq>w Si: 'tw agamst hIS enemies even when he reached the depths of old
~1tdpw, npa<; ~S'1 ~a9u <iq>IKOftEVO<; ft~ ftE9[E0'9al 'twv age; rather, he always seemed rabid for battle and insatia-
ble when it came to spilling blood everywhere. He paused in
1tOAEfL[WV ft<iX'1<;, <iXI( aid Avnwv'tl eOIKeval e1tt ~v ft<iX'1 v,
hIS wars only to practice and study the art of hunting. He
ii1tA'1O''tOV Si: a!fL<i'twv 'YEVOftEVOV a1tav'taxii· 'Hv Sf au't(/i
was always on the move: whenever he was not fighting, he
1tailAa 'tWV 1tOAEft[WV ~ 'twv KVV'1'YEO'[wv a'Ypa, fLEAe't''1 't'E was huntmg. In this respect he seems to have gained greater
iifLa Kat 't'PI~~. Ka9~0''to S£ ouSafLft OUS£1tO't'E, <iAX 01tO'tE glory th"," the sultans who reigned before him, displaying
ft~ ft<iXOI't'O, KVV'1'YWV SIE'ttAEI. I1AEIO"ta Si: t<; 'toil't'o 't'WV no less vIgor and alacrity in his old age than when he was
1tPO au't'oil ~aO'IAeWV S6~av'to<; au't'oil evwSoKlfL£lV, O'1tOV- young. He surpassed many eminent rulers and kings by al-
8~v 't'E iifta Kal 't'axv't'~'t'a tv8EIKvofLEVO<; ou8aftft eAQ:O'O'ova ways being completely resolute and zealous in all matters.
t1tl npw<; ~ t1tt VEO't''1't'O<;. 'Hv 8i: 1tpO 1tOAAWV e1tlq>avwv He involved himself in everything and never overlooked
~yEft6vwv 't'E Kat ~aO'IAtwv, Kal1t<inu aOKvo't'a't'o<; 'tE Kal
anything that had to be done.
We have also heard it said that he surpassed previous 59
O'1tov8aLO't'a't'0<; e<; 1t<iv't'a. IT<inwv 8£ eq>a1t't'oftEvO<; ou8'
kings in terms of the slaughter he caused. But he spoke very
I 6't'lOilv 1tap[EI imoAomov 't'wv 1tpanE0'9aL 8£OfL£VWV.
pohtely when dealing with those under his power and with
Kal e1tt q>OVOV eA<iO'al fL£'YIO''tov 8~ 't'WV 1tpO au't'oil ~a-

I 59
great moderation to the sons of rulers. He honored each
O'IA£WV <iKOft 1tapEIA~q>aftEV, AO'YOV ft£V't'OI e1tIEIKEl<;t XPWftE- man and was very willing to speak with them. He was won-
VOV e<; 't'a ft<iAIO"ta 1tpoO'q>epE0'9aL 'tol<; 't'E U1tO XElpa au'toil derfully effective at inspiring his men in battle and, they say,
Kat 't'01<; ~yEfLovwv 1talO'tv W<; fLE't'plw't'a't'a. Kat 't'lft~O'aL 8£
av8pa EKaO''t'ov Kat1tpoO'EmElv e't'olfLo't'a't'o<;, Kal 't'ou<; ftE9'
eav'toil e~o't'pilval d<; ftaX'lv 8Elvo't'a'to<;, xp~0'9al 't'01<; 't'E


npcqflaa-l SE1VO<; cmav'taXfl YEVOflEVO<; ~V, n<paa-1V, 6non ~onderful also at organizing everything when h
Into battle. He was handsome
. e was gOIng
'(01't0 Ent flax'lv, XapiEl<; 'tE tSdv Kat Enl£lK£a-'ta'tO<; d<; 'to Wh'l h " and reasonable In discussion.
lee was merciless In his punishment of d
(lop} SlaAEYEa-8m. Kat 'tOY flev 6'tlOilv E;aflap'tov'ta £'tl- he was [;.. wrong oers
hi hvery aIr In negotiations. It is said that he honored
flwpd'to a<pE1SEO"'ta'ta, Katnpoa-SlaAEYEa-8m flE'tplw'ta'to<;. s oat s more than the other sultans of his family. That .
'EflnESoilv AEYE'tm 'tOY 8pKOV au'toil flaAla-'ta Se 'tWV 'toil w h y many came to him Wit . h high expectations bell . IS
yEVOU<; 't01J'tOU ~aa-1AEwv. KatnoAAoiJ<; Slet 'tail'ta au'tlKa that they would suffer nothing bad so long th.' .eVlng
'(Ea-eal E<; au'tov 8appoilv'ta<;, fl'lS' c)'tloilv OtOflEVOU<; nda-E- beD th h d " aus, as It was
ore ey a tested his strength and fallen into his h d
a-em xaAEnov, nptv ~ E<; Xdpa<; au'toil EAeOV'ta<; Sla- But anyone who had offended him and who anlm s.
nElp"a-em 'tii<; SuvaflEw<; au'toil. Kat 'tov yE flEya <ppo- insolently and stubbornly would not be happ sPohke thO hd
partedfr h' Wc yw en e e-
voilv'ta Kat aUeaSEO"'tEpO'V au'tc!> npoa-<pEpoflEVOV 'twv yE E<; om 1m. e have learned that while h .
i t h' b' e was ternfy-
au'tov c)'tloilv nEnA'lflflEA'lKO'tWV fl'lKE'tl xalpov'ta anaA- nhg 0 r IS su Jects, he was especially loved by other rulers
T erelore, It would n t b .
Aa't'tEa-em. <\JO~Epw'ta'tOv Se YEvoflEVOV 'tOL<; u<p' au'tc!> '1'1- Timur had h dO. e wrong to suppose that if King
marc e agaInst thiS man, the war would not
Ada-eal flaA1O"'ta Sii iiYEfloVWV Enu8oflE8a au'tov, <OO"'tE h
b ave b
I een manag
. e d so b adIy. He would either have fought
fl'lSe KaKW<; OlEa-em, w<; ~v Ent 'tOVSE 'tOY IivSpa £O"'tpa-
ralve y agaInst Timur and, even if he had not beaten hi
'tEUE'tO TEfl~P'l<; 6 ~arrlAEu<;, flii ltv ou'tw <pauAo'ta'ta eEa-eal at east he would not h ave been defeated by him m,
'tOY nOAEflov, aXI( ~ flaXEa-aflEVOV nEpl<pavw<; flii nEpl- would have chosen a battleground where he would ' a~ e
YEvoflEVOV 'toil TEfl~ pEW flii flEV'tOl fl'lSe ii't't'leiival , eAOflE- ~een defeated easily; or else, avoiding battle, he wo:~; h:::
vov Xwpav E<; 'to SlaflaXEa-aa-em, Kae' ~v ltv flii ii't'tc!>'to oneld~ lot of damage to Timur's army by following him d
pq:Slw<;, ~ flii flaXEa-aflEvov flEyaAa ltv ~Aatm 'tOY TEfl~PEW attac ng h' i as m ' presented itselfl70 When
opporturuty an
~aa-1AEw<; O"'tpa'tov EniioflEvoV alJ'tc!> Kat Enl'tlSEflEVOV, n M
M urad , .th esonofO
. han
r , d'Ie d , t h e officers at the Porte of
au'tc!> npoxwpol'l' Xl<; flev OllV E'tEAEU't'la-EV 'Afloupa't'l<; 6 urad Immediately appointed Bayezid hi
sultan.171 ' s younger son,
'OpXavEw , au'tiKa ot EV 'taL<; Supal<; ilV'tE<; 'Afloupanw
apfloO"'tat rrmal;~'t'lv 'tOY VEW'tEpOV au'toil naLSa Ka'tEa-'t~­
a-av'to ~amAEa.

B' Book 2

[I.53} 'E1tE! 81: e'tEAEu't!]O'EV Aflotlpa't!]<; 0 'OpXavEw im' ~et:~:;;:~r:h:::~s of Orhan, died by the hand of
avopo<; Tpt~aAAou, au'tiKa Ot tv 'tm<; 9upCtt<; i\V'tE<; 'tou Bayezid hi Porte Immediately appointed
' s younger son, as sultan. As soon as he had
Aflotlpa'tEw apfloO''tat nata~~'t!]V 'tOV VEW'tEpOV au'tou sume d. the throne ' Bayezi'd sent for his brother Yak b as- d
1taloa t~(mv'tO ~aO'tAEa. '0 8e au'tiKa, w<; eCTXE TIJv rnad e It seem as though he was b . u an
~aO'tAeiav, flE'ta1tEfl1t'tov 'Iayou1t!]V 'tOV a8EAq>OV au'tou Porte by his father Murad. Yak:~n! s~mmoned to the royal
the past too wheneve h a spent time there in
e1tot~O'a'to w<; imo 'tou 1ta'tpo<; KaAouflEvOV 'tOU Aflotlpa'tEw , r ewassummo d Kn .
e1tt 'ta<; ~aO'tAEia<; 9upa<;, q>ot'twv'ta Kat 1tP00'9EV, 01tO'tE
ing ofwhat had happened he came wh neh' owmg noth-
by him and ' en e was summoned
KaAol'tO. Ouo' ()'ttOUV 81: 'tWV 1tpaX9tv'twv e1ttO"taflEvo <; death H , asdsoon al as
" he arrive,d was arrested and put to
aq>IKE'to KaAouflEVO<; U1t' au'tou, Kat w<; eytvE'tO 1tap' au'tou, . . e was e t wIth In the manner in which th
of this people customarily deal with th . b h e sultans
O'tlVEA~q>9!] 'tE Kat £-eEAEU't!]O'E. Kat EXp~O'a'tO, ii vOfli~E'tCtt that they should be strangled to death eIr rot ers: namely
't01<; 'tou yEvOtl<; 'tOUOE ~aO'tAEuO'tV e<; 'tou<; a8EAq>OU<; 1tOt- So when this sultan had dealt withn~t P:t t:the sword.
£lV, w<; arxovn 8tot 'tEAEtl'tiiv 'tov ~iov U1t' au'tou, Kat OU cured his rule, he immediatel d I~ rot er and se- 2

attacked the Serbs and Yd ehPloyed hiS army for battle,

O't8~p", VEvofltO"tat. . ' route t em. The Serbs lost a 1
D<; fl1:v oilv 'ttl' ~aO'tAa 'ttl'8E t~eipyaO"to 'ta e<; 'tOV part of their army in this battle £ h h arge
the h b ' or w en t e Turks routed
a8EAq>OV Kat E~aO'iAEtlE, 1tapE'ta~a'to 'tE au'tIKa e<; flaX!]V, t ey egan to pursue and kill the Serbs with all their
Kat O'tlfl~aAWV E'tPE'ita'to 'tE 'tou<; Tpt~aAAou<;, Kat ev -eft
h t, as they were better horsemen and had hb
-eft flaxn 1tOAAa 'tE a1tEytvE'tO 'tou O"tpa'tEufla'to<;. D<; yap
ol ToupKot E'tPE'itav'to, t1tE~fjA90v OtWKOV'tE<; ava Kpa'to<;,
fl::::~. ~h:~~::~:~s:~:e able to overtake tho.::hO ::;;
The Turks, on the other ~o~ the :ee~s say It happened.
KatOtEq>9EtpOV 'tou<; Tpt~aAAou<;, t1t1tEUEtV 'tE i\V'tE<; eKeiVwv an , say at It was not Bayezid
afleivotl<; Kal l1t1tOtl<; 1tOAU [I.54} ~EA'tiotl<; 'XOV'tE<;, WO"tE
Ka'taAafl~avEtV 'tou<; q>Euyov'ta<;. 'Ht fl1:v ouv U1t' <EAA~VWV
AEYE'tat, 'tau-en EYEVE'tO' w<; 81: au'tol ToupKot q>aO'iv, ou


rrala~~'tEW 1'Ev£<19al 't~v VlKI]V~VSE, aAA: a1te 1\[-'01Jpa'tEW who won this vict b h
won by Murad, an~7hatu:h: ::I;he battle was fought and
't~V 'tE [-'aXl]v 1'EV£<19al Ka\ VlKI]V £KElV01J, Ka\ 'EAEa~apov battle while Murad' r Lazar was killed in that
'tev ~1'E[-'ova [£KdV01J} im' £KElV,!, cr-rpa'tl]1'ouV'tl a1t09a- say it happened 2 Btl
was In command 1 Th 'h
, a t IS ow the Turks
VEIV EV 'tfj [-,aXIl, TOUPKOI [-'ev S~ oil-rw A£1'01J<11 1'Evt<19al,
, ' u cannot see either h h'l
In battle formation B 'd ow, w I e he was
b h ' ayezl could have both kill d h'
OUK EXW Se <11J[-'~aAt<19al, w<; £V 'tfj 1tapa'ta;El EV ~paX£l
:tlt •er and joined battle in such a short tim e h IS
'tlVl XPOV'!' 'tOV 'tE aSEA<pOV aVELAE Ka\ t<; [-'aXI]v Ka91cr-ra't0 lOS could have ra' d h' e, nor ow
been able to kill h' Ise h IS spear, attacked the sultan, and
au'tlKa, aAA: ouSe w<; apa[-'EVO<; 'to SOp1J 1:'AOI 'tE E1t\ 'tOV 1m Wit out anyone trying t h'
~a<1lAta Ka\ E;dl] Slaxp~<1acr9al [-'I]SEVO<; au't<ii £[-'1tOSWV let each person think what he I'k
Wh B '
0 stop 1m, But
I es about these matters
1'EVO[-'£V01J, 'AXACt. 'tau'ta [-'ev hw, 01t!] £Ka<1't,!, 1tpO<1<plAe<; en ayezld became sultan and ' '
tory over his enemi won thIS famous vic- J
~1'EI<19al1tEp\ au'twv, many
eluding their ruler ;s,h of them died in the battle, in-
'E1tEl Se rrala~~'tl]<; 1tap£Aa~E ~V ~a<11Adav, Ka\ 'tfj E<; Serbs and ' d ' 0 e overran the entire territory of the
'tou<; Evav'tlo1J<; VlKn Exp~<1a'tO 1tEpl<paV£l, 1toAAWV 'tE Ka\ d seIzee as many captiv
sIaves as h e could He th
au'tou a1t09avov'twv £V 'tfj [-,aXIl Ka\ 'tEAE1J~<1av'to<; 'tou :a : :ra;gements for his realm that he believed ~ould ~:
hi es Interest, and he made '
~1'E[-'OVO<;, £1tESpa[-'t'tE crtJ[-'1ta<1av 't~V Tpl~aAAWV xwpav, After he had made p , h h a treaty With the Greeks,
eace WIt t e ruler 'M d
Ka\ avSpa1toSa w<; 1tA£l<1'ta u<p' au't<ii 1tOll]<1a[-'EVO<;, settled the city of Sko 'e b b' , S In ace OIua, he
Ka91cr-rl]<1l'ta tv'tfj apXfj au't<ii, n4\E'tO ;1JV0l<1E<19al £1t\ 'to Turks from both Eu Pl dY nngIng a large number of
ropeanAsi 'hh'
£1tOl~<1a'tO, Ka\ 'tol<; 1tEp\
a[-'EIVOV, Ka\ "EAAI]<11 <11tOvSCt.<; children, But he did th" d a, WIt t en women and
IS In or er to use 't b
MaKESovlav ~1'E[-'0<11V dp~vI]v 1tOll]<1a[-'EVO<; 't~V LK01tlwv which to plunder the b I ' I as a ase from
He raided their land e ongIngds of the Illyrians [Bosnians},
4\Kl<1E 1tOA1V, 1ta[-'1tOAA01J<; 'twv TOUpKWV a1tO 't£ 't~<; , capture some to d
their inhabitants H al wns, an enslaved
Eupw1tl]<; Ka\ am) ~<; 1\<11a<; a1'ayoJV crUv yuval;l 1:£ a[-'a , e sosentanarmytoth I d f
Albanians and ravaged I't as rrar as the coast ofethanAd0 the
Ka\ 1tal<1l. Tau'ta Se £1tOlEl, w<; EXOl ltv a1tO 'tau'tl]<; 6p[-'W[-'E-
Sea and the land around Durres,3 e riatic
VO<; a1'ElV Ka\ <pEpm 'tCt. 'IAA1JplWV 1tpa1'[-,a'ta, 'E1ttSpa[-'E
[-'EV ouv Ka\ 't~V 'IAA1JplWV Xwpav, [I,55} Ka\ 1toAl<1[-,a'ta whThe Greek
h army accompanied Bayezl'd on campai
erever e went, ineluding ManueI, the son of loannes
gn, 4
ana £AWV ~vSpa1toS(<1a'to, Ka\ 't~v 1:£ AA~avwv xwpav
t1tl1tE[-'ta <; <1'tpa'tE1J[-'a tAI]'l~E'tO Ecr-r£ £1t\ 't~V £<; 'to 'I6vlOv
1tapaAlOV Xwpav, Ka\ 't~v 1tEp\ 'E1t(Sa[-,vov,
4 Ka\ "EAAI]V£<; [-'ev au't<ii E<pEl1tOV'tO <1'tpa't£1JO[-'EVOl a[-'a,
01tOl ltv EAaUV01, ° 'tE 1wavvo1J 'tou ~a<11Atw<; 'EAA~VWV

94 95

[V}, king of the Greeks, and Ioannes [VII}, the son of An-
dronikos the elder [IV}. Having poured scalding vinegar on
their eyes, 4 the king now provided for the livelihood of them
both. But they had realized, between themselves, that they
had regained some vision and that their eyes were improv-
ing. After some time had passed, they discussed things with
their wives and each other, and, with the guidance and sup-
port of certain other people for this plan, they escaped to
the Genoese city of Galatas, across from Byzantion.5 From
there they went to Sultan Bayezid6 and, when they arrived
before him, asked him to give them assistance so that they
could march against their own city, and begged him to re-
store them. He [Andronikos} said the following when he
came before the sultan.
"0 sultan, since I had been struck by this misfortune, I 5
entrusted myself to Good Fortune and to God, who over-
sees all things, and now I find myself much better off, as
that Power has granted me a most welcome favor. For even
though I had completely lost my sight, he has now partially
restored my vision and is promising me the kingdom, to re-
store to me the throne that is rightfully mine. Ifyou agree to
my proposal and give me back my kingdom, you will in the
future be able to make use ofit in whatever way you see fit.
Give me four thousand cavalry and order them to follow me
for two months. The richest and noblest men of the city
are almost all on Our side, and many would have followed me
here were it not that I know that they remain in the city for
my sake, to support me in whatever way I decide is best for
us. I promise to render to your house a much greater tribute


every year,
Th I and accept one a f your governors in the city."
Ct7taYE1V ~'tOU<; eKao-'tOU, Ka\ apflo<J'ti]v EX£lV ev 'tfi l'OAEI." e su tan answered with these words: "When I Ie d
Ba0-1AEl)<; 8e afld~£'to 'tol0-8E. '"Efloi 'tE ouv, el'El'tE el'USO- that some sight still remained to vou the news b arne
fl'1v, w<; 6pav fj8'1 0-01 Ka'taAeAEt7t'tal, ij80flev,!, 'te fl Ol {) joy d I hI'
an gave tanks to the Creator of mortals and .
rought me
AOY0<; eY£VE'tO, Kat xaplV ol8a'tQ SV'1'tWV 'tE Ka\ itSava'twV tals who had done you this favor. You have come to m~::~:
8'1fl lOU pyQ 'tijV8E 0-01 -rijv xaplV Ka'taSEfl£v'!" fjKE1<; el't are well dIsposed toward you and 'Ilfi h .
Ion as it ak . WI g t at your side for as
/iv8pa<; 0-01 l'pOo-<P1AEl<;, Ka\ itfluvouv'ta<; 0-01, £1<; oO"OV ltv takg ht es to achieve what you are contending for. I will
e~ft 8tal'pa~a<YSal, e<p' 0 'ti l'Ep '(Eo-Sal itywVl~OflEVO<;. TiO"o- e. sncI vengeance on the king, your [;ath er, that he never
flal 8e ~a0-1Aea 'tOY o-ov l'a'ttpa oihw<;, o,o-'tE fl'1 8 £1'0'tE agam pans any opposition to me. Come now. take th
for whom yon as k e d , and go to the city, and d' e men
eO"auSl<; ~OUAEUEO"Sall'Ept efle VEw'tEpa l'paYfla'ta. "lSI 8e best f, , a wh atever IS
or your return to your homeland."
'tou'tou<; Aa~wv, ou<; O'i> £<p'1O"Sa, XWPEI 8e el't -rijv l'DAIV
;hen Bayezid had said this he supplied the cavalry, all
l'pao-o-wv, 01'w<; w<; ~tA'tlo-'ta ~0"01't0 0"01 Ka'tayofl£v'!' el't rea y to go. Andronikos took them and mar h d : 6
Byza t' B e e agamst
-rijv l'a'tpi8a." n IOn. ut as soon as Ioannes [V} and Man I h'
6 '0 fltv 'tau'ta dl'WV e'toiflou<; l'apdXE'to 'tOU<; i1t1tea<;, learn d h And ue, IS son
marchin e t at . ronikos and his son [Ioannes VII} were'
Av8poV1KO<; 8e 'tou'tOU<; Aa~wv fjAaUVEV el't Bu~av'tIOV. g agaInst them, they entered the fortress that .
'Iwavv'1<; 8e Kat 'EflflavoufjAo<; {) l'al<; au'toii, w<; e1t1lSov'to named after the Golden Gate and prepared for a sie e ~~
'taX1O"'ta Av8poV1KOV O'i>v 'tQ l'al8t alhou eAaUVOV'ta el'\ dronikos
fa t then arrived and b ' d t h em, Later he took
eSlege g . the
o-<pa<;, e<YfjASov 'tE e<; -rijv 'tfj<; Xpuo-ta<; oihw KaAouflev'1v r ress by surrender and incarcerated both of th
e m a tower. 7 He had a small w d emma 11
aKpOl'OA1V, Ka\ l'apEO"K£Ua~ov'to w<; [1.57} 1'0AlOpK'1o-oflE- st t d' 'd 00 ence con-

VOL Av8poV1KO<; flev ouv eAaO"a<; el'OA10pKE1, flE'tit 8e 'tau'ta i rue h' e[; mSI
h e the tower and put them In . .It together keep-
';:;. IS at er and brother imprisoned in it while he h~ld the
6floAoyi~ XP'1o-aflEvo<; ElAE -rijv itKPOl'OA1V, E'i<; 'tl KAW~iov
~V~~e. D~nng his reign,S he also declared his son Ioannes
efl~aAAofl£vw flE't£WPOV Kat KaSElp~EV /ifl<PW e<; 1t1lpyov 'tE, as ng over the Greeks. He kept th . hi
forth b em In t s cell
Kat EipK-rijV ~paXElav O-UVEACt<1a<; ~uAlv'1v l'El'Ol'1fltv'1V ree years, ut he did not wish to kill them aI h h
ev'to<; 'tou 1t1lpyou, Ka\ 'tijv 'tE ~a0-1AEIaV Ka'te<YXE, 'tOV 'tE Bayezid was continually advising him to do so. In ~hetfo:~~h
l'a't£pa Kat it8EA<pOV EXWV ev <puAaKft· Ba0-1AEuo-a<; 8e
itl't8£l~E Ka\ 'tOY l'al8a au'tou 'Iwavv'1v ~a0-1Aea 't01<; "EA-
A'10-1. Ka'tEIXE fltv ouv el'\ ~'t'1 'tpia e<; 'tijv EipK-rijV 'tijv8E,
Kat itVEAElV OUK fjSEAE l'apalVOuv'tO<; e<; 'tou'tO athQ O"UV-
EXW<; I1ala~ij'tEW. TQ 8e 'tE'tap't'!' E'tEl itval'Elo-aV'tE<;

year they managed to persuade a servant, who used to come

to bring them food in the prison, to give them an iron tool.
It is said that they qnickly freed themselves from the cell. 9
When they had escaped, they went to Sultan Bayezid,1O
promising to deliver to him as much tribute and as many sol-
diers as he might demand from them. He sent a messen-
ger to Byzantion and asked the Byzantines for their opinion
too, about which of them they wanted as their king, Manuel
or Sultan Bayezid. For he wanted to sound out the Byzan-
tines' opinion about himself too in this way. The Byzantines
chose Manuel, as they were already unhappy with the way
Andronikos was governing. While the two kings of the
Greeks were thus disputing possession of the throne in Byz-
antion, Manuel agreed to pay Bayezid thirty thousand gold
coins as tribute and to accompany him personally with an
army when he went on campaign. On these terms he was
given the throne of Byzantion by Bayezid. Thereafter he at-
tended the Porte each year, early in the spring, delivering
to him the tribute and the army drat he had agreed on. As
for Andronikos and his son loannes, they resided at the
Porte and were maintained by the sultan, but Manuel held
the throne. II
Bayezid, the son of Murad, now campaigned against Phil- 7
adelpheia, a Greek city. having been led into doing this by
the kings of the Greeks, whom he had with him. For while
the kings of Byzantion were quarreling among themselves,
Bayezid had also asked for Philadelpheia and they had said
they would give it to him." But when King Manuel sent a
messenger asking them to surrender themselves to Bayezid
in the future and accept a Turk as their lord and gover-


OUK l<paO"av 'Kona<; elvm Ka'tanpoSouval O"<pa, 't£!> ~ap­ nor, they said that they were not 'Iii
over to the barbari WI ng to hand themselves
~ap<!" Kat 'to tV'tEU9EV tnoAlopKE' <PlAaSEA<pElav ITma£;fj- while keeping the :~Tghn; BhayeGzld besieged Philadelpheia,
't'1" EXWV Kat 'tou, 'EAAfjvwv ~aO"'Aci" Ot St aplO'rEuO"a[ sot e reeks WIth hi I '
t h at they performed al' I h m, t IS Sat
'tE au'tou Aeyov'ta" Ka\ ava~av'tE, OO'tOl npw'tov ElAOV 't~v first to al h llV Iant y t ere, and that th.ey were the
sc et ewa sandtak h '
nOAlv, Oihw fltv ouv eaAw <PlAaSeA<pEla fj 'tij, AuS[a, pheia, a well-governed Greek c:~ i: ~~Thus fell Philadel-
nOAl, EuvoflouflEV'1 'En'1v [" After this Bay 'd
h Ar '
, y la,
eZI moved agaInst Iskender, the kin f 8
8 ME'ta St 'tau'ta ITma£;fj't'1' ijAauvEv tn\ ~KEVSEPEa 'tov t e memans, against the city of E ' , g0
of the Armeni d' rZInJan, the royal court
'twv l\PflEV[WV ~ao"'Ata, Ka\ tn\ 'Ep't£;lyyaV'1V nOAlv, 'ta
'tWV l\PflEV[WV ~aO"(AEla, Kat tn\ ~aflax['1v nOA[XvlOv AEyo- is said that thi:"::k::d:;:::tb~ r;::hcal~ed Shemakha,13 It
barians in Asia, second to none in mill e ravest of the bar-
fl tv '1v, Mynm St (r.59} oo'to,,, ~KEVStp'1' 'tWV ~ap~apwv
cal strength, At one time ' tary darIng and physi-
nOAA£!> 'tWV Ka'ta ~v l\O"[av avSpElo'ta'tO, Kat'ta t, noAE- and he had fi the AssyrIans had attacked him
flov'toAfln 'tE Kat pWfln O"wfla'to, YEvE0"9al OUSEVO, SEU'tE- emy with o~ t:~ p;.rformed notable deeds, routing the en-
y e ew men he had with hi 14 B h'
pov, W, tmov'twv no'tt au't£!> 'twv l\O"O"Up[wv nOAAaKl, kender was hated b 'C m, ut t IS Is-
y own WIle who along 'th h'
epya anoSd;aO"9al a;la AOYou, 'tpE'I'aflEvo, 'tou, tvav't[ou, rested him put him t d ' WI IS son, ar-
o"uv "A(Yot, -roT, afl<p' au'tov, Tou'tov St 'tov ~KEVSEPEa, w, Bayezid' d 0 eath, and held the throne herself IS
' now move against this man and captured th ' '
anfjx9E't0 'tn eau'tou yuvalK(, O"uAAa~ouO"a au'tOv O"Uv 't£!> o f ErZInJan by s'lege, ImprISoning
' , Iskender's son 16 Thee CIty
nmS\ SlaxpfjO"a0"9m Kat ~v ~a(l"lAdav Kau'XElv, 'Ent subdue d t h eJam'ds, W h 0 occupy the lands of Kol' hi n £ e
'tou'tov S~ ITma£;fj't'1' tAMa, -rYJv 'tE 'Ep't£;lyyaV'1v noAlv as the city of Amastris 17 H al c s as ar
Yiiliik the Whit Sh ' I e so marched against Kara
nOAlOpKwv napEO"-rYJO"a'to Kat 'tov naTSa ~KEVStpEW ElXEv , e eep ru er from Shemakh H d
against him with his 0 Wil a, e a vanced
tv <puAaKn, Mna St 'tau'ta 'tou, 'tE T£;av[Sa, Ka'taO"'tpE- besieged the city of Sh ::y, defeated him in battle, and
'l'afl Evo " Ol Ka'ttxouO"l 'ta -rij, KOAX[So, tnt l\flaO"'tp'V em a, But as he was maid r I
progress in taking the city, he left and led h' ng Itt e
nOAlv Ka9fjKov'ta, ijAauvEv tnt KapalAouK'1v 'tov AEu- turmng home," IS army away, re-
KaflVaV ~aflax['1' fjYEflova, Ka\ tnE;EA90v'ta O"UV 'tn eau-
After that he moved against the remaining rulers I'n ASIa,
'tou O"'tpa'tl~ fltXxn tKpa't'lO"E, Kat tnoAlopKE' ~aflax['1v 9

noAlv, Ka\ W, ouStv npoEXwpEl fJ 'tij, nOAEw, atpEO"l"

anExwp'1O"EV anayaywv 'tov O"'tpa'tov, Ka\ tnaveO"'t'1O"EV tn'
9 ME'ta St 'tau'ta tAauvwV tn\ 'tou, tv -rft l\O"[q Aomou,

102 103

namely Aydm, Saruhan, Mente~e, Teke, and Metin,19 He

~YEflova<;, -rOV -re 1\:iSlv'1v, ~apxav'1v, MevSeO'lav, TeKl'1v
Kat Me-rlv'1v, -r~v -re apmv au-rwv a<pelAe-ro, Kat tK~aAWv
" them
h °
of their realms, driving them u,an t d appro-
pnatmg t eir ' territory.
. Driven from their own Iand s, t h ey
au-rou, ~v xwpav u<p' aim;; 1tol'1O'aflevo<; eIXev. OiJ-rOI SE ° £f
h to Kmg Tlmur , . I will recount Iater how
in Skythia
W, 'l1teA~Aav-ro TIl<; O'<pwv xwpa<;, {r.60} aV£~'1O'av 1tapa t eywent off there and came into the presence of the ki 20
~aO'IA£a Tefl~p'1v £, ~Kll81av. 'fl, flEV oov ava~avn<; Exceptfi Kar ng.
or aman, who was also known as A1ishur and
OiJ-rOI £, '''lftV ~A80v -r<!J ~aO'lAE1, uO'-repov flOI SeS~Aw-ral. Turgut, the lord ofPhrygia, who were related to Bayez;d by
m~v yap Kapaflavoll -rou AAIO'Ollploll £1tlKA'1v Kal Toup- marnage d and . so were at peace with him, 2I all the th
0 err ers
you-rew -rou TIl<; <ppvyla, apxov-ro<;, 01 Kat £1tlya fl la, au..<!J were
h epnved 'of their realms and went off to Samaran,to k d
t e COurt of Tlmur. I should add that Saruhan h
1tol'1O'aflevol etp~V'1v ~yov, ot Aomol -rwv ~yeflovwv £O'-re- dh ,wogov-
erne t e coast of Ionia; Mente<e who was the d d
P'1fl£VOI -rii<; apxij, aV£~'1O'av t<; ~aflapxavS'1v -ra ~aO'lAela of Kalamsh . ' , escen ant
f air, and Teke, who held Mysia, were descended
Tefl~pew. ~apxav'1v flEV -r~v 1tapaAOV TIl<; 'Iwvla<; £1tl-rpO-
rom. thehseven rulers who jointly assisted Osman m . con-
1teuov-ra, Kat MevSeO'lav -rou KaAaflew a1toyovov, Kat
quenng t e realm ofAsia, and they are said to have been ser-
TeK['1v ~v MllO'lav Ka-r£xov-ra -rwv £1t-ra ~Y£floVWV a1to- vants of Sultan ;.va' aI-Din. 22 I have no specific information
YOVOll<; yeyov£val cpaflEv -rwv -rou 'O-rouflavew ~v TIl, as to how Metin and Aydm obtained their realms. It is said
l\O'la, apmv K01V!i O'uYKanpyaO'afl£vwv, 0'( Kat AAaSlvew only that Aydm ruled the land from Kolophon to Karia I
-rou ~aO'IA£w, y£v£0'8at 8£pa1tov-re<; A£yov-ral. M£-r[v'1 v SE kno,:" clearly, however, that the subjects ofTurgut, Karam."n
Kai 1\:iSlv'1v, 68ev ~v apx~v £K~O'av-ro, OUK ~Xw SlaO''1flii- Metm, and Aydm are Turks and are called that In K
d ki B . appa-
vat. Tov SE 1\:iSlv'1v A£y£-ral flovov, TIl, a1to KOAOCPWVO, o a ayezid took control of both the territory that was
under Kara Yusuf and also that which was under the sons of
EO'n £1ti Kaplav ~pxe xwpa<;. TOUPKWV fl£V-rOl y£vo, -rou,
U~ur. 2, He. c~nquered the larger part of Phrygia, marched
-r£ U1tO TOllpyou-rew -r£Aouv-ra<; Kat U1tO Kapaflavew Kal
. ErzmJan,
h the royal court of the Armemans, . and
Me-rlvn Kat1\:iS[vn £1tlmaflal O'a<pw<; £Ival -r£ Kai ovofla~e-
E h t e son ofIskender' who ruled this land as f:arasth e
0'8at, Kal £v Ka1t1taSoKLq: imayoflevo, -rou-ro flEV ~v imo up rates, ru:-d he ruled a significant part ofKolchis after he
KapaiO'oucpn xwpav, -rou-ro Se ~v imo -rol, 'Ofloupew had brought It under his power. 24
1tatO'l, Kai -ra 1tA£W -rii<; <ppllyla, Ka-rampe'itaflevo" {r.6r}
~Aallv£v £1tt 'Ep-r~lyyaV'1v -ra -rwv l\pflevlwv ~aO'lA£la, Kat
£1ti -rov ~KevS£p£w 1talSa, 0, -rau-r'1<; ~ye1-ro TIl<; Xwpa,
Eme £1tl Eu<ppa-r'1v Kat TIl, -re KOAXlSo<; flolpav OUK OA[Y'1V
"<p' a,,-r<!J 1tOl'1O'aflevo , ~pxe.


h These were the great deeds that Bayezid performed while

10 Tctii'ta fll:v ouv l'Ev6f1EVO<; ev 'tfi AO"lc.< Kat flEyaAa a1t- e was m ASIa, After that, when he crossed over into Eu 10
ES£lKVU'tO fpya' flE'ta SI: w<; 'tijv Eupw1t'lV Sla~a<;, O"'tpa'tEU- rope, he sent armies as far as Macedonia plund' h-
fla'ta e1tl1ttfl1tWV fO"'tE MaKESovlav, 'tijv 1tpo<; 'tOY 'I6vLOV land by the Adriatic Sea and the Alb ' ' h enng t e
tured som ' , amans t ere. He cap-
'tOU<; 'tau'tJ1 AA~avou<; Kat 'tijv Xwpav eSiJou, Kat1toAlO"fl a'ta , e towns m Albanian territory and then moved on
ana eAwv tij<; AA~avwv Xwpa<; e1tt 'ThAupLOU<; i]Aauvt 'tE agamst the Illycians, plundering the land and takin th '
Kat £SiJ ou 'tijv Xwpav, A£lav 'ta tK£lVWV 1t010Ufl EVO <;. ME'ta goods as 100t.2S After that he march d
nese but h
' h g elr
e agamst t e Pelopon-
SI: 'tali'ta £O"'tpa'teUE'tO £1tt TIEA01t6vv'l0"0v, 't</> fll:v A6y4' w<; Th' ,e pretended that he was going to Phokis and
e1tt <!JWKa:tSa Kat e1tt 8EnaAlav eAauvwv, Ka'taO"'t'l0"6- essaly m order to organize the affairs ofTh ss al '
him." For the bishop of Phokis27 h d' . deh y to SUIt
I d h a mVlte Imtoth t
flEVO<; 'ta tv 'tfj 8EnaAlc.<, WO"'tE e1t1't'lS£lW<; fXE1V au't</>, 'toli
SI: <!JWKtWV apX1EptW<; e1tayofltvou mplo"lv e1tt Xwpav
an t at was superb for hunting, with meadows which ~
fered an extraordinary abundance of cranes and I' 0-
KUV'lyiiO"a[ 'te Kpa'tlO"'t'lv Kat AE1flwva<; yEpavou<; 1tapEXO- were most excellent for riding, In reality, B' ,~ ams that
fltvou<; 1tA;;eo<; l\1tAE'tov Kat 1teSla £Vl1t1tEliO"a1 'ta Ka""l- against Thessal d ' ' ayezi marched
Y an ItS rulers, who were called E iker
:~t01, ofSal~na 2;
, '28
O"'ta, 't</> SI: epy4' e1tt 8EnaAlav 'tE Kat 'tOU<; 'tau'tn I)YEfl6va<; tdhagainst the wife of De Luis, the ruler
er t at e intended to invade the Pel ' .-
ofKin~~::::::' [~;h
'E1tlKEpValou<; 'toilvofla Kat e1tt yuvalKa 'toli Ill: Aou;;
l)yefl6vo<; 'toli Ill: LouAa. ME'ta SI: 'tali'ta Kat w<; TIeAo- ruler Theodoros [I} in tow, the son ItS
1tOvv'lO"ov efl~aAwv, exwv Sf] Kat 'tOY ~aO"lAew<; [I.62} When h~ arri~ed in Thessaly, he seized Domokos i~ the
'Iwavvou 1talSa 8EOSWpOV I)YEfl6va, eO"'tpa'tEue'to.
~bsence of ItS Eplkernian ruler, Then he also took d b n
Jected to his authority the cityofPharsala h I and su-
II A'l'lK6f1evo<; SI: e<; 8EnaA[av nlv 'tE 1l0flOKl'lv 1tapeAa- also E 'k " ' W ose or swere
mia b pi ernalo!' ~e advanced further and conquered La-
~EV, eKAl1t6v't0<; 'toli ev au'tfj l)yefl6vo<; 'E1tlKepVeW, Kat Sf] £, yThermopylal and Patras, the one on the plain b th
Kat <!JapO"aAwv 1t6A1V, Kat 'tau't'lv U1tO 'E1t1KEpValwv £1t1- oot of the mountain in Lokris
I . . . ' H e t h en moved on toYthee
Kpa'touflev'lV u'l" au't</> e1t01y)O"a't0. TIpotAauvE SI: £<; 'to ~hram. Many other towns in that area also went over to him
1tp60"w, 'to 'te Z'l'tOliV1V 'to £v 8EPflOWAal<; Kat TIa'tpa<; ough negotiated surrender. After that when the Wl'r f
'ta<; ev 't</> 1teSl4'1tpo<; 'tfj U1tWp£lc.< 'twv AOKpwV opOU<; Ka't- terulerDL'
bh t h d e UIS, woad hh a marriageable' daughter alreadyIeo
EO"'tptta'to, Kat au't</> 1tPOEXWP'lO"E' Kat aAAa SI: 'tWV 'tau'tn e ~ot e to a man,30 learned that the sultan was comi g
1tOA10"fla'tWV OUK 6Alya 1tPOO"EXWP'lO"EV au't</> KaeofloAoyln· agamst her and that the bishop of Salona was spurnng ,n him
ME'ta SI: 'tali'ta I) Ill: Aou;; 'toli I)YEfl6vo<; YUVY), eXOMa
euya'ttpa yaflou 'tE wpa[av Kat erru'lfltv'lV avSpl, w<;
eWeE'tO ~ao"lAta e1tl6v'ta, l)ye1O"ea1 SI: au't</> £1tt 'taSE 'tWV'-


ZaAOVWV apXlepEa, Aa~oucra 'te 't~v euya'tEpa Kat Swpa, on in this, she took her daughter and as many gifts as she
ilcra 'iouva'to, "1t'ina 't<;i ~acrlAel. '0 o£ 'tJjv 'te euya'tEpa could, and went to meet the sultan. He accepted her daugh-
E8El;a'to, Kat au~v afta 'tfi euya'tpt E, 'ta Eau'tou ~el] ter and sent both her and her daughter to his own household
a1tE1teft1te, ~v O£ xwpav 1tapaAa~wv 'tau'tn E1tEO"'tl]crev while he took possession of the land and appointed a gover-
nor for it,3l
This woman is said to have fallen in love with a priest
AEye'tal o£ 1tept 'tau'tl], tii, YUVaLKO" w, lepEw, 'tlVO,
called Strates and become so shameless that she entrusted

Z'tpa'tew E1tlKaAouftEvOU Epacreeicra Kat E, 'to 1tpocrw aVaL- her realm to this priest. She also treated reprehensibly many
oeia, EAauvwv 'tJjv 'te apx~v E1tE'tpe'\te 't<;i tepei, Kat aVaLSij people who lived in the town of Delphi [Salona]. For this
1tOAAOU, 'tOU, 't~V fl.eA<pwv 1tOAlV EVOlKouV'ta, EpyacraftEVl]. reaso~ they were denounced to the sultan by the bishop, as
fl.l" 'tau'ta U1tO apXlepEW, E, ~acrlAEa Sle~A'iel]crav, w, It was outrageous for such an extensive land to be ruled by a
atKla ltv [I.631 ell] YUVatKa Xwpa, 'tocrau'tl], 'iYOUftEvl]V, woman, one who was committing adultery with a priest and
lmo lepEw, ftOlXeuOftEvl]V, aV~KeO"'ta KaKa 1tOletV 'tou, inflicting intolerable harm on the citizens. It was for this
1toAI'ta" Kat Sla 'tau'ta a1tiipaL ~aO"lAEa E1tlov'ta O"'tpa'teue- reason that the sultan set out to march against them. It is
creal E1t' au'tou<;. AEye'taL ftEV'tOl 1tept 'tou lepEw, 'tou'tou also said that this priest, who was living with this woman,
had misbehaved with many other women as well by working
'tou 'tfi yuvalKt 'tau-rn cruyyevoftEvou Kat i\AAa OUK oAiya
some kind of demonic sorcery by which to attract them and
EO"'te yuvatKa, 1tAl]ftfteAijcraL, Ka'tepya~oftevov SaLftoviCjJ
lure them into having sex. De Luis, the woman's husband,
'tP01tCjJ, wO"'te 'tau'ta, E<pEAKecrea, a1tayoftevov E1tt cruv- had previously died of an illness." He was of the fanillyof
oucria,. fl.£ Aouij, SE a tii, yuvalKo, av~p 1tpacreev e-re'te- the kings of Aragon and, when he came to the Peloponnese
Aeu'tJjKel vacrCjJ. 'Bv S£ oo'to, YEVO, 'tWV TapaKwvl]criwv from Italy, he took over Attica and Boiotia bordering on the
~acrlAEwv, Kat a1ta'te OO'to, a1tO 'I'taAia, a<plKOftevo, E1tt Peloponnese, and also Phokis and Patras, the one that is
I1eA01tOvvl]crov, Ka'tECTXe ~v AnlK~v afta Kat BOlW'tiav outside Thermopylai. 33 Shortly afterward, these men lost
1tpO, 'tfi I1eA01tOvv'icrCjJ, Kat S~ Kat <J)wKcitSa Kat I1a'tpa, their rule; some of them went back to Italy, while others
'ta, EK'tO, Elepft01tUAWv. OO'tOl ft£v oiiv ilO"'tepov XpovCjJ ou stayed there until they died. Among the latter was this De
Luis, whose wife and daughter were taken away by Bayezid,
1tOAA<;i OleAeav'tl 'tJjv 'te 'iyeftoviav a1tE~aAOV, Kat 01 ftl:v
the son of Murad, when he left.
a1tevoO"'tl]crav E1tt 'I'taAia" ol S' au'tou EVEftelvav, E, Il
e-reAeu'tl]crav. Tou'twv S' "Iv Kat 00't0, a fl.£ Aouij<;, 4i ~v
yuvatKa a<peA0ftevo, I1aLa~~'tl], 6 Aftoupa'tew Kat ~v
euya'tEpa EXWV a1texw pel.

108 109

Bayezid now turned his attention to the Peloponnese.

'3 '0 fli:v t<; ITEAonovv'1crov tnE~aAEv. '0 fli:v oilv TIj<; Wh '3
en he had invaded Thessaly and secured the cities there
Lnap"t'1<; ~yEflwv, w<; e<; TIjv 8EnaAlav ecrt~aAE "ta<; "tE
the ruler of Mistra {Theodoros IJ escaped at night and wen~
nOAEl<; tnl "ta acr<j>aAi:<; Ka"tacr"t'1craflEvo<;, anoSpa<; VUK"ta<; to the Peloponnese to defend himself as best he could
4JXE"t0 t<; ITEAonovv'1crov, w<; ~v tnln, afluvouflEVO<; ii ~gamst an attack. This made Bayezid all the more eager to
~Suva"to Kpcmcr-ra. Kal {r.64} efltA'1crE fli:v OUX ~Klcr-ra Sla mvade the Peloponnese. But news reached him that the
"tou"to £icr~aA£lv e<; "t~v ITEAonovv'1crov, arrEAla Si: Hungarians, under the leadership of Sigismund, the em-
a<j>h<E"to au"t<\>, w<; ot ITalovE<; ~youfltvou LlYlcrflouvSoU peror of the Romans," along with the French and a great
'Pwflalwv ~acrlAtw<; "t£ Kal au"toKpa"topo<; Kal KEA"tol Kal many Germans, had assembled to attack him and were pre-
rEpflavwv OUK aAlyol crUVEAEY'1crav w<; tn' aU"tov tnlov"tE<;, panng to cross the Danube. They also had with them th
Kal "tov "t£ "Icr"tpov napacrK£ua~olv"to Sla~fjvm, Ka! ~aKa<; Wallachians,. anob~e people who were showing them th:
:nay and gUldmg their army. This Sigismund who was march-
St, ytvo<; OUK ayEvvt<;, {XOlEV flE"t' au"twv, TIj<; "tE 6Sou
mg agamst Bayezid was the ruler of the German realm _
~youfltvou<;, TIjv ecr~Y'1crlv "tou cr-rpa"tou nOloufltvou<;. Ll- 'd d . ' re
Sl e mostly m the city ofVienna,15 and ruled a significant
YlcrflouvSo<; Si: oli"to<; 6 tnl ITma~~"t'1v cr-rpa"t£uofl EvO <; area of German territory from there. Later, when the Hun-
~YEflwV "tE rEpflavwv "t~v apx~v e"ttlrxavEv wv, nEp! BltV- ganans Joined them, he was at once king of the Hungarians
v'1v "t~v noAlv "ta noAACt Sla"tpl~wv, Kal xwpa<; "twv "tau-rn and ruler of the land of the Germans."
rEpflavwv apxwv ou <j>auA'1<;' ITalovwv flE"ta "tau"ta npocr- Germany begins at the Pyrenees Mountains, from where
ayoflevwv cr<j>lcrlv au"to<; ~acrlAEu<;"tE afla Ka8£lcrTIjKEl ITm- the Tartesos River flows to the Ocean in the west.l' There is '4

OVWV Ka! "tfj<; rEpflavwv xwpa<; ~yEflwv. upper Germany, which extends as far as the cities called Co-
'4 'H Si: rEpflavla apXE"tal flEV ano "tou ITup'1v[OU opOU<;, logne and Strasbourg. 38 From there it extends to the Ocean
68EV Kat 6 Tap"'1cro<; pEWV enl "tov npo<; tcrntpav WKEaVOV. 1that
f 39surrounds France on the right and D enmark onth e
e t, as far as the British Isles. There is also Danubian Ger-
Kal Ecr"tl fli:v ~ avw rEpflavla, t<j>' Ocrov Si: npo',oucra
many, whose territory extends alongside that river from the
Ka8~KEl Ecr"tE KOAwvlav Kal l\pyEv"tl'1v, nOAEl<; oihw Ka-
City ofVienna to the Tartesos, and then to Prague and Bohe-
AouflEva<;. Ta Si: ev"tEu8EV Ka8~KEl enl WKEaVaV "tov nEp! mia. An active man could traverse its length from Vienna to
KEA"tlKfjV "tE Enl Sd;la Kal nEp l ~avlav en' aplcr-rEpa, w<; enl
"ta<; BpE"taVlKa<; vfjcrou<;. "Ecr"tl Si: {r.65} Kal ana "Icr-rpou
rEp flavia, ana BltVV'1<; nOAEw<; en' au"tov Si: E<; Tap"t'1crov
npo',oucra xwpa, Kal Enl Bpayav, "tou<; BOEflou<;. £'('1 S' ltv
am'> BlEVV'1<; t<; WKEaVOV avSp! EU~WV4' nEv"tEKmElKocrlv


~ftepwv avucycll KCl'"rCt ftijKO<;' Ka1:Ct S£ nAcho<; e"ll] ltv lCat the Ocean in twenty-five days. Its width would take longe,
nAfwv 1:0U1:WV, ~paxU ano 1:fj<; KeA1:IKij<; i6V1:I ent ~V but less if one were to go from France to the land of Den~
Ll,av[av xwpav.
Germany is better governed than all the lands and peo- '5
'5 Euvoftehal S£ ~ xwpa aU1:l] ftaAICY1:a Sij 1:WV np6<; 1:e
pies situated toward the north and west. It thus has widely
IipK1:0V 1:e lCat e=EpaV nacywv 1:WV 1:au1:t1 XWPWV lifta lCat
known and prosperous cities, some of which are governed
e9vwv, E<Y1:e n6Ael<; nepupavel<; Kat euSa[ft0va<; Kat uno
under thelf own authority by egalitarian regimes and some
CYCPWV aU1:WV t<; 1:0 icyoS[al1:0V eu9uvoft£va<; Slnpl]ft£VOU<;, as tyrannies, while others are subject to bishops appointed
lCat t<; 1:UpavviSa<;, Kat uno apXIepeUCYI 1:an0ft£va<; 1:01<; by the great pontiff of the Romans. The cities that are well-
uno 1:0U 'Pwftaiwv fteyaAou apXIep£w<; lCa91<Y1:aft£vOl<;. Kat governed in an egalitarian way in both upper and lower
n6Ael<; ftev E<; 1:0 icyoSial1:oV euvoftoufteval etl]cyav ai'i1:al EV Germany are the following: Nuremberg, a prosperous city;
1:e 1:fi livw Kat 1:fi 1CU1:W fepftaviq, Nop6~epyov n6AI<; S~rasbourg; and Hamburg. Those which are subject to
euSaiftwv Kat Apyev1:il] Kat Aft7tUpyov, Kat at ei<; apXIepel<; bIshops are Cologne, Vienna, the one that belongs to lower
1:an6fteval KOAwvta, BIEVVl] ~ e<; ~v Ka1:W fepftaviav Germany,40 and a good many other cities, which are slightly
less lffiportant than those two, in all about two hundred
aVIoucya, Kat IiAAal ft£V OUK 6Aiyal n6Ael<;, anoS£ouCYal
~ore. As for the tyrannies, one may distinguish three rnlers
1:0U1:WV 6Aiy4' 1:IV[, aftcpt1:Ct<; SlalCocy[a<;. 'E<; Se 1:upavviSa<;
ill Germany, namely those of the city of Atzileia,4! Austria,
1:Pel<; ftaAICY1:a nn SI£AOI 1:1<; 1:fj<; fepftavia<; ~yeft6va<;, 1:ij<; and Bremen in upper Germany.42
1:e A1:~IAeil]<;! n6Aew<; {r.66} Kat Aou<Y1:pia<; Kat Bp£ftl]<; 1:fj<; This people is populous and occupies a large part of the ,6
livw fepftavia<; yevoftEvl]<;. world, being second only to the nomadic Skythians. If they
,6 "E<Y1:I S£ yEVO<; 1:0U1:0 ftEya Kat Ent noA" SlijlCOV 1:WV were to agree and be governed by one rnle, they would be
lCa1:Ct ~v OilCOUftEVl]V, fte1:a ye ~Ku9wv 1:WV voftaSwv invincible and by far the most powerful p~ople. They en-
Seu1:epov, w<; et 1:aU1:0 cppOVO[l], Kat 6'1" tvt IiPXOV1:1 JOY g~od health as they are situated below the Arctic region
~yeft6vI, aftaXl]1:6v 1:e ltv e"ll] Kat nOAA<i' Kpa1:I<Y1:0V, 'YYI- and hve mostly in its interior; they do not make much use of
the s~a. They are better governed than any of the peoples
eIv61:a1:ov S£ QV li1:e 6no 1:ijv apK1:ciJav ftolpav 1:e1:ayft£vov
of whIch we knOw. They are not afflicted by plagues, which,
Kat nept ~V 1:au1:t1 ftaAI<Y1:a nl] fteCY6yalOv, 9aMnn ou
produced by the corruption of the air, break out especially
navu 1:lnpocyxpwftEVOU<;, euvoftel1:al ftaAICY1:a Sij E9vwv, wv ill the eastern regions and carry off a large part of their in-
ijftel<; tCYftev, oU1:e AOIftOU, 0<; Sij uno 1:* 1:0U a£po<; ~tew<; habitants, nor by the other illnesses that tend to break out
EnIyev0ft£vl]<; ft aAI<Y1:a enIcpol1:WV 1:01<; tciJOI<; an6AAuCYI
noAu 1:I [tEpo<; 1:WV 1:au1:t1 OilCOUV1:WV, oU1:e IiAAwv Sij v6cywv


'rWV E<; ~ ftil<; :It<lVU 'rl dw66'rwv 6EPOU<; 'rE Kat <p6lvorewpou often among us in the summer and autnmn and carry off a
good many people here. Nor are there earthquakes, at least
ETCl<pOl'rilv ETClXwplasov'rWv aU'roT<; 6afla, WJ't"E Kat iKavov
n~t w~rth mentioning. It rains a great deal in this land, espe-
'rl areoylVE<16al 'rOU YEVOU<; 'rothou, oun <1dEl, Il 'rl Kat
cmlly 10 the summer. As a political community they are or-
a;LOV Myou. "YEl 0' 6EPOU<; flaAlJ't"a O~ EV 'rau'Ct] 'Cfi xwpq,. ganized in the same way as the Romans, whose customs and
TIoAt'rEuE'ral 0, Ka'ra 'rau'ra 'PWflalol<; ~<; 'rE olal'rav Kat way of life they have adopted. They are also like the Ro-
~6'1 'rE'rpaflflevov, <1Uft<pEpOftEVOV 'ra 'rE aAAa 'Pwflalo,<;, mans in most other respects, and of all the people in the
Kat E<; ~V 6pl']<1Kdav 'Pwflalwv flaAlJ't"a o~ 'rWV repo<; west they are the most pious followers of the religion of the
t<1TCepav OEl<1l0atfloveTv. N0fll~E'rat 0' reapa 'rOU'rOl<; Kat Romans. They also practice duels more than other peoples
flovoflaxla fl aAL<1'ra o~ 'rWV aAAwv t6vwv, W<1'rE n6EV QUo' do, so that they even duel with each other on foot, rather
E<P' lrerewv aAA~AoL<; flovoflaXETv. To 0' yevo<; 'rOU'rO OE;l- than on horseback. This people is very adept mechanically
w'ra'rov f.<1'rE {r.67} fll']xava<; DV Kal E<; 'ra reoAEflLKa epya Kal
and so excels when it comes to warfare and all crafts. The
land itselfproduces no less than what other lands do, except
E<; reacra<; 'ra<; 'rExva<; reoAu 'rL EUOOKlfleT. <'l>EpEL O£ ~ xwpa
for ohve at! and figs. Some believe that cannons and firearms
aihl'] reA~v tAalou Kat Lcrxaowv 'raAAa reav'ra OUK EAacr<1W
were first invented among the Germans and spread to oth-
'rWV E<; ~V aAAI']V Xwpav <PEpoflEVWV. 010v'ral OE 'rLVE<; Kal ers and the rest of the world.
'rI']AE~6AOU<; 'rE Kal 'r'1AE~OAl<1Kou<; urea rEpflavwv apx~v Hungary begins at the German city of Vienna and ex- '7
areoOEOELYflEVOU <; E<; aAA~Aou<; repoEA6ETv Kat E<; ~V aAAI']V tends along the Danube to the east as far as the Wallachians
OLKOUflev '1V' and Serbs, while to the north it extends to the Bohemians
'7 TIatovla O£ apXE'rat areo Blevvl']<; 'rii<; rEpflavwv reoAEW<;, who are ~alled Czechs. There are lords in this land, each th~
Kat Eret fl£V £W 'rQ "I<1'rp'l' <1Uflrepo'iou<1a Ka6~KEL Erel ~ilKa<; lord of his ancestral land, and they are subject to their king
'rE Kat TpL~aAAou<;, Erel O£ apK'rov Erel BOEflou<;, 'rou<; KE- to the extent defined by their customs; for custom imposes
certain conditions. They do not usually have local kings but
Xlou<; KaAouflEvOU<;, Ka6~KEL. "EvEL<1l O£ apxov'rE<; 'rau'Ct] 'Cfi
bring them in either from the royal house of the Bohemians
or fr~m the Germans, Poles, or other nations there. 43 The;
xwpq" apxwv O£ EKaO"'rO<; 'rii<; rea'rp<i>a<; xwpa<;, Kat ureo'raO"-
<10ftEVO <; 'rQ ~a<1LAET au'rwv, E<; 0<10V VOfllSE'rat <1<pl<1L. No-
~re like the Germans in terms of weaponry and in way of
fll~E'raL O£ Eret pl']'roT<;. Kat treLxwpl'l' fl£v ~aO"LAeT ou reavu hfe and customs, and favor a luxurious life as, they say, the
'rL Xpwv'raL, Ereayov'raL O£ ij area BOEflwv 'rou ~a<1lAdou
OlKOU ij area rEpflavwv ij TIoMvwv ij Kal aAAwv 'rWV 'rau'Ct]
e6vwv. ~ufl<pepov'raL O£ rEPflavoT<; 'ra 'rE oreAa Kat ~V E<;
'ra ~61'] au'rwv olat'rav, E<; 'ro a~poOlat'rov areoKAlvoV'rE<;, n

<paO"t KeA'tou<; 'te Kat repflavou<;. N0fl[~et Ka'ta 'tau'to 'Pw- French and the Germans do. They hold to the same religious
fla[ot<; 'ta E<; 9p'lO"KeLav. rEvo<; Sf. 'tov'to ilAKLfloV Kat E<; practices as the Romans. Theirs is a hardy race that displays
flaxa<; 'toAflt] npo<yxpwflevov EmeLKel. IIoLovV'tat Sf. Kat considerable daring in battle, They promote one of their lo-
EmxwptOV 'ttva 'twv apxov'twv 'ta npw'ta, E<; 't~v ~aO"tAeLaV cal lords to the highest position and give him royal rank, but
they call him governor and not lord. 44 They speak a language
aV~KoV'ta, Kat OLKovoflOV Sf. ov'ta, Kat fl'lSf. ilpxov'ta
that is like that spoken by no other people and is entirely
6vofla~oUo"L. <I>wvfi Sf. Xpwv'tat ooSaflfi napanA'lO"[q hf.p'l'
different from that of the Germans, Bohemians, and Poles.
'ttVt 'twv yevwv, aAAa ilAAt] 'to napanav SteveYKou<1t] 'te
Some believe that they formerly used to be the Getai and
't~<; repflavwv 'te Kat BOEflwV Kat IIoAavwv. O'{ov'tat SE lived beneath the Haimos range, but when they were op-
'ttve<; 'tou'tOU<; oi flf.V rha<; yevE0"9at 'to {r.68} naAatOV, Kat pressed by the Skythians, they moved to the land where
uno 'tov AlflOV OLKovv'ta<;, uno LKU9wv KaKouflEvOU<;, ava- they live now. But others say that they were Wallachians. For
xwp~O"aL e<; ~vSe ~v xwpav, ~v Kat vvv OLKOVO"tV' O[ Sf. my part, I cannot easily decide what these people were orig-
<paO"t "aKa<; yevE0"9aL. 'Ey", SE, onolov ilv 'tt rt'l 'to yEVO<; inally. This name is what they use for themselves and what
'tovw ~v apmv, OOK ltv oihw pqS[w<; eLnelv ~xoLflL' they are called by the Italians, and so it would not really be
'toilvofla flf.v'tOt 'tov'to ono 'te O"<pwv ao'twv Kat uno 'haAwv correct for me to call them by any other name. 45 Their royal
capital is at Buda, a prosperous city on the Danube.
KaAouflEvOU<;, oonavu 'tL KaAw<; ~Xotflt hf.p'l' 'ttVt ovofla'tL
These Hungarians, then, brought in Sigismund, the ruler I8
KaAelV 'tou'tou<;. "EO"'tt Sf. aO'tol<; ~aO"!Aeta ev MnouSt]
of the German city of Vienna:' and made him their king.
noAeL eoSa[flovt napa 'tov "IO"'tpov. They entrusted their realm to him so that it would be more
I8 LLytO"flovvSoV Sf. 'tOY Btf.vv'l<; ~<; repflavwv nOAew<; secure, When he received the kingdom of the Hungarians:'
~yeflova enayoflevot OO'tot Sf. ot IIa[ove<; ~aO"LAf.a 'te 0"'1'[- he sent envoys to the pontiff of the Romans, who was an as-
O"tV aO'tol<; Ka9iO"'taO"av, Kat 'ta Ka'ta ~v apmv enf.'tpetav sociate and close friend of his, to ask for his support in be-
aO't<ji SLa9e1vat w<; ~XOt ent 'to aO"<paAf.O"'tepov. Ou'to<; flf.V coming emperor of the Romans. 48 The pontiff of the. Ro-
ouv eneL 'te ~v IIatovwv napEAa~e ~aO"tAeLaV, SLenpeO"~eu­ mans had originally given this title to the kings of the French
e'to npo<; 'tOY 'Pwfla[wv apxtepf.a, O"uv~9'l 'te I\v'ta aO't<ji on account of the wars that they fought, frequently and with
great courage, against the barbarians who crossed over from
Kat em~Setov e<; 'ta flaAtO"'ta, "'O"'te emt'l'Pt0"9~vat aO't<ji
North Mrica to Iberia and who conquered large parts of
aO'toKpa'topt 'Pwfla[wv yevf.0"9at. Tov'to flf.V oi ~<; 'Pwfl'l<;
apxtepel<; 'tol<; KeA'twv ~ao"LAevO"t 'to npw'tov eneS[SoO"av
SLa 'toil<; noAf.flou<;, oil<; 9afla 'te Kat avSpeto'ta'ta npo<;
'toil<; ano At~u'l<; SLa~av'ta<; ent 'I~'lp[av ~ap~apou<; Kat

II6 "7

Ta 1tOAAa Tii<;'I~'1pla<; KaTaO'tpEtaf'eV01J<; aUTol<;. METa S£

Iberia. Afterward the support of the pontiff of the Romans
was transferred to the rulers of the Germans. 49 The pon-
TauTa E1tl TOU<; fEpf'avwv ~YEf'ova<; f'ETEV~VEKTaL ~ ¥i<p0<;
tiff had promised to invest Sigismund with this rank and in-
1'013 'Pwf'alwv (r.69} apXLEpew<;. LLYLCYf'OUVSov w<; V1t-
vited him to come for that purpose, and he set out for Italy
[(TXVOlTO " apXLEpEU<; T~V TE a~lav TaVT'1V E1tmgevaL, Kal through Venetian territory. But when the Venetians learned
S~ f'E1'£1tef'1tETO E1tl 1'0131'0, wPf''1TO f'ev E1tl 'haAlav SLa T~<; that Sigismund's journey would take him through their ter-
'EVETWV xwpa<;. OUTOL f'£V oilv w<; EnV90vTO LLYLCYf'OUVSov ritory, they sent a messenger publicly warning him not to
SLa Tii<; xwpa<; aUTwv ~v 1topdav 1tOLOVf'EVOV, E1tEf'tav travel through their land. 50 He said that he would not agree
IiYYEAOV, 1tpoayopEuOVTE<; aUTQ f'~ S,teVaL SLa Tii<; xwpa<; to this unless he knew that they were actively trying to block
'auTwv. '0 S£ OUK E<p'1 1tdCYEcy9aL, liv f'~ yvQ aUTou<; 1tEL- his passage. So the Venetians prepared an army and blocked
pWf'evo1J<; EPY<!' SLaKwAuCYaL SLa1t0pW0f'EVOV. IIapECYKw- him. When Sigismund realized that he was blocked, he drew
up his men for battle and engaged the Venetian army. He
a~oVTo f'tv oilv ol 'EVETOl CYTpaTov Kal SLEKWA1JOV. ',0.<; S£
lost a large part of his army, was routed, and barely escaped
ijcy9ETO KWA1J0f'EVO<;, 1tapETa~aTo E<; f'ax'1v Kal CY1JVe~aAE
from the enemy.
TQ 'EVETWV cr-rpaTQ, Kal a1tEyev£To aUTQ OUK oAlya 1'013
Abandoning his plan to pass through Venetian territory, 19
cr-rpaTEuf'aTo<;, Tpa1tof'ev<!, TE E<; <p1JnV Kal f'OAL<; SLa- Sigismund went through upper Germany and came to the
<p1JYOVTL TOU<; evavTlo1J<;. tyrant of Lombardy.51 From there he reached Rome and was
19 OUTO<; f'£V S~ E1td 1'£ a1teyvw ~V SL' 'EVETWV 1topdav, made king (i.e., emperor), being appointed by the great pon-
Imt'i£L SLa Tii<; livw fEpf'avla<; E<; TOV ALyvpla<; wpavvov tiff to this position. After that he asked the pontiff to con-
a<pLKOf'EVO<;. 'EV1'£U9EV S£ E<; 'Pwf''1V 1tapEyevETo, Kal ~a­ tribute to the expedition against the barbarian that he was
CYLAEU<; TE Ka9ELcr-r~KEL, U1tO 1'013 f'EyaA01J apXLEpew<; E<; planning, requesting money and men from him. The latter
1'0131'0 a1t08ELx9d<;. METa S£ TauTa ES£lTO TE TOU apXL- sent envoys to the king of the French and the tyrant of Bur-
gundy and managed to secure eight thousand men, under
EPEW<; CY1Jf'~aAecy9aL E<; T~V t1tl TOV ~ap~apov aUTQ EKcr-rpa-
the command of the brother of the Burgundian ruler.52 He
Tdav yLV0f'EV'1V, t'i1'£lTO St aUTov xp~f'aTa TE KallivSpa<;.
made his own preparations too, assembling as large an army
'0 St 1tpo<; TE TOV KEATWV ~aCYLAea SLa1tpEcy~wcyaf'EVo<; Kal
from among the Germans as he could afford to hire. When
1tpo<; TOV B01Jpyo1JvSla<; wpavvov SLE1tpa~aTO S09~vaL E<; he was prepared for war, he set out, taking the Hungarians
oKTaKL<YXLAlo1J<;, Kal cr-rpaT1']yov TOV B01Jpyo1JvSla<; ~yEf'0-
vo<; aSEA<p6v. IIapECYK£1JacraTo f'£v oilv Kal aUTo<;, CY1JAAe~a<;
cr-rpaTWf'a a1to fEpf'avwv, oCYov ~SuvaTo f'LCY9wcyaf'EVo<;.
',0.<; ~S'1 aUTQ TE Ta £1<; TOV 1tOAEf'OV 1tapECYKEuacr-ro,


E;~AaIJVE, Aa~wv 'tov<; 'tE ITalova<; Kat L'.aKa<; {I.70} 'rij<; and the Wallachians to lead him on the way, straight along
6Sou ~yE[!Ova<;, EVeV 'tou "IJ'tpolJ E1tt ITa1a~~TI]v. L'.lE1tpE- the Danube against Bayezid. He also sent envoys to the rul-
ers of the Italians and Iberians through the mediation of the
O'~EvO'a'to SE Kat1tpo<; 'tov<; 'haAwv Kat 'I~~ PWV ~yE[!Ova<;,
pontiff, asking for money and men. The pontiff had sent
XP'lfta'tl~oV'to<; SE'tou'to av't<!> 'tou aPX'EpeW<;, al'toV[!EVO<;
him enough money, but men {...}
Xp~[!a'ta Kat IivSpa<;. Kat xp~[!a'ta [!EV E1tE1tO[!<pE1 au't<!> When Bayezid learned that Sigismund, the emperor of 20
[KaVa 6 apX'EpEV<;, IivSpa<; Se { ...}' th:.Romans, was coming against him, he set out with a large
20 '0 [!ev ouv ITata~~TI]<; w<; EWeE'tO E1tlOv'ta o[ L1- military force, taking the entire army of Europe and Asia
y10'[!OUVSOV 'tOY 'Pw[!alwv 'au'toKpa'topa, CTVV 1tOAA<!> O''tpa- and rushed to the Danube as fast as he possibly could:
'tEV[!a't1 EAavvov'ta, 1tapaAa~wv 'tOY 't~<; Eupw1t'l<; 'tE Kat He encamped forty stades away from the Danube. Yet the
AO'la<; O''tpa'tov li1tav'ta aV'tE1ttlE1 E1tt "IJ'tpov, ii ESvva'to French, being impetuous and ignorant in most matters
'taX'O''ta 1tOpWO[!EVO<;. L'tpa't01tESEIJO'a[!eVOIJ SE au'tou a1to wanted to gain the victory all by themselves. They armed
'tou "IJ'tpolJ E1tt O''taSloIJ<; 'tEO'O'apaKov'ta, o[ KEA'tot auea- themselves and advanced with the intention of storming the
barbarians ahead of everyone else. In a fierce battle,53 the
SE1<; 'tE 5V'tE<; Kat ayvW[!OvE<; W<; 'ta 1toAAa, a;lOuV'tE<; O'<pwv
French were routed; they fled with all their might and in
ao'twv [!OVWV ~v VlK'lV YEVEO'ea1, 61tA10'a[!EV01 E1tt'JEO'av
complete disorder back to their own army, with the Turks at
1tpO'tEpOl w<; avap1taO'O[!EV01 'tov<; ~ap~apoIJ<;. Max'l<; SE their heels. Then they all became mixed up together as the
Kap'tEpil<; yEVO[!EV'l<; 'tpE1tOv'ta1 o[ KEA'tol, Kat <pEVyOV'tE<; barbarians pressed upon them, and the Hungarians .:nd the
ava Kpa'tO<; Kat OOSEVt KOO'[!C¥ E1tl1tl1t'tOIJO'l 't<!> O'<pE'tEPC¥ Germans tnrned to flight as well. As they rushed to cross
0''tpa'tEV[!a't1, E1t10'1tO[!EVWV 'tWV TOVpKWV. 'Ev'tauea ava[!t; the Danube, a large part of the army perished by the river. A
yEVO[!EVWV au'twv, W<; E1tEKE1V't0 ol ~ap~ap01, 'tpE1tOV'ta1 great slaughter ensued as the French and Hungarians were
it[!a 'tOV't01<; 01'tE ITalOVE<; Kat O[ fep[!avoL 'E1tE1YO[!EVWV cut down by the enemy. The Burgundian general was cap-
SE El<; ~v 'tou "IO''tpoIJ Sla~aO'lv a1twAE'to 1tOAAa'tou O''tpa-
tured and many other Hungarians and Frenchmen.54 As for
Sigismund, he ran all manner of extreme risks and barely
'tEV[!a'to<; Ka'ta 'tOY 1to'ta[!ov. 'EYEVE'tO Se <povo<; 1tOAv<; 01.-
m~naged to escape being captnred. He embarked upon a
AIJ[!tvwv 'tWV KEA'twv Kat ITatOVWV U1tO 'tWV Evav'tlwv, Kat
trIreme on the river and sailed to Byzantion to the king
6 BOIJpyoIJvSlwv O''tpa't'lY0<; EaAW, Kat IiAA01 OUK oAly01 of the Greeks {Manuel II}. He held talks with the king of
ITatovwv 'tE Kat KEA'twv. '0 [!EV OUV L1Y10'[!OUVSo<; S,aK,V-
SIJVEvO'a<; 'ta E"Xa'ta, Kat 1tapa ~paxV ClAwVat Sla<pIJYwv,
E[!~a<; E<;'tP1~P'l Ka'ta'tOV 1to'ta[!ov {L7I} E1tAE1 E<; BIJ~av'tlOv
1tapa ~aO'lAea 'EAA~vwv. 'E<; AoyoIJ<; SE a<p1KO[!EVO<; 't<!>

120 121

Bu1;av't[ou ~ao"IA([, Kal XP'1[!a't[O"a<; aim;;, ilO"a e~OVAE'tO, Byzantion, negotiated what he wanted with him, and then
departed and sailed back home.
<1>XE-ro an01tAtwv en' o'LKOU.
After routing the Hungarians and French, Bayezid, the 21
21 I1ata1;~'t'1<; Sf: 6 A[!OUpa'tEw, w<; 'tov<; 'tE I1a[ova<;
son of Murad, plundered their land, moved against them
t-rptta'to Kat KEA'tov<;, eA'111;E't0 't~v xwpav au'twv, aSE-
without fear, and captured countless slaves. He even
£o"'tEpOV ~S'1 xwpwv en' av'toiJ<; Kal avSpanoSa na~moAAa marched against Buda, the court of the Hungarians, but on
ayO[!Evo<;. Kal S~ EnEAavvwv ent MnovS'1v, 'tet I1atovwv the way he fell ill; for he suffered from gout. And if he had
~aO"o.Ela, lKa[!VEV uno 'tij<; voo"ou· noSaAy[av Sf: evoO"EI. not been afflicted by this illness, I have no reason for think-
Kat et [!~ [!£V'tOI evwxAEl'tO uno 'tij<; v6<You, OUK lxw Aoy[1;E- ing that anything conld have prevented him from reaching
0"9at, 0 't[ nEp l\v ytvoI'to au'tcii e[!noSwv ent MnouS'1v 'tE Buda and capturing Buda, the court of the Hungarians and
eAaO"al Kat napaO"~O"a0"9a, MnovS'1v, 'tet I1alovwv ~aO"[­ co~quering their land. But as it was, he suffered greatly from
AEla Kat Ka'tamp£ta0"9al 't~v Xwpav au'twv' viiv Sf: Ka[!VWV t~IS conditi~n, and so he turned back and led his army to
hIs own terrItory. Later he sent armies to ravage the land
uno 'tij<; voo"ou enlEIKw<; navu anEvom'1O"£ 'tE au'to<; Kal
of Hungary and Hungarian Wallachia. After some time he
'tov mpa'tov a~yayEv w<; ~v xwpav au'toii. "Y O"'tEpOV
campaigned against the Wallachians and against Mircea the
[!tV'tOI em1te[!nwv mpanv[!a'ta ent I1alOv[av Kal I1atOVO- ruler ofWaIlachia,55 accusing him of being at war and m:rch-
SaK[av eSnou ~v xwpav. Xpovou Sf: emYEVO[!£VOU Ent mg against him with the Hungarians .
.t.iiKa<; Kat ent Mvp;av 'tov .t.aK[a<; ~yE[!OVa EO"'tpa'tEuE'to, This race, the Wallachians, is hardy in war but not well 22

ai'tlaO"a[!Evo<; au'tov, w<; unap;av'ta 'tE noM[!ou Kat O"ilv governed. They live in villages and tend to a more nomadic
'tOl<; I1a[oO"lv en' au'tov mpa'tEUO[!EVOV. way of life. Their land extends from Ardeal in Hungarian
22 "Eml Sf: ytVO<; 'toii'to, .t.iiKE<; aAKI[!OV 'tE 'tet E<; nOAE[!OV Wallachia to the Black Sea. It has the Danube to its right
Kat ou mivu 'tl EUVO[!OV[!EVOV, Ka'tet KW[!a<; OiKOiiv, npo<; 'to as It exte~ds down to the sea and to its left the land of Bog-
danra, as It IS called [i.e., Moldavia}.56 They are separated
VO[!aSIKw'tEpOV 'tE'tpa[![!Evov. .t.1~KEI S' au'twv ~ [r.72}
from ~~ngarlan WaIlachia by a long mountain range called
xwpa anD ApSEA[OU, 'tij<; I1alovwv .t.aK[a<; apxo[!tv'1 lmE
Brasso. TheIr neIghbors include a large number of nomadic
enl EiH;Elvov nov'tov. "EXEI Sf: Ent SE;I~ [lEv Ka9~KouO"a ent
Skythians, a populous and prosperous race, subject to King
9aAaO"O"av 'tDv "IO"'tpov no'ta[!ov, En' aplo"'tEp~ Sf: BoySa-
v[av xwpav ou'tw KaAot>[!Ev'1V. .t.lelPYEI Sf: au'toiJ<; anD
I1alOvoSaK[a<; ilpo<; EntnoAiJ SI~KOV, I1paO"o~o<; KaAOV[!E-
vov. "EXEl S' 6[!opou<; ~ xwpa au.." Kat l:Ku9wv 'twv
vo[!aSwv [!OlpaV OUK 6A[Y'lV, y£vo<; nOAu 'tl Kat 6A~IOV,

122 123

into Ka~'1f'[peW 'r<f ~a(nAel 'ranof'eVOV' uq>' 4> S~ Kat LKV- C' . 58The nomadic Skythians, being subject to him
9", ot VOf'"Se<; 'ranof'EvOl o..tpa-revoV't"', ii ltv e;'1yij'r"', march with him ~herever he may lead them, and he person~
aV'r6<; 're "pe'r~V TCapEX0f'eVO<; e<; TCOAef'0V ";lOAOYOV. all~ displays considerable valor in war. To the north their
neighbors are the Poles, and the Russians to the east The
Tov'rwv S8 "xov'ral nOA"VOl f'8V TCPO<; IipK'rOV, Lapf''''r'''
S£ TCpO<; ew. flaKe<; S£ xpwv'ral q>wvn TCapaTCA'1O'[" -rjj
W~lachians speak a language that is similar to that ~f the
Italians, but so corrupted and different from it that it is dif-
'haAwv, Sleq>9apf'evt] S£ e<; 'roO'oil'rov Kal SleVeyKOVO't],
ficult for the Italians to understand anything they say, unless
wO'-re xaA£1tw<; emitElv 'rou<; 'haAou<; o'rLOilv, iI'rl f'~ 'ra<; they recoglllze words that are spoken distinctly.
Ae;el<; SlaO''1f'ELOuf'evwv eTClYlVWO'KelV, I) 'rl ltv AeyOl'ro. Regardmg the question of where the Wallachians came
23 "0geV f'£V oilv -rjj aV'rn q>Wvn xpWf'eVOl ~geO'l 'Pwf'a[wv from when they arrived in this land and settled it, speaking 23
eTCl'rav'r'1v aq>[Kov'rO 'r~V xwpav Kat ail'roil 'rnSe <!>K'1O'av, the same language as the Romans and using their customs,
oihE IiAAOU aK~Koa TCepl 'rov'rou SlaO'1']f'a[vov'ro<; O'aq>w<; I have heard n~ one else with anything clear to say nor have
"'rLOilv, oihe ail'ro<; "Xw (J'Uf'~aAe0'9"" w<; aV'roil 'rav'rt] I myself .anythmg to contribute on how it was settled by
4>K[0'9'1' Aeye'r'" f'EV TConaxii eA90v 'ro yevo<; 'roil'ro them. It IS said that this race came to settle this land f
d'f£ rom
many I erent places, but there is no proof of this, at least
evolK~O'aL aV'roil, ov f'~v, iI 'rl Kal a;LOV e<; iO''rop[av, 6'rLOilv
none worthy of being treated as historical. This people is
TCapeX0f'EVOV 'reKf'~pLOV. LUf'q>epe'r'" S8 'haAoT<; 'ra -re
like the Italians 10 ItS way of life and in other aspects. With
aAAa Kal -rjj e<; S["''rav Ka'raO''raO'el, Kat OTCAOl<; 'roT<; av'roT<; respect to weapons and dress, they still, even now, use the
Kal O'Kwii hl [r.73} Kal vilv 'rii av-rjj 'Pwf'a[wv SlaxpWf'e- same as the Romans do. Wallachia is divided into two
VOl. 'E<; Svo f'eV'rol Slt]p'1f'evov apxa<;, £(J"re ~V BoySav[av realms, Moldavia and the land by the Danube, and is not
Kal av~v TCap' "I(J"rpov xwpav ov TCavu 'rl eVV0f'el'ral. well governed. It is not their custom to keep the same rulers
NOf'[~OUO'l S£ ~yef'6O"lV ov 'roT<; aV'roT<; Slaf'evov-re<;, aA): for long but they are always replacing one tyrant with an-
eTCl'ro aEl O'q>[O'lTCPOO'q>Opov (J'Uf'f'e'ra~aAAoV'te<; Ka9l(J"raO'lV other based on what is advantageous for them. So they sum-
aAAO're IiAAOU<; O'q>[O'l -rupavvou<;. Mvp;av f'ev'rol 'roil'rov, moned this Mircea, who had formerly been a lord of this
~a~e, and established him as their tyrant, after they had
IipXov'ra 'roil yevou<; 'roilSe 'rO TCaAalov yeV0f'eVOV, eTClKa-
h forces to kill Dan, the previous tyrant .59 M'Ircea
AEO'af'eVOl -r1ipavvov O'q>[O'l Ka'reO''r~O'av'ro, (J'UvaVeAOV-re<;
ad many concubines and left many illegitimate children
flavov 'rOV TCpo0'9EV -rupavVeVOv'ra av'rwv. Mvp;a<; f'8V
throughout Wallachia. Later, when some time had passed
oilv oil'ro<; TCaAAaK[O'l ;uyyeVof'eVO<; OVK oAlyaKl<;, Kal
vo90u<; aTCD 'rO"'rOU O"XWV TCaTSa<; ava ~v flaK[av OVK
OA[YOU<;, v(J"repOV TCpo'(6v'rl 'r<f XPOV'll Kat 'rEAw~O'av'ro<;


and Mircea had died, many rulers emerged in Wallachia at

Mup;ew ave<puov'to 'tij ~aJdq 9a~a ~ye~ovec; aAAO'te aA-
one time or a~other, and they remain in power to this day.
AOl hy'te btl 'tovoe 'tov Xpovov Ka9l(Y't"a~evol ec; 't~v apx~v.
It was agamst this Mircea that Bayezid, the son of Mu-
24 'E:ret 'toii'tov o~ 'tov Mup;av, u:reap;av'ta :repo'tepov rad, marched, accusing him of having sided with Sigismund 24
:reoAE~OU ec; 'tOUC; ~ap~apouc; <1U<1'tpa'two~evov 'tQ ~lyl­ the emperor of the Romans, during the previous war agains~
<1~OUVO'l', 'Pw~aiwv au'toKpa'top', at'tla<1a~eVoc; rraLa~~­ the barbarians. 60 He crossed the Danube and pressed for-
't'lC; a 'Afloup,new e<1'tpa'teue'to, Kat 'tov 'te "I<1'tpov ola~ac; ward, reducing the land to slavery. Mircea assembled an
~Aauvev EC; 'to :repO<1W, ~v 'te xwpav avopa:reool~oflevoc;. ~my from his territory but decided not to march against
Mup;ac; ot <1uAAe;ac; <1't"pa'twfla a:reo 'tijc; Xwpac; e:ree;eA- him and offer battle; rather, he first safeguarded the women
gelv ~tv Kat ola~axe<19aL OUK e:reolel'to ~ouA~V, 'tac; ot yu- and children, settling them on Mount Brass6. Then he fol-
lo,,:"ed the army ~f Bayezid through the forests of that land,
valKac; Kat :realoac; ec; 'to opOC; 'to rrpa<1o~ov Ka'te<1't"~<1a'to
which "b are extensive and enclose it on all sides ' m ak'Ing It
:reeplTCoLOuflevoc;. 'E<pel:reE'tO oe u<1't"epov Kat au'toc; 'tQ {I·74}
accessl Ie for invaders and not easy to occupy. Following
rraLa~~'tew <1'tpa'teufla'tl ola 'twv OPUflwVWV 'tijc; xwpac;, ot hu,:, then, Mircea performed remarkable deeds, giving bat-
o~ :reoAAot 'tE evu:reapXOU<1l Kat a:reav'taXii :reep,OeOU<1l 't"i]v tle Ifany contmgent of the enemy broke away to seek sup-
xwpav ~~ ~a<1lflov elval'tolC; evav'tiOlC;, fI'loe EU:reE'tij xel- plies m the surroundmg countryside or to plunder pack ani-
pw9ijval. 'E<pe:reo~evoc; ot a:reeOelKVU'tO <,pya a;la AOyou, mals. Thus h~ followed the army with great daring and he
flaxo~EvoC; 'te, e! 'tl ola<1TCa<19tv 'twv :reoAefliwv eTCl<1l't"lOU- fought conspicuously well in shadowing Bayezid. It is said
flevov:ren 'tijc; xwpac; 'tpa:reol'to ~ e:rel U:reo~uyla A'l'i~o~Evov, that as the Turkish army was moving through this area, Mir-
Kat ou'tw 'toAflQ ~Eyi~ e<peTCo~evoc; 'tQ <1'tpa'teu fl a'tl' cea gave It a very hard time, as he isolated it and would not
let up in killing its men. At that point Evrenos, the minister
:reepl<pavwc; ot £<pe:reoflevov au'tQ olaflaxe<19al. Kat o~
expressed the opinion that the army should encamp ther '
Aeye'taL, ola:reopeuo~v'l' 'tQ <1't"pa'tEufla'tl e:re£Kel'to ev AU:rcn
and seek relief From then on he was h eld'In h'gh I esteeme
:reavu XaAeTCwC;, Kat e;e'tigel, Kal ola<p9elpwv OUK aviel. by the sultan for this reason, was appointed by him to high
"Ev9a Bpev£~ew gepa:reov'toC; yvwfl'lv a:reooelKvuflEVOU, nulitary commands, and became powerful. 61 So at that time
W<11:£ eV<1'tpa'to:reeoeu<1a<19aL 'tov <1'tpa'tov au'toii Kat a:reaA- Bayezld encamped there for the rest of that day, and on the
Aan v Eupa<19aL, a:reo 'toMou flEya 'to a:reo 'toiioe euooKl- next day he ferned his army across the Danube in the safest
fl elv :reapa 'tQ ~a<1lAel, Kat ec; <1't"pa't'lylac; Xp'lfla'ti~ov'ta
1mb ~a<1lAeWC; e:ret ~£ya xwpij<1aL ouva~wc;. To'te fltv ouv
au'toii rraLa~~'t'lC; eV'luAi<1a'to, £:rel<1XWV 't"i]v ~~Epav eKel-
v'lv' -rft 0' u<11:£paiq OleTCop9f1w<1ev, Ii eouva'to a<1<paAE<1't"a'ta,


'tOY (Y'tpa'tov SLa 'tou "Icr'tpoll. OiJ-rw fli:v ouv mJ-r<\> 0 btl way he could. And that is what the army did that he I d
agaInst Wallachia. 62 e
~aKi", cr'tpa'to<; btE1tp~yeL.
25 Me'ta Sf. 'tau'ta eAauvwv E1tOAL6pKeL BIl~av'tLOv, a1to . After that he set out to b '
eSlege . for the follow-
mg reason. The kings of the Greeks would attend him at hi 25
ai'tia<; 'tOLiicrSe. Oi yap S~ 'EAA~VWV ~acrLAei<;, w<; au't<\> Porte and campaign Wlt . h h'1m each year. One time 63 h s
thhe sultan was residing at Serres in Macedonia th~ ki:g e~
1tapayev6f1evoL E<; 'ta<; Supa<; 1tapfjcrav, Kal ecr'tpa'teuov'to
£KM'tOIl £'t01l<;. Kai 1to'te ov'to<; ~acrLAtW<; ev <IJeppai<; 'tfj<; t e Greeks {Manuel II} was aIso there in attendance
, 0
at th
MaKeSovia<; xwpa<; Kal SLa'tp[~ov'to<;, Kal 'tou 'EAA~VWV Port~ along with t~e ruler of Mistra {Theodoros I} Kon~
~a(J'LAtw<; cpom;;v'to<; Ev'tauSa E1tl 'ta<; Supa<; Kal 'tou 'tfj<; s~antm, the son ofZarko;64 and Stefan, the son ofLaz:u, 65 At
L1tap't'l<; ~yeflovo<; Kal KwvO"'tav'tivoll 'tou ZapKoll 1taLSo<; ~ ;t tlme, the f~rmer lord of Monemvasia arrived fro~ the
Kal L'tecpavew 'tou 'EAea~apoll, acpLKVehaL a1to {L75} e oponnese. H,S name was Mamonas and he
Sultan B .d d
b £
came elore
I1eA01tOVv~croll 6 'tfj<; 'E1tLSaUpOIl 'to 1taAaLOV yevoflevo<; ayezl an accused the brother of the kin of the
Greeks {Theodoros} of capturing M onemvaSla . and gcausing
iipxwv, 'touvofla Maflovii<;, 0<; acpLKoflevo<; 1tapa ~acrLAta . h
G 1m arm .66 B 'd b
ayezl now ecame angry at the king of th
I1aLa~~'t'lv eveKaAeL 't<\> 'twv 'EAA~VWV ~acrLAtW<; aSeAcp<\>
hreeks {Manuel}, and he was spurred on by Ioannes {VIlle
w<; acpeAofltv", 't~v 'te 'E1t[Sallpov Kal 1tOL~crav'tL au'tov
t e son b . of King'.Andronikos {IV} ' 67 wh 0 was present as he'
KaKa. "HXSe'to 'te 't<\> 'EAA~VWV ~acrLAei I1aLa~~'t'l<;' 'Evfjye was emg mamtamed by Bayezid. It is said that Ba ezid
Si: E<; 'tou'to Kal 'Iwavv'l<; 6l\vSpoviKOIl 'tou ~acrLAtw<; 1tai<;, sPhoke about being ready to kill him, but shortly afte:Vard
8<; 1tapwv au'tou ~v SiaL'tav elXev Imo I1aLa~~'tew. Kal S~ c anged h,S mind. H e was saved from destruction by Ali
Aty£'taL Kal aveAeiv WPfl'lfltvov 1tepl ofiLAia<; £xov'ta, t h. e son dof Hayreddin' 68 wh 0 h appened to be his close asso-'
fle'ttfleAev auSL<; ou 1tOAA<\> uO"'tepov. 'E~flllve Si: au't<\> 'tOY clate an was courted by him with mu h
Th ul c money.
oAeSpov hli'l<; 0 Xapa'tivew 1tai<;, 8<; crIlV~S'l<; au't<\> ETIy- er ers who were then in attendance at the sultan's
Porte met. and agreed among t h emselves that they would 26
xavev WV Kal Xp~flacrLv w<; 'ta flaALcr'ta ESepa1teue'to U1t'
never agaIn come to the Porte. One man who made a I d
at'rmu. there was Konstantin the f Z k P e ge
26 LllvLov'te<; S~ ouv E<; 'tau'to OU'tOL oi ~yeflove<; ev 't<\> 'ton D' .' son 0 ar 0 and brother of
raga,'. When Zarko had died, Dragas, a most excellent
Xpov", 1tepl 'ta<; Supa<; 'tou ~acrLAtW<; SLa'tp[~ovn<;, ESiSo- man m counsel and war, second t 0 none among his
crav crcpicrL Myoll<;, w<; fI'lKt'tL 'tou AOL1tOU acp[~ecrSaL E1tl'ta<;
Supa<;. 'Ev'tauSa flf.V ouv Eyyoii'taL KwvO"'tav'tivo<; 0 Zap-
KOIl, ~payacrew aSeAcp6<;, 8<; EKelVOIl nA£\J~crav'to<; 'tou
ZapKoll fjv avSpwv iiPLcr'tO<; 'ta E<; crOvecriv 'te Kal 1toAeflov,

128 I29

~0ghntemporaries, had subjugated a significant territory by

OUSEVO<; AWtOflEVO<; 'twv e<; eKElvov 'tOY Xpovov, Kalnp6<;
tIng agaInst h,s Albanian and Serb enemies Ar.t h'
'tE l\A~avoiJ<; Kal Tpl~aAAoiJ<; nOAEfliou<; SlanoAeflwv de th 69 h' b h . "er IS
a , :s rot er Konstantin held the land and attended
xwpav 'te aiJ'tQ u1tI']yaye'to ou q>aUA'lV, Kal enl --en 'teAeu--en the sultan s Porte. He now pledged his daughter i .
au'toii KwvO"tav'tlvo<;" aSeAq>O<; au'toii Ka'tEoxe -n'jV Xwpav to the Greek kin . . n marnage
. g m order to confirm theIr agreement about
Kal eq>oi'ta e<; 'ta<; ~a<1lAtW<; SUpa<;. Ou'to<; eyyuCi'taL -n'jv t h ere b eIhon .70 This man, M anue,I h ad formerly married the
9uya'ttpa 'tWV 'EAA~VWV ~a(J'lAel, W(f'te eflneSoiiv'tal erq>iow daughter of the king ofKolchis a widow. wh h d
th OJ: f " 0 a once een
au'tol<;, oera eruvtgev--co E<; 't~V anoer'taO'lv. 'Hyaye'to flEV'tOl ed wlle 0 a certain
O Taj al-Din
' as Turki h ru i
er, d
an was ex-
o,)'to<; {q6} 'EflflavouijAO<; Kalnp6'tepov -n'jV 'tOO ~a<1lAEW<; cee Ingly beautiful. 71 When she was brought from Kolchis
KOAXiSo <; 9uya'tEpa X'l peuouerav 'te, Znivew SE 'tlVO, to ByzantlOn to be wed, his father [loannes V} wh
thenr o • ,owas
eIgnIng, saw her and thought that when 't
TOUpKWV ~yeflovo<; YUValKa yevoflEV'lV, KaAAel 'tE Sla- bea ty, h h ' 1 came to
u , s e was t e most beautiful of many women and su-
'l'EpOUeraV. Tau't'lv yap w<; ~yaye'to ano KOAXiSo , e<;
• 0

penor m other respects as well. So he married h h'

Bu~av'tLOV, geaeraflevo<; " na-n'jp au'toO 'to'te ~aerlAeuwv, sel~ taking her away from his son. He was also afflict:~ ~~~
w, eSOKel au'tQ KaAAel't£ yuvalKwv nOAAWV dVaL KaAAier't'l gout,
h hso that he was unable to stand up strarg . h t. It IS
. saId.
Kal'tol<; liAAOl" eytve'to, iJ1tepq>Epouera, eau'tQ 'te'taU't'lv t at e lusted after women and perpetrated man . d
acts H y m ecent
~yaye'to, aq>eAoflevo<; 'too naLSo,. 'Bv SE Kal ev vOcrCjJ 'tft : e ,:as attracted to singers and spent time with them
noSaAyiq Sleq>9apflEvo<;, wer'tE fl'lSE op90uflevov er'tijvaL settIng
t ' aSIde . the. work of the kingdom and payIng . I'IttIe at-'
olov 't' elval. i\EynaL SE ou'to<; 'tal, yuval;lv enlflalvofle- entlOn
T to It while enJ'oving
r such thi ngs.
VO, Ka'ta nOAAa lina anpenij e;Evex9ijVaL, ~Soflevo<; 'tal<; he rulers at the Porte of Bayezid agreed among th _
selves t o re b eI wh en the marriage took place. Then emh 27
'te taA'tpiaL, Kal eruyyevoflevo<; an09ter9aL 't~v epyaeriav returned to his 0wn country by hIS . own means 72 Th eac kin
'tij<; ~aO'lAe(a, tv 6/uywpiq nenOl'lflEvo" yavuflevo, 'te
of the Greeks escaped from the sultan of the ~urks :nd i~
nepl 'tn 'tOlaO'ta. sard to have arrived at Byzantion on the fourth day aft
27 ot flEV oliv ~yeflove, EV 'tal, 9upal, Dv'te, 'too TIal- he left Serres', and his b rot h er Theodoros arrived in the er
a1;~'tEw eruve'tigev'to aAAytAol, w, nnoer't'leroflevol yevo-
flEV'l, 'tij<; emyaflia<;· flnn SE 'tao'ta, W, dXev EKaer'to"
an'lAAanenO En\ 't~v eau'too Xwpav. Kal ~a<1lAeU, flEV
'EAAytVWV, Slaq>uywv ~aerlAta TOUpKWV, a'l'lKVel'tal ano
<l>eppwv e, n
Bu1;av'tLOv 'te'tap'talo<;, Atye'tal, 8eoSwpo<;
S£ " aSeAq>o<; ao'toii a'l'iKe'to en\ TIeAonovv'lerov. Kal ot

'3 0 '3'

ADl1tDl St, Wo; ~Kaer-rDO; am']Aauv£v btl -ra tau-rDu, E:Jtl-rpa- Peioponnese,7J As for the rest of them, each returned h
ntv-r£o; ltva! uno ~aerlAtwo; Ent -ra £au-rwv ~e'1 £Kaer-rDO;, h aVlng be d
, en grante permission by the sultan to go to his

"Yer-r£pDv fltV-rDl Wo; -rDU EmyryvDfltvDu etpDuo;, Wo; DU own resIdence, But in the following summer th k' f
Byza t' d'd ' e mg 0
nap£ytv£-rD Bu~av-riDu ~acrlA£iJo; Enl-rao; eupao; Kat ~yytA­ n IOn 1 not attend the Porte and sent word to B
that It was nth" , to ever come again BayezI'd
o IS mtentlOn
A£-rD -r<\> rra!a~~'t11 fI'1SE EAe£lV -rDU ADlnDU £-rl S,avDDufl£-
sent Ali, the son of Hayreddin,one m of o
his s t ,ayezI
VDo;, E:Jtlntfl'itao; i\Ai'1v -rOY Xapa-riv£w, [I,77} IivSpa S~ -rwv
men, to ord er him to attend the Porte' otherwi h Id
nap' £au-r<\> fltya Suvafl£VDV, Ent-r£AA£ nap£lval au-rov EO; decIa h , s e , e WOll
re war on t e king himself Whe AI'
tion h k , n 1 came to Byzan-
-rao; eupao; napay£vofl£VDV' d SE fI~' nOA£flDv npDayD- , e spo e publicly the words that the sultan h d '
p£um a!h<\> ~aerlA£l, 'EAewv fltV-rDl Dli-rDo; 6 i\Ai'1o; EO; -ro structe d h'1m to say, but some say that when Ali ta 'hm-
Manuel' , h d me WIt
Bu~av-rLOv S'1f1Deri,. flEV £'A£y£ -ra En£cr-raAfiEva au-r<\> uno m prIvate e a vised him not to come to th I '
Po t d ' esutans
~acrlAtwo;, Exp'1f1a-rl~£ SE au-r<\>, Wo; £VLOl AtYDuerlv, lSi,. r e un er any Clfcumstances, Manuel replied that h
ready to, obey an d t, h at h'IS Iife would be unbearable if he e was
cruyy£VOfl£VDo; fI'1 Safl wo; EA8£lv Ent -rao; ~aerlAtwo; eupao;, did
'EfiflavDui'jADo; flEV an£Kpiva-rD, wo; nei8£er8ai -r£ hDlflDo; £'i'1 not enJoy the sultans trust; he would shortly attend so that
he C;uld be receIved by the sultan, wherever he was told to
Kat ~aerlA£l flY] eappwv DUKe-rl ~lW-rOV -rOY ~iDV au-r<\> ~n­
go, ut later, when Ali had gone and it b I
era-rD, aXil Wo; Ev ~paX£lnap£erofl£VDV £au-rov unDSeXOl-rD Bayez'd th Man eCame c ear to
P 1 at uel had no intention Df coming to th
-r<\> ~aerlA£l, 1'1 CtV napayyEAADl, "Y cr-r£PDV flev-rDl anlOV-rDo; orte, he set out to besiege Byzantion 74 0 h' h e
i\Ai£w, Wo; rra!a~~'t11 Si'jAa KaeEler~KEl fI'1SE S,aVD£ler8a! astated the land d I ' n IS way e dev-
'nh b' an p undered each region, enslaving the
au-rov ltva! Ent -rao; eupao;, Em']Aauvt -r£ Kat EnDAlOpKEl 1 a ,Itants of the suburb s, H e rnad e no progress in takin
Bu~av-rLOV, 'En£Aauvwv S£ ~v -r£ yfjv £KElp£ Kal-rf]v Xwpav the CIty, and so departed for home, But he sent g
ery d an army ev-
£Kaer't'lv ESn DU, Kal KWflao; avSpanDSlerafl£vDO; -rao; npD- year an set up a siege all around it which la t d f,
ears 75 d ' hi h s e orten
aer-reiDuo;, Wo; DUSEV npD£XWpEl ~ -rDU 1icr-r£Do; aip£O'lO;, Y , urIng w c time many of the city's 'nh b'
died of t ' 1 a Itants
an£xwp'1O'£V au-roo; En' D'(KDU, 'Enl1tEflnwv SE cr-rpa-reufla s arvatlOn or went over to the barbarian,
Bayezid controlled Selymbria himself b t h d
nav-raxn ava nav £-rDo; EnDAlOpKEl -rf]v flaKpaV y£vD fl Ev '1V it to Ioann {VI} u a entrusted 28
es I , the son of Andronikos, who had fled
nDALOpKiav Ent StKa £-r'1, Ev 0'10; nDAAa -r£ -rfjo; nOA£wo;
-rau't'lo; an£ytv£-rD uno AlfiDU Slatpeaptv-ra Kat Ent -rOY
~ap~apDv anlov-ra,
28 TY]v flEv Dliv L'1Au~p[av au-roo; Ka-r£lX£ rra!a~~'t'lo;,
En£-rpon£u£ S£ -rau-r'1O; 'Iwavv'1O; 6 AVSPDViKDU nalo;, DO;

13 2 '33
from his uncle Manuel in Byzantion because he could not
bear to make himself available to serve in whatever matter
his uncle, who was reigning in Byzantion, wanted to use
him." Manuel thus sent him to Italy so that he could carry
out his instructions: he was supposedly sending him to Ge-
noa to seek aid, but he sent a secret message to the Geno-
ese telling them to imprison him and not let him out un-
der any circumstances. After some time had passed, Ioannes
escaped from the Genoese and went from Italy to Sultan
Bayezid, who was besieging Byzantion. 77 Bayezid took Io-
annes with him, they made an agreement, and he entrusted
Selymbria to him and made him its governor. After that
Bayezid moved against Byzantion, but as his attempt to cap-
ture it by force was not making any progress, he tried to
starve it into submission. And he would have taken the city
had news not reached him that Timur was marching against
him with a large army. Indeed, when he was captured by
Timur he lost most of his dominion in Asia.
As Bayezid would not stop besieging Byzantion, the king 29
of the Greeks realized that his people had been ground
down very badly. He could see no way by which they might
be freed from the siege in the future, so he entrusted Byzan-
tion to his nephew Ioannes, the son of Andronikos. Bayezid
was displeased with Ioannes because he blamed him for the
lack of progress in capturing Byzantion and so, having fallen
under suspicion, the latter fled from the sultan and entered
Byzantion. 78 His uncle, the king of Byzantion, received him
gladly, and entrusted the city to him when he left and sailed
for Italy, to solicit aid in regard to the protracted siege by
the enemy; for he would not let the city fall. 79 When Manuel


Eyeve'"Co, Ka'"CeenO fli:v au'"Coii EV I1eAonovv~Cf'l' 'ti]v yu- reached th~ Peloponnese, he left his wife there in the Pelo-
ponnese WIth his brother, while he sailed on to Italy. H
VcilKa au'"Coii napa '"CQ aSeA'f'Q, au'"Co<; Si: anenAet E<; 'I'"CaAlav.
Tpanoflevo<; Si: Enl 'Eve'"Cwv Kal [I.79} XP'1f1a'"ClCfa<; au'"Col<;
rur~e: to the Venetians and negotiated what he wa~te~
WIt t em. He then went to the tyrant of Lombard th
/lCfa ~~ouAe'"Co, 4Ixe'"Co Enl '"Cov Alyupla<; -rUpavvov, MeSl- ruler of Milan, 80 who received him in a friendly mann; an~
oMvou Si: ~yeflova' 6 Si: 'f"Ao'f'pov'1Cfaflevo<; '"Ce au'"Cov '"Ca rve him mo~ey, sending him on to the king of the French;
eLKo'"Ca, Kal Xp~fla'"Ca napexoflevo<;, anenefl'itev Enl '"Cwv e also gave him some cavalry and guides for the road Wh
KeA'"Cwv ~aCflAoa, lnnou<; '"Ce au'"CQ napexoflevo<; Kal 'tfj<; ~e reached the king of France, he begged him not lea::~o
6Soii I)yeflova<;. D<; Si: Eyeve'"Co Enl '"Cov raAa'"Cla<; ~acrlAea, he royal City of the Greeks to be besieged by barb .
. 'h =~a
ESel'"CO au'"Coii flI) npOeCfeal nOAlv ~acrlA[Sa 'EAA~vwv tJ1tO City Wit such close ties to the kings of France. But as he d:s-
~ap~apwv nOALOpKouflev'1v, npo~KouCfav ayxo'"Ca'"Cw '"Cwv cov~red th~t the king was insane and under the close watch
of hiS leadmg men in order to treat his illness h
~aCflAewv raAa'"Cla<; O·(K'I'. Toii'"Cov ouv flefl'1vo'"Ca eupwv Kal long time there. 81 ' e spent a
EV 'f'uAaKft uno '"Cwv ap[Cf'"CwV Ka'"Cexoflevov, WCf'"Ce eepaneue-
Th!h;~:n~h are a great people, prosperous, and ancient. 30
Cfeal 'ti]v VOCfOV au'"Coii, Sle'"Cpl~ev au'"Coii Enl CfUXV OV '"Clva
.Y ghly of themselves, believing that they are su-
Xpovov. penor to the other western peoples and regardin them-
30 KeA'"Cwv Si: '"Co yevo<; '"Coii'"Co fleya '"Ce DV Kat 6A~LOV Kal selves as havmg a rightful share in the hegemony ;d kin -
naAat6v '"Ce Kat E'f" Eau'"CQ floya 'f'povoiiv, unepexetv '"Ce '"Cwv d:~ of the Romans. Their land is bordered to the east ;y
&AAwv '"Cwv npb<; ECfnepav EeVWV, a!;LOiiv Eau'"CQ fle'"Cdvat t e and of the Lombards, to the south by Iberia to the
'tfj<; "Iyeflovla<; n Kal'Pwflalwv ~acrlAeia<;. "Eml S' I) Xwpa north by Germany, and to the west by the Ocean ~nd the
au'"Cwv npo<; EW flev '"Cfi AlrUpwv xwp<;t, npo<; fleCf'1f1~plav Bntlsh
f I al Isles.82
[; It extends from the AIps t h at are outside.
Si: '"Cfi 'I~'1 pl<;t, Kal npo<; &pK'"COV '"Cft repflav[<;t, Kal npo<; o t y as ar as the Ocean and the Germans, a journe of
f b seventeen days from Italy to the 0 cean anda'Journey
ECfnepav '"CQ WKEaVQ Kal '"Cal<; Bpe'"CavlKcil<; V~CfOl<;' Sl~Ket .
o a out m~eteen days from Iberia to Germany. The city of
Si: anD l\Anewv '"Cwv EK'"CO<; 'l'"CaA[a<; ECf'"Ce Enl WKEaVOV Kal
d the site of the royal court of the Freneh'
al h ,IS prosperous
Enl repflavou<;, 6Sbv I)flepwv flaAlCf'"Ca on'"CaKalSeKa ano an . we t y. There are a good many cities in France and
'I'"CaAla<; E<; WKEaVOV, anD Si: 'I~'1pla<; Enl repflavlav 6Sov their governance is subject to the king. There are ' also
flaAlma nn EvveaKalSeKa. "Eml Sf. I1aplCfLOv nOAl<;, EV ii
'"Ca KeA'"Cwv ~aCflA.eta, euSalflovl<;t '"Ce Kal 6A~'I' np0'f'0pouCfa.
KalnoAet<; OUK OA[yat 'tfj<; raAa'"Cla<;, un' au'"CQ Si: '"CQ ~aCfl­
Ad '"Canoflevat E<; 'ti]v Cf'f'WV SLOlK'1CflV. ELCfl Si: I)yeflovlat


'tT Ked ~yEf'0VE<; Ouvaf'£l 'tE npouxov'tE<; Kat 6A~tW'ta'tot, principalities and rulers who are extremely powerful and
[LSO} un' au't<\> O£ 't<\> ~acrLAel 'tanOf'EvOL Kat t<; 'ta ~acrlAELa very wealthy, but they are subject to the king and attend
upon him at his court.
napaYEVOf'EVOL au't<\>.
The ruler of Burgundy possesses a large and great land JI
JI "0 'tE 'tfj<; Boupyouvoia<; ~yEf'WV xwpa<; nOAAij<; 'tE Kat
and many cities, including Bruges and Sluis on the coast,
f'EyaA,]<;, Kal nOAEWV IlAAWV 'tE Kat 'tfj<; Bpouyiwv nOAEW<;
and Ghent, a large, prosperous, and inland city. The city of
Kat KAO~iwv napaAiwv Kat fav'tllv']<; nOAEw<; Euoaif'ovo<; Bruges that belongs to him lies On the coast of the Ocean
'tE Kat f'EyaA,]<; Kat f'"wyaiou. "EJ'tL 0' au't<\> ~ Bpouyiwv and faces the island called British England; ships anchor
nOAL<; napaAo<; napa 'tov wKEavov, av'tLKpu 'tfj<; BpE'ta- there both from our sea and from the cities along the Ocean,
VLKij<; AyyAia<; ou'tw KaAouf'Ev,]<; v~crou, t<; ijv opf'i~ov'taL namely from Germany, Iberia, England, Denmark,8J and the
VijE<; anD 'tE 'tfj<; ~ f'E'tepa<; 'tfjcrOE 9aACLO'O'']<; Kat ano 'twv t<; other kingdoms. This city is one hundred and fifty stades
'tOY WKWVOV nOAEwv 'tfj<; 'tE fEpf'avia<;, 'I~']pia<;, AyyAia<;, dLstant from England. The land is called Flanders, and the
Aavia, Kat 'twv AOL1tWV ouvaJ't£[wv. ALEX£[ 0' au't'] ~ nOAL<;
rulers of Burgundy performed remarkable deeds in France
both against the king of France and against the British. Af-
ano AyyAia<; O''taoiou<; nEv'tfjKov'ta Kal EKa'tov. 'R O£ xwpa
ter that, the ruler of Britain holds some continental lands in
ai",,] KaAel'taL ¢Aavopia, Kat dO't 'tOU'tOL<; 'tol<; ~yEf'0O'L
the king's territory.84 In addition to them, the ruler [ ...} next
Boupyouvoia<; ~pya anooEo£lYf'Eva Il~La AOYOU t<; ~v
to these lands there is the land of the ruler of Savoy, a great
KEA'tLK~V xwpav npo<; 'tE au'tov ~acrLAEa 'tij<; faAa'tia<; Kat and exceedingly beautiful land that extends to Lo:nb ely.
npo<; 'tou<; BpE'tavou<;. ME'ta S£ 'tau'ta ~yEf'WV tnl 'tij<; I will record the following regarding the coastal Ian;: of
~neipou BpE'tavia, ~XE'tai yE 'tij<; yij<; 'tfj<; 'tou ~aO'LAEw<; France. Genoa, being the gateway to France,85 controls the
xwpa<;. 'Ent O£ 'tOU'tOL<; ~yEf'WV 'tfj<; [ ...} 'tou'twv Se EXE'taL land that extends to Provence, whose ruler is King Rene of
xwpwv ~yEf'0VO<; La~o'la<; Xwpa, f'EyaA,] 'tE Kal unEp- the royal house of France. 86 The metropolis of Provence is
KaAA~<;, tnt ALyupiav Ka9~KouO'a. IIpo<; O£ 't~v napaAov Nl~e. They have other cities there such as the city of
Avrgnon, where there is one of the largest bridges in the
xwpav 'tij<; fUAu'tia<; WSE Ilv f'OL OLUKEOL'tO npo<; [O''top(uv.
'R f'EV'tOL 'IuVU'lnUA,] 'tL<; oUO'u 'tfj<; fUAu'tia<; tnEXEL xwpuv,
tnl ~v IIpO~EV't(UV Ka~KouO'u, ~<; IlPX£[ 6 'tou [LSI}
OlKOU 'tou ~acrLAtW<; 'tij<; faAU't(a<; 'PULVEPLO<; ~aO'LAEU<;. TRv
f'']'tponOAL<; ~ Ni'tLU IIpO~EV't(U<;. IIOA£[<; S' EXOV'taL ij 't£
A~LVLWV nOAL<;, Ka9' ijv yE<pupa tnEO"t'] f'EyaA,] Sij 'twv

world,87 and then one co
1<(l'ta'tf]v ol1<OUflev'lv Ea"rE btl Bap1<Evwv'lvl Xwpav tASdv. Aad that, in summary, is t~esl todthfe territory of Barcelona.
, e an 0 France
AilT'l fI£v ouv t'l Xwpa Tfje; faAaTlae;, we; crUVEAoVTt OtE~- The French people is said to b . .
formed illustrious deeds against th: b:~leM and they per-
lEva\. Africa, at the time when th ki arlans from North
3 To 01: yevoe; TOUTO KEATWV AeYETat 1taAatOV TE 1<a\ epya gs
pointed kings and emp e fnh of the French were ap-
1tpOe; TOUe; a1to At~v'le; ~ap~CtpOUe; a1tOOEOEtweVOV Aafl-
'a11 erors 0 t e Romans 88 Ch I
CI Y, from among thel' k' . . ar es espe-
1tpCt, 1<aS' ov OijTa XPOVOV ~acrtAde; 'Pwflalwv 1<a\ aUT01<pCt- Africans with the h I fh"
r mgs waged
war agamst the North
e pOlS nephew Orla d
guished by his daring d" n 0, a man distin-
an VIrtue In miIita
O£ flCtAtO'Ta ot'l TWV ~aO'tAeWV TOVTWV TOV 1tpOe; TOUe; Al~uae; also assisted in that war by Rinaldo . ry matters. He was
1tOAEflOV aVEAOflEVOV, O'uVEmAa~oflevou TOU TE aOEAq>tOOU rulers of that land wh k
' Olivrero, and the other
the enemy first m' 0 are b as Paladins. They routed
aUTOU 'OpAavOlou, aVOpoe; TOAfln TE 1<at CtpE't'ft Ta te; vanous attle . F
CfTpaTov tmcrt']flou YEvofltvou, 1<a\ 'PtVCtAOOU 1<at 'OAt~E­ in Iberia and won g1'
. s m rance and afterward
onous vrctone Th' r
celebrated in song b s. elr lame is greatly
plou 1<at aXAWV TWV Tav-rn t'lYEflovwv, IlaAaTlvwv 1<aAOU- y everyone down t .
out Italy, Iberia and 'all 0 our time through-
fl , cruvOta'1'EpOVTWV aUT<!i TOV 1tOAEflOV, 1<at 1tOAAa)(f\ , , especi yFr F
evwv cans had crossed th . ance. or the North Afri-
1<aTa'tf]V faAaTlav fI£v 1tpWTa, flETa O£ TauTa 1<aTa 'l~'lplav e straits at the Pillars f H akI
TpEi'CtflEVOV TOUe; tvavTloue; vl1<ae; CtVEAeO'Sat 1tEpt'1'avde;.
conquered and quickly passed throu I ~ er es, had
had seized the land f N gh bena, and after that
Kat 1<AeOe; aUTWV Ctva 'lTaAlav 1<at 'l~'lplav 1<at ot'l 1<at
o avarre and Porm aI d .
far as Aragon. When the h d g ,a vancmg as
faAaTlav fleya te; TOVOE Ctd EU'1''lflovflEVOV qOETat U1tO vaded France. y a conquered that land, they in-
1tCtVTWV. Al~uEe; yap Ota~CtVTEe; TOV 1tpOe; 'Hpa1<Aeloue; So Charles and his men wa ed war .
O'TljAae; 1tOPSflOV 1<aTe"Xov TE 1<aTa ~pax:U 1tpoYovTEe; 'tf]v Africans and perc d g
lQrme great d d
agamst these North

'l~'lplav, flETa O£ TauTa Na~Ctp'lv TE [lo82} xEtPWO'CtflEVOt men, and they drove th ee s, as t ey were noble
and Celtiberians and int em out d the lands of the French
1<at IlopTouyaAAlav xwpav, EO'TE t1tt Tapa1<wva tAavvoV- o G rana a a highly £ t'fi d .
TEe;, Ta te; TljVOE au 'tf]V Xwpav 1<aTaO'TpEi'CtflEVOt to'f.~aA- a mountain by the Ocean. They qUickly
'. or I the
reached e CIty on
AOV te; Tt'lV KEATt1<t'lV.
33 KCtpOUAOe; fI£V oUV 1<at oi criJv aUT<!i 1tOAEflOV t;EVEY-
1<OVTEe; 1tpOe; TOVerOE TOUe; Al~uae; flEYCtAa Ct1tEod1<VUVTO
"pya, aVOpEe; YEVOflEVOl CtyaSol, 1<at Tije; TE KEATt~ijpWV
1<a\ KEATt1<ije; Xwpae; t~EAMaVTEe; te; Tt'jV fpavCtT'lV 1tOAtV
0X:OPWTCtT'lV t1tt TOU opOue; TOU te; W1<EaVOV 1<aSij1<OVTOe;.

'4 0

IIap' au't'ov Se'rov 1tOp8f'ov Ka't'a ~paxU 1tpo'iov't'e<; 'l'1'jv 't'e and subJ'ected
. most of the Iand 0 f Ibena,. settled it and
'I~l'Jpia<; Xwpav 1tOAAl]V Ka't'aerxov't'e<; 4\KOUV KaL eruv- pushing forward toge ther, were IaY10g . sieges there. "The
eAauvov't'e<; £1tOAlOpKouv. KaL 'l'1'jv 't'e Xwpav cmESoerav 't'ol<; gav~ the land, namely Castile, Navarre, and Aragon, over t~
t~elr follo,;ers, and when those followers were besieged by
eau't'wv 1tpOcn'jKouerl, 't'i]v 'I~l'Jpiav KaL Na~apl'Jv KaL Tapa-
t e barbarians they freed them from the sieges. They di-
Kwva, KaL '1'01><; erq>wv au't'wv 1tPOcn'jKov't'a<; U1tO ~ap~apwv
VIded up the land among themselves and settled it, each re-
1tOALOpKOUf'EVOU<; imtAuov 't'e 't'ij<; 1tOALOpKla<;, KaL 't'i]v ceiVIng his allotted portion. They are praised to this day as
Xwpav £1tlSleAOf'evOl erq>ierlv 4\KOUV, a1tOAa~ov't'e<; £Kaer't'O<; great men for managing the war so superbly. After the gen-
'1'0 avijKOv au't''iJ f'EpO<;. Kat OU't'Ol f'ev 't'au'l'fl KaAAler't'a eral
'dh Orlando was besieged and died of thirst ,1OOler-
R' aid 'nh
8tf'evol 't'ov 1tOAqLOv £<; 't'oSe ael vf'vovv't'Ctl w<; avSpe<; Ite t e war and bequeathed it to the kings of Castile. And
yevof'evol aya80L Kat '0 pAavSov f'Ev 't'ov ye er't'pa't'l'Jyov they who have 10herited this war even today are used to har-
V1tO Shyou<; tK1tOALOPKl'J8tv't'a a1t08avelv, 'PlvaASov Se Sla- rY10g these North Africans. This race of North Af .
speaks A ra b'IC, practices the customs and th ncans
Se;af'evov 't'ov 1toAef'ov Ka't'aAmetv 't'ol<; 'I~l'Jpla<; ~aerl­ M h e r eIi' glOn 0 f
u amm~d, and their clothes are partly in the barbarian
AeverLv. Ot Se S",Se;af'evol 't'ovSe 't'ov 1toAef'ov £<; hl KaL
and partly 10 the Iberian style.
vvv 't'ou<; Ai~ua<; 't'ou't'ou<; ayelv KaL q>tpelv vOf'i~ouerl. To
Given their past, then, the French think highl f h
Se ytvo<; 't'ou't'o Al~UWV yAW'l"l'n f'ev Slaxpij't'Ctl 't'fi A.pa- selves f h yo t em- 34
. ~n account 0 t ese things, and they believe that their
~lKfi, Kat ~8eerl Se Kat 8pl'JerKeLq 't'fi MeXf'E't'ew, £er8ij't'l St natIOn IS the most noble and distinguished of all the nations
't'ov't'o f'tv ~ap~aplKfi, 't'ou't'o S' au Kat 'I~l'JPlKfi· [r. 83} of the west. Their way of life is more luxurious than that of
34 ot f'tv oOv KeA't'oL t<; 't'ov't'o 1tapayevof'evOl f'Eya q>po- the Italians and their dress is similar. Their language differs
vouerlv t1tt 't'OU't'Ol<;, Kat ytVO<; olov't'al '1'0 eau't'wv euyevt<; fro~ that ~f the Italians, but not so much that one mi ht
't'e KaL Sla1tpE1tOV Sla 1tav't'wv Sl] 't'wv 1tpo<; ecr1ttpav yevwv. ~a~leve theirs IS a different language from that of the I;al-
~lai'l'fl St Xpwv't'al ot KeA't'ot a~po't'Ep" 'l'ij<; 'l'l'aAwv Slai- s. They expect to be first wherever they find themseIyes
among t he western peoples.
't'l'J<; KaL crKeufi 't'fi £KeLVWV 1tapa1tAl'Jerlq, q>WVl]v St 1tpotev-
Their arrogance abated, however, when the Engli h
't'al SleveyK0uerav f'tv 't'ij<; 'I't'aAwv q>wvij<;, ou f'EV't'Ol 't'oerou- who Inhabit Brit' aln, £ought a war agaInst
. s , 35
their country;
't'ov, wer't'e So;al e't'tpav elVCtl 'l'ij<; 'l'l'aAwv q>wvij<; 't'l]v
yAw't''t'av tKelVWV. A;LOuerl St 1tpw't'euelv, 01tOl iiv 1tapa-
ytvwv't'al 't'wv t<; 't'l]v ter1tEpaV yevwv.
35 'Y q>iev't'o f'tV't'Ol't'ij<; ayvwf'0cr\Jvl'J<; t1teL 't'e U1tO 'AyyAwv
't'wv 't'i]v Bpe't'aviav OlKOUV't'WV ,,8vo<; Sla1toAef'ijerav 'l'1'jv 't'e


conquered it and them, and stripped them of their rule; they

xwpav at'J'rwv Ka'tE<npttaV'to Kat au'tou" Kat -ri]v ~yE­ even marched against their capital Paris and besieged it."
floviav a<pEAoflEVOL, btl -ri]v fl']'tP01tOALV au'twv ITapi<1LOV It is said that the following was the cause of this conflict.
<11JVEAa<1aV'tE, t1tOALOpKOUV. T~v Se aL't(av au'twV TIj, SLa- There is a city called Calais on the coast of the land of
<popa, <pML YEve<1eaL ",SE. "E<1'tL 1tOAL, KaA£<11'] oihw France by the Ocean. It is not especially distinguished but
KaAouflev '] tv 'tfi 1tapaA('!' xwpq TIj, KEA'tLKfj" 1tapa 'tov it is built in a secure location, conveniently situated for sail-
wKEavov, ou 1tavu 'tL t1t(<11']flo" tv txup<\> Se ¢K']flev'], E, ing from France to Britain and, as it is located at a strate-
YE 'tov a1to faAa't(a, a1t01tAOUV t, 't~v BpE'tavLK~v
t1tL't']- gic point on the Channel, it provides a good base for any-
one who wants to invade France. The king of the British
SElw, f.XOU<1a, Kat tv KaA<\> 'tov 1tOpeflOV ¢K']flev']1tap t XE-
took this city by treachery after arranging its betrayal with
'tat Ev'tEVeEV 6pflwflevOL, t, 't~v KEA'tLK~V t<1~aAElv. Tau-
those inside, seized it, and controlled it. 90 When the king of
't']v -ri]v 1tOALV 0 'twv BpE'tavwv ~a<1LAEU" 'toT, tv 'tn 1tOAEL France demanded this city back, the king of the British said
1tpoSo<1iav <1UvetflEvO" E1AEV t1tl~OUAfi, Kat Ka'tacrxwv that he was unwilling to give it back, and they revealed the
t'tupavvEUE 'tau't,]" l\1tat'tOVV'tL Se -ri]v 1tOALV 'tau't']v 't~ garrison they had brought over from the island to the city.
faAa'tLa, ~a<1lAEl OUK f.<p'] eKWv elVat a1tOSLSOVaL, KaL So the king of the French set out and besieged the city for a
<ppOupav f.<patVOV SLa1topeflEUOV'tE, a1ti> 'tfj',V~<10~ t1tt 't,~~ long time. But when he was not making any progress in the
1tOALV. [1.84} T~v flev'tOL 1tOALV t1tEAaUVWv E1tOALOPKEL E1tL siege, he led his army away and went home. 9l
<1Uxv i>v Xp6vov. flE'ta St, w,
ou 1tpOexWPEL au't<\> ouS_ev Later the king of the British assembled a large army, )6
crossed to France, and plundered the land. When they en-
1tOALOPKOVV'tL, a1t~yayE 'tov <npa'tov t1t' O'(KOU avaxwpwv.
gaged in battle with a fairly large contingent of the French,
)6 "Y <nEpOV 6 BpE'tavwv 1tOAU 'tL <1'tpa'tEUfla aepOL<1a" Kat
they killed most of the Frenchmen. This happened in the
SLa~av'tE, t, faAa't(av -ri]v Xwpav tSiJouv, KaL 1tn <1Uflfli!;av- following way.92 After the English had engaged in plunder-
'tE, 'tfi 'twv KEA'tWV flOipq OUK "Aim Kat fl a XE<1aflEVOL ing the land, they set out to return, taking their loot home
SL£<peELpOV 'to 1tA£OV TIj, KEA'tLKfj,. 'Ey£vE'to Se ",SE. D, with them. The French intercepted them before they man-
t1tt SLap1tanV 'tfj, xwpa, e-rpa1tOv'to ot AYYAOL, t~Aau­ aged to reach the safety of Calais, and had them surrounded
vov ,,1tL<1W a1tayov'tE, AElav' Ka'taAa~OV'tE, Se au'tou, ot on a hill. The British now were at a loss, not knowing which
KEA'toL, 1tptv ii <pefjVat SLMwetv'ta, t, -ri]v KaA£<1']~, 1tEPL~ way to turn, and so they sent a message that they were will-
<1TIj<1aL 'tE au'tOu, KUKAW<1afl£vou, EV 'tLVL AO<p,!,. :0, SE ing to hand over the loot and their weapons on the condi-
tion that they be allowed to return to their own land
tv a1tOp'!' 'tE dxov'to ot BpE'tavoi, fl~ OUK EXOV'tE, 111tOL
'tpa1tWv'taL YEVOflEVOL, SLEfl,]Vuov'tO, W<nE -ri]v AElav a1to-
Sovvat Kat 'til 111tAa, t<p' <!> t1tl'tpa1ti'jvaL <1<pL<1LV a<1Lvt<1LV


(nutval t<; 'tf]v tau'twv. Ol Se OUK £'l'aO'av lbu'tplbtelV ,m- unharmed. But the others said that they would not let them
leVat, el flf] SWO'OUO'l SlK!']v, wv el<; 'tou<; KeA'tou<; £);u~plO'av­ leave before they paid the penalty for the offense they had
'tE<; 'tf]v xwpav au'twv Slap1ta~ouO'lv. 'Ev'tau9a, w<; £yvw- committed against the French by plundering their land.
Thus, when the British realized that they had reached the
O'av ol Bpe'tavot t<; 'to £O"Xa'tov 'tOU KaKOU a'l'lYflevol ,
end of the road, they fought against the French, although
fl a X6 f1evol 'tOl<; KeA'tol<; 6A(yol 1tp0<; 1tOAAou<; iivSpe<;
there were only a few brave men facing many. But they
eyevov'to aya90(' 'tpet"flevo, Se 'tou<; evav't(ou<; tS(WKOV
routed the enemy and pursued them when they fled, kill-
'l'euyov'ta<;, Kat Sle'l'gelpov au'tou 'tav'tI] 1tOAAou<;. KeA- mg many of them on the spot. Some say, however, that the
'tou<; St, 'l'aO'( 'tlve<;, 'l'euyelv av'tou<; tv'tal<; flaXat<; ou gefll<; French disapprove of fleeing from battle, and hold that one
vOfl(~e'tat, aAAa flaxoflEvOU<; au'tou 'teAeu't~O'al' Kat a1tO should die fighting. It is because of this that the French re-
[r. 85} 'tou'tOU KeA'tot O''l'<i<; asLOUO'l 1tpoexelv 'twv iiAAwv gard themselves as surpassing all others in bravery and dis-
yevval6'tl']'tl Kat e1tlO'!,]flo'ta'tou<; elVat 'mav'twv. tlnctIOn.

37 Tou<; flev'tOl Bpe'tavou<; a1tO 'touSe aSe£O''tepov ~S!'] x w - After this, the British moved with greater impunity 37
pelV t1tt 'ta<; 1t6Ael<; 'twv KeA'twv 1tOALOpKouv'ta<; Kat Ka'ta agrunst the cities of the French and besieged them, advanc-
ing little by little, until they fought the battle that is called
~paxV 1tpo'(6na<;, flaxeO'a0'9a( 'te -ri]v flaXl'Jv ev 'tQ AU1t!']<;
"the plain of sorrow."93 The English, with no other choice,
1teSl~ oihw KaAouflev~' ev c!> ouSev TCAEov £xov'te<; ol
had made camp there the previous day and then, on the next
'AyyAOl 'tfi 1tpo'tepa(q tv!,]uAlO'av'to, Kat fle'ta 'tau'ta 'tfj day, joined battle and began slaughtering the French who
uO"tepa(q flaXEO'aflevO' e'l'6veuov 'tou<; KeA'tou<; flaxoflevou<; were fighting against them in a chaotic melee, each man
'l'upS!']v 'tE Kat avaflts Kat xwpt<; w<; £KaO''tov e1tlXWpouv'ta, advancing by himself so that he perished. Thus the British
wO''te a1t09avelv, 'tf]v flEnol xwpav O'XeS6v 'tl O"Ufl1taO'av took control of almost the entire land and moved against
u1tay6f1evol ol Bpe'tavot txwpouv e1tt 'to. ~aO'LAela, -ri]v the royal court, the city of Paris itself The affairs of the
1t6Alv av'tou 'tou I1aplO'(ou. Kat f]O'av Se 'to. KeA'twv French looked as though they had reached their nltimate
1tpaYfla'ta 1tPOO'S6Klfla e1tt 'tov £O"Xa'tov ~S!'] "'l'(se0'9at crisis. But, facing such catastrophe, the French now turned
to religion - indeed, people generally turn to religion at
KlVSUVOV. ~elO'lSatflOvoUO'l 'tOl<; KeA'tol<;, w<; 'tolau'tn Ka't-
such a time-when a certain woman of considerable beauty
dXono O'ufl'l'opq, Ka9' ov Sf] Xp6vov iiv9pw1tOl fI"AlO''ta
Uoan of Arc} claimed that she was in communication with
elw9aO'lv w<; 'to. 1tOAAa t1tt SelO'lSalflov(av 'tpeTCe0'9al, yuv~
God. She became the leader of the French, who followed
'tl<; 'to elSo<; ou 'l'auA!'], 'l'aflev!,] eau'tfj xp!,]fla't(~elv 'tov her and obeyed her. This woman led them to a spot that, she
Ele6v, ~yel't6 'te 'twv KeA'twv e1tlO'1toflEVWV au'tfi Kat1tel-
90flevwv. 'ES!,]yel0'9a( 'te -ri]v yuvalKa, n Sf] £'l'aO'Ke


<1fJflalvECTeat £auTfi into 't'oil edou, rrpoEAeetV 't'E CTuAAEyo- said, had been indicated to her by God. They advanced and
flEVOU<; err\ 't'ou<; BpE't'avou<; Kat avaflaxoflEvoU<;. {OuSev assembled in order to fight the British again. {As the Eng-
lish had no choice,}94 the French encamped there and on the
rrAEov exov't'wv 't'WV fl..yyAWv}4 errl]uAlCTav't'o 't'E au't'oil, Ka\
very next day, with their confidence restored by the woman
't'ft uCT-repal .. aVel<; ~SI] eappoilv-re<; Tfi yuvalK\ e;I]yoUflevn
who was leading them, they went to battle. They routed the
err\ -rf]v flaXI]v errtlECTav, Ka\ flaXECTaflEvol E'rpEtav't'o -re enemy in the battle and set off in pursuit. Although the
't'ou<; rroAEfllou<; Kat errE;~Aeov SlWKOV-re<;. ME't'a Se 't'ail't'a woman died after that in this war, the French recovered and
~ 't'E yuv~ arreeavEv ev 't'4i rroAEfl!p 't'ou't'!p, Ka\ oi KEA't'o\ grew stronger in fighting the British. 95 They reclaimed their
aVEAa~ov 't'E CTq>Ci<; Ka\ eppWflEvECT't'EpOl eYEvov't'O rrpo<; cities and preserved their kingdom to the point where many
't'ou<; BpE't'avou<; flaxoflEvol, Ka\ 't'a<; rrOAEl<; CTq>WV arroAafl- large armies often had to cross over into France from Brit-
~avov't'E<; SlECTW~OV't'O aVel<; -rf]v ~aCTlAdav au't'wv, {r.86} ain. 96 The French are prevailing over the British in their bat-
iiXPl<; OU rrOAAaKl<; Sla~aV't'Wv e<; -rf]v raAa't'lav CT't'pa't'Wv ties, to the point where they are driving them toward Calais
in order to expel them from their land. 97
rroAAwv Kat flEyaAwv <mo BpE't'avla<;. MaXECTaflEvou<; ot
The British Isles lie across from Flanders and are three )8
KEA't'o\ q>EpOV't'at rrAEov 't'wv BpE't'avwv, e<; 0 S~ CTUvEAav-
in number; they extend over a long stretch of the Ocean.
VOV't'E<; av't'ou<; e<; 't'~v KaAECTI]v e;EAacral au't'ou<; eK 't'*
Sometimes there is only one island, but then the tide comes
xwpa<;. in and there are three, whereupon the waters again ebb and
)8 BpE't'avlKa\ V~CTOl Ka't'av't'lKpu 't'~<; <PAavSpla<; 't'Pet<; recede. 98 It would thus be more correct to say that there is
OUCTal, err\ fl~Klmov Sf, 't'oil WKEavoil Kae~KouCTal, o't'e f'ev only one island and, because it is one, it is governed as such
flla V~CTO<; 't'uyxavEl oUCTa, ()1tO't'E rrAI]flflupla, o't'e S' aVel<; in its entirety, with the same purpose and looking after its
't'Pet<;, orro't'E 't'a ilSa't'a e<; iiflrrw't'lv YlvoflEva avampEq>ol't'O. own interests, being ruled by one man. The circumference
L\.lKaLO't'Epa S' ltv Aeyol't'o flla ail't'I] ~ V~CTO<;, erre! Ka\ flla of this island is about five thousand stades. The race that in-
't'E oVCTa Kat Ka't" au't'o Sl~KoUCTa rrOAl't'EvE't'al, q>povoilCTa-re habits the island is populous anq hardy; it contains large,
prosperous cities, and a multitude of villages. They have a
Ka't'a't'au't'o Ka\ uq>' evo<; apXOflEvl] 't'a ;vflq>opa tavTfi eTtl-
king and a capital, where the royal court of the king is,
CTKOrret. "ECT't'l S' ~ rrEploSo<; ~CTSE 't'* V~CTOU e<; rrEv't'a-
namely London. There are many subordinate principalities
Kl"XlAlov<; f'aAlCT't'a CT't'aSlov<;. rtvo<; Se evolKET -rf]v V~CTOV
rroAv -re Ka\ iiAKlflov, rroAEl<; 't'E lVElCTlV au't'oil flEyaAat 't'E
Ka\ iSA~lat, Ka\ KWflal is't'l rrAETCT't'at. "Eml S' au't'oT<; ~aCTl­
AEV<;, Ka\ fll]'t'porroAl<; au't'wv, ev ii Ka\ ~aCTLAEla, AovSpat,
't'oil ~aCTlAEW<;, urr' au't'ov Se ~yEflovlat ev Tfi V~CT!p 't'av-rn


Ot'lK oAiYaL, KCrra -rat'l-ra -roT<; KEA-roT<; SLa-rL9EflEVaL -rQ on the island, in the same relationship to the king as among
a'l'E-rEp<!J ~aaLAeT' OU-rE yap &v pqSiw<; a'l'EAoL-rO ~a(J[AEU<; the French. The king could not easily strip one of them of
-rou-rwv -rLVa TIjv iJYEfloviav, OUTE 1"Capa -ra a'l'wv ,,9Lfla a~L­ his realm, nor do their customs require them to obey the
OU(J[v {maKouElV -rQ ~aaLAeT. [r.87} 'EYEvov-ro St -rfi viJa<!J king. Many disasters have struck this island, which has fallen
-rau't!l ~ufl'l'0pat O1)K oAiYaL, 1"Capa1"CaLOUan au-rfi, e<; SLa-
apart when its rulers have come into conflict with the king
or with each other.
'l'0pav a'l'LKvouflevwv -rwv iJYEfl6vwv 1"Cpo<; TE -rov ~a(J[Ma
This island produces many goods-wheat, barley, and 39
Kat1"Cpo<; MAiJAOU<;.
honey-but not wine nor much byway of fruit." And they
39 1\AAa -rE Kat S~ 'l'EpEL 1) v~ao<; au-r'1, oTvov St ouSaflii, do have wool, which is of a much finer quality than in other
ouSt o1"Cwpa<; 1"CaVll -rL, aT-rov St Kat KpL9a<; Kat flEAL. Kat countries, so that they weave a vast quantity of garments.
"pLa EaTLV at'l-roT<;, oTa KaULa-ra -rwv ev -raT<; iiAAaL<; XWpaL<;, They speak their own particular language which does not
a,aTE Kat u'l'aivEa9aL au-roT<; 1tafl1"COAU -rL 1tA~90<; lfla-riwv. sound at all like that of the Germans, the French, or any
N0fli~ouaL St YAwaan [Siq 1"Cafl1tav, Kat ot'lSevt CJlJfl'l'EPE-raL of their neighbors. They have the same dress, customs, and
e<; TIjv 'l'wviJv, OU-rE repflavoT<;, OU-rE KEA-roT<;, ot'lSt iiU<!J way of life as the French. They have a rather casual attitude
OUSEVt -rwv 1tEpLoiKwv. LKEIlii St -rfi au-rfi XPWflEVOL -roT<; when it comes to women and children so that throughout
the island, whenever a man is invited to a friend's house, he
KEA-roT<;, Kat ~9Eai -rE -roT<; au-roT<; Kat SLai't!l. N0fli~naL St
is greeted with a kiss by the host's wife. Even in the streets
-rOU-rOL<; -ra -r' afl'l't-ra<; yvvaTKa<; -re Kat-rou<; 1"CaTSa<; cmAo-
they present their own wives everywhere to their friends.
'(Kw-repa, a,a-re ava 1tiiaav -r~v v~aov, t1tELSaV -rL<; e<; TIjv
The same custom prevails in the land of the Flemish, a
-rou e1tL-r'1Seiou au-rQ o[Kiav tain KaAouflEvO<;, Kuaav-ra coastal land there which extends as far as Germany. It brings
TIjv yvvaTKa ou-rw ~Evi~Ea9aL au-rov. Kat ev -raT<; 6SoT<; St no shame upon them for their wives and daughters to be
cmav-raxii 1tapeX0v-raL -ra<; tau-rwv yvvaTKa<; [ev} -roT<; em- kissed in this way.
"'1SeiOL<;. N0fli~E-raL St -rou-ro Kat t<; -r~v C!lpav-raAwv xw- The city of London surpasses all the cities on this island 40
pav, -r~v -rau-rn 1tapaAOV, iiXPL rEpflavia<;. Kat ouSt a[axu- in strength and is generally second to no other city in the
v'1v -rou-ro 'l'EpEL tau-roT<; KUEa9aL -ra<; -rE yvvaTKa<; au-rwv west in wealth and prosperity. In courage and valor in war, it
is superior to its neighbors and to many others in the lands
Kat -ra<; 9uya-rEpa<;.
40 AovSpwv Sf 1) 1tOAL<; SuvaflEL -rE 1tpoexouaa -rwv tv -rfi
viJa<!J -rau't!l 1tacYwv 1tOAEWV, 6A~<!J -rE Kat -rfi iiUn Et'lSaL-
flovi'.! ouSEflLii<; -rwv 1tpo<; ea1tEpaV AEmoflEv'1, avSpiq -rE
Kat-rfi e<; -rou<; 1tOAEflou<; apE-rfi afleivwv -rwv 1tEpLOLKOUV-rWV

KaLTCoAAWV IiAAWV -rwv TCpO<; ~AlOV Suvov-ra. ''OTCAOl<; Sf. of the setting sun. They use Italian shields, Greek swords,
and long bows that they shoot by standing them uprigbt
xpWV-ral eupeaT, fLf.V (lo88} 'J-raAlKOT, KaL ;[<peow 'EAA']Vl-
on the ground. A river flows by this city, broad and with
KoT" -rO;Ol, Sf. fLaKpoT<;, wcr-re KaL [cr-rwv-ra<; t<; TIJv yijv a 1ll1ghty current, emptying into the Ocean toward France.
athol><; -rO;eUElV. I1o-rafLo<; S£ TCap' aU-rfJv ye TIJV TCOAlV The distance from the city to the sea is two hundred and ten
ptwv, cr<poSpO<; -rE Kal fLtya<;, E<; -rOV TCpO<; raAa-r[aV WKea- stades, ~nd when the tide is in the ships can easily sail up
VOV tKSlSoT, 1mb ~<; TCoAew<; E<; cr-raS[ou<; StKa -re Kal Sla- to the CIty. But when the waters change direction and flow
KOcr[OU<; tTCL eaAacr(J'av, KalTCA,]fLfLup[q ava~a[vElv -ra<; vau<; back again, it is difficult to sail against the current and ac-
eUTCE-rw<; TCavu ETCl TIJv TCOAlV' KaV fLtV-rOl Em(J'-rpt<pn -ra ces~ to the city is prevented. At the low tide, in the coastal
ilSa-ra -ra EfLTCaAlv Ylvo[leva, xaAeTCw<; tTCL -ra peu[la-ra aVl- regIOn of Kent and on the island itself, when the waters ebb
ov-ra, av-rlKOTC-rElV tTCL TIJv TCOAlV [av-ra. Ka-ra fLtV-rOl Ii[lTCW- the ships become grounded and must wait for the waters to
flood again. At its maximum the tide rises to a height of fif-
-rlV, EV -re -rfi TCapaA[C!' XWN -rfj<; ye Kev-r[a<; KaL EV au-rfi -m
teen royal cubits, at its minimum eleven. Day and nigbt the
v~(J'C!', t<; Ii[lTCW-rlV YlvofLtvwv -rWV uSa-rwv -ra, vau<; tTCl
tide ebps and then rises again.
;!]paV y[vecreat, TCepl[levoucra<;, t<; il avaTCA'][l[lup[~el aliel<; When the moon reaches the middle of the sky, coming to 4'
-ra ilSa-ra. ill!] [l[lupeT Sf. t<; -ro [ltylcr-rOV tTCL ~xel<; ~a(J'lAl­ both our horizon and the one beneath the earth, the waters
KOl><; TCeV-rEKa[SeKa, -rouAaXlcr-rov S£ tTCL evSeKa. NUK-rO<; turn and flow in the opposite direction. Those who observe
fLEv oily KaL ~[ltpa<; aTCopptov-ra TCA,][lfLupeT ailel, tTCavl- the moon need to consider this motion of the waters. For I
Dv'ta. believe that the moon has been assigned by God to govern
4' LeA~V!]<; S£ Ka-ra [ltcrov oupavov YlyvO[lEV']<;, E(J'-re -rov the nature of the waters. This would not be inconsistent
Kae' ~[lii<; KaL t<; -rov lmo TIJv yijv 6p[~ov-ra, -rpETCe(J'eat tTCl with its nature and mixture of elements, which it received in
the beginning from God the Great King. When the moon
-r~v tvav-r[av -ra ilSa-ra K[V']crlV. Xp~ oily SlacrKoTCeTcreat
rises in the sky it draws the waters after it until it reaches the
TCepL ~<; Klv~(J'ew<; -rau-r']<; -rwv uSa-rwv -mS' Em(J'KeTC-rofLE-
highest point in the sky; then, as it descends, the waters go
vo\J<;. T~v yap creA~v']v Em-rpoTCeUElV -re TIJv -rwv uSa-rwv
<pU(J'lV UTCO eeau -rE-raxeat o[0[leea. OUK av S~ acru[l<pwvw<;
EXElV TCpO<; -re TIJv <pU(J'lV -re au~<; KaL TIJv KpiicrlV, (lo89} ~v
e'iA!]Xe TIJv apx~v UTCO eeou -rou [leyaAou ~a<J'lAEW<;, TCpO<;
fLf.V TIJv K[V']crlV au-rij<; [le-rewp[~oucrav E<ptAKecrea[ -re E<p'
01 -ra ilSa-ra, E<; il ETCl TIJv fLey[Cf-rI]v ava~acrlv yEv']-ral -rou
oupavou, Kav-reUeev aVel<; Ka-rlOucrav ETCavlEVat -ra ilSa-ra,


!!'1KE'tl <1UVaVlOna au'tij E<; 'tYJv livooov' bC£loav oE aNll<; back, no longer following it in its ascent. And when, in turn,
e<; 'tYJv Kcdlooov l'lvo!!Ev'1lip~'1'tall'[v£<1Sal e<; 'to livan£<;, the moon has made its descent and begins to go back up
'to ev't£uS£v miSl<; bcavlov'ta 7tA'1!!!!UpeTv. again, the tide turns about and starts to rise again.
4' LU!!~a[v£l !!EnOl Kal U7tO 7tV£u!!,hwv e<; 'tou'to <1U!!~aA- It happens that the winds contribute to this process too 4'

AO!!EVWV KlVdv E'tl !!iiAAOV 'ta uoa'ta, oS£v iiv O£xo!!£va Ii and move the waters still more, from wherever the latter
originally receive their motion. This movement of the wa-
'tYJv apx~v 't~<; KlV~<1£W<;. <PEPOl'tO 0' iiv 'tav'ta KlVOU!!£Va
ters may, then, feature a dual motion that goes against the
Ol't'tYJV 'tiJvo£ 'tYJv K[V'1<1lV e7tl 'tYJv 'tov 7tano<; 'tovo£ 'tov
motion of the totality of the sky, becoming both spontane-
oupavov K[V'1<1lV, 'tiJv 't£ auSa[p£'tov Kal o~ ~[aLOV l'£vo-
ous and violent, so that if this motion does not attain a har-
!!EV'1V, w<; iiv !!~ e<; mJ!!'PWVOV 'tlva ap!!ov[av l'lVO!!EV'1<; monious unison, it becomes extremely varied. This is most
~<; KlV~<1£W<;, 7tOAU£lO~ 't£ Kal w<; !!aAl<1'ta, Ii iiv 'to ~Ol­ pleasant to contemplate, view, and hear, and is in accordance
<1'tov E7t[ 't£ 'tij S£wp[q Kal <hJr£l Kal aKoij, Kal e<; opov 'tlva with one of the rules of the Soul of this Universe, namely
mJ!!'PWVOV 'tij 'tov 7tano<; 'tovo£ 'ltuXii, w<; iiv a'<1S0!!EVn that this Soul takes pleasure in perceiving how different mo-
!!iiAAOV 'tl5 EV£l'KOU<1WV 'twv KlV~<1£WV Kal aAA~Am<; O"U!!- tions may be conveyed and borne along with each other into
'P£PO!!EVWV ,<; 'tlva 6!!0£lO~ O"u!!'Pwv[av 'X£lV 'tYJv 6 liAA'1v a certain uniform harmony.lOo Therein lies also the source
'to ~8£O"Sal. 'Ev't£uS£v 'tiJv 1:£ tu~<; K[V'1O"lV, 'tYJv apx~v of the soul's motion, which in turn moves our bodies on
this dual course, namely to grow and to decline. Moreover,
EKeTS£V Aa!!~avouO"av, E7tl 'tYJv Ol't'tYJV EKe[V'1V 'P0pav KlVeTV
our individual soul receives the impulse for its motion as
auSl<; 'ta O"w!!a'ta, ail~ov'ta 1:£ o~ Kal 'PS[vona. Kal !!EV 8~
it is borne along with the Universe. For all living things,
Kal E7tl K[V'1O"lV 'tiJv8£ 'tYJv 6p!!~v U7tOOEX£'tal 't<l' 7tav'tl't<l'o£ birth and growth necessarily follow the spontaneous mo-
<1U!!'P£PO!!EV'1V ~ ~!!£'tEpa tum. Tij !!EV avS"'pE't<jJ 'tiJv 't£ tion, while decline and death are caused by the violent and
l'EV£O"lV Kal ail~'1o"lv E7t£O"S", avayxn, 'tij 0' au ~la[<jJ Kal compulsive one.
aKouO"[<jJ KlV~o"£l 'tiJv 1:£ 'PS[O"lV au Kal 't~v 1:£A£U'tYJV E7tlO"7tO- So much, then, concerning the motion of the Ocean and 43

!!EV'1V O"u!!~a[v£lv 'tOt<; 'tijo£ oUO"l. (I.90} the dual motion of living beings with souls in relation to it,
43 Tav'ta !!EV 'O"'t£ 'tYJV 'tou WK£avou K[V'1O"lV Kal 'tYJV 'tij8£ those here that have a soul and move in any way whatever.
au 8l't'tYJV ~<iJwv E!!VUXWV K[V'1O"lV, oO"a 't£ 'ltumv '("X£l EV- The waters of the sea, however, are not necessarily moved
by that same motion, but, as they move in accordance with
'tavSa Kal K[V'1O"lV KlV£l't'" ~V'tlvaouv. Ta !!EV'tOl e<; 'tYJv8£
how the winds and places compel them individually, their
't~V SaAaO"O"av u8a'ta ou 't~V av't~v EKe[V'1V aval'Kn Kl-
V£tO"S", K[V'1O"lV, aAX w<; EX£l 't£ EKa<1'ta 7tV£U!!a'twv 't£ Kal
't07tWV e<; 'tYJV K[V'1O"lV ~la~O!!EVWV av'ta, Ii 'PuO"£w<; EXOl iiv

154 155

Ked po1Tij<;, 1tpo<; ~v av Klvoi'm S~ 'raoTa KlV'1<TlV, TaoTa motion is determined by whatever their nature and equilib-
[ttv ouv E<; ~v TWV iJSaTwv TOO WKeavoo Kiv'1<TlV Kat e1tt rium may be. Having said all this, let us now set aside the
1tAel<TTOV St Tij<TSe T~<; 9aM<T<l"1<; t<; TO<TOOTOV a1teppi<p9w- topic of the motion of the waters of the Ocean and, espe-
cially, of this particular sea. I return to that point in my nar-
E1taVel[tl St E1t' EKelva T~<; a<p'1Y11 <Tew<;, 8gev TauTtl a1t-
ration from where I digressed.
eTpa1tO [te9a.
When the king of the Greeks came to the king of the 44
44 Ba<rlAeu<; yap S~ 'En~vwv, w<; e1tt TOV ~a<rlAea KeATwv
French and realized that he was demented,!O! he was pre-
a<pLKeTO, <ppevLT'1 TE DVTa S~ KaTeAa~ev, OUK E;eyeveTo ot vented from discussing the issues for which he had gone
(J1:'!'OOV aAA,!, TWV KaTa T~V faAaTLav ~ye[tovwv, WV EveKa there with any other of the leading men in France. For this
,x<pLKeTO, XP'1[taTL<Tat· Kat Sla TaOTa <TV[t~ovAevOv.-WV TWV reason his leading men who accompanied him there advised
aUTOO TauTtl apL<TTWV E1te[teve gepa1tev9~vat TOV ~a<TlAta, him to persist in attending upon the king, and so he spent a
<TVXVOV Tlva SlaTpL~WV aUTOO XPOVOV. n<; St E1teTELVeTO considerable time there. But as the illness dragged on for
e1tl[taKpoTEpov TOO VO~ [taTO<;, oux oTo<; Te ~v hl e1tl[tevelv a long time, he was unable to stay there any longer and so
aUT<!i, ime<TTpe'ite Sla fep[tavLa<; Te Kat IIalOvia<;. IIalas~­ he returned through Germany and Hungary.102 Meanwhile,
Bayezid was vigorously pressing the siege of Byzantion, and
T'1<; Se TO Te BvsaVTlOV E1tOAlOpKel1tp0<Texwv tVTeTa[tevw<;,
he sent an army against the Peloponnese, detaching fifty
Kat E1tl IIeAo1tovv'1<TOV 1te[t'ita<; O'TpaTOV, a1tOKpOUWV [tv-
thousand men and Yakub, who was then his general in Eu-
plaSa<; 1tev.-e, Kal 'Iayou1t'1v TOV TOTe aUT<!i EupW1t'1<;
rope, while he himself retained command of operations
<TTpaT'1YOV' aUTO<; elxev a[t<pt 'tfi eaVTOO apxfi 'tfi 1tept TO around Byzantion. Yakub and Evrenos, who was then be-
BvSaVTlOV. 'Iayou1t'1<; [ttv <ri>v T<!i Bpevesn, TOTE S~ ap;a- gioning to become famous, invaded the Peloponnese. Both
[tev,!, euSOKl[telV, E<Te~aAOV E<; ~V IIeAo1tovv'1<TOV' Ka1. then and later Evrenos often invaded and plundered the
Bpeves'1<; [tEv 1tOAAaKl<; t<T~aAWV Kat TOTe Kat [teTa TaOTa Peloponnese, including the regions around Korone and
eSiJov ~V IIeAo1tovv'1<TOV, ana Kal Ta 1tepl Kopwv'1V Te Methane, while Yakub, the governor of Europe, arrived at
Kat Me9wv'1v xwpia, 'Iayou1t'1<; S1: (, {r.9I} T~<; Eupw1t'1<; Argos and besieged it.lOJ

~ye[twv a<plKo[tevo<; t<; TO Apyo<; E1tOAlOpKel. At this time the Venetians held Argos. It was given to 45
them by Theodoros, the ruler of Mistra, who had decided
45 To St Apyo<; TOOTOV TOV Xpovov KaTEIXov ol 'EveToL
that the Greeks had no hope of safety in Byzantion, or for
1\1teSOTO St 6eoSwpo<; 0 Tij<; :E1tapT'1<; ~ye[twv, w<; a1teyvw
that matter in the Peloponnese, as the affairs of the Greeks
TOI<; "EAA'1<Tl ~v <TwT'1piav T<!i Te BvsavTi'!', 1tpo<; st Kat already stood upon a razor's edge. 104 He sold Argos, which
'tfi IIeAo1tovv~<T,!"
Kat E1tl;vpoo aK[t~<; ~S'1 EO'T'1KOTa Ta
TWV 'EAA~VWV 1tpay[taTa· TO TE Apyo<; 8[topov (Iv NaV1tAi'!',


1tOAEl -rWV 'EvE-rwv, cmt80-ro ou 1tOAAOU. Kat L1tCtp-r!]V 8£ borders on Nauplion, a city of the Venetians, for a small
-roTe; Ct1tO 'Po80v Na~!]palole; ee; A6yove; Ct<plKOfLEVOe; Ct1t- price. lOS He also negotiated with the monks from Rhodes
and sold Mistra to them for a large price. 106 But when the
t80-ro 1tOAAOU -rlVOe;. Ot fL£v L1tap-rlii-raL, we; ~O'eov-ro 1tpO-
people of Mistra found out that they had been betrayed by
8E80fLtVOl U1tO -rou O'<pwv au-rwv ~yEfLovoe;, Ct1tijv yap -rO-rE,
their own ruler, for he was away at the time, they assembled
tvCtyov-roe; -rou L1tCtp-r!]e; apXlEptwe; KOlVft -rE O'UVlOV'rEe; at the instigation of the bishop ofMistra to discuss the mat-
O'<plO'l A6yov e8l800'av, Kat O'UvlO'-rav-ro aAA~AOle;, Kal O'uv- ter. 107 They came to an agreement and decided that they
E-rleEno we; OU8EVl em-rpt'\tonEe; elO'EAeeTv ee; -r~v 1tOAlV would permit none of the monks to enter into the city. They
-rwv Na~!]palwv, 1tiiv 8t, 0 -rl ltv 8tOl, xaAE1tOV 1tElO'ofLtvoue; were prepared to suffer any necessary hardship rather than
1tpO -rou Na~!]palole; -roTe; Aa-rlvwv 1teleEO'eaL. 'EO'~O'av-ro obey the Latin monks. They appointed their bishop to be
8£ O'<plO'l Kal -rov yE apXlEpta Itpxona e1tt -rou-r41· Kal their leader in this matter. When the monks arrived they
eAeOV-rWV -rwv Na~!]palwv 1tpO!]YOPEUOV-rO a1taAACtO'O'E- were told to leave as quickly as possible; otherwise, they
would be regarded as enemies. So they departed and went
O'eaL ~v -raxlO"rl]v' el 8e fL~, 1tEplt'\tEO'eal we; 1tOAEfLlove;.
back to the ruler, as they were making no progress there.
OU-rOl fL£v ouv <i>xov-ro a1taAAaO'O'ofLEvOl we; e1tt -rev ~yE­
When Theodoros, the ruler of Mistra, was informed that
fLova, we; ou8£v ee; -rou-ro O'<plO'l1tpoEXWpet· 8E08wpoe; ~E 6 the matter had turned out in the opposite way to what he
-r~e; L1tCtp"'le; ~yEfLwv, we; ijO'eno -ro 1tpiiYfLa, we; -ro~vanLO~, had planned, he sent word to the people of Mistra in an at-
~ e~ouAE-rO, 1tEPltO'-r!] au-r£ij, A6yove; -r~ ~~EfL1tEV a~ele; ~a~a tempt to see if they would still accept him if he returned.
-roue; L1tap-rlCt-rae;, a1t01tElpWfLEVOe;, El 8E~aLV-rO E-rl au-rov When they accepted his overtures, he entered the city, tak-
ailele; e1taVlona. De; 8£ 8la1tElpwfLtvou 1tpoO'lEno -roue; ing an oath that he would never again entertain such an
Aoyove;, eO'l)El 8£ -r~v 1tOAlV, opKla 1tOl!]O'CtfLEVOe; {I.9 2} idea. lOS

fL!]Kt-rl -rou Aomou e1tt vouv ~aAtO'eaL -rOLOU-rOV. The Venetians then installed a garrison in the citadel of 46

46 To-rE ot OUEVE-rOt <ppoupav ee; -r~v aKp01tOAlV a1to- Argos and so held the city. Yakub, the general of Sultan
Bayezid, marched against the city and besieged it with all
<P!]vCtfLEVOl Ka-rETxov. 'E1tl -rou-ro 8£ -ro l\.pyoe; 'Iayou"'le; 6
his might. He attacked the walls often and would not let up.
I1aLa~~-rEw ~aO'lAtwe; O'-rpa-r!]yoe; we; eO'-rpa-rEuE-ro, e1tOAl-
After a short time, because he was attempting to assault the
OpKEl -rE ava KpCt-rOe;, Kat1tpoO'~CtAAWV -r£ij -relXet eafLa OUK place from two locations simultaneously, a fearful panic
avlEl. ME-ra 8£ OU 1tOAUV Xpovov, we; a1to 8uoTv afLa -r01tOlV arose among those inside who were defending the left side
1tpOO'~CtAAWV e1tElpii-ro -rou xwplov, ylvnal -rl 8eTfLa -roTe; of the city, as they came to believe, based on the report of
. ev -rft 1tOAEl 1taVlKOV -roTe; t1tt -r£ij EuwvufL41 -r~e; 1tOAE~e;
fLtpEl afLvvofLtvole;, we; 8o~av au-roTe; aVepW1tOV -rlva -rwv


ETClXWp(WV <p~(raV1:a Ebrelv, W, eaAw ~ re6Al, areo 1:0U SE- a local man, that the city had been talcen from the right
s~de. Leaving their sector they rushed over to the side on the
;LOU, Kat EKAlTC6v1:a, 1:0 Xwp(OV 1:0U1:0 IEVat Sp6fl,!, Eret1:0
r~ght, but the ene.my scaled the walls there and captured the
SE;l6v, Ev1:au9a Se ava~E~l']K61:a, 1:0 1:elXO, 1:0U, reOAEflio1J,
CIty, enslavmg thIs proud and ancient city.109 It is said that
1:ao'tl] tAUV 1:E Ka1:a Kpa1:0, TIJV re6AlV Kal avSpareoSicra-
the Turks obtained thirty thousand slaves there It I' al
cr9al re6AlV reEpl<pavii 1:E Kat reaAaLav.AvSpareoSa SE AEYE- 'd h . s so
Sal t at the sultan settled them in Asia. I cannot ascertain
1:al YEvecr9al EV1:EU9EV 1:01, ToopKol, W, 1:Plcrflopla. Ka1:0l- whether this is true, nor am I able to discover through in-
Kicral flev 1:001:01J, AEYE1:aL ~aCTlAEu, E, TIJv Acriav' OUK £XW qUIry where in Asia they were settled by Sultan Ba .d
H' I d ~u.
SE 1:oii't"o cr1Jfl~aAAEcr9aL, w, ell'] aAl']ge" ou S1JVaflEVO, avmg ens ave Argos, then, Yalcub led his army away.
t;e1JpElv Slare1Jv9avoflEv'!', oreol-rij, Acria, OV1:0l Ka1:£ilKl']v- Mter that Evrenos immediately rose to great power when 47

1:aL ureo IIata~~1:Ew ~acrlAew,. 'Iayourel'], flev ouv, w, 1:0 he mvaded the Peloponnese and coastal Macedonia, where
l\pyo, ~vSpareoS(cra1:o, are~yayE 1:0V cr1:pa1:6v. he fo~ght against the Albanians, performing great and dis-
tmgulshed deeds on behalf of the sultan's household. He
47 Mna SE 1:aU1:a BpEVE~l'], 1:E aU1:iKa Eret flEya tXWPEl
had not yet been appointed as a general by the sultan but
S1JVaflEW" Efl~aAAWV 1:E E, TIJV IIEAore6vvl']crov Kat E, TIJV
the Turks followed him wherever he led them becau;e he
reapaALOV MaKESoviav Eret 1:0U, l\A~avou" flEYaAa Kat was fortunate in war and enriched his army, wherever he
Ereicrl']fla i!pya areoSElKVOflEVO, 1:Q 1:0U ~acrlAEw, O'(K'!', went on campaign. The cavalry raiders of this people as
cr1:pa1:l']yo, flEV OUKE1:l areoSeLx9el, {mo ~aCTlAtw" 1:WV SE they are called,"o receive neither wages nor office from ~he
ToupKWV ereofltvwv aU1:Q, {I.93} oreOl iiv E;l']yol1:0, W, EU- sultan, but they are always striving for plunder and loot and
1:1JXU1:E YEVOflEV'!' 1:a t, re6AEflov Kat reAo1J1:i~oV1:l1:a cr1:pa- thus fo.llowwherever someone leads them against an enemy.
II nUfla1:a, oreOl iiv Ere(ol cr1:pa1:E1J6flEVO,. Tou, yap S~ [rereo- Each fides one horse and brings along another to carry the
Sp 6fl O1J, KaA01JflEV01J, 1:0U ytv01J, 1:0USE, fl~n fllcr96v, loot. When they enter enemy territory, they receive a signal
II! fro~ the general to mount the horses that they have been
fl~1:E apmv i!xov1:a, ureo 1:0U ~acrlAEw" Eret SlapreanV 1:E
leadmg, and they ride with all their might; nothing holds
III Kat AeLaV aet Slwcr9Ev1:a, £reEcr9al, oreOl liv 1:l, E;l']Yii1:aL
them back. Dispersing into groups of three, they seize
a01:o1, Erel1:ou, reOAEflio1J" aU1:(Ka EKacr1:0V irereEUOV1:a 1:E
I Kal E1:EpOV ay6flEvov lrereov E, 1:0V ure6Spoflov -rij, AeLa"
Ereav SE EV -rti reoAEfliq: YEVWV1:at, crtIv9l']fla Aafl~avOV1:E,
I! I
ureo 1:0U cr1:pa1:l']you, aVa~aV1:E, ou, reEplaY01Jcrlv lrereo1J"
11,1 9uv ava Kpa1:0" fll']SEV 1:l EreEXOV1:a" Kal crKESaVv1JflE-
II V01J, crtIV1:PEl, Slaprea~Elv avSpareoSa, Kat a 1:l E, liAAO

1'·1 160


1tpoxwpoi'l' Tau't!] £1tio"taf'at 'rou~ 'rE f'E'ra Af'OVP"''rEW captives and anything that might be useful. I know that this
IS how those with Murad, the son of Orhan, and those at
'rou '0 PX"'VEW Kal 'roiJ~ 'ra'rE 8~ £1tl I1ala~~'rEW Ola~"'V'ra~
this time who crossed over into Europe with Bayezid used
£~ 'r~V Eupw1t'lv w9fjerai 'rE Kal 'rau't!] i:AOf'£VOV~ er<pierl ~LO­
to behave when they charged and so made their living, and
'rEU£lV, Kal £1tlOaV'ra~ 1tapaxpfj f'a £viov~ f'£ya oA~iov~ £V
some of them quickly became very wealthy by doing this.
~paxE1 yiVEcr9at, imav'raxn 'rE 'rfj~ Eupw1t'l~ otK~eraV'ra~, They settled throughout Europe, from the city of Skopje to
"'1tO 'rfj~ 'rWV ~Ko1tlwv 1taAEW~ £1tl ~V Tpl~aAAWV Xwpav the land of the Serbs and that of the Bulgarians, and through-
Kal Mverwv Kal Ka'ra 'r~V MaKEoovlav, f'E'ra oe 'rau'ra 1t'pl out Macedonia, and after that many settled in Thessaly.
E>'TIaAiav otKfjeral1tOUou~. It I~ said that during Bayezid's reign a large contingent of 48
48 'E1tl f'ev OUV IIata~~'r'w A£Y''rat f'olpav OUK oAiy'lV Skythlans came to WaIIachia and sent an embassy to Bayezid
~Kv9wv £1tl llaKlav EA90uerav 1tp,er~,ueraer9at 1tpO~ IIat- requestmg money and positions for their rulers in exchange
for which they would cross the Danube and jo;n him in his
a~~'r'lv, ahEler9at au'rwv 'roiJ~ ~yEf'ava~ xp~ f'a'r'" 'r' Kal
wars against his enemies in Europe,ul He was pleased by
apX~v, E<p' iii ola~"'v'ra~ 'rov "Impov ervv8la<p£p£lv aU'riii
their proposal, granted their request, and made great prom-
'roiJ~ E1tl 'rfi Eupw1t!] EvaV'rlov~ {I.94} 1toAtf'0v~. Tov 8e
Ises to them. When they crossed over, he settled them in
~oaf"vov 'riii Aay4' 1tpoerlEer9at ~v a'('r'lerlv au'rwv Kal U1t-
vario~s places in Europe, with each group following its own
lO')(VE1er9at f',yaAa. llla~",v'rwv Oe EKEivwv Ka'rOlKierat au- ruler m each place. Dispersed in this way, they became use-
'roiJ~ ava 'r~v Eupw1t'lv, 9Epa1t'Uov'ra~ 'roiJ~ ~yEf'6va~ ful m cavalry raiding and in war. But later Bayezid became
au'rwv ",va f'epo~ EKaer'rov, Kal crK,8aer9£v'ra~ oiJ'rw aU'roiJ~ afraid that their leaders might conspire together and rebel
xp'lerlf'0v~ y,v£er9at ler'r' l1t1t08paf'0v~ Kal E~ 1taA,f'ov. against him, so he arrested them and killed them. But even
"Yer'r'pov f'£V'rOl IIala~~'r'l~ oppw8wv, f'~ 'rl v,w'r'plerw- now one can still see a very large number of Skythians dis-
crLV ol ~y'f'6v'~ au'rwv ervvl6V'r'~ er<plerl, erVAAa~wv 'rou'rOV~ persed in various places throughout Europe.
. Under Murad, the land in Macedonia around Thessalo- 49
"'1t£K'r£lV£. Twv Se ~Kv9wv Kal vuv E'rl ",va 'r~V Eupw1t1']V
nike and the Axios River was also settled with colonies as
1toAu 'rl1tAfj90~ 1tOAAaxn crK,oaer9£v'rwv lmlv t8E1v.
he brought a great multitude of Turks to this region and ~et­
49 Kal U1tO Af'ovp"''r'W f'£V'rOl £V 'rfi MaKESovl", ~ 1t'pl tied them. The plain called Zagora was also settled by
E>epf''lv Kal 1tapa A;lOV 1to'raf'ov xwpa Ka'r<!JKler'rat, Murad as was the land of Philippopolis. The Chersonese at
",yay6v'ro~ f'£ya 'rl 1tAfj90~ TOUpKWV 'r' E~ 'rOU'rOV 'rOV
XwpOV Kal Ka'rolKlerav'ro~. Kal 'r0 'rfj~ Zayopa~ 1t£OOV
oiJ'rW KaAouf"VOV U1tO Af'ovp"'r'W Ka'r4'Kier9'l, Kal ~ <l>l-
Al1t1t01t6AEW~ xwpa. 'H f'£V'rOl X'pp6v'lero~ ~ EV 'riii


'EAA'1<r1tOvr4' Kal1tpo'tEpov Imo ~ouAaYf'aVEW Ka't4'K[<r9'1 the Hellespont had previously been settled by Siile
h' b yman,
'toil aSEA<j>oil. 8EnaALa SE Ka\ ~ 1tEp\ 'ta ~K01tla xwpa Ka\ IS rother. Bayezid, the son of Murad, settled colonies in
Thessaly, in the land around Skopje, in the land of the Serbs
~ Tpt~aAAwv a1to c[>tAt1t1t01t6AEW~ l<r'tE £1t1 'tov Alf'ov Ka\
from Philippopolis to the Haimos, and in the town kno~
~V ~O<pLaV oihw KaAOUf'EV'1V KWf''1V, natal;~'t1'j~ 0 Af'ou-
as Sofia, and he raided the land of the IlIyrians and the Serbs.
pa'tEW Ka'tOtK[<ra~ ~V 'tdAAUptWV Ka\ Tpt~aAAwv £A'1t l;E'tO These places devoted themselves to fighting the enemy, and
xwpav. 'E1tlStSoa<rt f'Ev OU'tOt ot xwpOt 1tpO~ yE 1tOAEf'[WV, later, after that, others flooded into this area for the same
Ka1 U<r'tEpOV f'E'ta 'tail'ta £'tEPWV £K 'toil 'tau'tl] £1ttPPEOV'tWV reason when they learned that they could conveniently
au'toii, a,<r1tEP liv £1tuv9avov't0 £1tl't'1SELW~ <r<p[<rtV "XEtV plunder the land for slaves and property taken from the en-
~V Xwpav 1tpO~ 'tE avSpa1toSa Ka\ £~ {I.95} 't~v IIAA'1V emy, especially where the enemy put up no resistance.
ou<r[av ~V a1tO 'tWV 1tOAEf'LWV, Ka\ 01tt] liv f'aAt<r'ta f'~ Bayezid crossed over into Asia, besieged ErzinJ'an and took
It.. e t en advanced to Melitene on the Euphrates ' and
aV'ttKOmn U1tO 'tWV 1tOAEf'[WV, natal;~'t'1~ Sf. w~ £~ ~V
A<rLav Ota~a~ £1t\ 'Ep'tl;tyyav'1v 1tOAtoPKWV 1tapE<r~<ra'tO, b.esleged that too, attacking its walls with every manner of
siege engme. For some time it held out, but afterward it sub-
1tpO',WV MEAt't1'jV~V 't~V £1t\ 't4' Eu<ppa'tl] £1tOAtOPKEt 'tE Ka1
mitted byagreement. ll3
1tpo<rE~aAE f''1xava~ 1taV'tOLa~ 1tpo<raywv 't4' 't£LXEt. Ka\
While Melitene was being besieged by Bayezid and it was 50
E1t1 Xpovov f'f.V av't£lXE, f'E'ta oE 'tail'ta 1tPO<rExwp'1<re Ka9' announced to the sultan1l4 that Melitene had fallen, the rul-
0f'oAoy[av. ers of the Turks in Asia were at hand, negotiating to be re-
50 'Ev <Ii 01: ~ 'te MeAt't'1v~ £1tOAtoPK£l'tO Imo natal;~'tEW stored b! King Timur, each to his own land.1I5 They invoked
Ka1 ~yy£AAE'tO 't4' ~a<rtAel, W~ EaAW MeAt't'1v~, 1tapov'tE~ the ancient bonds of kinship that existed between them
Ka\ 'to'te ot ToupKWV ~~ A<r[a~ ~yef'0ve~ l1tpanov, 01tW~ and Timur's people, and also their religion, practicing which
Ka'taYOtv'to Imo TEf'~pew ~a<rtAEW~ t~ ~v tau'twv EKa- they had made him the father and guardian of their land.
<r't0~ xwpav, 1tpo"rrx0f'eVOt ~v 'te ;uYYEVEtaV a1to 1taAatoil They said to him that this was the purpose of his being the
king ofAsia, namely so as not to allow anyone to wrong their
<r<p[<rtV ou<rav 1tpO~ 'to Tef'~pew yEVO~ Ka\ ~v 9p'1<YKELav,
kmsmen when they had committed no prior injustice. Be-
t~ ~v 'tEAOilv'tE~ au'tov 1ta'tEpa 'te Ka\ K'10ef'ova £1t£1tOL-
cause th~y had not wronged Bayezid nor were they guilty
'1v'tO ~~ tau'twv xwpa~. "EAeyov OE au't4', W~ ota'tail'ta et'1 of vlOlatmg their agreements, they were thus turning to
'tE ~~ A<rLa~ ~a<rtAeU~, a,<r't£ f''10EV\ £1tl'tPE1tEtV £;u~pLl;EtV
£~ 'toiJ~ 0f'0<pUAOU~, f'~ u1tap;av'ta~ aOtKLa~ 1tpo'tepov' o'tt
OE f'~ ~O[KOUV natal;~'t1'jv, f''101: 1tapa 'ta~ <ruv9~Ka~ o'tt
1tE1tA'1f'f'EA'1K6'te~ dey, £1tE'tpa1tOv'to au't4' Otat't'1'tfi, a,<r'te

SiKa, U:retXetV, ~V 'Tl :reapa 'Ta, cmovSa, au'TWv KaKOV IIat- Timur as an arbiter to assess the justice of their case, that is
a~YJ'Tl']V Elpya<r[.ltvol £TEV. TE[.lYJPll' St 'Ttw, [.ltv IIala~YJ'tfl whether they had done anything wrong to Bayezid in viola-
tion of their treaties. Timur said that insofar as Bayezid was
:repo, 'Toi>, :reOAE[.liou, <r<pWV Sla:reoAE[.loUV'Tl Kat ayWVl~O­
fighting against their common enemies and struggling on
[.lEv4' u:retp 'Tfj, MEX[.l£-rEW 9pll<rKda, (SlaKEKpi<r9al yap e,
behalf of the religion of Muhammad -for the entire known
Suo <rU[.l:rea<rav 9pll<rKda, -r1)v yE [I.96} eyvw<r[.lEvllv YJ[.lTv world is divided between two religions, that of Jesus and
otKou[.levllv, -r1)v 'TE 'TOU 'Ill<rou Kat n']v <r<pwv au'TWV 9pll- their religion, which sets itself against the other; for no
<r1(dav, evav'Tiav 'Tau'Ttl :reoAl'TEUo[.levllv· 'Ta, yap AOma, other religion apart from these is established in the form of
'TWV 9pllO'KElWV oihE e, ~a<rlAdav Oil'TE ap;ci]v ~V'TlVaOUV a kingdom or any other type of state-they should not be
Ka'Ta<r'TfjVat) IIata~YJ'tfl 'TE :reOAE[.lOUV'Tl i'<paO'KE :repo, 'Toi>, upset with Bayezid, who was fighting against their hero's
'TOU ~ pwo, :reOAE[.liou, OUX o:rew, iix9E<r9al Sla 'Tau'Ta, aAAa enemies, but instead, all who sided with Muhammad should
Kat xaplV dSevat ;u[.l:reaV'Ta, 'Toi>, 'Tfj, MEX[.l£-rEW [.loipa,. give him thanks. This was the initial verdict that they re-
ceived from Timur.
Tau'tfl [.ltv OUV 'T~V apx~v a:reESdKVU'TO YVW[.lllV TE[.lYJPll'·
But after that, Timur learned from the many people who 51
ME'Ta St 'TaU'Ta, W, u:reo :reOAAWV ~811 :reap' eau'TOV ava-
had gone up to him by then that Bayezid's nature was too
~E~llK6'TWV e:reuv9aVE'T0 -r1)v 'TE <pU<rlV au'TOU [.lYJ'TE e:relElKij,
disagreeable to allow him to remain content with the state
Ol<r'TE 'Tfi Ka9EO''TllKut" e9tAetV e[.l[.lEVetV Ka'Ta n']v l\<riav of his realm in Asia, and they explained to him how the on-
apxfi, aAAa 'TYJv 'TE 6p[.liJv au'TOU SLE;lOV'TE, w,
AaD.a:rea set of Bayezid's assault might be compared to a hurricane.It6
:reapa~aAAOLEV au'TOV, Kat W, e:rel Lupiav Kal A'(yu:re'TOV Kat Moreover, it was Timur's intention to march against Syria
e:rel Me[.l<pLO, ~aO'lAEa ev v<Ii i'X" <r'Tpa'TEuEO'9al, ava:reet- and Egypt and against the king of Cairo,117 and so he was
<r9d, u:reo 'TOU'TWV i':reE[.l'i" :repE<r~dav e, IIala~YJ'Tllv W, persuaded by them and sent an embassy to Bayezid to rec-
SlaAAa;ou<rav, ijv Suvll'Tal, au'Tov 'ToT, ~YE[.l6<rl, Kat e:rel- oncile him with the rulers, ifhe could. Timur also sent him a
:reE[.l:reWV e<r9ij'Ta, SiJ 4\no XaplEt<r9at 'T<Ii IIata~YJ'T!1, SiJ n robe, thinking that this would please Bayezid, for this is cus-
tomary among those who hold dominions in Asia. When
VO[.li~E'Tat n']v ~yE[.loviav 'Tfj, l\<ria, Ka'TtxoUO'lV. Ot Se
the ambassadors arrived they said the following:
:repe<r~", a<plKo[.lEVOl i:'AEYOV 'TO laSE.
"King Timur sent us to bring you this robe as a gift and to 52
'"H[.lii, i':reE[.l",E ~a<rlAEi>, TE[.lYJPll" Swpa 'TE -r1)VSE n']v convey his thanks to you because, by fighting against the
t<r9ij'Ta <pepov'Ta, <r0l, Kat xaplV dSEval <rOl i'<pll, O'Tl'ToT, hero's enemies, you incite our friends to great deeds with
'TOU ijpwo, :reOAE[.liol, [.lax6[.lEvo, 'TOU, 'TE e:ret [.leya 'TE your struggles and establish our religion on a stronger foot-
iJ[.lE'TepOU, <pD.ou, aKKt~",7 aywvl~O[.lEVO' Kat n']v ~[.lE'TE­ ing. But just as it is good that you fight off our enemies, so
pav 9pllO'Kdav e:rel'To ii[.lElVOV Ka9l<r'Tq,. n,
St'Tau'tfl <rOl


EXeL KaAWe; -rOUe; ~ fLe-repove; CtfLUVe0"9aL TCOAefL[OVe;, -rOUe; ye too you should not wrong those who are our friends and as-
<pLAOVe; -re Kat ETCl'ITJSelove; Kat Ee; -rCt fLCtALa-ra Ka9'lfLevove; sociates, especially those who are devoted to us, and make
them into enemies, but rather display no wrong behavior
~fUv TCOAefL[ove; TCOLei0"9aL fL'lS1: CtSLKeiv, CtAX Ee; -rou-rove;
whatsoever toward them. liS For if you are not on good terms
fL1:v fL'lS' 0-rL06v {I.97} EK<ptpe0"9aL KaKOv KilKelvove;. "Hv
With those of the same race, how will you attack your ene-
S1: fL~ Ee; -roue; OfLO<pUAOVe; ETCL-r'lSelwe; EXlle;, TCWe; iiv -roie; . IFor t h'IS reason, Timur bids you to restore to the rulers
TCOAefL[OLe; TCpOO"<ptpOLe;; ALa -ra6-ra S~ KeAeU£L -r~v -re CtprnV o~ Asia the realms which you have taken from them, for they
-roie; EV -rfi AO"[", ~yefL6O"LV, ilV Ct<peAOfLeVOe; EXeLe;, CtTC0806vaL, did not ill any way violate the agreements that were made
fL'l8' 6-rL06V TCapa~a[vov-rae; -rWV O"<p[O"L TCp"e; ~V ~V CtprnV with them concerning your realm. If you do this, you will
EO"TCeLO"fLtvWv. Kat -ra6-ra TCOLWV EKelV4l -re xapLfj, Kat -ro EV please him greatly; moreover, the people in Asia and in Eu-
-rft AO"[", ytvoe; Kat EV -rfi EupWTCn xapLv elO"ofLtvove; O"OL 8La rope will owe you a debt of gratitude on account of it. But if
-r06-ro. Et 8t -rL TCapa -rae; O"vv9~Kae; TCeTCOL'lfLevoL eIev, ETC- they should be in violation of the treaties, they have turned
to King Timur as an arbiter for any injustice that you might
e-rpaTCov-ro SLaL-r'l-rfj -r<li ~aO"LAei TefL~pn, Ee; I) -rL iiv AtyOLe;
say they have committed against you."
UTC' au-rwv ,,8LK~0"9aL."
It is said that Bayezid calmly heard the other things that 53
53 T6v fL1:v oliv I1aLa~,,'ITJv 8LaK'lKO(ha Atye-raL -rwv the envoys said, but that he was especially annoyed by the
TCptO"~eWV -ra fL1:v iina ou xaAeTCWe;, CtXge0"9~VaL 8e fLaAa robe and, being unable to bear it, said to the envoys: "Tell
ETCleLKWe; 8La ~v E0"9~-ra, Kat fL~ CtvaaxOfLeVOV elTCeiV te; this to your king: both you and those in Asia who share our
-roue; TCptO"~£Le;, "CtTCayyeLAa-re -ro[vvv -r<li UfLe-rtp4l ~aO"LAei, religion should indeed be grateful to me, who am fighting on
we; EfLOLye CtywvL~ofL£v4l UTC£P -re -r06 ilpwoe; TCp"e; -roue; ~fUv the hero's behalfl1' against our most bitter enemies. It is not
TCOAefLLw-ra-rOVe; xapLv iiv el8el'le; aU -re Kat ot EV -rfi AO"[", right for you to lecture me and give me advice on such mat-
TCp"e; ~v ~fLe-rtpav -re-rpafLfLevoL 9p'lO"Kelav' Kat O"t -re Ctv-rt ters. instead of aiding me in some way in this struggle of ours,
for illstance by sending me an army and money. How exactly
-r06 0-rL06v ~fLiv o"vAAafL~aVeLV Ee; -rbv ~fLe-rePOV -r06-rov
are you expressing your gratitude to me, as you have said you
Ctywva, a-rpa-revfLa -re Kat Xp~fLa-ra ETClTC£fLTCov-ra, OUK iiv
are doing, by trying to deprive me of lands which I hold af-
8tOL 8~ -rOLa6-ra ~fUv E;'lYOUfLeVOV o"VfL~OVAeUe0"9aL. A<pat-
ter defeating those who plotted against me? Tell your king
pei0"9aL 81: TCeLpWfLeVoe; xwpav, ilv Ka-raO"-rpe'\tafLeVoe; -roue; not to send a robe ever again to a man who is superior to him
EfLot ETCL~OVAeUOv-rae; EXw, TCWe; iiv el8el'le; xapLv EfL o[, n in race and fortune."
E<P'l0"9a eiSevaL; 'E0"9~-ra -rou AOlTC06 CtTCayyeLAa-re {I·9 8}
-r<li ~aO"LAei -r<li UfLHtP4l fL~ ETClTCtfLTCeLV Ctv-rt tav-rou -ro -re
ytvoe; Kat ~v WX'1v CtfLelvOVL."


54 Tav'ra w,aV'lVEXe'lreapa ~ao"lAEa TEfI~ P'lv e, ~aflap- When this was reported to King Timur in Samarkand, he 54
XavS'lv, TEeUflWflEVOV flEyaAw, Tfi eO"eijTO, U~PEl, aYYE- was extremely angry at the insult over the robe, and he is
AOV AEYETal erel1CEfI'irat repOaYOpEUOVTa ~V TE apxt1v e, said to have sent a messenger to warn Bayezid that unless he
gave the rulers their realms back without any delay, he would
TOU, ~YEflova, OreLO"WareOSOVVat Kal fI~ ~v TaXLO"T'lV S,a-
regard him as an enemy. This was the verdict that King
flEUElV' Ei So fI~, reEp'E'irEO"ea, W, reOAEflLOV. TaUT'lv So T~V
Timur is said to have reached, namely that the Turkish lead-
SLK'lV E<paO"aV aUTOV ~aO"lAEa TEfI~P'lv ere,S'Kao-a" W, ~Sl­
ers had been wronged by Bayezid and that he, Timur, for as
K'lflEvOl TE £lEV ol TOVPKOl ~YEflOVE, ure' alhov S~ TOV long as he lived, would not allow them to remain stripped
rratal;~TEW, Kal fI~ reEpliSciv aUTOU, EO"TEP'lflEVOU, Tij, of their realms and wandering around Asia. Bayezid is said
o"<pWV apxij, reEp'VOO"Tciv KaTa ~V AO"Lav, TEfI~PEW ETl to have responded to the messenger as follows: "If he does
reEp'OVTO,. Tov So rratal;~T'lV ureOAa~ona E, TOV aYYEAOV not come to fight against me now, let him renounce his wife
<pavat, "Ei TO LVUV fI~ EreLn flaxouflEvo, ~flTv, E, Tpl, T~V eau- three times."120 That is an insult among this race, for Mu-
TOV yuvaTKa eXETw areoAa~wv." TOVTO S~ ouv e, U~PlV hammad ordained that one should renounce his wife three
<pEpElV T<Ii YEVEl Toth,!>' MEXflET'lV e;opKwO"at e, Tpl, ~S'l times if she is not obedient. This happens because there is a
law among them that prohibits a person who has rejected
areoAa~ETv T~V eauTov YUValKa, ltv fI~ reEle'lTal. TOVTO St
his wife from taking her back into his household, for this is
eO"Tlv, OTl v6f10, eml TOUTOl, areoreEflre6f1Evov ~v eauTov
considered improper. When a man has said that his mar-
yuvaTKa EKaO"Tov areayopEUElV TOV AOlreov atJe" aYEO"eat
riage is dissolved "on three spleens," the law prevents him
e, Tit olKcia, W, ou eEfllTOV DV, ereElSltv e, Tpci, E<P'lO"E from entering again upon the same marriage, unless he does
O"reAijva, SlaO"'rijO"al TOV yaflov aUT<Ii 0 av~p, apV'lO"aflEVOV so after she has committed adultery with another man in
ETl erel TOV aUTov yaflov eAeETv, Ei fI~ Tl, Tpl, O"1CA'lVO, e, the meantime who has also "thrown spleen" three times. 121
flEO"OV efl~aA6no, atJe" aYOlTO urea hepou flOlXE1JOfltv'lV. When the messenger heard this, he rushed back as 55
55 TavTa flEv otiv W, ~KOUo"EV 0 aYYEAo" ~AauvEv oreLo"w quickly as possible to King Timur. They say that the wife of
~v TaXLO"T'lv reapa ~aO"lAta TEfI~ P'lv. AtyOUo"l So ~v yu- Timur was an especially devout womanl22 and would not al-
10wTimur to attack Bayezid when he was upset with him, as
vaTKa {I.99} TEfI~PEW SElO"lSalflova Tlva e, Ta flEYlma YE-
Bayezid was a man who was worthy of praise in their reli-
YOVEVat, Kal fI~ eav TEfI~ P'lv OUTW repoO"<pepEO"eat ereaxeij
gion and was fighting against the faction of Jesus; rather,
IIna rratal;~-rn, avSpL TE ereaLvou a;L'" e, ~V KaT' aUTOU,
Timur was to allow him to be at peace, as Bayezid had given
ep'lO"KEiav, aywvll;oflEV", repo, ~v TOV 'I'lO"ov floTpav, aA).: no cause for offense that would justify an attack against
eav aUTOV ~O"uXLav ayElv, Kal fI~ repaYflaTa reapeXElv OU
SlKal", u<plmaO"eat OTLOVV aV~KEmov ure' aUTWV. D, So Ta


him. When the messenger had made his report, it is said

un:' aTIEAOU tAeXS!'], Aty£1:aL En:LKaAE<TaflEVOV 'ti]V YUValKa
that Timur summoned his wife and ordered him to recite
ati-rou KEAEU<TaL tvavTlov auTIj<; Ta n:apa TOU nataS~TEW
before her what Bayezid had said. When the messenger had
AEXSEVTa Un:' aUT4> an:aTIELAat. Tou Sf. an:aTIEfAavTo<; Ta
recited Bayezid's message, Timur asked his wife whether she
Un:O naLaS~TEW en:EITTaAflEVa, tpE<TSat'ti]V YUValKa aUTou, still thought that it was right to allow Bayezid to utter such
e( ETL SLKatoi nataS~T'1V £av oihw tl;u~plSovTa. Ka\ insults. He made it clear that if, on the one hand, she still
aVES~AoU, w<;, e( tn:\ SaTEpa SLKatoi naLaS~T'1V' OUKETL thought Bayezid right, he could no longer live with her in
SEOL aUT4> tKdv'1v <TUVOLKEiv TOU AoL1tOU' e( S' tn:\ SaTEpa the future. If, on the other hand, she had changed her mind
YEVOLTO ~ yvwfl'1, W<TTE aflUVE<TSaL TOV n:6AEflov, oihw Sf. and would now favor war, she would be considered his wife
VOfllSE<TSat aunjv ot yuvaiKa, Ka\ flETaSLWKELV, 0 TL /tV and would assent to whatever it was that he was forced to
aUT4> YEVe<TSaL avaydSoL. T~v Sf. yuvaiKa TOTE S~ un:o- do. The woman is then said to have given the following re-
Aa~oii<Tav <pavaL AeYETaL.
"It is clear, 0 king, that this man has lost his mind, giv- 56
56 '''AXX OTL flEV, W ~a<TLAEU, un:o a<pporrUv'1<; KaTexoflEVO<;,
ing such offense! He is no longer mentally stable; that, at
<TUfI<pOpq XPWflEVO<; TO LqSE, OUKETL ~fln:ESOV EXEL TOV AO- any rate, seems plain to me. And I know that you will im-
YL<TfLOV eKEivo<; av~p, SijAa eITTL, Ka\ EfLOLYE TauT!] KaTa- pose a just punishment on him and bring him to his senses.
<palvETat elVaL, Ka\ ~m<TTafl'1v, w<; eKEivov rrUv SlKn TL<TafL E- You will show him exactly what kind of a person you are to
vo<; <Tw<ppoVEi<; TE w<; fLaAL<TTa, Ka\ evSdl;n aUT4>, o"l,!, OVTL whom he, being the kind of person he is, has sent these mes-
<TOL 010<; WV eKEivo<; TOLaiiTa emn:Efln:EL. 'EKEivo flEVTOL sages."l But know this well, that as long as he was fighting
<Ta<pw<; en:lITTa<To, w<; OT' /tv un:f.p TOU ~flETtpou ijpwo<; on behalf of our hero against the Greeks and the other peo-
aywvLsofLtv,!, E<TTE TOU<; "EAA'1va<; Ka\ e<; Ta itAAa Ta e<; ples on the other continent, I, for my part, did not believe
that it was right to wage war against him. But if he does not
{LIOO} 'ti]v aAA'1V ijn:ELpOV ~SV'1 un:apl;aL n:oAtflou e<; tKEi-
reconsider his foolishness, it is also not right to allow a man
vov OUTE StflL<; ~Y'1<Tafl'1v ~yWyE elvat. "Hv St TL tKEivo<;
who gives such offense to think highly of himsel£ So go to
acpporrUvn flij SLaITKon:oiTO, OU SlKaLov e<TTLV emTptn:ELV
war. Do not fight in it yourself, but if you take his cityofSe-
U~PL<T'tfi TOWUT'!' fleya cppovEiv. 'AAX "lSL Sij en:\ TOV n:oAE- basteia you will be sufficiently avenged for the city of Meli-
fLov, fL~TE aUTo<; fLaXE<TafLEvo<;, aAAa n:OALV aUTou LE- tene on the Euphrates and on behalf of the rulers who are at
~aITTELaV ijv KaStAn<;, tKavw<; TETLfLWP'1f1tvo<; E"n un:ep TE our court."
Tij<; ev T4> EucppaT!] n:OAEW<; MEALT'1Vij<; Ka\ un:f.p TWV
~yEflovwv TWV n:ap' ~fLiv SLaTpL~ovTWV."


57 Oil'rw fl1:v oov ~AaUVe Tefl~pY]<; a ~a("Aeu<; btl rral- Thus King Timur set Dut against Bayezid, deliberately 57
a~~'tt]v, repoKaAerraflevo<; au'tov f.KWV el<; 'tOY reaAeflov. challenging him to' war. But SDme say that Timur went dDwn
<l>aO'I fl1:v ouv 'tlve<;, w<; Tefl~pY]<; 8la fl1:v 'ti]v MeAl't'lv~V to' Sebasteia via Melitene,124 and Dniywhen he had captured
Ka'ta~a<; erel ~e~aO"telav, Kal ereeL 'tE KaeeiAe 'ti]v reoAlv that city did he send envDYS to' Bayezid regarding the rul-
'talJ'tt]v, 'ta'te 8~ repeO'~eueO'eal repo<; rrala~~'tt]v reep[ 'te ers-that they shDuld be restDred to' their lands, and alsO'
'twv ~yeflovwv, WO''tE 'ti]v xwpav au'toT<; are08l8oval, Kal demanding butter and tents. It is said that he demanded
twO' thDusand camel-IDads Dfbutter and twO' thDusand tents ,
't~v 'toii ~ou""pou a1'tt]O'lv Kal O'Kt]VWV. 'Hl'tEl'tO yap au'tov,
Df the type that nDmads use, made Df felt; that he shDuld
ii Atye'tal, ~ou'tupou fli:v Kafl~Aou<; 8lITXlA[OU<;, D'Kt]va<; 81: be cDmmemDrated as king in Bayezid's shrines; that his SDn
relA[vou<;, aT<; xpwnal ol vOfla8e<;, 8lITXlAla<;, Kal au'tov EV shDuld CDme to' Timur's PDrte; and that Timur's currency
'tOl<; vaol<; au'tOii 8laflvt] floveuelv w<; ~aO'lAea, Kal 'tOY shDuld be used in his land.!25 They say that Timur made
real8a au'toii Eret 'ta<; Tefl~ pew eupa<; LEVal, Kat vOfllO'fla'ta these seven demands after the fall Df Sebasteia; and it was
81: au'toii .0<; 't~v xwpav au'toii vOfll~eO'eal. Taii'ta 81: 'ta then that Bayezid became furiDusly angry and sent him the
Ere'ta al~fla'ta yeveO'eal au'tiji al'touflevov Tefl~pY]v <paO'I message abDut his wife.
fle'ta 't~v ~<; ~e~aO''te[a<; liAWO'lV. Kal 'to'te 8~ Kal 'tOY SD Timur set Dut against Bayezid in Drder to' cDnquer his 58

rrala~~'tt]v eUflweev'ta fleyaAw<; ErelO"telAal eKeLV<!, 'ta reepl lands in Asia and to' cross Dver intO' Europe, and he did nDt
intend to' turn back befDre he had reached its farthest ends,
't~v yuvaTKa.
gDing all the way to' the Ocean by the Pillars Df HerakIes,
58 Tefl~pY]<; flenol WPflt]'to erel rralai;~'tt]v, w<; ~v 'te
where, he learned, the narrowest Df straits separates Eu-
xwpav au'toii ev 'tfi .i\O'l\l Ka'taO''tpetoflevo<; Kal .0<; 'ti]v rope and NDrthAfrica. He wDuld cross Dver to' NDrthAfrica
Eupwre'lv 8la~t]O'0flevo<;, fI~ EmITXelv repo'tepov avaxw- there, subject that part Df the wDrid to' himself, and then re-
poiina, reply ~ erel 'tOl<; 'tepflaO'lv au~<; yevt]'tal, EO''te turn hDme from there. These were the great ambitiDns Df
[LIOI} .ore' wKeavov eAaUVOV'ta 'tOy reepl 'ta<; 'HpaKAeLOu<; Timur, plans that fall rather under the jurisdictiDn Df the
O'~Aa<;, EVea ercUee'to reopeflov w<; ~paxV'ta'tov 8le[pyelv fDrtune that is granted by GDd. Bayezid, fDr his part,
~v 'te Eupwret]v Kal Al~Ut]V, oeev E<; 'ti]v Al~ut]v'reepal­ planned to' defend himself against this invader, reasDning,
oUfltv<!', Kal 'tau't'lv 'tij<; olKouflevt]<; xwpav ol ureayofltv<!,
Ere' 01KOU ev'teiieev KOflli;eO'eal. Taii'ta flev'tOl Tefl~pY]<;
Ereevael 'te fleyaAa Kal .0<; ""Xt]v fliiAAOV 'tOl ureo Eleoii 8e-
80flevt]v a<popwv'ta' rralai;~'tt]<; 81: lipa EAoy[i;e'to erelOV'ta
afluveO'eal, areo 'tE 'twv reaAalwv O'1JfI~aAA6f1evo<;, w<;

'74 '75

ouSenoTE tij<; yE Eupwnl]<; ot T~<; Acr[a<; ~acrlAET<; tv ToI<; based on ancient history, that the kings of Asia had never
npocr9Ev XPOVOl<; nEplyevOlvTo nWnOTE, aAAa Kat wpfll]fle- prevailed over those of Europe in the past, while it was the
VOIJ<; ent TI]V Acr[av -rfi TE ~acrlAElq a<pnp~cr9aL TOU<; tij<; latter who had set out against Asia and stripped its leaders
Acr[a<; ~yolJflevolJ<;. TaUTa Sla<YKonoVflEVo<; fleya TE e<ppo- of their kingdom. Bearing this in mind, he aspired to great
things and thought that he would destroyTimur's kingdom
VEL, Kat 4\ETO ev ~paxET nOAefl4J iifla Ka9aLp~crElv TI]v
in a brief war.
TEfl~ pEW ~aO"lAElav.
Now that I have reached this point, where I am about to 59
59 'EvTau9a Se YEvofleV4J flOl, Kal TI]V ent I1aLa~~TI]V npw-
rec~unt the ~st and then the, second advance of King Timur
TI]V TE Kat OEIJTepaV e'Aacrlv TEfl~ pEW ~acrlAew<; KaTa TOU- agamst Bayeztd that took place at that time,12' it occurs to
TOV TOV XPOVOV YEvoflEvl]V olacrKonolJfleV4J, e1t!'!El AOY[- me upon reflection that the power of the Turks would have
~Ecr9al, w<; ent fleya iiv a<p[KOlTo OIJVaflEw<; Ta TWV TOVPKWV reached great heights and would have permitted them to
npaYflaTa, napexon' iiv El<; TI]v EO"1tepaV avaO"'rpe<pEcr9al, turn back to the west had it not been so suddenly cut short
El fl~ oihw napaxp~fla £nlol06vTO<; aVEKOnTE'rO uno TEfl~­ by the advance of King Timur. The kingdom of the Otto-
pEW ~acrlAew<;. OilTE yap iiv o[Xa YEvoflevI]<; tij<; ~aO"lAEla<; mans would not have been split in two, nor would they have
. out among themselves and so harmed their interests,
"OTolJflav[Swv Kal ent ola<popav cr<p[crl Ka9lcrTaflevwv
causIng a ruin greater than any which has ever been re-
£<p9dpE'ro un' aAA~Awv Ta npaYflaTa aUTwv, 6AE9pov
corded before. For after Bayezid's death, his sons started to
fleYlcrToV Oe TWV tv flv~ fln nwnoTE £nEvEYKovTa, w<; flETa
quarrel with each other and plundered each other's portion
TI]v TEAEIlTI]V TOU I1aLa~~TEW crIJvI]vex91] yEvecr9aL £<; TOU<; of the land, inflicting a very serious disaster on their people
naloa<; aAA~Aol<; Ola<pEpoflevolJ<;, Kat TI]V xwpav un' aAA~­ one that it was hard for them to bear. But at that moment'
AWV [LI02} SnOIJfleVI]v ~IJfl<popav T<ji yevEl e1tlVEucral o<Yl]V when he had reached an extraordinary degree of power, i~
O~ ~apIJTCtTl]v Kal xaAEnWTCtTI]V. Nuv Oe e<; unEp<pIJa ovva- came about that Bayezid was chastened by God, as he had
fllV a<plKOflEVO<;, uno TOU eEaU £yevETo I1aLa~~-rn crw<ppo- been presumptuous about his kingdom. In what follows I
vlcr9~val, ~O"'rE £nt TI]V ~acrlAdav flEyaAa <ppovETv. "09EV am going to make clear King Timur's background before he
came to rule the affairs of Asia and the kingdom of Samar-
~acrlAEU<; TEfl~Pl]<; 6pflwflEVO<; ent Ta tij<; Acr[a<; a<p[KETo
kand. For it is said in many places that he came from very
npaYflaTa Kat ent TI]V tij<; Laflapxavol]<; ~acrlAdav KaT-
humble origins to advance to great power over Asia.
ecrTI] , -rfiOE iiv flOl OlE~lOV'rl En[Ol]Aa yevolTo. AeYETal
flEV nOAAaXfi TOUTOV an' eAax[crTOIJ 6pflwflEVOV KaTa TI]V
Acr[av Ent fleya xwp~cral OIJVCtflEW<;.
r' Book 3

Lmur's first campaign was against Sebasteia, a prosper-

{ LI0 3} T£f'fJP£w f'£V'tDl fJ 1tPW't1'] o-a<1U; £Y£VE'tD e1tt
DUS city of Kappadokia. 1 Timur had been informed that
L£~C"1't£laV, 1tOAlV 'tfj<; Ka1t1taS01«a<; £VSa[f'DVa. 'D.<; yap
Bayezid was up to no good with regard to the rulers of the
fJyyeAA£'tD DVS£V Vyl£<; rrata~fJ'tEW e!vat ~crt£ e1tt 'tWV 'tfj<;
Turks in Asia and he had not been reconciled with those rul-
AO'[a<; fJy£f'6vwv TDVPKWV Kat e<; 't~V 1tpO<; 'tDU<; f]YEf'ova<; ers, whom he had driven out after stripping them of all their
SlaAAanV, Dil<; 'tfjv Xwpav oUf'1taO'av a<p£A6f'EVD<; e~fJAa­ lands. So, as Timur had made no progress through the mes-
O£V, w<; yap S~ e1tl1tef'1tDV'tl DVS£V e1tt1tAeDV 1tPDVXWp£l, sengers whom he had sent to him, and as he saw that Bayezid
WV e1tecrt£AA£V av't<li, iI.A"X ewpa 't£ e<; 1tDAM 't£ liAAa Kat was behaving blasphemously in many other respects as well,
~Aao<p1']f'a e~£v'1V£Yf'eVDV, 1tap£OK£t"l~£'tD eAavvm e1tt he prepared to set out for Sebasteia. As for Timur's origins,
L£~ao't£lav. Apxtl S£ av't<li, ~ 't£ e1tt 'tfjv apxtlv 1tapDSD<;, how he came to power, and how he subjected all of Asia to
Kat w<; 'tOV f'£V 1tDA£f'WV, 'ta S£ Ka\ O1tEVSOf'£VD<; S££l 't<li himself, in some cases by fighting wars and in others by mak-
ing treaties premised on the fear that he inspired, we have
af'<p' au'tov ~uf'1taO'av u1t1']ya'1£'tD tau't<li 't~V Ao[av, wS£
learned that it all happened in the following way.
av't<li ~uf'~i'jvat e1tUe0f'£ea. , Timur's father was Sangal, an ordinary man,> and it is said 2

OU'tD<; f'£V S~ (, TEf'fJp1']<; eY£V£'tD 1ta'tpo<; LayyaA£w, that such a son was born to him when he married his wife.
avSpo<; tSlW'tDU, 0<; e1td 't£ f]yay£'tD 't~V l;'vaTKa aV'tDU, After Timur was born, he was entrusted with the city's herds
Aey£'tat ;Uf'~i'jVat av't<li 'tDlOVS£. 'D.<; Sf] eytv£'tD T£f'fJp1']<;, of horses and so he became a horse-keeper. He approached
'tfJv 't£ 'tfj<; 1tOA£W<; <pDP~~V e1tl't£'tpaf'f'£VD<; l1t1tD<PDP~O<; 'tE those who grazed the herds in those lands, entered into a
"V, Kat 'tDT<; 't£ 1t£pt aV'ta S~ 'ta xwp[a 'ta<; <pDp~a<; e1tlV£- discussion with them, and reached an agreement with them
f'Df'£VOl<; OUVlWV 't£ KatSlaAEY0f'£VD<; OUV£eE'tD av'tDT<;, w<; that they would, if possible, make their living through rob-
a1tO KAD1ti'j<; O<p[OlV, "V SUVWV'tal, XP1']f'a'twv K'ti'jOlV 1tDl- bery and then move on to another land. He became a formi-
dable thief, taking off with horses, pack animals, and many
1'] 00 f'£VDl £1t' liAA1']V '(WOl xwpav' Kat S£lVO<; KA£1t't£lV
sheep. He did not enjoy the best of health. It is said that
Y£V0f'£VD<; '(1t1tDU<; 't£ Kat U1tD~uyla Ka\ 1tpD~a'tWV 1tAi'jeD<;
{LI04} eA1']AaK£Val. OvS£v Uyl£<; "V av'tDU 'to 1tapa1tav.


Kal reOTe Erel f'avSpav MyeTaL ava~fjvaL, Kal o<p9Ena vreo he was once climbing into a sheepfold and was seen by the
TWV SecrreoTwv TOU O'(KOV /lUecr9aL S~ &Af'a f'EYLcrTOV areo owners of the house, so he had to jump a long distance from
TOU TelXOV, -rfj, f'avSpa, t, ~v yfjv' Ta Te yap vreo~uyLa the wall of the pen to the ground. For in that land they en-
Kal KT~VI'] EV "tfiSe Tft xwpq: reepL~aUeTaL TelXl'], W, f'EyL- close pack animals and beasts within walls that are high and
not easy to scale. So when he jumped he broke his leg and
cr-ra elVaL Kal f'~ aVa~fjVaL eiJ1te-rfj. :0., Se i'jAaTO, EreL-
was lame from that point on. But it is also said that his leg
TpL~fjval Te aim;; TOV reoSa, Kal XWAOV yevEcr9aL TO areo
was wounded in battle and he was lame thereafter.l
TouSe. AEyeTaL f'ev OUV W, f'axof'evov reAl']yfjval Te TOV In battle with his neighbors, he would ride out against
reoSa Kal XWAeUOVTa SLayevEcr9aL TO tVTeugev. the enemy with his original band and they would drive away
J MaxI'], Se yevof'tvl'], repo, Toil, reepLOlKOV" EAauvona their herd ofhorses,4 and from that point on he began to ap-
aVTOV Te /If'a Kal Ot crvvtgeno ~V apx~v, ~V lrerewv <pop- propriate whatever he came across. He also persuaded his
~~V 0',xecr9aL Erel Toil, reoAef'lOV" EVTeugev repocrAa~0f'e­ men to occupy a fortified location so as to have some-
vov, OT'P ltv reepL-rUXOL, Kal avareel90VTa KaTacrxciv xwpav where suitable for his robbery. Using that place as his base,
Te EPVf'V~V, Kal W, EltLTI']SelW, "XeLV repo, AncrTelav. 'Ev- he robbed passersby and passed merciless judgment upon
them. He acquired money and attracted more followers to
Teugev Se opf'wf'evov Ancr-reueLV Toil, se,ona, Kal KaTa-
himself, including two men, Haydar and Mirza.' It is said
KplveLv a<peLSw,. Kal XP~ f'aTa EltLKTl']craf'evov halpov, Te
that by race they were Massagetai. 6 With their assistance,
repocrKT~cracr9aL aVTe;; /lUov, Te S~ Kal /lvSpe SUW, Xa',sa-
he attacked his enemies while they were plundering the
Pl']v Te Kal Mvp~ll']v. To YEVO" I'i S~ AEyeTaL, yevEcr9aL land, routed them in his attack, and killed his opponents'
TOUTW MacrcrayETa. TOUTOLV Se "KaTEp'P repocrxpwf'evov cavalry raiders. When his fame reached the city,7 they en-
reepLTtJXciv Te Tot, reOAef'(OL, AI']"~0f'EVOL, T~V xwpav, Kal trusted him with a large contingent of soldiers and the
Tpevaf'evov Eree~eA9civ SLa<p9elpaVTa TOV, LrereOSpof'ov, money to maintain them. From this point on he stirred up
TWV EvavTlwv. Tfj, Se <P~f'I'], Erel ~v reOALv EA90uO'1']" EreL- and urged his army to take the land of the enemy, leading
TpEVaL Te aUTe;; crTpaTLwTWv f'otpav OUK {I.I05} oAlY1']v Kal countless slaves and pack animals back to the city. When
xp~f'aTa, ",crTe gepareeueLv Toil, crTpaTLwTa,. Kal S~ TO
the king of the Massagetai saw this in Timur, he decided
areo TouSe EreeydpavTa ~v crVv aUTe;; cr-rpaTLaV Kal
E~OTpUVOVTa af'<pl"tfi reoAef'lWV i'XeLv xwpq:, avSpareoSa Te
Kal vreo~uyLa W, reAcicr-ra EreaYOVTa E, ~V reOALV. Tov Sf.
~acrLAta MacrcrayeTwv EVLSOVTa TOUTO E, TOV Tef'~ PI']V,

180 ,8,

a~LOuna 'ltap' tau'r4i 'rlfli)<; -rij<; flEY[O''r'l<;, Kal O''rpa'r'lYov that he deserved the highest honors from him, and so he ap-
a'ltOSESElXEVaL ~ufI'ltaO''l<; ijS'l -rij<; tm' au'rov <r-rpa'rla<;. pointed him general over his entire army.s
4 Kal EnEu8Ev S~ Sp6f1ou<; 'rE avuO'al flEY[O''rov<; 'rWV Timur covered greater distances with his army than any- 4

m,mo'rE YEV0[lEVWV <Yi>v 'rfi O''rpa'rl~, WO''r£ Ka'raAafl~aVElV one ever had done before, so that he took his enemies by
'rou<; 'ltOAE[l[OV<; il<pvw E'ltl'lt['lt'rona aU'roT<; Kal Sla<p8£l- surprise, attacked them suddenly, and destroyed their
pona'rov eK£lVWV <r-rpa'r6v. Kal S~ Kal e<; xdpa<; EA86na
armies. It is said that he routed the enemy by fighting per-
sonally in battle, and he pursued them all the way to Baby-
'roT<; evan(ol<; <paO'lv au'rov flaXEO'aflEVov 'rpE'itaO'8aL, Kal
lon, which is called Baghdad. He besieged it and summoned
emSlWKoV'ra eAaO'aL 'rE e<; Ba~uAwva, 'ro ITaySa'rlV OU'rW
his own master and king. Shortly after this the king died,
KaAouflEVOV, Kal 'ltOALOpKoUV'ra flE'ra'lte[l'itaO'8al 'rOV tau- so Timur married the wife of his master and ascended the
'rOU SE<Y1t6'r'lv ~a<YlAEa. ME'ra Sf. 'rau'ra OU 'ltOAUV XPOVOV throne. When he attained the throne, he marched out and
'rEA£VTI]O'ano<; 'rOU ~aO'lAew<;, yij [la[ 'rE 'r~V yvvaTKa 'rOU besieged both Baghdad and Samarkand. Shortly afterward,
Sw'ltomv au'rou Kal E<; ~V ~a<YlA£laV Ka'raO''ri)VaL. D<; Sf. the city's defenders became desperate and made a sally but
e<; ~V ~aO'lA£lav a<p[KE'ro, E'ltlWV 'r0 'rE ITaySa'rlV Kal 'ro they were defeated, returned to the city, and were again be-
:Ea[lapxavSlV E'ltOAlOPKEl. Kal ou 'ltOAU UO''rEPOV, w<; E~OSOV sieged; finally, they surrendered to him by offering terms.
'ltO l'l O'aflEvol of -rij<; 'ltOAEW<; ouStv 'ltAEOV E<YX0V, aXX When he had control of Samarkand, he contrived the be-
trayal of Babylon by those inside the city, using Haydar as
~n'lflEvol E<YijA80v t<; ~V 'ltOAlV Kal E'ltOALOPKOUV'rO, 'ltp0O'-
his agent in the matter. 9
Exwp'lO'av aU'r4i Ka8' o [l0Aoy[av. D<; E'ltl 'r~V -rij<; :Ea[lap-
Mirza was a moderate man and would mollifY Timur, re- 5
XavS'l<; ap~v 'ltapEyev£'ro, 'ltpoSoO'[av <YVv8eflEVov 'roT<; tv
straining him when Timur was carried away by anger and be-
-rfi Ba~uAwvl au'rov, Xdi8aptl e<; 'rOU'ro XP'lO'a[lEVov U'lt- lieved, for whatever reason, that he was not fit to rule. lO He
'l pE'rtl· also taught Timur how they should go into the mess tents.
5 Tov [lEnol Mvp~['lv ilvSpa e'ltlElKi) 'rE a[la Kal {LI06} At Mirza's suggestion, Timur divided their entire army thus
O'VyKlpVWV'ra 'rOV TEfI~PEW, 8VfloU Ka'rEXElV E[l<pEpOflEVOV, among leaders of ten men, captains, and division command-
E<p' II 'rlllv ~yijO'aL'ro, [l~ 'ltpO~KElV aU'r4i ~V apx~v. 'E~'l­ ers. He ordered the leaders of ten to provide their soldiers
ydO'8a[ 'rE alh4i ~V t<; 'ra O'VO'O'l'r~pla TEfI~PEW t~Y'lO'lV. with the means by which to live and to attend upon their
T~v 'rE yap O''rpa'rlav au'rwv ~u[l'ltaO'av Mvp~[EW U'ltO'rl-
8E[lEVOU t'ltlSlEAOflEVO<; 6 TEfI~P'l<; EO''rE SEKapxa<; Kal AO-
xayou<; Kal S~ Kal evw[l0'r(a<;, 'rov SEKapX'1v 'ltapEyyUa
S[aL'rav 'ltapEX0[lEVOV 'roT<; flE8' tau'rou O''rpa'rlw'raL<;

nape1val alytlKa -rcii AoXaycii, -ri]v -raXlerr1]v napexofLevov captains, so that they could make their soldiers available as
-rou<; cr-rpa-rlw-ra<;, E1mSaV napayyEAU, -rOV<; Sf. ali napaye- quickly as possible whenever they were ordered to furnish
VOfLEVOU<; -rcii crepe-rEp'f. revofLEVoU<; Sf. t<; -ra crucrcrl-rla, their men to their own captain. They were to be present in
the mess tents and no one was to be absent to whom a place
OUSEVaAelnEO"eat, ih'f fL~ e'l1] xwpo<; au-rcii anoSeSelYfLEvo <;.
had been assigned. And he ordered the marketplace to pro-
Kat -r~v -re ayopav crl-r1Secreat tKEAeue Ka-ra -ra SeSoYfLEva
vide supplies for the rest of the army at the usual prices.
Ent-roii AOlnoii errpa-reufLa-ro<;. Klvelv Se -rou<; -re apxona<; Each of their officers was rotated frequently on the orders
au-rwv tKUerrou<; eafLa Ent-ra uno -rwv fLeyaAwv cr-rpa-r1]ywv of the senior generals, so that no spy who entered Timur's
napayyeAAOfLeva, werre ;ufL~a(velv Ka-racrKonov eLcrlov-ra camp could ever escape detection, nor any foreigner who
t<; -ro TefL~pew errpa-roneSov AeA1]eEVaL nwno-re, oil-re mlgbt happen to be present in the camp. If such foreign
;EVOV, 0<; av napwv -ruyxavu EV -rcii cr-rpa-ronES'f. Tou-rou<; gnests happened to be present in the camp and were in need
Sf. ali avSpt hEp'f Enl-re-rpaepeaL, Ka-raAuelv nap' eau-rcii of food, they were assigned to a specific man and stayed
-rou<; ;EVOU<;, eL -ruyxavolev napayevofLevol E<; -ro errpa-r6ne- WIth him. Thus, the entire army was ready to move at the
great king's nod, for whatever was going on. When he was in
Sov crl-rou SeofLevol. 'ncr-re veufLa-rl -rou fLeyaAou ~acrlAEw<;
co~and, everything was set into motion immediately by
Klve1creaL nav-ra S~ -rov cr-rpa-rov, Eep' 0 -rl av YEVOl-rO, Kat
one signal; when he was present, everything was quickly or-
tKelVOU S~ ayov-ro<; -ra nav-ra Eep' evt cruve~fLa-rl LEVaL
g~zed to move in whatever way was necessary. In the eve-
au-rlKa, EV -raxel napayevofLevo<; Ent -ri]v XPelav Kae(cr-ra- mng, the soldiers received a signal from the supreme leader
creal au-rlKa fLaAa tov-ra. 'EcrnEpa<; Sf. yevofLEv1]<;, ono-re-ro and each of them rushed to his own tent and his tent mates.
O"UVe1]fLa AafL~avOlev ot errpa-rlw-rat uno -roii fLeyaAou When the soldiers were supposed to be in their tents, pa-
~yefLovo<;, eelv Sp6fLoV au-rov -rlva l'Kacr-rov Ent-ri]v eau-roii trols went around the camp, and if they saw someone out-
crK1]V~V E<; -rou" crUO"K~vou<; tov-ra. revofLEvwV Sf. tv -rat" side the tents they seized him and punished him, If some
O"K1]val<; -rwv cr-rpa-rlw-rwv, -ra" epuAaKa" {L!07} neplvocr-relv spy happened to be present in the camp, he had nowhere to
-re -ro cr-rpa-roneSov, e'l -rlva nou tSolev EK-rO<; -rwv crK1]VWV turn, as he was excluded from the tents, and was thus imme-
diately apprehended. This is how it is said that Timur orga-
yevofLevov, -roii-rov Aa~6v-re" E-rlfLwpouv-ro. Et SE -rl<; Ka-ra-
nized the mess tents.
O"Kono<; napwv 'rVXU tv -rcii cr-rpa-ronES'f, OUK i'xwv onol
-rPC!1tOl-rO, Aelnecreal EK-rO<; -rwv O"K1]vwv Kat oil-rw<; au-rlKa
aAlcrKEO"eal. TaU-rn fLEv S~ Atye-rat YlvecreaL -ra TefL~pew

Timur's other compauion Haydar was energetic in serv- 6

6 Xa'ioap'1 v Oe'TOV Y£ £'TaTpov au'Tc;J 6~uv 'T£ E, 'TO U1t'1P£-
ing him and accomplishing what had to be done, and he en-
'TelV au'Tc;J 'Ta OEOV'Ta y£yov£val, E1tO'TPUV£lV 'T£ au'TOV
couraged the king himself to wage war and avoid idleness at
~a<rlAEa E1tt 'TOil, 1tOAEfLOU" fL'1oafLfi E, p<;tm:WV'1V 'TP£1tO fL£- all costs. They say that after he had acquired the throne of
vov. Myoucn oe Mup~['1v, E1td 'T£ 1tap£Aa~£ 'ti]v 'tii<; LafLap- Samarkand Timur treated Mirza in the following way. When
Xavo '1<; ~aJlAdav, olaxp~JaJ9a, 'Tp01t'!' 'T0lc;J0£. 'E1td 'T£ Timur was still going around with them as a robber and
JVv 'TOU'TOl<; ufLa 1t£pliwv T£fL~P'1<; A!]<Y'ti]<; 'T£ Ka9£lJ~K£l he had established himself and was enriching himself, his
Kat EXpl']fLa'T[~£To, olaA£yofL£vwv £1t' £uTuX~fLaTl TWV eTa[- companions began to discuss his good fortune and praised
PWV, Kat £U'l'l']fLl~OVTWV T£fL~PI']V W, £V ~paXEt ~Ol'] £<; Ta Timur, saying that he would soon acquire the palace of Sam-
LafLapxavol']<; ~a<rlA£la 1tap£JofL£vou, imoAa~wv 6 up -:vr arkand. But Mirza responded, saying, "Good friends, the
palace of Samarkand is such that it could not easily be taken
~[I']" "aAIC W TaV," ~'l'I'], "'TOlaiiTa £JTl Ta LafLapxavol']<;
byTimur, an ordinary man and a robber. If this should ever
~aJlA£la, wm:£ OUK £U1t£'tii x£lpw9fjval U1tO T£fL~ P,£w:
happen to him, I mean that he should become the ruler of
avopo<; A!]m:oii Kat [OlWTOU. El 0' £'(1'] 1tO~e ToiiT~ aUT':'
Samarkand, may I then live no longer but die instantly as a
y£V£J9aL, wm:£ £1tt T~V LafLapxavol']<; apm v 1tapl£Val, fLl'] liar." He seemed to say this in an offhand manner, but by
hl 1t£PlWV olay£vo[fL'1v, aAAa T£9va[l']v aUT[Ka £"'£UJfL~­ some evil fortune his prediction came true for him.
vo<;." TaiiTa fLev J1toUOfi E<!>K£l u1toodKvuJ9al, JUVTUXl<;t When some time passed and Timur became the city's 7
O£ TlVl OUK aya9fi xp~Ja<r9al £<; TO a1t0'l'9£YfLa. ruler, he honored Mirza for his bravery more than Haydar.
7 XpOVOU oe £1tly£vofL£VOU, W<; E<; T~V apx~~ 1tap~y~v£'TO But Haydar told him that he ought to follow through on
'tii, 1tOA£W<;, TlfLfjJaL fLev ap£'tii<; £V£Ka imep TOV XalOapl']V, what had been said in the presence of other witnesses: he
argued that Mirza had cousented to a death penalty, recall-
'l'aJKOVTa Se aUTc;J, W, EKEtVO O~ 'TO e1to<; £1tt fLap-rUpwv
ing that he had said that if the palace of Samarkand were
aAAwv dP'1fLEVOV aUTc;J OEOl fL£TaOlWK£lV, 01t£p {LI08} Ol-
taken and he thus turned out to have been wroug in his judg-
'irrxUPl~OfL£vo<; U1t£~aA£V tauTOV 9avaT'!', avafLlfLV~JKWV,
ment, he would then be subject to death at Timur's hand.
W e'l1t£p t<; 'Ta LafLapxavol']<; ~a<rlA£la 1tapaytvolTO, "'£U- And Timur wondered how he might still be served by Mirza,
<; - 9' '0
J9d'1 1'£ au'To<; 'tii<; yvwfL'1<;' evox0<; d 'TOU aV~Tou u~ a man who had given his right hand to the kiug as a pledge,
T£fL~P£w, ~l'11tOp£l 'T£, 01tw<; iiv au'Tc;J 9£pa1t£UO~TO 't'1']v when he was still an ordinary man, not to violate the agree-
o£~lav 1taparrxovTl 'Tc;J ~aJ'AEt, tOlWT!] 1'01'£ I\vTl, fLl'] 1tapa- ment. Timur then said the following to Mirza:
~fjVaL T~V JUV9~K'1V, "EA£Y£ oe 1tpo<; M,Up~[I']V TOla~£. "I believe that you, 0 Mirza, as well as all the others who 8
8 "OIJ9a, olfLaL, W Mup~['1, cn\ 1'£ Kat JUfL1tavT£<; ol aAAol, have enabled us to reach this position of power, know that
OJOl E1tt ~VO£ 'ti]v apx~v 'Ta 1tpaYfLaTa rcp0'1yayofL£v, ouo


-ro{yrw o,~ flaAur-ra ~fllv E:m~e~aLweraflevoL bel ~v ~aCTL­ we have attained kingship by being true to these two princi-
Aelav 1tapneLflev, =ovS~v -re afla o,~ OlaV -re fle-raSLwKov- ples especially: pursuing our objectives as zealously as possi-
-re~, Kat Efl1teSojjv-re~ ~fllv, 0 -rL av ervvStflevOL -rOl~ -re E1tL- ble, and holding fast to the agreements we make with our
TI]SelOL~ Kat tvav-riOL~, oux 01tW~ S~ OpK4', aAAa Kat 1.01'4' friends and enemies. We hold them to be ratified not by
Et'lcpLerfltvoL wflev au-roT~, o,~ ouStv E-rL ouSaflojj DV aercpa- oaths but by our word, as no fortress or weapon is anywhere
A"er-repov ouSt Exvpw-repov lpvfla -re Kat 01tAOV E~ -rov more secure or strong in this life than for a man to be consis-
tent in all things and not to keep changing his mind all the
~(ov -rovSe avSpw1t4' ~ ervflcpwv4' -re elVaL E~ -ra 1tav-ra Kal
time. We have often said that in this alone are we similar to
fI~ 8wCPWVOjjV-rL cppoveTv aAAo-re aAAw~, E1teL8~ 1tOAAaKL~
God. If a man does not say anything sound, how may his ac-
lcpaflev -rou-r4' fl6v4' 'icrxeLv 0flOLo-r'l-ra -riii Eleiii· "O-rov S' av tions ever lead him to prosper? Do you remember how you
-rwv avSpw1tWV fI'lSev uyLe~ el'l Atyov-ro~, 1tW~ av S~ 1tpa-r- once took my right hand and pledged that you would be
-rov-ro~ di ytVOL-r' av 1to,1to-re au-riii; Mtflv'lero 8t, o,~ Eflojj ready to die if we gained the palace? You said so before wit-
-rij~ 8d;La~ Aa~oflevo~ lep'lerSa -reSvavaL ~-roLflo~ dVaL, d nesses. It is time now for you to do what you promised and
E1tt -ra ~aerlAeLa 1tapLflev; Kat E1tl flap-rtlpwv 8e -rojj-ro erOL make good on your pledge."
dP'lfltvov CTVvSterSaL. ':Opa o13v erOL -ra -re AexStv-ra E:m- Mirza replied with the following words: "But, 0 king, 9

-reMeraL, Kat -r~v Se;Lav -r~v ~fle-r"pav a1tOAUeraerSaL -rij~ you know and all those present know as well how I have un-
dertaken the most extreme perils so that you might come to
this position of power, in fact so that you might prosper in
9 Mvp1;i'l~ 8e aflel~e-ro -rolerSe. '''AAX 01tW~ fltv, 0, ~aCTL­
any way at all. You can see the wounds I have received, as
Aeu, E1tt [I.I09J -r~v8e ~v apx~v, 01tW~ erOL ytVOL-rO, Kat crO I have never considered the risk when it comes to pleas-
oLerSa Kat 1tav-re~ OU-rOL ot ervfl1tapov-re~ ervvieraerL, Kat o,~ ing you. But if there is something that I said in an unfortu-
1tav-ra -ra lcrxa-ra im08voflevo~, wcr-re erot e13 yevterSaL O-rL- nate moment, should you not look kindly on your friends,
ouv. Kat -rpaufla-ra Se ;:er-rLv (SeTv, oera Aa~o,v ouSe 1tW1to-re through whom you have grown so mighty? As for that other
imeAoyL1;0fl'lv SELVOV 1tpO -rou xap(1;eerSaL. Et 8t Ecr-rLV O-rL- matter, 0 king, an ordinary man's pledge is not binding for
ouv ~fllv dP'lfltvov, OUK ayaeft -rtIxn 8tOL av fI~ xapt1;ecrSaL his entire life, although now that you are a ruler it would not
-rol~ E1tL-r'lSelOL~, uep' WV fleyaAa e13 1tE1tovSW~ el'l~; 'EKelvo be right to break an agreement that you have made. And
S~, ~aCTLAeu, t8LW-rtp4' flev i\V-rL -ravSpo,1t4' ou 1tavv -rL EfI-
1teSouv -ro Kat Eav-rou ~iov. 'E1teLSaV St erOL -ro apxeLv
e-rtpw~ acpiK'l-raL, -ro-re S~ ou SeflL-rov iJ 1tapa~ijvaL, el -rL
ervvtSe-ro. Kat ~fllv 6 Eleo~ 1toAAa ayaSa 1taptxe-raL SLa-ro


God offers many rewards when we forgive those who wrong

crvYYVWftr1V '{.rxElV 'tOl, t;af'ap'tavov()'lv t, ~f'it, cmouv. us in any way. If you forgive this misdeed for me, as I ask of
"Hv St f'ol Kat 'tatJ't1']V l'apal'tovf'tv~ xapiO'ato ~v af'ap- you, many more blessings will come to you." But he did not
'tiav Kat l'Aeiw 'tOU'tWV O'Ol ytVOl'tO aya9a." Tau'ta AtywV persuade him with these words, for Timur said that forgive-
OUK' {l'El9E <paO'Kov'ta SElV O'vyyvwf''1v '{.rxElV , oI, CtV f'f] ness is given to those whose transgressions are not of their
EKouO'la ii 'tit af'ap~f'a'ta. IIw, S' CtV O'W~Ol'tO aiJ'ti/i ~ choosing. How might his fortune be preserved when he had
'tUm, f'f] 'tOV av'til'aAOV SlwO'af'tv~; Taii'ta eil'WV ~ov 't~ not refuted his opponent? Saying this, he killed Mirza, but
he mourned for him in public for a long time and buried him
Mvp~i'1v 8lEXp~O'a't0, Kat tl'tv9El au'tov S'1f'OO'l<;! tm
O'vxvov 'tlva Xpovov, 9ata, ~aO'lAlKw,. , " After that he marched against the Hyrkanians and the re- w
ME'tit Se 'taii'ta tl't 'Y pKaviov, to''tpa'tEVE'tO Kat 't'1V gions by their sea. He conquered many peoples who lived on
'tau'tT] 9aAaO'O'av, Kat {9v'1 'tE OUK oAlya t, ~V 9aAaO'O'av the coasts of this Hyrkanian Sea. 11 It is also called the Cas-
~V8E 'YpKaviav tvolKoiiv'ta l'apaAla Ka'tEO''tpt,\E'tO. pian Sea after the name of this people. It extends to the
AtyE'tat Se au't'1 Kat KaO'l'la t, ~v 'tOU {9vov, 'tov'toV south for thirty thousand stades, to the Sakai and Kadou-
tl'wvvf'iav' Sl~KEl Se Ka'tit f'EO"1f'~plav ~aKa, 'tE {Xwv Kat sioi; to the east and north it extends to the Massagetai, a
Ka80vO'iov, tl't O"taSiov, {LIIO} 'tplO'f'vplov" l'pO, ~w 8e hardy race that is famous in war, for twenty thousand stades.
Kat ~oppitv MaO'O'ayt'ta" ytvo, iiAKlf'OV 'tE Kat tv l'O~f'Ol: It is said that this race set out against the land of the Per-
sians and that it conquered the towns, some of which it oc-
EUSOKlf'oiiv, tl't 0''ta8iov, 8lO'f'vpiov, f'aAlO''ta. Tov'to 8E
cupied; also that Timur was from this race and that it was
'to ytvo, tAauvov tl't ~v IIEpO'wv xwpav AtyE'tal Ka'ta-
with the Massagetai that he attacked the kingdom of
O"tpEtaf'EVOV l'oAiO'f'a'ta Ka'ta.rxElv EO''tlV ii, Kat ;rEf'~~'1V Samarkand and conquered the land of the Assyrians."
'tou ytvov, 'tOU'tov YEVOf'EVOV <1i>v 'tal, MaO'O'aYE'tal, op- This sea is very large because many rivers flow into it and n
f'it0'9al tl't ~V ~af'apxavS'1' apxfJv Kat l\O'O'vpiwv ~v it extends over many stades; it is said not to open out into
xwpav Ka'taO"tpEtaf'EVOV {XElV. , , the outer Ocean at any point. But I have learned that there
II Tf]v f'tv'to l 9 aAaO'O'av 'tau't'1v Ul'O l'o'taf'wv t, av't'1v is a channel that leads from it and flows out into the Indian
OUK oAlywv tKSl8ov'twv f'EylO"t'1v 'tE yiVE0'9at Kat tl't 1'0A- Ocean. Many hardy people live around this sea. It produces
AOU, O"ta8lov, Sl~KElV, ouSaf'fi tKSlSouO'av, ii AtyE'tal, ei,
~v tK'tO, 9aAaO'O'av. Ll.lwpvxa f'tV'tOl tnv96f''1V, EYWY~
al'D 'tau't'1, Sl~KElV Kat t, 'tf]V 'Iv8lKf]V 9aAaO'O'av EK8l80l.
'EVOlKOUO'l 8e ~V 9aAaO'O'av ~VSE {9v'1 1'0AAa 'tE Kat
iiAKlf'a. Kat [X9ua, f'ev <ptpEl au't'1 ~ 9aAaO'O'a 1'0AAOU, 'tE


Kat <'!'ya8ou<;, <pepeL 8£ Kat oCY'tpea f'apyapi'ra<; £xov'ta, many good fish and has pearl oysters, just like the Indian
finEp 8f] Kat 1) 'IV8LKf] 8aAaCYcya, KatnAoTa nOAAa nAd 'tf]v Ocean, Many ships sail on this sea, carrying many cargoes
8aAacycyav 'tau't!']v, napa aAA1)AOU<; £nL7tAeov'ta <pop'tiwv to each other. This sea lies at the eastern edge of Asia; the
Araxes, a great river, and the Choaspes flow into it from the
nAta, "ECY'tL S£ au't!'] 1) 8aAacycya npo<; £w f'aALCY'ta 'tii<;
west, along with many other rivers, 13 We said earlier that the
ACYia<;, £<; ~v £KSLSoT I) 'tE Apa;!']<; no'taf'0<; f'tyLCY'tO<; Kat
peoples aro~nd this sea are ruled by the Kadousioi, and pay
XoMn!']<; npo<; ilw ptwv, Katno'taf'ot S£ IiAAOL OUK oAiyOL an annual tnbute to them at their city.
Ta f'£V'tOL £<; 'tfjVSE 'tf]v 8aAacycyav il8v!'] uno KaSouCYiwv 'tE When Timur had subjected the Hyrkanians and killed 12

IiPXeCY8aL np6cr8Ev E<paf'Ev, Kat 'tOU<; yE <popOU<; au'twv E<; their king, he marched against the Kadousioi, They assem-
'tf]v Ka80uCYiwv nOALv £'tOU<; EKacy'tOU £naYELv Ent'tou'tou<;, bled a very large army and were preparing to defend them-
:0<; 'tou<; 'Y pKaviou<; u1tl']yaye-ro TEf'1) P!']<; Kat 'tov ~a­ selves, should Timur attack When Timur found out that
CYLAea 'tou'twv aVEtAEv, ECY'tpa'tEUE'to £nl Ka80uCYiou<;, Kal they ~ere going to fight, he sent Haydar against their city,
OU'tOL f'EV [un} CYUAAt;aV'tE<; CY'tpa'tLaV f'EyiCY't!']v napECYKEU- to besIege It and take it as quickly as possible, But Haydar
stayed encamped very close to the Kadousioi, When the
a~ov'to w<; af'uvoUf'EVOL, ~V £nin TEf'1)p!,]<;' TEf'ijp!,]<; S£, w<;
Kadousioi learned that the enemy was coming against their
!jcy8E'tO 'tOU'tOU<; CY'tpa'twof'£VOU<;, n£f'nEL XdiSap!']v £nl
CIty, they turned round and fled in disorder toward their city.
'tf]v nOALV au'twv W<; EAovv'ta 'tf]v 'taxiCY't!']v Kat nOALOp-
Tlmurthen attacked them with his army on their way to
Kijcyov'ta' au'to<; S£ En£f'EVEV ECY'tpa'toneSWf'tvo<; napEy- theIr CIty; stnking them when they were in such disorder, he
yu'ta'tw 'tol<; KaSouCYioL<;, 'Enav8a S£ W<; £nU80v'to ot :outed them and pursued them to their city. After besieging
KaSoUCYLOL 'tou<; nOAEf'iou<; E<; 'tf]v nOALv au'twv lona<;, 'ta It for some tIme, he took it,
Ef'naALV YEVOf'EVOL '{EV'tO OUSEVt KOCYf''l' E<; 'tf]v nOALV, 'Ev- After that Timur marched against Arabia,14 The race of 13

'tav8a E7tL'ti8e-raL au'tol<; 10vCYLV Ent 'tf]v noALV TEf'ijp!,]<; crVv the Arabs is populous and wealthy and second to none in its
'tQ Eau'tov CY'tpa'tQ, Kat 'tE'tapayf'tvoL<; Ef'~aAWV £'tpt,ya'to, prosperity among all the people ofAsia, It is ancient and has
Kat SLWKWV Ent 'tf]v noALV ~AaUVE, Kat nOALOpKijcya<; Ent spread over a large part of Asia, making use of the so-called
Red Sea, This land is extensive and the most pleasant to live
XPOVOV 'tLVa napeCY'tfjcya'to,
ME'ta 8£ 'tav'ta ECY'tpa'tEuE'to £nt Apa~iav, Evo<; S£
Apa~E<; f'£ya 'tE Kat 6A~LOV Kat ava 'tf]v ACYiav OU8EVO<; 'ta
Ei<; EuSaLf'oviav AEL7t0f'EVOV, naAaLOV 'tE (Iv Kat £nt nOAU
~<; ACYia<; SLiiKOV, npo<yxpWf'EVOV 'tE -rft 8aAaCYcrn -rft
'Epu8pq KaAOUf'tvn, "ECY'tL 8£ 1) Xwpa aih!'] f'EyiCY'tl] 'tE Kat


in of all the ia.nds that ale in Asia. It is inhabited by men who

KaAA[O'Tl'] OiKfjO'Cll 'twv Ka'ta -ri]V AO'[av xwpwv. 'D.lKl']'tCll Sf
lmo avSpwv S'KaLO'ta'twv Kat 'ta E<; 9pl']O'KeLaV CIl'J'tWV
a:e the most Just and extremely wise in matters of their reli-
gIOn .. By custom they have a king who is not a tyrant but is
O'o<pw'ta'twv. Kal ~a"'A£a vOfl[~OUO'lV ou -rUpavvov, itA")( E<;
app~Inted by t~em. o~ a footing of equality and equal rights.
'to [O'oS[CIl'tOV flCiAAOV Kat iO'ovoflov Ka9lO'Taflevov O'<p[O'lV. ThelI royal capItal IS In a city by the sea called {...},WleIS
h' h'
"'EO'Tl S' au'toT<; ~acrlAela EV "tfi 1tOAel 'tfi 1tapa -ri]v 9aAaO'-
O'av [...} KaAouflEVn, fleyaAl'] 'te Kal1tAou't'll 1tpO<pEpouO'a.
'0 flo peT Se"tfi 't£Ai-yU1t't'll Kal IIepO'wv XWN Kat AO'O'up[wv.
alge and surpasses others in wealth. IS It borders on E
the I~d of the Persians, and that of the Assyrians. ::rr:
Kolchls. and the land of the Phasis to the sea by Kolle Syria,

A1to yap KOAX[So<; Kat <I>acrlSo<; xwpa<; E<; -ri]v 9aAaO'O'av at

fo the CIty. called Laodikeia, would be a malch of {• " } d ays
-ri]v E<; {I.lI2} KOlAl']V ~up[av, E<; 'tl]v AaoS[K£lav KaAou- or an actIve man walking through on foot, and from there
fltvl']v 1tOAlV, ell'] S' CtV 6So<; I]fl£pwV {...} avSpt £u~wv'll he c~uld r~ach Asia Minor, which is like a peninsula, and
ArabIa, whIch IS ~utside of Asia. The land is fertile, full of
1te~ft S,a1topeuoflev'll 'tl]v Xwpav, Kat 'to Ev't£G9£v Ka'tw
trees a~d palms; sItuated between two rivers, it is irrigated
AO'[a<; wO'el xeppovl']crov y£yevfjO'9C1l, Kat -njv 'te Apa~[av
on all SIdes and produces fruit that ale enormous in size and
EK'tO<; y[veO'9C1l 'tfj<; AO'[a<;. "'EO'Tl Sf I] xwpa aihl'] E1t[<p°P°<;, v~st In number, so that the land was called Felix b the an-
SEVSpWV 'te Kal <pOlV[KWV 1te1tAl']pwflEVl'], Kat tv fleO''ll SuoTv CIents. y
1to'tafloTv 1t£p[ppu'tO<; Y£VOflEVl'] Kap1tOu<; 't£ tK<PEp£l lmep- S~ Timur malched against Arabia, accusing the Arabs of '4
<pueT<; 'tQ fleYEgel Kal1tOAAa1tAaO'[ou<;, a,O''te £uSa[flova lmo making an .alliance with the Kadousioi when they were at
'tWV 1taACIlO'tEpWV KeKAfjO'9C1l avSpwv. Wal WIth him. 16 Twice he fought with the Arabs' almyand
'4 Ala 'taG'ta E1tl 'tau'tl']v 'tl]v Apa~[av, O'tl KaSouO'[ol<; U1t' was unable to rout them. He then sent an envoy and asked
au'toG 1tOA£flouflEVOl<; cruV£flaX£l at'tlacraflevo<;, EO'Tpa't£v- that they give him an army and pay an annual tribute, what-
ever sum he set for them. He made a treaty and then the
£'to. Kal St<; flfV EflaXEO'a'to 'tQ Apa~wv O''tpanvfla'tl, Kat
envoys of the Arabs came to him. When they arrived they
ouS' (;)<; I]Suv1]9l'] 'tpetaO'9C1l' fl£'ta Sf Sla1tp£O'~euO'aflevo<;,
asked him not to plunder the land of the hero and they
a,O'Te O'Tpa'tlav SoGVCll Kat <popov a1tayelV'toG hou<;, 8O'ov
p~ea~ed on their own behalf that they belonged to the law-
CtV O'<p[O'lV E1tl'tanOl, O'1tovSa<; 'te E1tOlI]O'a'to Kal'to't£ EA9£Tv gtve~ s race and were the fathers of all who worshipped ac-
E1t' au'tov Apa~wv 1tpeO'~£l<;, 01 Kat a<plKOfleVOl1tpotcrxOv-ro cordIng to the hero's religion. This race is believed to be
'te -ri]v Xwpav 'toG ijpwo<; fll] Ael']Aa'teTv, Kal EStOV'tO O'<pCi<;,
Ct'te yevo<; 't£ (\v'ta<; 'toG VOfl09E'tOU, Kat1ta'tepa<; elVCll'tWV
t<; -njvS£ 'toG ijpwo<; 'teAovv'twV 9pl']crKelav. N0fl[~e'tal Sf
'toG'to 'to yEvO<; £uayt<; 'te Kat CtyLOV, O'tl 'te 1tpofjAgev tK

194 195

'tii<; xwpa<; au'twv MEXfte't'1<; " VOftoee't'1<;, Kat <1i>v 'tQ holY and sacred, as Muhammad the lawgiver originated
'0ftapn TIjv voftoeE<Ylav SE;aftEV4J £1tt TIjv 'tfj<; A<Yla<; apx~v f rom their land and , with 'Umar, W h 0 receIved
. the law, 17 they
1tPOEA'1AUeE,<Yav, l'EyaAa a1tOSEl;al'EvOl "pya. took over the realm ofAsia, performing great deeds.
15 '0 l'EV'tOl VOftoet't'1<; 'tOU'tWV " MEXl't't'1<; 1tal<; AEyE'tal M~ammad, their lawgiver, is said to have been the son
of Ali, from Arabia Felix. When he first set out his law- '5
{I.Il3} YEvt<Yeal AAlEW, emo Apa~la<; 'tii<; EUSall'0vo<;.
cod~, at least, he compelled no one by force, but used per-
'EK9t l'EVO<; Se TIjv vOftoeE<Ylav au'tou apx:Y1v ftEV'tOl ft'lSev
suasIOn on the Arabs and later the Syrians. After that with
~la~E<yeal, ava1tdeov'ta 'tE 'tou<; Apa~a<; Kat LUpOU<; l'£'"Ca the help of Ali, the chief of that land and his friend h '
'tau'ta' ftE'ta Se 'tau'ta 1tpO<YAa~oftEvoV 'tou AAlEW Suva<Y'tou . hh'
out Wit 1m and propagated his lawcode as widely as he
' ewent
't£ 'tii<; xwpa<; Kat £1tl't'lSdou au'tQ, w<; l'aAl<Y'ta t1tlov'ta could among the inhabitants of any land which he visited.
1tpo<Yayweal au'tQ t<; TIjv vOl'oeE<Ylav, 01tOl uv £1tln, 'tou<; This lawcode promotes indolent mildness yet also enthusi-
TIjv Xwpav oiKouv'ta<;. AvlEl 'tE 't~v vOl'oewlav E<Y'tE TIjv asm for God, and especially constant study. Their custom is
p<;<<Y'tWV'lv Kat TIjv 'tou edou ~aKxdav l'EV'tOl, <YUVExi'j Se to pray to God four times a dayI' and they let nothing pre-
w<; ftaAl<Y'ta l'EAt't'lV. NOl'l~E'tal yap au'tQ 't£'"CpaKl<; 'tfj<; vent them from praying. On the day of Aphrodite {Friday}
~l'Epa<; 1tPO<YEUXWeal 'tQ 8EQ, U1t' OUSEVO<; KWAU°ftEVOV they all g~ mto the shrines together to pray.20 Their customs
prohibit mtroducing anything whatever' whether a statue
d<; 'tou'tO, W<Y'tE l'~ 1tpo<rEU;a<Yeal. Tn Se 'tfj<; Aq>poSl't1']<; .
or any other Image, into their prayer in their shrines. They
~ftEP<;< KOlVft 'tE u1tav'ta<; t<; 'tou<; vaou<; iov'ta<; 1tP°<YEUXE- have pnests who ascend to a conspicuous position in a tower
<Yeal' VOl'l~E'tal ft'lS' "'tLOUV, l'~'tE uyaAfta, l'~'tE aAAO 'tl that is built in front of the shrine and there pray to God in
'twv yEypal'l'tvwv 1tpo<r~aA6l'Evov <Yq>l<YlV t<; TIjv 1tpo<Y- loud vOIce. and always reCite. t h e customary prayers, callinga
WX~v tv 'tOl<; vaol<;. 'IEpEl<; 't£ <yq>l<YlV Kael<Y'tWV'tE<;, W<Y'tE the~ out m order to be heard. We know that this race is es-
1tpO 'tou vaou t<; 1tEPlW1t~V 'tlva 1t6pyov 1tE1tOl'lftEVOV ava- pecially devoted to prayer and for no reason at all will th
~alvov'ta 1tpo<rEUXE<Yeal 'tQ 8EQ l'EyaAn q>wvft Kat aiEl'ta<; agree to neglect it. ey
VOftl~0l'Eva<; EuXa<; 1tOlel<Yeal KEKpayo'ta YEYWV6'tEpOV. 'E<; In. other matters in their way of life and overall conduct 16
l'tv ouv TIjv 1tpo<Ywx:Y1v au'tou yEVO<; St 'tou'to '(<Yl'EV t<; 'ta nothmg IS regarded as so reprehensible that it would pre-
vent th~m from living pleasurably; thus, they do not curb
, l'aAl<Y'tatv't£'"CaftEvov, l''lS' "'tLOUV aVlEVal1tP°<YSEX°l'tvOu<;.
nature m any way. For they marry more than one wife and
16 'E<; st 'ta aAAa 'ta 'tE t<; Slal'tav Ka\ t<; 'tov ~lov au'tol<;
Oil'tE KEKOAa<YfttvoV Voftl~E'tal, W<Y'tE l'~ t<; 'to 'tou ~lou ~SU
1tOAl'tE1JWeal' oil'tw TIjv q>6<YlV ft'lSaftft ~la~E'tal. rUValKa<;
l'£v yap UYE<Yeal, 1taAAaKlSa<; fttV'tOl a1to avSpa1toSwv,

have concubines from among their captives however many
ocral<; ltv ~Ka<r'tO<; 010<; 'tE {I.Il4} <'i1'] 'tpocp~v 1tap eXE<1eCU t<; as each man is able to support and feed, Th~y may lawfully
'tOY ~lov, fuvalKa<; Sf KouplSla<; ltyE<1eCU t<; 'ta<; 1tev'tE, Kal marryup to five wives and they do not regard children born
'tou<; 'tE emo avSpa1toSwv 1talSa<; VOfll~E<1eal <1cpl<1lv ou vo- to then, slaves as iIleaitimate
e - ' but if children are b orn to free
eou<;, 1\.v Sf a1to 1taAAaKlSwv tAweepwv ytvwv'tal <1cpl<1l co~cubmes they, are considered illegitimate and have no
1talSE<;, V6eOl 'tE au'tol<; vOfll~oV'tcu, Kal OUK d<; ~v 1ta- chum to an mhentance, They also buy their lawful '
h t 'h WIves, at
w a ever pnce t eir fathers are willing to sell their daugb-
'tp<i>av oU<11av d<1epxov'tal, 'D.voilv'tcu Sf Kal 'ta<; KouplSla<;,
ters, The women are led in procession to wedding ceremo-
0<10U ltv 'tl<; ~OUAOl'tO tKSoilvcu ~v eau'toil euya'tepa,
mes preceded by torches, If a man can no longer stand his
Aafl1taSwv Sl: 1tpOEV1']VEYflevwv <1cpl<1lV t<; 'tou<; yaflou<; Wife and proclaims that henceforth because of "the th
ltyov'tal'ta<; yuvalKa<;,1\.v SfaxeE<1e£i<; 'tjj yuvcuKl 6 av~p I "h' ree
sp eens e IS separated from her, the woman is thereby for-
t1td1tn 'toil Aomoil a1to 'tPlWV <11tA1']VWV cmocrxe<1eal au'tfj<;, mally separated from the man, It is considered a great shame
~S1'] ~AAo'tplw'tal 'ttl> AOY'!' ~ yuv~ 'toil avSpo<;, N°fll~E'tCU ro remarry a woman whom one has sent away. It is not per-
Sf a'icrxl<1'tov, flv ltv 'tl<; a1to1teflY1']'tcu, aVel<; au't~v aya- mitted to take her back again unless she has first committed
ye<1eCU' ltv Sf fl~ U1tO hepou flOlxwefj, OUK £;EO"'tlV a1ta- adultery with another man,2l
This race is forbidden to drink wine as someth'
yElV, I wful d' ' mg un- '7
a , an IS not permitted to go to prayer without having
'7 O'Lv,!, Sf xpfj<1eCU aetfll'tOV a1tayopEuEl 'ttl> yevEl 'tou't'!',
washed first, They offer an annual tithe to God and th '
Kal fl~ AoucraflEvov fl~ t;Elval au'ttl> e<; ~v 1tpO<1WX~V
fast, lasts
d for thirty days and more {Ramadan}' D '
unngte ehlr
ltval. L\.EKa'tdav Se 'tlva e;EAOflEVO<; 'ttl> 8Etl> 'toil £'tou<;, e<;
entire ay they are not allowed to touch any food or drink
v1']<1'tdav au'tou<; 1tpoayE'tcu t<; 'tplaKov'ta Kal e1ttKElva but m the :vening, when the stars come out, they may eat:
fjflepa<;, Tfj<; fltV'tO' ~flepa<; OA1']<; fl1']S' cmoilv 1tpo<11E<1eal Of all the times of the year, it is especially then that they are
fl~'tE 'tpo'l'fj<;, fl~'tE 1tMEW<;, t<11ttpa<; Se, o'tav ltO"'tpa 'l'alv1']- n~t allowed to drink wine, It is mandatory for all to circum-
'tcu, <1l'tl~E<1eal' 1tav'twv Se flaAl<1'ta 'tOY Xpovov 'toil'tov fl~ cise their genitals, They believe that Jesus was an apostle
e;£1val o'Lvou 1tle<1eCU 'to 1tapa1tav, I1Epl'teflvE<1eCU Se 'to of God, that he was born of the angel Gabriel and Mar'
., hhd la, a
alSolov Xpfjvcu1tav'ta1ta<1lV, 'I1']<1oilv Sl: 8£Oil 'tE a1tOO"'toAoV vlrgm w 0 a never known a man , and that h ewasa h ero
greater than a normal man. At the end of this world, when
YEVe<1eCU vOfll~El, Kal e; ayytAou 'toil fa~pl~A Kal eK'tfj<;
Mapla<;, 1tapeevou 1:£ oil<11']<; Kal fl1']SEVl {I.Il5} avSpl cruy-
YEvoflev1']<; yEVVfj<1CU 'I1']<1oilv, flpwa 'tlva fld~w i\ Ka'ta ltv-
epW1tOV' Kal t<; ~v 'tEAW~V 'tOilSE 'toil K6<1flOU, e1tElSaV


all people who have ever lived are judged, they say that Jesus
will judge the world. It is their custom not to touch pigs, but
they eat all other animals, if they have been properly slaugh-
tered. One God governs all, and as his servants he uses what
they call "fiery minds."22 Muhammad had been sent to com-
plete the work of the other lawgivers previously sent by God
into the world. They believe that circumcision purifies them
more than anything else, and they combine it with wed-
dings." It is their custom to place graves next to the streets
and they are not permitted to bury their dead anywhere
else. They wash and shave the body before burying it.
They believe this too, that whoever does not obey the 18
law should die by the sword. Among all the peoples who dif-
fer from them in religion, the only people they do not en-
slave are the Armenians, for an Armenian foretold the glory
that Muhammad would win throughout the world. For this
reason they are not allowed to enslave Armenians.'4 Pro-
claiming these things in the lawcode, they took over for him
the larger part of the world and rose to greatness in Asia,
North Africa, and quite a large part of Europe, that which is
near the land of the Skythians and the Turks today, and of
the North Africans in Iberia. It is said that Muhammad died
while his son Ali was king of Arabia. Muhammad was de-
clared lawgiver and they obeyed him wherever he led them.
They entrusted their affairs to him and allowed him to gov-
ern them in whatever way he deemed best. After that, he as-
sembled the largest army he could and launched it against


Kat 'Tfjc; ItAAI']C; Apa~lac; Ecr'TlV it Ka'Tacr'Tpe\jr6~evoc;, Kat TI]V Egypt

. h and the rest ofArabia with the intentl'on. 0 f conquer-
\jra~~ov Sla~ac; 'Tfic; Apa~laC; 'Ta -rftSe ao'TOU £8vl'] onl']ya- Ing t I em. He crossed the Arabian desert and subjected the
~eop es there to him. After reigning for ten years 25 he d' d
In a place that is called Mecca.26 The army and the inha~i-
ye'To. BacrlAeucraC; E'TI'] SEKa e-reAeU'Tl']cre SI: EV xwpl'l' 'Tlvl
MeKE, oU'Twcrl KaAOlJ~Ev'l'. Kat 0 'Te mpa'TOC; Kat ot 'Tfjv tantsd of that land buried him magru'fi centIy and mourned
Xwpav otKOUV'Te, l8a\jrav 'Te ~eyaAonpenwc; Kal EnEV81']crav ~m eeply. The Arabs hold ceremonies every year honoring
~eyaAwc;. Kat'TeAe'Tac; au'TC!' nOLOUV'TaL ot l\pa~eC; ava nav m as a ~ero and as a holy man appointed over them b
E'TOC; WC; ~pwl 'Te Kal uno Beau 'Taxa EC; TI]v vo~08ecrlav God to brIng the law. His lawcode bears the mark of a .us~
crq>lcrlV avSpt euayei cl1toSeSely~Ev'l'. Ta 'Te EC; 'Tfjv vo~o- man, not someone who became a tyrant. J
8ecrlav EnlelKei -re Kat 00 npavv'l' yevo~EV'l' OU'TWC; ye- When. Muhammad
.. di e,
d 'Umar, th e most esteemed
among hIS dlsclples,27 received power from Muhamm d' '9
~on wh:c~
19 'Ene! SI: E'TeAeu'T1']crev, 'O~apl']C; 6 'TWV ~a81']'Twv au'Tou and led the army first against the land of Syria,2'
SOKl~W'Ta'TOC;, uno 'TOU nalSoc; ao'Tou TI]v apxfjv napa- : s~bJected partly by fighting and partly by conversion,
aking t~eatles With specific terms. After that he conquered
Se;a~evo" Kat 'TOV cr'Tpa'TOv It~a ay6~evoc;, npw'TOv ~I:v t h e Kilikians , Phryglans,
. M' YSlans, and Ionians and he also
Ent ~lJplav EAauvwv -rf]v 'Te xwpav unl']yaye'TO, 'Ta ~I:v no-
~t:ked Greater Asia and took it, establishing'the lawcode
Ae~wv, 'Ta SI: avanel8wv 'Te, crnevS6~evoc; Ent pl']'TOIC;. Me'Ta r y among the barbarian peoples throughout A' H
SI: 'TaU'Ta Ko..lKac; 'Te EXelpwcra'TO Kat <t>puyaC; Kat MlJcrouC; dispatched his fellow disciples to various dispersed p:~:~s i:
'Te Kat "Iwvac;, npoc; SI: Kal 'Ta Itvw 'Tfic; Acrlac; Enlwv Ka'T- an attempt to convert others too.
empE<pe'TO, -rf]v 'Te vo~08ecrlav [I.II7} E1tl~e~aLOU~evoc; 'TOIC; 'Umar built a magnificent tomb for Muhammad aft h
ava TI]v Acrlav l8vecrl 'TWV ~ap~apwv, Kat 'TWV ;lJ~~ael']'TWV succeeded him and instituted great celebrations in hi her e 20
tobhld sonor
ao'TOU EC; 'TlVaC; ItAAOlJC; ItAAn SlanE~nwv, nel8elv 'Te nelpw~e- hi e e every year. He convinced the others to pray to
E m and to become righteous by regularly visiting his tomb
VO<;. ven now many people from Asia, North Africa and E .
Kal 'Ta<pav 'TC!' MeX~E-rn nOAlJ'TeAfj Ka'Ta<1KelJacra~evo<;

ao'Tou unepeyEVe'TO, 'TeAe'Ta<; -re Ene'TEAel ao'TC!' ~eyaAa<; 'Te

ro~e c.ome to Muhammad's shrine in the belief that dOi:-
thIs Will contribute greatly to their own prosperity.29 Som!
ava nav £'TO<;, Kat 'TOU<; ItAAOlJ<; EneLeeV au'TC!' 'Te npocreuxe-
creal Kat E<; 'TOV 'Ta<pov au'TOU <pOl'TWV'Ta<; SlKalolJ<; ylvecr8aL'
Kat vuv an6 'Te 'Tfi<; Acrlac; Kal 'Tfj<; Al~UI']<; Kal ano 'Tfi<;
Eupw1t1']<; Sfj OUK bAlYOl tbv'Te<; EC; 'TO ~vfj~a 'TOU MeX~E'TeW
~Eya 'Te O'<plO'lV o"OV'Tal t<; euSal~ovlav aU'TOI<; <pEpelv 'TO

202 20 3
Kal T~<; aAA']<; l\pa~la<; ~<r-rIV il: KaTa<r-rpetOf'evo<;, Kal T~V Egypt and the rest of Arabia with the intention of conquer-
taf'f'OV 8Ia~a<; ~<; Apa~la<; Ta Tft8e aUTOU f9v,] un']ya- ing them. He crossed the Arabian desert and subjected the
peoples there to him. After reigning for ten years,25 he died
yeTo, BaOlAeucra<; i'T'] 8£Ka tTeAeuT']cre 81: tv xwplCjJ TIVI
in a place that is called Mecca." The army and the inhabi-
MeKt, oUTwcrl KaAOIJf'£vCjJ. Kal (\ Te <r-rpaTo<; Kal ot ~v
tants of that land buried him magnificently and mourned
xwpav OlKouvTe<; f9atav TE f'eyaAonpenw<; Kal tntv9']crav
him deeply. The Arabs hold ceremonies every year honoring
f'eyaAw<;. Kal TeAeTa<; aUTQ nOIOUVTal ot Apa~e<; ava nav him as a hero and as a holy man appointed over them by
eTO<; w<; ~ pwl Te Kal uno Beou Taxa t<; ~v vOf'0gecrlav God to bring the law. His lawcode bears the mark of a just
cr<plow av8pl euaye1 an08e8elYf'£vCjJ. Ta Te t<; ~v vof'o- man, not someone who became a tyrant.
gecrlav tnlelKeT TE Kal 00 TIJpavvCjJ yevof'£vCjJ oihw<; ye- When Muhammad died, 'Umar, the most esteemed 19

yev~cr9al. among his disciples,27 received power from Muhammad's

19 'Enel 8t tTEAeuT']crev, '0f'ap']<; 6 TWV f'a9,]Twv aOTou son and led the army first against the land of Syria,>' which
he subjected partly by fighting and partly by conversion,
8oKlf'wTaTo<;, uno TOU na180<; aOTou ~v apmv napa-
making treaties with specific terms. After that he conquered
8e~af'evo<;, Kal TOV <r-rpaTov af'a c<yof'evo<;, npwTov f'tv
the Kilikians, Phrygians, Mysians, and Ionians, and he also
tnl LIJplav tAauvwv Ti]v Te xwpav u1t']yayeTo, Ta f'tv no-
attacked Greater Asia and took it, establishing the lawcode
Aef'wv, Ta 8t avanel9wv Te, crnev8of'evo<; tnl p,]ToT<;. MeTa firmly among the barbarian peoples throughout Asia. He
8t TaiiTa KiAlKa<; Te txelpwcraTo Kal <l>puya<; Kal MIJcrou<; dispatched his fellow disciples to various dispersed places in
Te Kal ''!wva<;, npo<; 8t Kal Ta avw ~<; Acrla<; tmwv KaT- an attempt to convert others too.
e<r-rp£<peTO, Ti]v TE vOf'0gecrlav {I.II7J tnl~e~alOuf'evo<; ToT<; 'Umar built a magnificent tomb for Muhammad after he 20

ava ~v Acrlav i'9vecrl TWV ~ap~apwv, Kal TWV ~IJf'f'a9']TWv succeeded him and instituted great celebrations in his honor
aOTou f<; Tlva<; aMOIJ<; aAAU 8Ian£f'nwv, nelgelv Te nelpwf'e- to be held every year. He convinced the others to pray to
him and to become righteous by regularly visiting his tomb.
Even now many people from Asia, North Africa, and Eu-
20 Kal Ta<pOv TQ Mexf'£TU nOAIJTeAi'j KaTaCTKElJacraf'evo<;
rope come to Muhammad's shrine in the belief that doing
aUTou unepey£veTo, TeAeTa<; Te tneTtAel aOTQ f'eyaAa<; Te
this will contribute greatly to their own prosperity.29 Some
ava nav eTO<;, Kal TOU<; aAAOIJ<; fnelgev aOTQ Te npocreuxe-
cr9at Kal t<; TOV Ta<pov aOTou <poITwvTa<; 8lKalolJ<; ylvecr9al'
Kal vuv ano Te ~<; Acrla<; Kal Ti'j<; AI~U']<; Kal ano Tij<;
Eopwn']<; 8~ OOK DAlyOI lovTe<; t<; TO f'vi'jf'a TOU MeXf'£Tew
f'£ya Te cr<plcrlV otovTat t<; e08alf'ovlav aOToT<; <p£pelv TO

202 20 3

BoaK 3

travel in persan while athers pay maney to' thase whO' are
'rolOU'rav, I1apEuaV'ral S' at f'EV, at SI; ap'J'tlpiau 'rEAauO'l
willing to' gO' an their behalf The road through the desert
'roI, unl;p O'<pWV athwv ~aUAaf'Evol, LEval, "EO'", S~ oSo, is very difficult to' travel; the faad and water is carried by
xaAEnw'rcn'1 "E0'9al Sla ~v taf'f'av, Ent Kaf'l'jAwv Sf ~v camels and it is nat passible to' cansume much af either at
'rp0<P~v <pEpauO'wv Kat'ro vSwp' a<p90vw, yap O1)K i'xauO'l all. Once they have packed their necessities they mount the
Xp~0'9at aln<ji 'rO napanav, Kat av'rw S~ 'ra Em-rijSEla O'U- camels and follow the directions of the compass to make
O'KEuaO'af'Eval O'<piO'lv ava~aivauO'i 'rE Ent 'ra, Kaf'l'jAau" the journey. They take their bearing from the north, so that,
O''1f'elOl, Slaxpwf'Eval E, 'r~v napelav 'raI, 'rau f'ayvl'j'rou wherever in the world they need to go, they use it to de-
anoSel;EO'lV, !i S~ ano 'r~, iipK'rau EnlAEYOf'Eval, anal 'r~, duce which way to go, Whenever they come to a place where
there is water, they replenish their supplies before depart-
aiKauf'Ev'1' '(w9al Set athau" 'rau'r", 'rEKf'atpof'Eval 'r~v
ing, They reach the tomb of Muhammad after forty days
DSOV SlanapEuav-rat, 'EnElSav SI; a<piKwv'ral E, xwpa,
of travel through the desert, This tomb is said to be con-
av9l, 'rlva" EV aT, i'VEO''rlV vSwp, uSpEUO'af'Eval 'rau'rn EV- structed of precious stones, and the tomb itself suspended
'rEu9EV amaUO'l, Kat a<plKvaUV'rat ijf'Epat, 'rEO'O'apaKaV'ra in midair in the very middle of the shrine, but this seems
~V taf'f'av Sla~aV'rE, E, 'ro ~f'a 'rau MEXf'E-rEW, ,MYE'ral unlikely to me,JO The distance from this place, where the
SI; 'ro ~f'a 'rou'ra uno Ai9wv naAu'rEAEO"ra'rwv Ka'raO'KEU- tomb is, to [, , ,} is about ninety stades, and when they leave
a0'9~vat, Kat Ev f'EO'", 'rau vaau 'ro ~f'a f'E'rEWPl~Of'Evav from there they go to that place, Muhammad's laws and the
anatwpeT0'9at, [Ln8} onEp ani9avov f'0l SaKeT, t.lEXEl Sf al-Quran are expoundedJ! in public, They believe in the im-
ano'rau xwpou 'rau'rau, Ev ¢ 'ro ~f'a aU'rau, tnt'rov [, , ,} mortality of the soul and hold that God cannot be sinful.
Let this account suffice, then, concerning Muhammad's
wO'ei O''raSiau, EvEvl'jKoV'ra, Kat e;lOV'rE, tV'rEu9EV '(EV'rat
Ent 'rOV xwpav 'rau'rav, Tau, 'rE v6f'au, athau Kat 'ra 'AA-
When Timur had plundered this land and seized some u
Kwpa tK'rE9El'rat, 'rn 'rE a9avaO'ic,< 'rl9Ef'Eval ~, tux~" cities, he returned to Samarkand, He learned that the Sky-
ayvwf'0rrVv'1' auSEV 'rl navu a',av'rat f'E-reIVat 'r", 9el"" thians had set out from the Don, invaded his land, and plun-
Tau'ra f'l;v auv ~V 'rau MEXf'E'rEW vaf'a9EO'iav t, 'roO'au'rav dered it extensively, which made him angry. But at that point
avaYEypa<p9w ij f!LV, he was setting out to deal with the Khataians,32 It is said
21 TEf'l'jp'1, S' W, 'r~v xwpav 'rau'r'1v A'1',O'af'Eva" Kaln6-
AEl, £AWV tvia" unEK0f'i~E'ra Ent ~af'apxavS'1" ~Ku9a, SI;
Wpf''1f'Evau, enuv9avE'ra ano Tava',Sa, -rijv -re xwpav
au'rou EmSpaf'eTv Kat A'110'a0'9at aUK oAlya' xaAEnw, SI;
i'<pEPEV, 'Ev-rEu9Ev SI; aU'riKa "E'ra Df'OO'E tnt 'rau, Xa'r"tSa"

AEYOV1:"al lie OU1:"Ol elVaL MarrrraYE1:"al1:"O 'ltaAalOV, Kat lila- that in antiquity these were Massagetai who crossed the
~av1:"E, 1:"OV Apa~'1v 'tfjo; e'ltt1:"alie 1:"oii 'lto1:"a~oii xwpao; e'ltl Araxes and spread over a considerable area ofland along this
'ltOAV Iile~eA9eLv, Kat 1><p' aU1:"olO; 'ltOl'1rra~Evovo; evolKi'jrral. side of the river; they subjected it to themselves and settled
Tov1:"ovo; 'ltape<YKwa~e1:"o wo; £AWV, Kat rr1:"pa1:"w~a 'ltOl'1 rra- there. Timur had prepared to defeat them by assembling an
~evoo; eO; 6yIi0i'jKOV1:"a ~vplaliao; e<Y1:pa1:"eve1:"o e'lt' aU1:"ovo;. army that was eight hundred thousand strong and marching
Kat rrv~~aAwv ~axn 1:"e eKpa1:"'1rre 1:"OVO; Xa1:"dtliao;, Kat e'ltl against them. He engaged with the Khataians in battle and
TI]V ayopav aV1:"wv 1:"OV1:"WV Kat e'ltl1:"a ~arrLAela eAavvwv defeated them, before advancing against their assembly and
royal court, which surrendered to him on terms. He hired
o~oAOy[q 1:"e 'ltaperr1:"i'jrra1:"o, Kat ~lrr9wrra~evoo; 'lta~'ltOAAOVo;
a great number of their best warriors and left, taking them
aU1:"wv, 1:"OVO; ye Kpa1:"irr1:"ovo; 1:"a eO; 'ltOAe~OV yevo~EvoVo;,
with him. He also took as hostages the sons of the nota-
4'xe1:"O liywv. 'O~i'jpovo; lit Aa~wv Kat 1:"WV api<Y1:wv 1:"OV,
bles and imposed an annual tribute on them, to be brought
'ltaTliao;, Kat <popov 1:"a~a~evoo; 1:"OV1:"OlO; a'ltayelv 1:"oii eVlav- to him. Then he departed. The large and prosperous city of
1:"oii, a'lti'jAavve. Ta lie Xa1:"aYa 'ltOAlo; err1:"l 'ltpOo; ew 'tfjo; Khatai is to the east of Hyrkania. It surpasses the cities in
'Y pKaviao; ~eyaA'11:"e Kat euliai~wv, 'ltAi'jgel 1:"e av9pw'ltwv Asia in the number of its inhabitants, in its wealth, and in its
Kal DA~'l' Kat-rft liAAn euliaL~oviq {I.II9} 'ltpo<p£povrra 1:"WV general prosperity, except for Samarkand and Cairo. In an-
ev -rft Arriq 'ltOAeWV 'ltAi'iV La~apxavli'1O; Kat M£~<PlOO;, eu- tiquity it was well governed by the Massagetai.
vo~ov~£v'1 lie 1:"0 'ltaAaLOV 1>'lt0 Marrrraye1:"wv. Timur hired a large number of Persians because they 22

Twv ~EV1:"Ol I1eprrwv 1:"OVo; 'ltAel<Y1:0Vo; ~lrr9wrra~evoo; were very experienced when it came to the Skythians, and
their way of life is not a luxurious one. ll It was his intention
1:"OV1:"OVo;, oIa 1:"WV 1:"e LKV9wv e~'lteLPOVo; wo; 1:"a 'ltoAAa ye-
to march against the Skythians and against their chief as-
VO~EVOVo; Kat1:"a eo; 1:"i'iv li[aL1:"av OUK£1:"l a~povo; Dnao;, ev
sembly, which is called the Horde. He had learned that this
vQ EXWV e'ltt LKv8a, rr1:"pa1:"everr9aL, e'ltl TI]v ayopav aU1:"WV race is the most ancient among all the peoples in the world
1:"i'iv Oupliav KaAOV~£V'1V, Kat 'ltvv9av6~evoo;, wo; e'i'11:"E 1:"0 and that no king before him had been able to conquer them.
yEVOo; 1:"oii1:"O 'ltaAalO1:"a1:"OV 1:"e 1:"WV Ka1:"a TI]v O[KOV~EV'1V They had inflicted a great deal of harm on both Asia and Eu-
e8vwv, Kal ouliEva E1:"l 1:"WV 'ltpO aU1:"oii ~arrlA£wv xelpwrra- rope, as they controlled the land by raiding it. That was his
rr9aL mii1:"o 1:"0 y£voo;, KaKa lie wo; 'ltAeLrr1:"a epyarra~evov intention, given especially that Darius, the son of Hystas-
'ltOlijrraL 1:i'jv 1:"e Arr(av Kat Evpw'lt'1V' e'Jtllipo~ft 1:"a 'ltAeLW pes, campaigned against them when he became king of the
1:"a~lw6~evov -rft xwpq. Taii1:"a lie e'ltt voiiv 1:"l8£~evov, Kat
Wo; tJ.apel'l' 1:"Q 'Y rr1:"arr'ltew ~arrlAel yevo~£v'l' I1eprrwv Kat

20 7

Persians but achieved nothing. This made Timur all the

£7tLO"tpa'tEvcraV'rt av'tou<; ovStv 'tt repoUXWp']crEV, "'P[l']'tO
more eager to secure the fame that would come with such a
au'to<; erel 'toii'to 'to KAlO<; ltval. success.
23 'ncr'tE SE au'tOu EXEcr8a, 'tE 'tou EPYOU eyyu'tepw 'tov'twv In order to implement his project he moved closer to 23
yEVO[lEVOV, 1:<; -ri]v xwpav XEp,,]v1reOAlv Ka'tolK,cra<; {mO'tE them and settled the city of Kherie with men from Samar-
'tij<; ~a[lapxavS'1<; Kal cr'tpa'tlw'twv Kal'twv ap'cr'twv au't£ji kand; both soldiers and notables were sent by him to the
<Y'tEAAo[levwv e<; -ri]v areOlK,av 4\KlcrE reOAlv XEP',]V oil'tw colony. So he settled this city called Kherie, and it became
KaAOU[lev']v, [lEyaA!']v 'tE Kal EuSai[lova ihE 'tou ~acrlAlw<; large and prosperous, given that the king and his leading
ev au'tfi Sla'tpi~ov'to<; Kai 'twv api<Y'twv au'tou, 'twv 'tE 'tij<; men lived in it and the armies of Asia assembled there. In a
Acria<; cr'tpa'twv e<; au-ri]v cruvlonwv, MEyaA'1 'tE ev ~paXEl
short time, then, Kherie became great and it was well gov-
erned both then and also in later times, but not least while
eyevE'to ~ XEpi'], Kal Euvo[l~8'] [lenol Kal ilcr'tEpov, oux
King Timur was alive. But I have no evidence as to where
~Kl<Y'ta S£ ~acrlAew<; TE[l~pEw reEp,ono<;, "Oreol [lEV ovv
this city was located in Asia,34 whether in the land of As-
'ti'J<; Acria<; 4\Kl<Y'tm ~ reoAl<; ail't!'], Kal EhE ev 'tfi Acrcrupiq: syria or that of the Medes. Some say that Kherie was ancient
xwpq:, EhE Kal ev 'tfi M~Swv, OUK EXW 'tEK[l~pacr8al. Nineveh and belonged to the land of the Assyrians, and they
Aeyoucrl {LI20} [lev 'tlVE<; NTvov 't~v XEpi']v YEvecr8m 'to cite Baghdad by Babylon as evidence. Anyway, Timur set-
reaAalov Kai 1:<; -ri]v Acrcrup'wv xwpav 'tE'tax8m, 'tEK[lm- tled the city of Kherie, established his royal court in it, and
PO[lEVOl'tOU'tO areo 'tij<; ITaySa'tiv']<; Ba~uAwvo<;, OlKicra<; planned to march against Egypt35 and against the Skythians
S£ XEpi']v reoAlv, Kal 'ta ~acriAEla ev au'tfi reOl'1cra[lEVO<;, and their assembly that is called the Horde. He assembled a
ereEvoEl erel Atyure'tov 'tE Kal erel ~Kv8a<; cr'tpa'tEuEcr8m Kai large army and, taking the Khataians with him, he advanced
straight to the Don. When the Skythians learned that King
't~v 'tov'twv ayopav OupSav KaAou[lev']v, Kal cr'tpa'tov
Timurwas coming against them with a large force, they sent
[leyav cruvayetpa<; Kal 'tou<; Xa'tatSa<;' cru[lreapaAa~wv
an army to seize in advance the pass leading into the moun-
~AauvEv Eu8u Tava·iSo<;. 'Ev'tau8a reu8o[lEvOl ~Ku8m TE-
tains, which Timur was about to cross with his army.
[l~P']v ~acrlAla erei cr'l'ii<; erelov'ta [lEyaAn reapaCYKEUfi, 'tijv These Skythians were, in antiquity, divided into different 24
'tE elcroSov EreE[lreov cr'tpa'tEU[la repoKa'taA']to[levou<; 'twv branches and roamed the land from the Danube to the peo-
6pewv, iJ E[lEAAE TE[l~p']<; crUv't£ji <Y'tpa't£ji au'tou S'ieval. ples beneath the Caucasus. One race of this people today,
24 ~Ku8m [lEV OV'tOl 'to reaAal e<; [lolpa<; 'tlva<; Slnp'][levOl which is in Asia, settled in the land that is to the east on this
eve[lov'to -ri]v xwpav areo "Icr'tpou E<Y'tE erel 'tou<; vreo 'tov
KavKacrov. Nuv S£ ytvo<; [lev'tol 'tov'twv e<; -ri]v Acrlav
YEv6[lEVOV, 'ta repo<; EW au'tou 'tE evolKfjcrav 't~v Erei 'taSE

20 9

..~<; l\O'la<; xwpav, Kal trelreOAAa ..e-.:paflfltvov, ~axa..aTo, side of Asia, and then went off in many directions. They
tKA~e']O'aV, uretp -rijV ..WV I1epO'wv xwpav t<; ..OU<; ~aKa<; were called Chaghadai, and they were above the land of the
-.:e Kal KaSouO'lou<;' CUi" wv S~ Kal Tefl~ P']v alm)v o'lona, Persians, toward the Sakai and Kadousioi. Some think that
yeyovtva, ..'vt<;. "EO'Tl St ..00..0 ..0 ytvo<; llAK'flOV ..e ..wv Timur himself was one of them. This is the hardiest race of
Ka..a -rijv l\O'tav Kat reoAefl'Kw..a..ov, Kal crUv ..ou..o,<; Atye- those in Asia, and they are most warlike; it is said that it was
with them that Timur gained mastery over all the peoples in
..at Tefl~p!,]<; -rijv ~yeflovlav ..wv tv -.:ft l\O'lq reapaAa~civ,
Asia, except for the Indians. 36
reA~v 'IvSwv. The rest of the Skythians are united and are ruled by one 25
25 Oi St AOl1COl ~Kueat Ka..a ..au..o <ppovoOO'l ..e Kal u<p' king; they have their court at the so-called assembly of the
Evlllpxov..at ~acr'AeT, Ka..a OupSav -rijv KaAoufltv!,]v ayo- Horde; and they appoint as their king a member of the most
pav ..a ~aO'LAeta reoLOuflevo" areoSetKvuflevo, O'<plO" ~aO',­ ancient royal family;l7 There is a branch of them elsewhere
Ata ytvou<; ..e ov..a ..00 ~aO"Aelou ..0 reaAa,o ..a..ov, Kal in Europe, toward the {Crimean} Bosporos; it is quite large
~O'Tl S~ Kal illaxoO ~<; Eupw1C1']<; t<; ,,0'.1 BoO'1CopoV floTpa and they are dispersed throughout that land, subject to a
..ou..wv OUK oAlyl'], ava -rijv xwpav ..au..l']v {I.I2I} Sl£O'Ke- king from the royal family, whose name is Hajji Giray.38 They
SaO'fltvov, Imo ~aO"AeT ..a....6f1evov, OtKOU ..wv ~aO"Atwv, entrusted themselves to this king and came to this land,
reaching the Danube. Moreover, they crossed the Danube
ovofla St ..ou..", l\..~'Kepl']<;. Ou..o, flev ouv w<; tree..pa-
and a large group of them invaded and raided Thrace. Then
reov..o O'<pii<; ..ou..", ..C;; ~acr'Aci, E<; -rijvSe a<p'KofievOl -rijv
they withdrew, going through Russia toward the Don. But
xwpav, treEAaO'anE<; t<; ,,0'.1 "IO'..pov, Kal S~ Kal ..ov "IO'TpoV a large number of this race stayed behind, by the Danube,
S,a~av-.:e<;, floTpa .. ,<; OUK DAtI''] ~<; 8pQ:K']<; AeI']Aa..oOnE<; During the reign of Bayezid, most of them crossed the Dan-
tretSpaflov, Kat aVEXwpouv areo ~apfla..la<; Erel ..ov Tavdiv ube and then each part of this race was settled separately.39
[OV..E<;. KalreoAAa fltv ..00 ytvou<; ..ou..ou au..oO reapa ,,0'.1 The remainder, who stayed on the other side of the Danube
"IO'TpoV EvtflE,vav. nv ..0 reAtov Erel I1ata~~..ew S,a~av have taken up with Casimir, the king of the Lithuanians. 4;
,,0'.1 "IO'..pov {tvtflE,vav} <jJKlO'e'] xwpt<; eKacr..ov fltpo<; ..00 To this day they still roam and live off the land and offer him
yevou<; ..ou..ou YEvofievov. To St ureOAet<petv flepo<; au..oO powerful assistance in his wars against his neighbors. Wher-
ever this race happens to be, they have a reputation for
reepav ..00 "IO'TpoU reapa Ka~'fI~p",,,C;; ~acr'Aci A,..ouavwv
-rijv Stat..av ~xouO", -rijv nv vefl6f1Evo, t<; h, Kat '.10'.1, E<; ..E
"0'.1 repo<; ..OU<; reEpLOlKoU<; au..C;; reOAEflov (l'UfI~aAA6f1Evo,
..a Kpa"'O'Ta' oreou yap itv "0 yevo<; ..00..0 ..u-yxavwO',v
OV"E<;, SOKoOO'l ..e ..a t<; reOAEflov Kal £lO'l Kpa..,O'TOl. Oi St

210 2II

nEpl'rov BOIYnopov Kat'r!')V TavplK!')v V~IYOV KaAOVf'ev'1v,

being powerful in war, as they actually are. Those by the
Bosporos and the island called the Crimea, which separates
SlelpYOVIYav Aif'V'1v 'rE 'r!)v MalW'rlSa Kal 'rOV yE Ei\;ElVOV
the Sea ofAzov from the Black Sea, attacked and raided the
nonov, uno 'r<li ~a<YlAE1 ih!;lKEpin 'ra 'rE <9v'1 'ra e<; ~V
peoples in that land, under King Hajji Giray, to extract trib-
A'1'i!;Of'EVOl Ka'rEIY'rp"'vav'ro e<; <popov anaywy1jv, 'rou<; 'rE ute from them, namely the so-called Goths and the Geno-
r o'r90v<; KaAOVf'EvOV<; Kat "IavvTov<; 'rou<; 'r!)v 'rOU Ka<pii ese who live in the city of Caffa.
nOAlv EvOlKOUV'ra<;. Part of Russia also pays tribute to this king. The Russians ,6
,6 Kal ~ap f'a'ria<; f'epo<; 'rl anaYEl 'r01"'", 'r<li ~a<YlAeT by the Black Sea and those by the outer Ocean pay tribute
<popov. ~apf'a'rat f'EV OVV oinpo<; EU;ElVOV nov'rov Kal at to the Great King of the Skythians of the Horde. They have
npo<; WKEavov 'r<li f'EyaA", ~Kv9wv ~a<YlAeT 'rWV Ev "tjj done so ever since the latter invaded Russia and enslaved
ayopq [LI22} <popov anaYOVIYlV, e; O'rOV 'r!)v ~apf'a'riav part of it while they plundered the rest and held it for some
time,4l and from that point on the Russians were assessed a
emSpaf'OnE<; 'ret f'EV !,)vSpanoSiIYav'ro, 'ret SE A'1'iIYaf'EVOl
tribute to the Great King, which they deliver every year.
Ka'rE"XOV enl IYVXVOV 'rlva XPOVOV, Kal 'rau"n 'ro ano'rouSE
Russia extends from the nomadic Skythians to the Wallachi-
<popov 'rE ha;av'ro 'r<li ~a<YlAeT 'r<li f'EyaA"" Kal hov<; ans and Lithuanians. The Russians are a race that for the
EKaIY'rOV ImaYOVIYl. ~apf'a'ria f'EV ouv Sl!')KEl ano ~Kv9wv most part speaks the language of the Illyrians [i.e., Slavs}. In
'rWV vOf'aSwv enl ~iiKa<; 'rE Kal Al'rovavov<;, yevo<; 'rWV their customs and way of life they follow the laws ofJesus,
"IAAVPlWV <pWvij 'ra nOAAa SlaxpWf'EVOV. Kal Slai'rn 'rE Kal and incline more to the Greeks and do not follow the pon-
~9EIYl 'rOU 'I'1IYou VOf'Ol<; En1)KOOl, Ent 'rou<; "EAA'1va<; f'aAAov tiff of the Romans. They have a Greek bishop and obey him
'rE'rpaf'f'evol au navv IYVf'<pEpov'ral 'r<li 'Pwf'aiwv apXlEpeT, in matters of religion and in their way of life. They also use
'EAA'1VlK<Ii St apXlEpeT Xpwv'rat, Kal 'rou'r", nel90v'rat 'ra E<; the customs of the Greeks but their dress is similar to that
9p'1IYKelav 'rE Kal Sial'rav IY<piIYl. Kat ~9EIYl 'r01<; aU'ro1<;
of the Skythians. The Russian races by the Black Sea start-
ing from the so-called White Town42 are divided into prin-
'EAA~VWV Slaxpwf'EvOl, IYKwft "tjj ~Kv9wv napanA'1IYiq:
cipalities, namely Moscow, Kiev, Tver, and Khorov,43 cities
npo"Xpwv'ral. Ta f'enolnpo<; EU;ElVOV nonov ~apf'a'rwv
that are governed by tyrants and extend as far as what they
yev'1, ano AWKOnoAlxv'1<; KaAovf'ev'1<;, 1)YEf'oviat 'rE Sla- themselves call Black Russia. They call the races that live by
AayxavOVIYl 'ra nOAAa, 'ro 'rE M0"X0~lOV 'rE Kal K[E~o<; Kal the Ocean below the Arctic circle White Russia.
To<papl Kal XWpO~LOV,2 nOAEl<; uno 'rvpavvov<; Eu9vVOf'E-
val, E<; 'r!)v f'eAatVaV oihw uno IY<PWV av'rwv KaAOVf'ev'1 v
~apf'a'riav 'rEAOUIYl. Ta St npo<; WKEavov uno 'r!')V IIpK'rOV
oiK'1f'eva yev'1 AWK!')V ~apf'a'riav KaAOUIYl.

212 21 3

Ilpo, flEV'tOl WKEaVOV 1tOAl, OUYKPCt'tl'], KaAOUflEVl'], e, The city of Novgorod, which is in the direction of the 27
apl<YrOKpa'dav 'tE'tpaflflEVl'], 6A~OV 'tE 1tapEXE'tat Kat a6't~v Ocean, has an aristocratic regime and is richer and more
EuSatflov[(! U1tEpq>epOUO'av 'tWV aAAwv -cij, ~apfla't[a, prosperous than the other cities in Russia, either of the
1tOAEWV, -cij, 'tE A£UKfj, Kat flEAa[vl'], o6'twO't KaAoufI£vl']" White or the so-called Black Russia, This land, called Inf-
Kat SlfjKEl e1t' wKEavov aii'tl'] fj xwpa, 'Ivq>AaV'tl'] Ka- land,44 extends to the Ocean, Ships from Denmark and Ger-
AOUfI£vl'], "Ev9a S~ 0Pfl[~oV'tat Kat at a1to ~av[a, VfjE, Kal many anchor there, bringing British and French cargoes to
this land, The journey from the Don to the British Ocean
fEPflav[a" q>op't[a q>£pouO'al BpE'tavlKa 'tE afla Kat KEA-
and from there to the land of the French, across the length
'tlKa e, -cfjVSE -cijv xwpav, A1to flf:V ovv [LI23J Tava'LSo, e, of the inhabited region, would last thirty-five days at the
WKEaVOV 'tov BpE'tavlKov Kat e1tt 't~V KEA'tWV xwpav ill']
longest, while in breadth the land above the Don is vast ,
av oSo, 'to flaKpo'ta'tov fjflEpWV 1t£V'tE Kat 'tplaKOV'ta 'to from Russia to the land of the Assyrians, This is where the
otKoufiEVOV e1tt flfjKO" e1tt 1tAa'tO, St 'to fltv U1ttp 'tov Skyrhians roam, It seems to me that the land above the Don
Tava'iv xwpav £Ivat flEylO''t1']v, a1to ~apfla'tla, {<YrE e1tt-cijv is the largest in Europe with respect to both of its dimen-
AO'O'Uplwv xwpav, ~Ku9at v£flov'tat 'tfjVSE, "EO''tl flf:V OVV, sions, stretching over the greatest distances in both length
W, {flO lyE Ka'taq>alvE'tat, 'ta 61ttp 'tov Tava'iv xwpa flEY[<Yrl'] and breadth, The Permians live in the north beyond the
S~ 'twv ev'tft Eupw1tf] Ka't' aflq>w, flfjKO, 'tE S~ Kat1tAa'to, Russians; they are neighbors of the Russians, and the Rus-
e1tl flfjKlO''tOV SlfjKouO'a, Il£Pfllol St OtKOOO'l 'to 1tpO, ~op­ sians speak the same language as the Permians, It is said
about the Permians that they are a race who live mostly by
piiv 61tep 'tou, ~apfla'ta" OfiOpOl SE £to'l ~apfla'twv, Kal
hunting and [. , .J.
q>wv~v -cijv au-cijv lEv'tat ot ~apfla'tal 'tol, IlEPfllol" A£YE-
The part of Russia that extends toward the Ocean 28
'tal Si: 1tEpt IlEPfllwv 'taSE, w, {O''tl YEVO, a1to aypa, 'to reaches as far as the land called Prussia, toward the white-
1tA£OV 'too ~[ou O'q>lO'l1tolOVflEVOV Kal [. , .} robed monks there and their holy order in that land. 45 The
'H fI£V'tOl1tpO, WKEaVOV SlfjKouO'a ~apfla't[a E1tl Ilpou- members of this race appear to be Germans, and they speak
O'lav KaAouflEVl']V xwpav SlfjKEl Kat E1tl 'tou, 'tav-cn A£U- the same language as the Germans and have the same way of
KOq>OpOU, Na~l']palou, Kat iEpOV 'to EV 'tUSE -cfi XWP(!' ~o­ life, They live in beautiful cities that are well governed so
KOUO'l St Y£VO, 'tOO'tO £Ival fEpfiavol, Kal q>wvft 'tft au'twv that they are very powerful. They have a holy order there
EK£lvwv 1tP0O'XpWflEVOl Kal Sla1-cn, OtKOUO'l Sf: 1tOAEl, that is related to the holy order in Castile and the order of
monks who live on Rhodes. 46 It is clear that these three holy
1tEplKaAA£l, Kat Evvofloufl£va, E, 'to Kpa'tl<Yrov, "E<Yrl Se
'tOV'tOl, tEpoV, ii Sf: Kat 'to EV 'I~l']pl(! tEpOV VOfll~E'tat Kat EV
'tft 'PoS", eVOlKOOV Na~l']palwv y£vo" Tao'ta yap S~ 'ta


orders were established throughout the world to defend the

'pta [Epa ava TIJV O[KOU[lEVI]V E<; TIJV 'l'OU 'II]O'OU epl]O'K£LaV
religion of Jesus against the barbarians, the one in Castile
btt 'l'OU<; ~ap~apou<; ¢KI][lEva S~ Ka'l'atpavij £O''I'l, '1'0 'l'E £V
against the North Africans who crossed over there; that
'I~I]p[q npo<; 'l'ou<; 'l'atJ'I'D 'l'WV Al~UWV Sla~aV'I'a<;, Kat
of the Prussians against the Samogitians 47 and the nomadic
I'IPOUO'[WV npo<; 'l'E 'l'ou<; La[lW'I'a<; Kat LKUeWV 'l'OU<; v0[la- Skythians, who formerly used to live in that region; and that
Sa<;, athou {LI24} 'l'au'I'n arxou '1'0 naAalov ¢KlO'[ltVOU<;, of the Rhodians against those in Egypt and Palestine on ac-
Kat 'PoS[WV Se npo<; 'l'OU<; tv Atyt\n'l',!, 'l'E Kal I'IaAatO''I'[vn count of the tomb of Jesus and against the barbarians in
Sla'l'OV 'l'OU 'II]O'OU 'l'a<p0v Katnpo<; 'l'ou<; EV -rfi AO'[q ~ap­ Asia.
~apou<;. Next to the Prussians are the Samogitians, a hardy race 29

I'IPOUO'[wv Se eXOV'I'al La[lW'I'al, ytvo<; iiAKl[lov 'r£ Kat whose way of life has nothing at all in common with that of
OUSEVt 'l'WV nEpto[KWV 0[l0S[at'l'OV, ouSe 0[l0yAWO'O'OV. its neighbors, nor its language. This race believes in the gods
Apollo and Artemis. 48 They follow the ancient Greek way
N0[l[S£l S~ 'l'OU'I'O '1'0 YEVO<; e£Ou<; AnoAAw 'r£ Kat Ap'l'E[llV'
of life and customs, but their dress is similar to that of the
Sla['I'n Se XPWV'I'at 'l'fi naAat 'EAAI]VlKfi Kal ijeEO'l, O'KWfi Se
Prussians. Next to them are the Bohemians who have the
-rfi I'IPOUO'[wv napanAI]O'[q. Tou'I'wv Se exoV'I'at Bot[l0l, -rfi same beliefs as the Samogitians and the Germans who live
'l'E La[lW'I'WV So;n 'l'leE[lEVOl Kal -rfi rEp[lavwv o[ EV -rfi in this land, but their dress is similar to that of the Hungari-
xwpq 'l'au"D EVOlKOUV'rE<;, JKWfi 'l'fi 'l'WV I'Iatovwv napa- ans. They have a capital city that is prosperous and popu-
nAI]O'[q EO'KEUaO'[lEVOl. "EVEJ'I'l Se aU'l'OL<; [ll]'I'ponoAl<;, nOAl<; lous; it is called Prague, and it has not been long since many
EuSa[[lwv 'l'E Kat nOAuavepwno<;, Bpaya OU'I'wO'l KaAou- of the inhabitants of this city stopped worshipping fire and
[ltvI], KatnoAAol 'l'ij<; nOA£w<; 'l'au'I'I]<; ounoAu<; xpovo<; En£L the sun.49 This is the only race in Europe that does not fol-
EnaUO'aV'ro 'I'<Ii nupt Kat 'I'<Ii ~A[,!, epl]JKEU£lV. Movov Se '1'0 low one of the religions that are recognized by us these days,
I mean those ofJesus, Mnhammad, and Moses; for we know
eevo<; 'l'OU'I'O 'l'WV tv -rfi Eupwrrn tK'I'O<; YEV0[lEVOV 'l'aT<;
that practically the majority of the known world adheres to
tyvWO'[ltVat<; ~[lLV tv 'I'<Ii napoV'rl epl]JK£Lat<;, 'rij<; 'l'E 'l'OU
them. But there is, so I have learned, an Indian race beyond
'II]O'OU <Pl][ll Kat 'rij<; 'l'OU MEX[lt'l'EW Kat MwJtw<;' 'l'au'I'a<;
the Caspian Sea and the Massagetai which practices that
yap 'l'Ol JXESOV 'l'l 'iO'[lEV SlaKa'l'EX£lV TIJv 'l'E tyvWO'[ltvI]v same worship of Apollo. That race believes in other gods
w<; 'l'a nOAAa ~[lTv OtKOU[lEVI]V. "EJ'rl [ltV'I'Ol, t'i nUVeav0[lat,
Kat 'l'a unep TIJv KaO'n[av eaAaO'O'av Kal 'l'ou<; MaO'O'ayE'I'a<;
;:evo<; 'IVSlKOV t<; 'l'au'I'I]v 'l'E'I'pa[l[lEvov TIJv epl]O'K£LaV 'l'OU
Art6AAwvo<;. N0[l[S£l Se £K£lVO '1'0 YEVO<; Kat e£OU<; E'I'l

21 7

aAAou<;, illa -re Ka, "Hpav, w<; npo·iov-rl npoO"w -rou A6you too, Zeus and Hera, as will be made clear later in the narra-
SI]AWefjO"e-ral. Ka, nep' f'£v -rou-rwv -rau-rn En' -roO"ou-rov tive. 50 Let this suffice on these matters.
The Poles are next to the Russians and speak their Ian- 30
guage, but their customs and way of life are like those of the
30 I1oAavol (LI25} S£ ~xov-raL Lapf'a-rwv, Ka, -rti <pwvft
Romans. Next to the Poles are the Lithuanians, and they
-rou-rwv v0f'l~ou(n, Ka\ ~eeO"l S£ Ka, Slal-r!] -rft 'Pwf'alwv
too extend as far as the Black Sea and to Russia. Moldavia
napanAI]O"lq. I10Aavwv S£ £xov-ral Al-rouavOl En' Ell~elvov whose royal court is in the so-called White Town,5l extend~
nov-rov Ka, En' Lapf'a-rlav KaefjKov-re<; Ka, ou-rOl. 'H f'£v from the Wallachians by the Danube to the Lithuanians and
f'EAalva I1oySavla, fj EV -rti AeuKonoAlxv!] KaAouf'EV!] -ra the Ru~sians. This is an admirable race, insofar as one may
~aO"LAela ~xouO"a, ano ilaKwv -rwv napa -rov "IO"'t"pov En\ ascertam, andwhile it speaks one and the same language it
Al-rouavou<; Ka, Lapf'a-ra<; SlfjKel. rEvo<; S£ EO"'t"l -rou-ro h~s, smce ancient times, been divided between two tyran-
SOKlf'OV, ii av -rl<; -reKf'alpOl-ro, -rf]v -re <pwvfjv -rf]v au-r~v mes and rulers. 52 But the Lithuanians do not speak the same
l£f'evov, Ka\ ano naAaLOU SleO"XlO"f'£vOV Slxft -ro yEVO<; E<; language as the Russians, the Hungarians, the Germans, or
ev~n the Wallachians; they use a language that is altogether
-rupavvlSa<; Ka, fjyef'ovla<; Suo Ka-rEO"'t"I]. Al-rouaVOl 8£
umque to them. Their royal court is in a large, populous, and
olln Lapf'a-raL<; eiO",v 0f'0yAWO"O"Ol, oll-re I1aloO"lv, olln f'ev
prosperous city.53 This race seems to be the greatest among
repf'avol<;, ou f'~v ouSt ila~lv, iSlq S£ -ro napanav the peoples around this land and the most courageous and
v0f'l~OUo"l <pwvft. "EO"'t"l S£ au-rol<; ~aO"LAela nOAl<; f'eYaAI] -re they fight against Prussians, Germans, and Poles rega:<ling
Ka, nOAuaVepwno<; Ka\ euSalf'wv. Ka, SOKel -rou-ro -ro the boundaries of then country. This race too has adopted
yEVO<; elval -re f'Eya -rwv af'<p\ -rfjvSe ~v xwpav EeVWV Ka, the customs and way of life of the Romans but its dress is
avSpelo-ra-rov, Ka, npo<; -re -rou<; I1pouO"lou<; -rou<; repf'a- similar to t.hat of the Russians. It borders for the most part
vou<; Ka, I1oAavou<; SlanOAef'ouv m:pl -re opwv -rwv E<; ~v on MoldaVia and fights against its people.
xwpav. "EO"'t"l Se Ka, -rou-ro -ro y£vo<; npo<; -ra -rwv 'Pwf'alwv . The Ru~sians speak a language similar to that of the IIIyr- 31
lans who live by the Adriatic Sea, up by the Venetians. As
1'el] Ka, SlaL-rav -re-rpaf'fl£vov, O"Keuft S£ -rti Lapfla-rwv
to which of them is more ancient and which settled in the
napanAI]O"lq Xpwfl£vou<;, Ka\ -rti fleAalv!] I10ySavlq oflopo<;
lands of other people, that is whether the IIIyrians crossed
-ra nOAAa ouO"a npo<; -rOl\-rOU<; aywvl~e-ral. (LI26}
3 Lapfla-raL S£ <pwvft Slaxpwv-ral napanAI]O"lq -rti 'ThAu-
plWV -rwv E<; -rov 'IovLOv napolKovV-rWV £O"'t"e En\ 'Eve-rou<;.
'Ono-repol fl£v -rou-rwv naAalonpol, Ka\ -r~v e-rEpwv 6n6't"e-
pOl -rou-rwv xwpav EnlvEflov-raL, ~ 'ThAuPlO' EnEKelva ~<;

218 21 9
Eupw:re1']<; Ola~aV'r£<; IIoAav[av 'r£ Kat ~apfla'r[av 4\K1']'YaV, beyond Europe and settled in Poland and Russia, or whether
~ ~apfla'ral Oe e:ret 'raO£ 'rOU "I,npou Y£VOfl£VOl -djv 'r£ Mu- the Russians came to this side of the Danube and settled
tr[av Kat Tpl~aAAwv xwpav Kat O~ Kat 'IAAuplWV 'rWV :repiJ<; Bulgaria and the lands of the Serbs and of the Illyrians who
'riJv 'Iov(QV iiXPl O~ 'Ev£'rwv 4\K1']trav, oil'r£ iiAAOU 'rlViJ<; are by the Adriatic Sea as far as Venice, I have not been able
e:reueOfl1']V 'rWV :reaAa(Q'repwv old;lOV'rO<;, oil'r' iiv EXO<fll to learn from any previous writer who covered this material,
nor am I able to state an opinion that is categorically true. 54
:reav'rn w<; aA'1e~ ola<Yl]flf]vao-9al.
I return now to the nomadic Skythians, who are the larg- )2
32 'E:reaV£lfll Oe e:ret ~Kt\9a<; 'rOU<; vOflaoa<;, i'> O~ YEVO<;
est, most powerful, and bravest race. It would be impossible
flEY'tr'rOV 'r£ Kat to-xupiJv Kat y£vvalo'ra'rov e<Y-rlv, olov
to compare them to any other people in the world had they
ouO£Vt 'rWV Ka'r" ~v otKouflev1']v e9vwv :reapa~aAA£(V, av not dispersed throughout the world to many parts of Eu-
fI~ :reoAAaxn "V" 'r~v otKouflev1']v Ka'ra 'r£ Atr[av Kat rope and Asia and established their rule elsewhere, through
Eupw:re'1V etrK£Oatrflevov iiAAn 'r£ ~<; au'rwv ~a<YlAda<; their practice of widespread raiding. When they found a
<i>K[tr91'], w<; -rft emopofln 'r" :reOAA« XP1'] tra fl£vov' t'i oe xwp<;t land they liked, they left the other one behind and settled
f]petrKE-ro, 'rau'tt] eva:reoA£l<pgev 4\K'1tr£V. Et flev ouv e<ppov£l there. If they had been unified, lived in the same land, and
Ka'r" 'rao£, 'r~V alJ~V evolKooV xwpav, Kal u<p' tVt ytVOl'rO had one king, none of the people in this world could have
~atrlAU, ouoev£<; ot 'rWV tv 'rn otKouflEVn eV[<Y-rav'ro iiv,
stood in their way or refused to accept their terms. Now
they roam everywhere in Asia and Europe, living in Thrace
"'tr'r£ fI~ trUVOflOAOY£IV au'r<l'. Nov Oe cmav'raxn ~<; Atr[a<;
and by the [Crimean} Bosporos, and they have settled far
tmv£flofl£vov Kat EV 'rn Eupw:rcn, e:ret -rft Elpqxn 'r£ Kat e<;
from their kingdom at the Horde. Those by the Bosporos"
'rOV Botr:reopov eVO<Koov, Im<i>Kl<Y-ral 'r~<; tr<pwv au'rwv ~a­ roam that land and plunder the neighboring area, namely
trlAda<; ~<; e<; 'ro Oupoav. Ot flev ouv e<; 'riJv B6=opov the land of the Circassians, Mingrelians,56 and Russians.
~v 'rau'rn xwpav e:relv£flofl£vOl Kat 'r~V 0flopoV A£'1 Aa- They take as many slaves as they can back to the Bosporos,
'rooV't'£<;, 'tf]v 'r£ T~apKatrwV [LI27} Kal MlYKP£A[WV Kat taking them away to the city of Caffa and the Sea of Azov,
~apfla'rwv, Kat avopa:reooa w<; :reA£ltr'ra ayofl£vol e:rel 'riJv where they sell them cheaply to Venetian and Genoese mer-
Bo=opov, e:ret Ka<pitv :reOAlV Kal t<; 'r~v Malw'r,oa KaAou- chants, and thus make a living.
flEV'1V A[flV1']v a:reayoV't'£<;, "A[you n au'r" a:reoOlOofl£vOl The Skythians of the Horde spend their lives on wagons 33
and pack animals, usually consuming the milk and meat of
'rol<; 'r£ 'Ev£'rwv Kat'IavuTwv efl:reopol<;, oihw o~ ~(Q'r£uoutrl.
horses. They do not appear to consume wheat or barley, but
33 ~KUeal Oe ot tv -rft ayopq e:ret "fla!;wv n Kat u:reo~uy[WV
'riJv ~[ov :reo(QUfl£VOl, yaAaK'rl 'r" :reOAA" l:re:reWV 'r£ Kat
KPE<;t olaxpwfl£vOl, oiln tr['r"', oil'r£ Kpl9n Ka'ra<pavu<; dtrt


rather millet for the most part and rye; they wear linen gar-
SLaxpwflEVOL, flEA[Vn St -r" nAeov Ka1 O''1KaAn, ALVii<; -rE
ments and are considered the most prosperons and richest
E0'9ii-ra<; <p0poilvn<; E<; -rl>v -rwv AL9wv OA~OV EVSaLfiovEO"ra- with regard to the wealth derived from precious stones.
-rOL Ka1nAovO'Lw-ra-roL vOfl[~ov-raL. To;oL<; St Xpwv-raL, -r" Generally speaking, they use bows, barbarian swords, and
rrUfinav EinElv, Ka1 ;[<pEO'L ~ap~apLKo1<;, Ka1 9vpED1<; -ro1<; shields like those of the Wallachians. They usually wear felt
-rwv baKwv napanA'1O'[oL<;, nlAoL<; Se -ra nOAAa XPWflEVOL, hats, but not like those who live around Russia, nor gar-
OV-rE Ii nEp1 ~apfla-r[av otKoUV-rE<;, O()-rE [fla-r[OL<; Iml> Ep[WV, ments made of wool because they do not use linen." The
6-rL fI~ ALvo1<; vOfl[~ovdL. bL~KEL Se ~ ayopa -rov-rwv -rwv Horde of these Skythians and the Great King extends for a
~Kv9wv Ka1 -roil flEyaAov ~aO'LAEW<; En1 "S"v nEV'rEKa[SEKa fifteen-day journey, so that they are most adept at distribut-
ing the land among themselves, even though they are dis-
~flEPWV, ",O"rE EnLvEfI£0'9aL ~v xwpav E<; -r" EnL"'1 SELO-ra-
persed into small groups, and they come to one point from
-rov O'<p[O'L Ka-raO"ravn<;, Ka1 Ka-r' 6A[YOV<; SLEO'KESaO'flEvoL ,
different directions. They extend their Horde out over the
a<p' tKa-repov nAay[ov Ka9LO"rafiEvoL E<p' tvo<;' ~v -rE ayo- longest distance, distribute the land, provide abundant pas-
pav nOLOilv-raL En1 fI~KLO"rOV, Ka1 SLavEflov-raL ~v xwpav, turage for their pack animals, and thus arrange things for
-ro1<; {J1tO~Vy[OL<; ii<p90vov napExofiEVOL, Ka1 av-ro[ -rE E<; themselves in the best way that accords with their customs.
-ra;Lv ~v ap[O'-r'1v un" O'<pwv VOflL~OflEV'1V Ka9LO"rafi EVO L. They set up circular forts only for the king himself and the
Ka-r' au-rbv Se floVOV -rbv ~aO'LAEa Ka1 -roo<; -rau-rn ap[O'-rov<; notables and make circuit walls, providing their king with
En1 KUKAOV<; Ka-raO'-rav-rE<;, Ka1 nEpLoSoV<; nOLOvflEvOL, a court constructed out of wood. They divide this entire
~aO'lAELa -rE napEX0VO'L -r4> ~aO'LAEl an" ;UAWV Ka-rEO'KEV- Horde into sections, appoint lords over them, and whenever
the king bids them they depart upon whatever business is
a<TflEva. 'EmSLEAOflEVOL {I.I28} Se d<; flo[pa<; -ralh'1v rrUflna-
O'av ~v ayopav, iipxov-ra<; -rE E<pLO'-riiO'L -rOu-rwv, Ka1 EnElSaV
At that time then, when Timur marched out leading the 34
napaYYEAn ~a<TLAEV<;, XWPOilO'LV E<p' 6 -rL av YEV'1-raL Xpda. army of Asia, and the Skythians learned that he was march-
34 Ton flEv ouv, w<; EO"rpa-rEuE-ro TEfI~P'1<; EAauvwv -rbv ing against them, their king turned the whole Horde into an
"ii<; AO'[a<; O'-rpa-rov, Ka1 E1ti>90v-ro En1 O'<pii<; O"rpa-rEvoflE- army and made camp; this army had considerable depth in
vov, ~aO'LAEo<; flEV-rOL ~v -rE ayopav rrUflnaO'av E<; O'-rpa-rl>v numbers. 58 He himself drew it up into formation there and
nOL'1O'aflEvo <; EO"rpa-ronESEuE-rO, En1 nOAAoo<; -rl> ~a90<; set out against the enemy, sending a contingent in advance
nOL'1O'aflEvo <;. Ka1 au-r,,<; flev -rau-rn -ra;aflEvo<; "E-rO "fl0O'E to hold the pass through which King Timur would come.
En1 -roo<; nOAEfI[ov<;, flo1pav St npoEnEfiVE ~v napoSov He ordered them to block Timur however they could by
Ka-raA'1vofiEVOV<;, Ii ~flEnE SLanopEuE0'9aL TEfI~P'1<; "
~aO'LAEu<;, Ka1 SLaKwAilO'aL EKEAEVEV, 6noL SvvaLv-ro, w<;


KpaT,cr'm flaxoflevov<; T<I> Tefl~pn. OilTO<; fl1:v 8~ reapa- fighting vigorously against him. He took command of the
Aa~wv ~v flee' eaVTou flolpav, Tefl~ P'1<; 81: w<; btl]e, TOV contingent that was with him. Timur led his army and pro-
CT'rpaTOV, eueu Tava'i80<; treopeueTo, tv 8e;,~ 1'Xwv TOV ceeded directly to the Don, keeping the Caucasus to his
right. But when he invaded Skythia, he found the Skythians
KauKacrov. 'Ered 81: elcre~aAev t<; T~V ~KVe'K~V, eilpe TOU<;
encamped. When they realized that he was approaching,
~KUea<; tcrTpa-roree8wfl£vov<;. Kat w<; !lcreovTo tmovTa,
they deployed for battle. He deployed in a counterforma-
reapeTacrcrov-ro w<; t<; flaX'lv, Kat aUTo<; Te aVTmapeTacrcreTo, tion, and a battle was fought at the pass in which Timur was
Kal flaXYJv flev T,va treo,~cravTo tv Tfi reap084', Kal ou81:v unable to accomplish anything. After that he made camp
reAeov ""Xe Tefl~p'1<; tv -rfi flaxn TaUTn· MeTa 8£, w<; and again deployed for battle on the next day. They fought
ere'1vAicraTo, Tfi ucrTepaiq aile,<; reapeTacrcreTo, Kat eflax£- and repelled him, so that it was impossible for him to gain
cravTo Kal e;eKpoucravTo aUTov, ",crTe fI'18' orewcrouv t;elvaL entry and invade the country. A large part of his army was
aUTov reap,evaL e'(crw Kal ecr~aAAe,v e<; T~V xwpav. Kat destroyed there by the Skythians. Afterward, as he was un-
aUTou 1:£ 8,ecpee'pe TOU CT'rpaTeuflaTo<; aUTou OUK oAiyov<; able to pass through because he was being blocked, he led
his army away and returned home.
imo TWV ~KVeWV. MeTa 8e, w<; OUX 010<; Te ty£veTo £'icrw
The following summer he assembled a huge army with 35
reapeAeciv 81aKwAvoflevo<;, a~yaye TOV crTpaTov Kal av-
the intention of invading Egypt. But then he wheeled
exwpe, ere' O'(KOV. ~round and advanced directly against the Skythians, cover-
35 Tou 8' emyevofl£vov etpov<; CT'rpaT,aV w<; fleyicrT'1 v mg the longest distances on each day's march. He arrived
crVAA£;a<;, Kat eret A'(yvreTov ev v<l> 1'Xwv crTpaTeuecreaL, sooner than expected, invaded Skythia and engaged with a
fl eTa 81: [U29} crvCT'rptta<;, !jAavvev aile,<; tret ~KUea<;, contingent that had hurried to meet his attack. He engaged
crTaeflou<; tAauvwv w<; fleyicrTOV<;. Kat 1'cpe'1Te 8~ ecr~aAwv them m battle and routed them. But he did not accomplish
e<; T~V ~KVeLK~V, Kat CTVvefl,;e floipq T,vt aUTou eret ~v much by this battle, for the Skythians have this outstand-
1'cp080v eree'yoflevo,<;, Kat crvfI~aAwv au-rfi hpetaTo. au ing advantage: when they are routed, they wheel around and
charge at the enemy again, and thus they do not suffer seri-
fI£VTO' ye areeytveTo, 6 T' Kat &;LOV AOYOV, ev TaUTn Tfi
ous harm during routs. After that, when he advanced against
crvfI~oAfi. at yap ~KUeaL fley'CT'rOV 8~ TOUTO 1'xovcr,v
the king of the Skythians, he deployed for battle, but the
ayaeov' tv Tn Tporefi CTVcrTpecpoflevo, aile,<; tAauvovcr,v eret
Skythians withdrew at night to a distance of about a hundred
TOU<; reoAefliov<;, ou8ev T' KaTa T~V TpO~V xaAereov and twenty stades. Timur came against them, advancing
Ocp,crTaflevo,. MeTa 8e, w<; eret TOV ~acr'A£a ~KVeWV !jAacre,
reapeTa;aTo Te el<; flaX'lV, Kat ol ~KUea, VVKTO<; areexwpovv
wcret crTa810v<; £'iKOcr, Kat eKaTOv. '0.<; 81: erci]e, Tefl~p'1<;'

224 225

Sl1']f'EpEUWV tm']AallvE, VIlK,O<; aVe,<; anEXWpOIlV O[ LKUeat, during the day, but the Skythians again withdrew during the
rught, so that by doing this Timur's army was eKhausted.59
W<TtE S~ 'tau'ra n010Uf'EVO<; i'Kaf'VE 't<ji TEf'~pn 6 <Ttpa'to<;,
So he began to challenge the king of the Skythians to battle.
KalnpoEKaAel'to t<; f'ax1']v 'tWV LKlleWV ~aO'lAea.
After .that, he encamped and, on the following day, ar- 36
36 ME'ta St 'tau'ta <Ttpa'tonESEIlO'af'EVO<; e<; ~V UO''tEpa[av
ran~ed hIs a~my by companies. Timur drew up in a deep for-
napE'ta~a'tO Ka'ta '{Aa<;. TEf'~P1']<; St napE't<l<YO'E'tO EnlnoAo matIOn, havIng Haydar on the right with the Massagetai and
'to ~aeo<;, EXWV tnl 'to SE~lOV Xa"(Sap1']v o-UV 'tOl<; MaO'- ~n the left his s~n Shahrukh60 with as many Persians, Assyr-
O'aYE'tat<;, Enl St 'to EUWVIlf'OV 'tOY nalSa ao'tou Laxpouxov Ians, and KhataIans as were with the army. When the armies
o-UV 'tOl<; IIepO'a,,; 'tE Kal 1\O'O'llp[Ol<;, Kal Xa'tatwv, 00'01 engaged with each other and fought, a furious battle ensued
elnov'to. 'Ene! St O'OVEf'lO-YOV aAA~Aol<; 'ta O''tpa'tEuf'a'ta, and the Skythians were unable to accomplish anything. Af-
Kal tf'axov'to, f'aX1']<; 'tE Kap'tEpii<; YEvof'ev1']<; ooSev 'tl ter that, as the Skythians began to push back, they fought
nAeov EO"XOV o[ LKUeaL ME'ta Se, w<; wO'af'Evol e'ixov'to more VIgorously, but they were unable to rout Timur's army.
Instead, they were routed and lost many men in this battle:
'tou EpyOIl tV'tOVW'tEpOV ot LKueat, ~oS' w<; t'tpevav'to 'tOY
Many men from the Persian army also were slain. Later, as
TEf'~PEW <Ttpa'tov, {I.I30} anE'tpanov'to, Kal ane~aAOV EV
the Skythians failed to accomplish anything by fighting
'tau"n 'tfi f'axn OOK 6A[yoll<;. Kal EnEO'ov ano 'tou O''tpa'tou agaInst the army ofTimur, they withdrew further in order to
'tWV IIEpO'WV OUK 6A[Y01. "Y <TtEpOV f'eV'tOl, W<; ouStv deal with the enemy in the interior of the land. But Timur
EnpaO'O'ov O[ LKueat f'aX6f'EVOl 't<ji TEf'~PEW O''tpa't<ji, turned back and also withdrew, reaching the Don as quickly
ijAallvov E<; 'to np6crw EX0f'EV01, W<; tv'to<; 'tij<; xwpa<; 't00<; ashe could.
nOAEf'[OIl<; anoA1']vof'EVOL '0 f'eV'tOl TEf'~P1']<; O'Il<Ttpa<pe!<; After that,. he left and went to Iberia, the one in Asia,6! by 37

ijAallve 'tE au'to, 'ta Ef'naA1V YEv6f'EVO<;, Ka[ nw<; E<pe1'] E<; way ofKoichls, croSSIng over the river Phasis there, the one
that flows from the Caucasus to the Black Sea. After invad-
'tOY Tava'(v a<plKOf'EVO<;.
ing the land of the Armenians, he marched back to Kherie.62
37 ME'ta Se 'tau'ta t<; ~V 'I~1']p[av 't~V EV 'tfi 1\0'(1): a<plKOf'E-
That, then, was what his army did in this attack against the
I VO<; anExwpEl S,a 'tij<; KOAX[So<;, 'tOY <l>iiO'1V au'too Sla~a<;
Skythlans. In the third year the Skythians prepared to fight
no'taf'ov, 'tOY ano KallKaO'oll peov'ta Enl EU~E1VOV nov'tov. back against King Timur: they advanced and raided the land
'EO'~aAwv St t<; ~V 1\Pf'EV[WV xwpav am']AallvEv Enl
XEp[1']<;. 'EnEnpaYEl St OU'tW au'tou 'to <Ttpa'tEllf'a E<; ~V
Enl LKueat<; 'tau't1']v i:'AaO'lV. T<ji Se 'tp['t'!' E'tEl napaO'KEIl-

! aO'af'EVOl ot LKUeal w<; af'IlVOUf'EVOl ~aO'lAea TEf'~P1']V,

ijAaO'av 'tE Kal EneSpaf'ov xwpav ~V unep 't00<; 1\O'<1lJp[OIl<;.

226 227

'E1tpEO'~eue'to l'OV ouv lJO''tepov 1tepl O'1tovSWV 1tpO<; 'te 'tOY above the Assyrians. 63 But he later sent envoys to the king of
~aO'lAta 'tou OupSav Kal1tpo<; O'Ul'1ta<Yav 't~v ayopav, £1tl- the Horde and the entire Horde in order to make a treaty,
~ffenng a marriage alliance. And they made a treaty, agree-
yal'lav 'te u1tlCY)(Voul'evo<;, Kal O'1tovSa<; 'te £1tOl~O'av'to, £'1"
Illg to be each other's friends and allies.
4i ;ovou<; -re Kal <p[Aou<; elval aAA~AOl<;.
Having settled his relations with the Skythians, Timur 38
38 n<; So 'ta 1tpO<; 'toil<; LKU6a<; Ka6lO"t1'], ~AaUVEV £1tl
set out against Koile Syria. He advanced against the city of
Luplav KO[A1']V. 'EAC«Ya<; So £1tl bal'aO'KOV ~V -re 1tOAlV Damascus and besieged it and, by bringing siege engines
£1tOAlOpKel, Kal l'1']xava<; 1tpOO'<pOpWV 't<l> 'tELXEl i[AE 'te Ka'ta agalllst the walls, he took the city by force and enslaved it. 64
Kpa'tO<; ~V 1tOAlV Kal ~VSpa1toSlO'a'to, 1tOAlV l'eylO''t1']v S~ At the time it was a huge city and very wealthy. He led away
'to-re ouO'av Kat EuSall'ovEO''tlh1']v, Kal'~Aou<; 'te Ev'teu6ev from there a total of eight thousand camels. Plundering a
a1t~yayev £<; ouaKlO'XlAlou<; 'ta<; {Ll3l} 1taO'a<;. "OA~OV S~ massive amount of wealth in that city, he marched back
l'eyLCr'tov £v 'tau-rn 'tii 1tOAeL A1']',O'al'evo<; a~Aauvev o1tlO'w home, bringing a lot of valuable loot with him. He had sent
£1t' olKou, Adav 'te 1tOAA~V Kal euSall'ova ayol'evo<;. 'E1tpe- an envoy to the king of Cairo, who bears the magnificent ti-
tle of sultan," and offered to withdraw from Koile Syria so
O'~eue'to l'ev'tOl Kal1tpo<; 'tOY 'tij<; Mel'<pLO<; ~a<YlAta, LOUA-
that he could make a treaty with him and establish peace
SaVOY olJ'tw S~ £;oxw<; KaAOul'evov, Kal ~;lou Ko[A1']<; LU-
on that basis. It was when his overtures in this matter had
pla<; lJ1t0XwpijO'al ol, wO"te £<; O'1tovSa<; 'tE LEVaL au't<l> Kal failed, seeing as he was already prepared, that he captured
eip~v1']v £1tl 'tou't'!' 1toLeIO'6aL. n<; So 1tP01tOl'1tOV'tl OU 1tpO- and enslaved the prosperous city of Damascus, but he de-
exwpEl, ~S1'] 1tapaO'KwaO'al'Evo<;, EAWV 'te Kal avSpa1to- parted for a reason I will disclose in a later section of my
SlO'al'evo<; ~v bal'aO'Kov 1tOAlV euSall'ova, a1texwpeL Sl' narrative. 66
al'tlav, ~v 'tlva e<; 'to 1tpoO'w 'tou AOYOU lwv <Y1']l'avw. The king of Cairo rules over a large and prosperous land. 39
39 '0 So 'tij<; Mel'<pLO<; ~a<YlAEil<; xwpa<; 'te apXeL OUK oAly1']<; Beginning from the land of the Arabs, he controls Koile
Kal euSall'ovo<;' Cl1tO Apa~wv ap;al'evo<; Luplav 'te Ko[A1']V Syria, Palestine, and all of Egypt. The king of Cairo and of
this realm in general is appointed in the following way.
Kal I1aAaLO"tlv1']v Kal O'Ul'1taO'av S~ A'lyu1t'tov u<p' au't<l>
AIl the slaves who display valor in that land are appointed
~XeL. BamAeil<; So Ka6lO''ta'taL 'tij<; Mel'<pLO<; Kal'tij<; apxij<;
by the klllg to the ranks of soldiers. These soldiers form the
'tijO'SE 'tp01t'!' 'tOl<l>Se. "OO'Ol 'twv avSpa1toSwv ape'tij<; 'tl
king's guard, about twenty thousand strong, and are called
l'e'ta1tOLOuv'taL ev'tau-rn 'tfi XWPII, U1tO ~aO'lAOw<; Ka6lO''tav- the Mamluks. Among them, those who distinguish them-
'tal £<; 'toil<; O''tpa'tlw'ta<;. ElO'l So OU'tOl Sopu<popouv'te<; ~a­
O'lAoa, al'<pl 'tov<; SlO'l'uplou<;, Mal'aAouKlSe<; KaAOul'eVOl.
A1to 'tou'twv So, OO'Ol e1tlO'1']l'ol e1tl 'to Ka'tepya~eO'6aL

228 229

selves at carrying out any of the king's orders are soon pro-
o'tloiiv 'twv uno ~aOlAtw<; 't£'taYflevwv, OO'tOl t<; 'ta<; apxa <;
moted to higher ranks, advance to a higher fortune in the
Ka'ta ~paxo Ka81enafl£vOl tnt fI£l~ov xwpoiial wX,]<; i\fla
king's entourage, and claim the highest honor of the Melik
Kant ~acnAtw<;, Ka1 t<; 'ta npw'ta 'tlflfj<; a;LOufI£vOl tn1'tou<; amirs, as they are called, or the "royal amirs." From that po-
KaAollfievoll <; M£AlKafl,]paSa<; Ka8[cnav'taL, a,!,' wv S~-rij<; sition they advance to the actual position of king and the
xwpa<; tn' au't~v ~S'] xwpoiicn ~v ~acnAtw<; xwpav, Ka1 realm of Cairo and all Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, and all the
en1 ~v -rij<; Mefl'!' 10<; apmv Ka1 ollfinCta-,]<; -rij<; 't£AtyUn'toll other dominions that are subject to this king. For the royal
Apa~[a<; 't£ Ka1 I1aAaLen[v,]<; Ka1 'twv &AAWV apxwv, OOaL amirs are the authorities in charge of the distinguished cities
ono 'tou't'!' 'tQ ~aOlA£l {I.I32} 'tanov'taL. M£AlKafl,] paS£<; of this kingdom, and are lords appointed by the king.
do1v apxa1 t<; 'ta<; nOA£I<; 'ta<; uno njvS£ 't~v ~aOlAElaV This city of Cairo is the largest of all the cities in the 40
world with respect to the size of its population and its gen-
t1tl~flOll<;, &pxov't£<; Ka81enafl£vol uno ~aolAew<;.
eral prosperity. The circumference of its territory is about
T~v Se noAlv 'tau't']v -rij<; Mefl'!'LO<; fI£y[en']v S~ naowv
seven hundred stades. It is the best governed city of all that
'twv Ka'ta ~v otKOllflEV,]V noA£wv ~en£ ~v &AA']V £vSaL- we knOw. It is said that it has the most excellent houses,
flov[av Kat 'to nAfj80<; 'twv av8pwnwv. "0 't£ yap n£pt~o- close to five hundred thousand of them." The Nile River
1.0<; 'tau't']<; -rij<; xwpa<; t<; En'taKoo[oll<; flaAlo'ta enaS[oll<; flows through the city, providing the best water, and it flows
SI~KWV. Evvofl£l-ral Se KaAAlo'ta naowv S~, WV ~fI£l<; 'i0fl£v, down from the Silver Mountain." It irrigates all of Egypt in
noA£wv. O[K[a<; St ~X£IV KaAA[ena<; Aey£'taL E<; 'ta<; n£vnj- the most excellent way by means of the canals that are built
Kona flllplaSa<;. 'Pd Se Sla flEO']<; -rij<; nOA£w<; N£lAo<; no- through every district, so that it can efficiently irrigate the
'taflo <;, Kpa'tlenov uSwp nap£xofl£vo<;, pEWV ano apyupoii land. In this land live Monothelites, Jacobites, and many
other groups whose religious customs and doctrines belong
OpOll<;. AYyun'tovSe crVflnaoav apS£u£1 E<; 'ta KaAAlena
to those groups who practice and worship the religion of the
Ka'ta 'ta<; SIWPllXa<; uno 'twv EKao'taXfj xwpwv Ka't£OK£lJ-
God Jesus in other ways, that is, not according to the ways
aOflevwv, wen£ ~v xwpav &pS£IV tnl't']SElw<; ~X£IV. 0[- of the Romans or the Greeks. But the Armenians are very
Koiiol Se 't~v xwpav 'tau't']v Mov08£Afj'taL Ka1 'IaKw~l-raL, numerous in this land too, and there are countless Mono-
~8v'] 't"£ OVK DA[ya, Kat 'twv e<; 't~v 'toii 'I']oou 'tou 8EOii thelites,Jacobites, and Manicheans. 69
8p,]oKElaV 't£Aounwv 't£ Ka1 '!'povouv'twv &AAWV &AAn,
ou't£ Ka'ta 'tou<; 'Pwfla[Oll<;, oil't£ Ka'ta 'ta "EAA']OI S£-
SOYfieva E<; ~v 8p,]OKElaV '!'povoiiv't£<;· aXil OOOl flEV dOlV
ApflEVlOl nAdo'tol ava ~v xwpav 'tau't']v, Mov08£Afj'taL
S~ Ka1 'IaKw~l-raL Ka1 MavlxalOl naflnoAAol.

23 0 23'

4' L\.L~KeL Sf. ~ xwpa 1'00 'til<; MEfL<PlO<; ~aO"LAEW<; ano The territory of the king of Cairo extends from North 4'

AL~UYJ<; ~(ne nOALV XaAenlYJv oi)1'w KaAOufLEVYJV Ka1'it 1'~V

Africa to the city that is called Aleppo in Asia. This king is
regarded by the peoples ofAsia, North Africa, and even Eu-
Acrlav' VOfLl~e1'at S' Oii1'o<; 0 ~a(1LAeu<; uno 1'e 1'WV EV 1'n
rope as the senior cleric of their religion and of the laws of
Acrlc,t E9vwv Kat uno 1'WV 'til<; AL~VYJ<; Kat S~ Kat uno 1'WV
Muhammad. Countless people have been taught his laws by
EV 1'fi Evpwnn apXLepev<; 1'e 1'it E<; 1'~V 9pYJcrKelav av1'WV Kat him there, and he has been regarded as their religious leader
1'it E<; 1'OU<; VOfLou<; 1'00 MeXfLE1'ew, nafLnOAAWV av1'OO from the early days, expounding the law of Muhammad with
1'au"D SLSacrKofLEvwV 1'OU<; 'til<; 9pYJcrKela<; av1'OO [l.'33} great precision in their script. 70 They control the sepulcher
v6fLou<;, Kat w<; ano 1'WV naAalO1'EpWV aPXLepev<; n of Jesus in Palestine and derive much profit from it. The
EvofLlcr9YJ, Kat ypafLfLacrL 1'oT<; WU1'WV anoSelKvvcr9at aKpL- greatest lords of the royal house are appointed guardians of
~Ecr1'a1'a S~ 1'OV 1'00 MeXfLE1'ew VOfLov. TDV Se 1'a<pov 1YJ- this tomb. Egypt extends from the Lighthouse of Alexan-
croo Ka1'it ~V I1aAaLcr1'lvYJv Ka1'EXOV1'e<; fLEya 1'e ano<pE- dria" to the land of the Ituraeans,72 a distance of about [ ...}
stades. The Nile, the river of Egypt, flows northward and
POV1'at KepSo<;, Kat apXOV1'e<; fLEYLcr1'OL S~ 1'00 ~acrLAEW<;
empties into the sea at Alexandria in Egypt. Here begins
O"(KOU E<; <pUAaK~V 1'00 cr~fLa1'o<; Ka9lmav1'aL. L\.L~KeL Se
Palestine, which extends until Koile Syria. The tomb of the
A"Lyun1'o<; anD <Dapou 'til<; hle;avSpela<; ~me 'houpalav
Lord Jesus is there, at the city ofJerusalem which has been
xwpav, Enl maSlou<; fLaALcr1'a nYJ [ ...} '0 Sf. NerAo<; 0 'til<; razed to the ground. 73 And these are the coastal lands. Koile
Alyt\n1'ou n01'afL0<; EKSLSoT E<; 9aAacrcrav npo<; ~oppav Syria extends to Arabia and the Red Sea for one traveling
avefLov Ka1'it hle;avSpetav 'til<; Alyt\n1'ou. 'Ev1'e0gev apxe- east. As one crosses the sea, the sand there greets those who
1'at ~ I1aAatcr1'lvYJ SL~Koucra ~cr1'e Enl KOrAYJV Luplav. 'Ev are traveling to the tomb of Muhammad. 74 This is the land
1'au1'n S' ~cr1'L 1'0 1'00 Kuplou 1YJcroo crfjfLa, Ka1'it 1'~V 'Iepo- of the king of Cairo, in addition to Phoenicia.
croAufLwv nOALv, ~ S~ Ka1'EcrKa1t1'at. Kal aii1'at fLev napaALat This king possesses significant sea power in terms of 42
ships and triremes, and Samos presides over them. 75 He sub-
xwpaL' KOrAYJ Se Lupla SL~Ket EntApa~lav Ent 1'~v'Epu9pitv
jected Cyprus and has sent his armies by ship against
9aAacrcrav 1'<Ii npo<; !'w lov1''' L\.La~aV1'L Se ~v 9aAacrcrav
'f'afLfL0<; 1'e SExe1'aL av1'oo 1'au"D SLanopevofLEvwv Ent 1'0
crfjfLa 1'00 MeXfLE1'ew. Ai)1'YJ S' ~ xwpa ~aO"LA£w<; 1'ii<; MEfL-
<p1O<; ovcra, npo<; Se Kat ~ <DoLvlKYJ.
42 L\.uvafLL<; SE EmL 1'<Ii ~acrLAeT 1'<liSe Ka1'it 9aAacrcrav
a;Loxpew<;, ~v9a S~ E<plcr1'a1'at LafL0<;, nAoTa n Kat
1'PL~ peL<;. Kunpov 1'e unYJyaye1'o, Kat Ent 'PoSOV Kat Kunpov

23 2 233

1tEflVal -ra n 1tAota Kal cr-rpa-rov criJv av-rois. ~la1tAEvcras Rhodes and Cyprus. Sailing across, he besieged the city,
80 nlv -rE 1tOAlV E1tOAlOPKEl, Kal 'ri]v vijcrov [I.I34} AI,.(craflE- plundered the isla~d, and attacked the walls for many days:
, I

vos 1tpocrE~aAE -rE -riii -rdXEl E1t1 ijflEpaS lKavas' Kal WS But as he was makmg no progress in taking the city, he de-
parted for home. ~ever~heless, he did eventually subject
ov80v 1tpOVXWPEl ij -rijs 1tOAEWS alpEcrlS, a1tEXWp!]crEv E1t'
Cyprus and captvre Its king before leaving. Since that time
o'(KOIJ. Tijv flEnol Kv1tpov V1t!]yayE-ro, Kal -rov -rE ~acrlAEa
Cyprus has paid a tribute to this king." But it seems th t
Kv1tpoIJ /iywv -rE 4IXE-rO' a'j>' oli 8ij-ra xpOVOIJ 'j>opov -rE this island had come under the power of this king long ag:.
a1taYEl ij Kv1tpoS -riii8E -riii ~acrlAEi. ~OKEi 80 ij vijcros aih!] When the Fre.nch came to the tomb of the God]esus, they
V1tO -r6v8E YEvEcr9m -rov ~acrlAEa -ro 1taAmov. KEA-rol 80 wS ~nslaved thIS Island and subjected it to themselves, bring-
a'j>iKono E1t1 -rb -rou 'I!]crou -rou 8eou crijfla, 80IJAwcraflEvol mg thelf fleet and significant forces. 77 The Venetians seized
nlv -rE vijcrov -rav""1v u1t!]yayono cr'j>icrl, cr-r6AOV E1tayoflE- the ~rospero~s city of Limassol and held it for a long time,
VOL Kal 8vvafllv a~loxpEWV. 'Hl Kal 'EvE-rol Afla90uv 1tOAlV making It theIr base for trade with Egypt. Then, the kings of
Ev8aiflova XElpwcraflEvOl E1t1 crIJXVOV -rlva Xp6vov 8laKa-r- the French reIgned over this island. Nevertheless, the Arabs
also h~ld part of this island and the city called Famagusta.
Eixov, OPfl!]nlPLOV -rijs 1tpbS A'(YIJ1t-rov Efl1tOp iaS av-rwv.
The ~g of Cairo and Egypt has fought wars against those
Kal -ro EnEu9Ev emo KEA-rWV ~aCJ"lAEis 8laYEv6flEVOl ~acrl­
m Arabia and North Africa over their differences regarding
AEVOIJcrlV EV -rav-rn -eft vijcr<p. N Eflov-rm flEV-rOl Kal ol J\pa- borders; he has fought over other places but especially over
~ES flEpOS -rl -rijs vijcrOIJ -rav""1S Kal 1tOAlV KaAOIJflEV!]V Aleppo. Aleppo is his large and prosperous city in Asia and a
AflfloxwC1"'IJv. Tiii flev oliv ~acrlAEt MEfl'j>lOS -rE Kal At- trading center for Asia, Egypt, and Arabia. The land breeds
yU1t-rOIJ 1tOAEflOS -rE Ecr-rl1tpOS -rovS EV -rft Apa~tq Kal 1tp bS noble horses. Egypt and the land toward North Africa also
-rODS 1mb -rijs Al~V!]S, 8la'j>EpoflEVOIJS 1tEpl yijs opwv, fla- seem to produce good horses and camels.
XEcraflEv<p -ra -rE /iAAa Kal 8ij 8la XaAE1tLOv. XaA£1tLOV 80 Timur subjected the city of Aleppo when he marched 43
1tOAlS av-rou EV -eft Acriq flEyaA!] -rE Ka\ Ev8aiflwv, Kal Eft- agalllst Damascus," and he conquered a large part of the
land of Kolle Syria, but then he departed for the following
1topiav 1tapExoflEV!] -rijs n Acrias Kal AtyU1t-roIJ Ka\
Apa~[as. "I1t1tOIJS 80 EK'j>EPEl ij xwpa ail-r!] YEwa[oIJS. ~o­
KEi 8, Kal ~ -rE A'(YIJ1t-rOS Kal ij 1tpbS Al~V!]V xwpa 'j>EPElV
l1t1tOIJS -rE aya90DS Kal KaflijAOIJS·
43 Tijv flEV-rOl XaAE1ti!]v 1tOAlV TEflijP!]S, O-rE 8ij Kal E1tl
[I.I35} ~aflaCJ"Kbv Ecr-rpa-rEVE-ro, U1t!]yayE-ro, Ka\ KOLA!]S
LIJp[as OUK OAiYl]v xwpav Ka-racr-rpEvaflEVOS a1tEXWPEl 8l'

234 235

r~as~n. The king of Khat ai, who is known as the "king of the
ah:lav -r~voe. '0 yap -rOL -rije; Xa-rciLrje; ~a(nAeUe; -rwv tvvta
nine and IS also the king of India, crossed the Araxes and
KaA01)ftevO e;, oli-roe; 0' CtV Kat" -ri'je; 'Ivolae; ~acrLAeue;, oLa~ae;
raided Timur's land. He seized as many captives as he could
-rOY ApaSt]v ~v -re xwpav t1ttopafte -rou TqL~pew, Kat and departed, returning home.'9 He led an army, it is said,
avopa1tooa we; 1tAelcr-ra a1taywv 4lXe-ro alieLe; t1t' O'{KOO that was one hundred and forty times ten thousand strong.
Ct1tOXWpwv. "Hyaye oe cr-rpa-rov, Atye-raL, te; -recrcrapa- Tlmur advanced as quickly as possible, abandoning that
Kov-ra Kat f-Ka-rov ftOpLaoae;. Teft~pt]e; oe we; ~Aaove -r~v land and hurrying to defend his territories that bordered on
-raXlcr-rt]v, -ri'je; ftev xwpae; u'l>LEftevOe;, -r4' Oe -raxeL E1teLyofte- the land of the Khataians. Coming to the kingdoms of the
VOe; OLa'llOAaSaL, ocra -re ~v au-r4' "ftopouv-ra, ~v Xa-rcilwv Persians and the Kadousioi, he was not in time to catch the
xwpav, Kat EV -rfi I1epcrwv aVeLe; Kat Kaooocrlwv apxfi OUK king. At that point he sent an envoy and made a treaty, be-
cause he Intended to march against Bayezid, the son of Mu-
"cpet] Ka-raAa~wv -rOY ~a<1LAEa. 'Ev-reueev OLa1tpecr~eocra­
rad. So he made a treaty, whose terms were that a substantial
ftevoe;, <11tovoae; -re t1tOL~cra-ro, ev v4' "Xwv E1tt I1aLa~~-rt]v
tribute would be paid on behalf of the land of the Massage-
-rOY Aftoopa-rew cr-rpa-reuecreaL. 'E1tOL~cra-ro ovv cr1tovoae;,
tai, which he had conquered.
ECP' 4> a1tayeLv cpopov lKavov {mep -ri'je; -rwv Macrcraye-rwv Whe~ he had made a treaty and peace with this king, he 44
xwpae;, ijv Ka-racr-rpe'!taftevoe; elXev . became Involved in the matter concerning the rulers of the
44 ne; Oe 1tpOe; -rou-rov cr1tovoae; -re E1tOL~cra-ro Kat etp~vt]v, Turks from Asia Minor who had come to him, and also the
Sovt]vexet] au-r4' -ra Ee; -roue; a1to -rije; Ka-rw Acrlae; TOUpKWV business of Melitene, which had been besieged by Bayezid. 80
ijyeftovae; acpIXeal -re 1tap' Eao-rov, Kat -ra 1tept -r~v MeAL- He prepared a huge army and advanced to Sebasteia, a pros-
~vt]v. 'E1tOALOpK~crav-ro -rau-rt]v -r<li I1aLa~~'L1l' I1apa<1Keo- perous city in Kappadokia. It seems that this city had been
acraftevoe; Oe cr-rpa-rov ftEYLcr-rOV ~Aaovev E1tt Le~acr-reLav, the royal court of the previous sultan of the Turks, and it was
from this city that the Turks had set out in the past to sub-
1tOALV -ri'je; Ka1t1taOOKlae; eu8alftova. L'>.oKel 8e av-rt] ij 1tOALe;
Ject much of Asia. 81 With large forces, they had raided in
~acro..eLa yevEcreaL -rou 1tpo-repov ~acrLAEwe; [I.I36} TOUpKWV,
Asia as far as the Hellespont and the land across from Byz-
Kat a1to -rau-rt]e; 6pftWftEVOOe; -roue; TOUpKOOe; -ro 1taAaLOV antLOn. When Timur arrived, he besieged the city. Bayezid
xwpav tJ1taY0ftevooe; -ri'je; -re Acr(ae; OUK OA(Yt]V, Ee; -rOV'EA- was absent at that time, campaigning against Lebadeia in
A~cr1tOV-rov -re Kat av-rLKpu Bo~av-rloo xwpav -r~v te; ~v Boiotia and against the Peloponnese and Thessaly. He had
Acrlav tm8paftelv xeLpt 1tOAAfi acpLKoftevOOe;. Teft~pt]e; ftev
iii ovv we; acplKe-ro, E1tOALOpKeL -r~v 1tOALV' I1aLa~~-rt]e; 8e a1tijv
-ro-re, E1tt Ae~a8eLav -ri'je; BOLw-rlae; Kat e1tt I1eA01tOvvt]crov


Kat EkC1;aA[av <1't-pa't'wOfleVO<;. Ka't'EAlTCe S1: ev 'tfi Le~a­ left the army of Asia in Sebasteia with his son Ertogrul; hav-
<1't'elq <1't'pa't'ov 't'e 't'OV tij<; l\<1[a<; Kat1taiSa 'Op80ypoUA'lV' ing made that arrangement, he himself was campaigning in
Kat 't'au't'n Ka't'a<1't''l<1afleVO<; au't'o<; flev E1t! IIeA01tOVV'l<10V the Peloponnese. 82 When Bayezid learned that Timur had
E<1't'pa't'eUe't'O. "Ev8a S~ 1tv80flEV<!', w<; Tefl~p'l<; EAMa<; 1t0- advanced to Sebasteia and was besieging it, he retreated and
marched back, and so he did not manage to invade the Pelo-
ALOpKO['l Le~a<1't'eLaV, ~AavVe 't'it Efl1taALV yevofleVO<;, Ka!
OUK E;eyeVe't'O au't'4i E<1~aA8V E<; tijv IIeA01tOVV'l<10V.
As Bayezid was hnrrying to Asia he learned that the city 45
45 'E1teLYOfleVO<; Se 't'~V e1tt tijv l\<1[av 1tOpelav E1tU8e-r0 had been taken and that Timur had taken captives and left
itAwVa[ 't'e tijv 1tOALV Kat avSpa1toSL<1afleVOV 0'lXe<18aL ali8L<; again to go back to Kherie. Timur had attacked it for many
it1tLOV't'a E1tt Xep['l<;' D<; yitp S~ 1tpO<1E~aAeV E1t! ~fltpa<; days, but the people of the city had repelled his army. He
[Kava<;, O[ ClTCO tij<; 1tOAeW<; E;eKpOU<1av-ro 't'OV Tefl~peW had with him about eight thousand sappers who dug under-
<1't'pa't'ov. 'Ev-rau8a EXWV fle8' eav't'ou OpVK't'it<; E<; OK't'a- ground tunnels that led up to the walls of the city on all
KL<1XLA[OV<; 't'OV apL8flov, iJ1twpV<1<10V ,mo tijv nv opuYfla't'a sides. Some of the people inside realized this and dug coun-
<ptpov't'a E<; 't'o 't'8X0<; tij<; 1tOAeW<; it1tav't'aXfj. Kat £vLa fl1:v tertunnels and themselves repelled the enemy. But Timur
oi tij<; 1tOAeW<; n<180v't'o 't'e, Kat av't'0pu<1<10V't't:<; Kat au't'ot had completed more, given that he had a larger workforce.
So, when the walls had been undermined and were propped
E;eKpOU<1av't'o' 't'it S1: 1tAtw ~VUe't'O au't'4i Ii't'e 1tOAVXeLp[q
up on wooden bearns, they set fire to these and the walls col-
Epya~ofltvwv. D<; S~ ~S'l 't'it 't'elm OpWPVK't'O Ka! E1tt ;u- lapsed of their own accord. At that point Timur's soldiers at-
AwV ~S'l ~v fle't'Ewpa, 1tiip tVLEV't'e<; Ka't'e~A~8'l 't'e 't'it 't'elm tacked the city, stormed it, and thus captured it. 83
au't'ofla't'a, Kat {I.I37} t1tL1te<10V't'e<; Ev't'au8a oi 't'ou Tefl~peW On King Timur's orders, the men were killed as soon as 46
<1't'pa't'Lw't'aL ei<1t1tL1t't'OV E<; tijv 1tOALV, Kat oihw Ka't'e<1Xov the city was taken. The women and children of the city were
autijv. gathered in one place and the cavalry were let loose to cut
'I 46 Ka! 't'oil<; fl1:v livSpa<;, 1tapeyyv~<1av-ro<; 't'ou ~a<1LAtw<;, them down, so that not one person from this city survived-

aU't'[Ka CAOV't'e<; tijv 1tOALV SLexp~<1av't'o' 1taiSa<; Se Ka! yv- not a man, woman, or child: everyone in this city died in a
vaiKa<; 't'~<; 1tOAeW<; E<; Eva xwpov ityaywv tijv 't'e 'l1t1tOV most pitiable way. It is said that its population was about
J i~

E1ta<peL<; Ka't'eXp~<1a't'o, W<1't'e fl'lStva 't'WV tij<; 1tOAeW<;, fl~'t't:

one hundred and twenty thousand. It is also said that he
found in this city a multitude of people suffering from
'I livSpa, fl~'t'e yvvaiKa, fl~'t't: 1taiSa, 1tepLyeVE<18aL, OlK't'pO-

't'a't'a S1: ;Vfl1tav't'wv 't'WV EV'tfi 1tOAeL 8avov't'wv. Atye-raL Se

yeV.t<r8aL av8pw1tov<; afl<P! 't'it<; SWSeKa flvpLaSa<;. IIpo<; S1:
Kat tAe<paV't'Lwv-rwv EV 't'au't'n 'tfi 1tOAeL 1tAfj80<; eVpafleVOV


leprosy and he ordered them to be killed. In fact, wherever

AEynm KeAeU<1al aveAeTv. Tou'tou, flev ouv, i"ttl 11<1ge'to
he discovered such people he would not permit them to go
neplov'ta" OUKE'tl e'ia 1;wv'ta, neplVO<1'telV, aAI( w, 11<1ge't0,
on living. As soon he discovered them he would take their
'tOU 1;ijv am'JAAanev, ou 9Efll, elVal <pa<1Kwv el, 'tOlau'tl]v lives, saying that it was not right for people who had fallen
yevoflEvoU, wXl]v nepllEVal 'tou, 'te Aomou, 'tWV av9pwnwv into such circumstances to go about causing the death of
8la<p9eipov'ta, Kal au'tou, W, 'ta nOAAa napanaLov'ta,. even more people, and that they were crazy, for the most
AEye'tal 8e 'tau'tl], 'tij, nOAew, TI]V <1ufI<popav unep- part. It is said that the misfortune suffered by this city sur-
~aA£<19al 'ta, nwno'te yevoflEva, 'twv nOAewv ;ufI<popa,. passed any misfortune that any city has ever experienced.
47 '0 p90YPOUAI]V 8e 'tOY naI8a I1ala1;~'tfw <1UAAa~WV Timur captured Ertogrul, the son of Bayezid, alive and 47
1;wv'ta enl ijflEpa, neplijye, fle'ta 8e 'tau'ta aVeAelV eKEAW<1e. led him around for some days, but afterward he ordered his
execution. 84 When Bayezid, shortly afterward, learned of
I1ala1;~'tI], 8e w, eJt{)9e-ro EKa<1'ta fld ou nOAu, ihe 8ij ij
each of these events-that the city had been taken and de-
nOAl, aAOU<1a 8lf<p9apl], Kal 6 naT, au'tou fle't' ou nOAu
stroyed and that his son had been killed shortly afterward
~yyeA'to 'teAeu'tij<1al uno ~a<1lAEW, Tefl~pew, ;ufl<p0P~ 'te on the orders of King Timur-he regarded them as the
expij'tO w, flaAl<1'ta Kal ev nEv9fl ijv. D.la~a, 'te yap 8ij e, greatest calamity and was stricken with grie£ He crossed
TI]v]\.<1Lav, W, ~O<1KOV 'tlva ewpaKfl aUAouv'ta, AEye'tal 8ij over into Asia, and there he saw a certain shepherd playing
elnelv, [I.I38} em8I]AW<1av'ta 'to na90, au'tQ, olov ijv, his pipes, and reportedly said something like this that re-
"aUAel 8ij <i>8~v, ou'te Le~a<1'tflav CmWAe<1eV, ou'te naI8a vealed his sorrow: "He is playing the pipes, having lost nei-
'Op90ypOUAI]V." 'Bv yap s~, W, AEye'tal, 'Op90ypOUAI], ther Sebasteia nor his son Ertogrul." For it is said that
'twv ijALKwv 'ta nav'ta Kpa'tl<1'tO" Kal e;I]~<1a<19al enl . Ertogrul was the most powerful among his peers and capa-
ble of waging wars. That is why Bayezid had left him in Asia
nOAeflov [Kavo,' 810 8ij Kal ev 'tft ]\.<1L<;I Ka'teAmev au'tov,
and entrusted his realm to him, because he thought that he
enl'tpEta , 'tijv apxijv au'tQ, 80KoLI] alhQ e, 'to enl'tl]-
would manage it in the most efficient way. That is what hap-
8flo'ta'tov Ka9 l<1'taVal. Ka'ta flev oily TI]v e, TI]v Le~a<1'tflaV pened during Timur's attack on Sebasteia.
1'Aa<1lV Tefl~pew 'to<1ao'ta eyEve'to. It was shortly afterward that the embassy came to Baye- 48
Me't' ou nOAu 8e Kal ij npe<1~eia e<pLKe'to napa 'tOY zid the Hurricane, telling him to return the land to the rul-
AaLAana I1ala1;~'tl]v, Kal eKEAW<1eV au'tov an0800val 'te ers; to supply the two thousand camel-loads of butter; the
'tijv Xwpav 'tol, ijyeflO<1', Kal 'ta, 'te 8l<1XlALa, Kafl~Aou, two thousand tents, which the nomads in Asia typically use;
~ouwpou, Kal <1Kl]va, 8ij 8l<1XlALa" aT, elW9a<1lV o[ vOfla- that Timur should be commemorated as king in the shrines
Se, ava 'tijv ]\.<1Lav Xpij<19al, Kal ev 'toT, vaoT, 'toT, uno TI]v under Bayezid's authority; and that he should use the
I1ala1;~'tew apxijv flvl]floveue<19al au'tov W, ~a<1lAEa, Kal

coinage ofKingTimur throughout his realm, and abolish his

vo~l<Y~a-r' 8£ XPii<YSa, -r<ji ~a"'A£w<; TE~~P'l e<; ""fll'a<yav
own coins. 85 In addition, the envoys demanded that one of
-ri]v apmv au-roU, KaSEAbV-ra -ro eao-rou vo~,<Y~a. Ilpo<; 8£
his sons attend the Porte of Timur. If he were to do these
Kat -rwv l'al8wv au-rou lva n-rouv-ro l'apaylvE<YSa, e<; -ra<;
things, he would be a friend and ally of King Timur, but ifhe
TE~~PEW Supa<;. Kal ijv-rau-ra 1'0 'ii, <pLAov -rE Kat e1tl-r~8ELOV were not to do them, then King Timur would treat him as an
{<YE<YSa, TEfl~PEW ~M'Aew<;' ijv 8£ ~~ 1'0l~"l1, XPii<YSa, enemy. It was at this point, it is said, that Bayezid grew an-
au-r<ji w<; l'OAE~l4' ~M'Aea TE~~P'lV. 'II, 8e 8~ AtyE-rat So- gry and spoke the words that I mentioned earlier 86 that if
~wSev-ra -rov Ilata~~'t"1']v eKelVO 8~ -ro £1'0<; etl'elV, 0 Kat he did not come and attack him, then he should ~enounce
l'pO-rEpOV ~o, 8E8~Aw-ra" w<; ijv ~~ el"Ka-ra~a<; a<plKo,-rO his wife three times and then take her back again. These
el" au-rov, -ri]v yovaTKa au-rou e<; -rpl<; al'ol'Eflta~Evov words would bring great shame upon anyone to whom they
{L I 39} '!1tOAa~ETv auS,<;· 0 8~ al<1)(6v'lv <pepE' ~EyaA'lv,
are spoken.
Citing Bayezid's words that his envoys had reported back 49
etpii<YSat o-r4'ouv -ro {l'o<; -rou-ro.
to him, Timur no longer delayed his advance, and immedi-
49 IlpoSe~Evo<; ~ev ouv -ra l'apa -rij<; l'pE<Y~ela<; au-roii -ro
at.elY prepared an army of the nomadic Skythians who were
Ila,a~~-rEw £1'0<; 6 TE~~p'l<; oUKe-r, e<; ava~oA~v el'o'ET-ro
with him and the Chaghadai, a total, they say, of eight hun-
-ri]v i:'Aa<Y,v, Kat au-rlKa l'apa(J"1Ceoa<Ya~Evo<; <Y't"pa-rov -rov -rE dred thousand men. He advanced against Bayezid maki
l'ap' eao-r<ji LKOSWV -rwv vo~a8wv Kal T~axa-rat8wv, e<; h' h ' ng
~s way trough Phrygia and Lydia. As Bayezid had bound
6y80~Kov-ra, w<; AeYE-ra" ~op,a8a<;, ijAaovEv el'l Ila,- Tlmur by oath to come against him as fully prepared as he
a~~-r'lv 8,a <l>poyla<; -rE Kat A08la<; -ri]v l'opelav l'O'01J~E­ might be,87 he assembled the largest army possible includ-
vo<;. Ila,a~~'t"1']<; 8e w<; e;opKw<Ya<; TE~~P'lV, ijv ~~ w<; ing his Serb bodyguards, who were about ten thousand
~8vva-ro Kpa-r,<Y-ra l'apE(J"1Ceoa<Y~evo<; e1tl'Jet, <YovayElpa<; stron~. He took great pride in them because they were brave
n:-en III whatever circumstance they found themselves. He
<Y't"pa-rov w<; ~8vva-ro ~ey'<Y't"ov, <YO~l'apaAa~wv Kal -rou<;
cited Alexander, the son of Philip, who took the Macedo-
Tp,~aAAou<; au-rou 80po<popoo<;, e<; ~oploo<; ~aA'<Y't"a 1'00
nians with him and crossed over into Asia, blaming Darius
yEvo~evoo<; -rov-roo<;, e<p' oT<; 8£ ~eya e<ppovE' w<;, 01'0' {III} for Xerxes's war against the Greeks. Alexander de-
l'apa-royxavOlEv, av8pwv ayaSwv yEvo~evwv, Kal l'pO- feated him in an attack with a smaller army, subjected Asi
Se~vo<; w<; hle;av8po<; 6 <l>'Al1t1toO -rou<; MaKE8ova<; to himself, and even reached the Hyphasis River in Asia. S;
EXWV ~ES' eao-rou Kat e<; -ri]v l\<Ylav 8,a~a<;, AapETov
ah'MaflEvo<; -rij<; e<; -rou<; "EAA'lva<; Bep;Ew eAMEw<;, -r<ji
eao-rou eAa<Y<YOV' 8~ <Y-rpa-r<ji el"WV Ka't"E<Y-rpeta-ro, Kat -ri]v
l\<Ylav v<p' av-r<ji el'o,~<Ya-ro, £<Y-rE el't "Y <pa<Y,v -rli<; l\<Yla<;


Bayezid too now believed that by attacking with his own

eA'lAaKE1' E:n:lo"rEUE 8e Kal airros 't'<\J tau't'o;; O"t:pa't'EUf'a't'l
army he would quickly destroy Timur's kingdom and go as
e'mwv KaSalpYj(J'£lV 't'axi> 1tavu TI]V TEf'YjpEw ~a(YlA£lav Kat far as the Indians.
e1t1 'lv8ous acplK£O'Sal. Taking the army ofAsia and Europe, then, which was one 50
50 I1apaAa~wv 8f] OUV 't'0 't'E Eupw1t'JS Kal l\O'las O''t'pa- hundred and twenty thousand strong, Bayezid marched
't'EUf'a, es 8w8EKa f'upla8as, 'l£'t'o <'>f'00'£ E:n:t 't'OV [ LI 4 0 } against Timur, wanting to catch him encamped in the land
T£f'YjP'lv, cpS~val all't'OV ~OUAOf'£VOS EV 't'fi xwpq ~O"t:p~'t'o- by the Euphrates, and intending to engage King Timur in
1t£8EUf'tvov 1tpOS 't'<\J Eucppa't'f], EV V<\J EXWV ~aO'lAEl TEf''lP!l battle. But Timur marched against him, advancing through
Phrygia, Meanwhile, Bayezid was hurrying through Kappa-
f'axtO'aO'Sat, TEf'Yjp'lS 8£ E1tt1E181a <1Jpuylas eAa~vwv, ~~l­
dokia, wanting to catch him by the Euphrates, in the land
a~Yj't''lS 8£ 81a 't'~S Ka1t:n:a801das E:n:£lyE't'o, cpS'lVat, au't'ov
of the Armenians, When he reached the land of the Arme-
:n:poS't'<\J Eucppa't'f] Ka't'a 't'f]v l\pf'Evlwv xwpav ~OUA0f'EVOS·
nians, he learned that Timur had already entered his own
'.OS 8£ ev 't'fi l\pf'Evlwv YEVOf'EVOS XWP<;l E1tUSE't'O TEf'Yjp'lv territories, advancing through Phrygia, and so he turned
~8'l EV 't'fi eau't'o;; avaO"t:pecpEO'Sat xwpq, 81a <1Jpuylas back and headed straight for Phrygia, as he learned that
EAaO'av't'a, 't'a Ef':n:aAlv YEVOf'EVOS E:n:OPEUE't'O EUSU <1Jpuylas, Timur was now there, As Bayezid was hastening, the pace
WS 8f] Kat TEf'Yjp'lV au't'ov lEO'Sal E1tUVSavE't'o, Taxi> 8£ was fast and his armies covered a great distance in a short
E:n:E1YOf'tvwv Yjvu£'t'o <'> 8pof'oS, a,O''t'E 't'a O''t'pa't'Euf'a't'a time, so that they became exhausted and unhappy with him,
au't'o;; :n:OAAf]V 81avuO'av't'a :n:op£lav 81' 6Alyou EKaf'Vt 't'£ They resented the fact that he was making bad use of his fa-
mous daring, His armies were also angry and losing patience
XaA£1tWS cptpov't'a, Kat ~XS£'t'O au't'<\J, iS~l f'~ E~ 8eov't'~
with him because he allowed no one in the army to take
EXpYj<1a't'o 't'fi eau't'o;; 't'OAf'<;I. 3uvt~atV~ 8E K~l ~<!' f''l8E~1
wheat and barley at Pronsa, even though it was time to fod-
E1tl't'pt:n:E1V't'oii <1't'pa't'oii e:n:t :n:upOUS Kat KP1S~S £1tt I1p,ou~
der the horses. For no one was allowed to go into the town
O"JS, a,pa f]v :n:apa~aAAElv 't'ov l1t1tOV, XaAE:n:alVElv 't'£ au't'~ for wheat; whomever he caught going in he punished,
't'a <1't'pa't'EUf'a't'a Kal a:n:ayop£UE1V, l\:n:Elp1']'t'at yap f'1']8EVl It is said that while Bayezid was encamped in Kappado- 5I
E!;ElVat ds :n:upouS d<11tVat· iSv 't'lva 8' C!V Aa~ol d<1EASov't'a, kia a very violent wind blew on his army, and it ripped up
e't'lf'wpEl't'O. the tents, lifted them away into the air, and dragged them
5' AtyE't'at 8£ au't'<\J EO"t:pa't'o:n:E8EUf'ev<!, 1tEpl Ka1t1ta8oKlav over a great distance, This was construed by the army as a
jl 1tv£u~a ~laL6-ra-rov, e1tl1tV£uO"av -r4> O'-rpa-r£u~a-rl av-rou, bad omen for him. After that, when he was marching in
't'as 't'E <1K1']vas a:n:£vEYKaf'EVOV E1t1 1tOAU a:n:OO'1taO'at Kat
.11 1

f'£'t'£wpOUS :n:Ol1']<1af'EVOV Ka't'aAa~ElV, Kal 't'oii't'~ Ka~' au't'oii

y£vt<1Sat olwvov £is 't'a <1't'pa't'£uf'a't'a, ME't'a 8E [ LI 4I}

2 45

'mih-a W, a1tEAaUVOV,1 E1tt '~V <l>puyfav Ea-K~VW'O, '~V -re Phrygia he made camp, but his tent collapsed of its own ac-
O'Kl']V~V au,ou E, 'Pel, a-ua--rl]a-aflevou, -roi>, afl<p' au-rl>v cord on three boys who were part of his entourage; and this
1taTSa, au-r0fla-rov 1tEa-OUa-aV, El-rE -rij, yij, fI~ SuvaflEVI], happened either because the ground could not hold down
Ka-rEXElV ,a rrxolv[a -rij, a-KI]V*, El-rE Kat itAAn nn ;UVE~I] the tent ropes or for some other reason. Some Greeks who
-rou-ro' -rft -rE Yii a1tElpija-9al au-rQ, fI~ E1tl~a[VElV -rij, were there with him, or some Serbs, took this as an omen
<l>puy[a" 'EAA~VWV -rE -rIVE, av-rou 1tapaYEvoflEVOl ~ Tpl- that the earth itself was preventing him from setting foot in
~aAAWV o[WV[Sov-ro. MyE-ral flev ovv Kat1tptv ~ E1tt -rijv
Phrygia. It is said also that, before he crossed over into Asia,
Ali, the son of Hayreddin, a man second to none in pru-
l\a-[av Sla~ijVat, l\A[I]V -rOY Xapa-r[VEW 1taTSa, itvSpa S~
dence among his retinue,88 tried to persuade him not to
-rwv 1tap' eau-rQ -ra E, a-VVEa-lV oVSEVI>, AEl1t0flEVOV, XPI]-
march against Timur and to find the safest way that he could
fla-r[a-at av,Q fI~ rr-rpa-reuEa-9al E1tt TEfI~ PI]V, ,P01t'!' Se ih,!, to settle his differences with Timur. Ali asked to be sent
Svval,o ampaAE(J',a,,!, SlaAuEa-9al av,Q -rijv 1tpl>, TEfI~PI]V himself and promised to reconcile him with King Timur on
Sla<popav. 'EKeAWE Se eau,ov 1tEfl1tElV, Kat U1tlOXVEl,O whatever terms he wanted. But Bayezid responded by saying
SlaAAa;al -re av,Q ~aa-lAea TEfI~ PI]V, t'i ltv av,o, ~OUAOl-rO. that it was not by relying on Ali's prudence that he had ar-
Tov Se U1tOAa~ov-ra <pavat, w, ou -rft EKElVOU a-uvea-El rived at such great prosperity and had conquered so many
1tlrr-rEUWV a<p[Kol,O E1tt fleya EUSatflov[a" ~yEflova, ,oa-- rulers, but rather through his own boldness and bravery. He
ou,ou, Ka,arr-rpE'itaflEvov, aAAa 'n eau,ou Opflfi -re Kat said that many of the kings who had entrusted themselves
to chance and daring had accomplishments to show for it,
YEVVatO'I],I' -rUxn Se El1tElV Kat ,OAfln E1tl,pa1t0flEVOU,
even when they lacked great prudence, but those who
,wv ~aa-lAtwv 1tOAAOU" Kat S[xa a-uvea-EW, flEyaAI]" E1tl-
staked everyrhing on prudence had been shamefully de-
Sd;aa-9at epya, O'VVEa-El Se ,I> 1taV e1tl-rpE'itav-ra, a'(rrxlrr-ra stroyed.
a1tOAEa-9al. After that, when he was in Armenian territory in his 52
52 METa Se ,au,a, W, EV -rft l\PflEV[WV eyevETo E1tt TEfI~PI]V march against Timur, Bayezid was deliberating on how best
rr-rpa'WOflEVO" E~OUAEUETO W, S~ Kpa,la--ra -rijv flaXl]v to fight the battle. He summoned his leading men and con-
1tOl~a-at,O. METa1tEfI'itaflEvo, Se ,oi>, ap[a-,ou, E, ~OUA~V vened a council. Some of them had different opinions, and it
Ka9frr-ra,0. Ka[ nvwv YEvoflEvWV E1t' afl<po-repa -raT, is said that ibralrim, the son ofAli and a man who was highly
yvwflat" AeyETat IIpa:lfll]v [I.I42} ,oV l\A[EW, fleYla-,OV S~ influential with Bayezid,89 gave the following advice: "0 sul-
1tapa ,Q IIataS~<n SuvaflEvov, ~OUAEuov,a Ae;at ,0IaSE. tan, you are preparing to march against men who are said by
all to be skilled in military matters, by all, certainly, who
"U ~aa-lAEu, e1t' ltvSpa, 1tapaO'KEUasn rr-rpa-rEUEa-9at ,a-re
1toAeflla AEyoflEVOU, elVat aya90i>, U1tO 1tav,WV, Oa-Ol S~


have made trial of their determination and valor. I myself

T~<; TE yvwfI'1<; aUTWV Kal apET~<; £7tElpa<1aVTO. TOUTOl<;
have spoken with them many times and have ascertained
eyw d<; AOyOV<; W<; Ta nOAAa a<plKofl'1V, env90fl'1v -n'jv TE
that their valor is all that it is made out to be; moreover, we
apE-n'jV Elvat naVTO<; AOYOV a;lav, Kal nA~90<; S~ nOA- have been informed that Timur's army is many times larger
AanAa<1lOV TOU ~flETepOV <1TpaTEUflaTO<; a1"1"tAAETal ~fllv than ours. Thus, for both these reasons, I would not advise
Elvat TO TEflf]pEW <1TpaTWfla· wmE KaT' afl<pw S~ TOUTW that we place our hopes in our army attackingTimur's camp.
oih' ltv <1VfI~OVAEU<1alfll 9appouvTa Tiii ~flETtp<p mpaTiii Even if we should win the battle, we will derive no benefit
[tval OflO<1E E<; TO TEflf]pEW mpaTonESov. 'AAA: ouStv, d whatsoever. If we were about to fight having invaded their
flaXE<1aflEVOl nEplYEvolflE9a, e'i'1 ltv f]fllv iJ<pEAO<; OT<pOUV. land, then there would be every good reason for doing so, as
El fib yap e<; ~v EKdvwv e<1~aAAOVTE<; EflaxoflE9a, ~V ltv we would be contesting his realm and his power. But now,
even if it comes to a battle, there is nothing in it for us. Sup-
OflOU ;UflnaVTa aya9a, nEpl TE ~<; apx~<; eKdvov aywvl~E­
pose that-and I pray this does not happen-it goes against
::1 <19al Kal nEpl T~<; SvvaflEW<;. Nuv Se Kal ~V d<; flaX'lV
us: consider, 0 sultan, what the outcome of this will be for
,I, Ka9l<1TaflEVOl flaXE<1WflE9a, ouSev Sla TOUTO f]fliV ~<1Tal.
" you, when you lose your power together with your throne.
"Hv St, onEp anEuxoflat, E<; Touvav-rlov ~fllv Ta npaYflaTa Anyway, you are not even fighting him on equal terms. I am
nEpl<1Tfi, <1KOnEl Sf], W ~a<1lAEU, onolov ano~fJ<1ETal <10l sure that King Timur, if he is sensible, will not commit his
imo TOUTOV, Tf]V TE Suvafllv afla Ka1 ~a<1lAdav ano~aAOVTl. entire army to the battle, but he will test our strength by di-
3vfl~alvEl S~ ouv <10l fI~ anD TOU t<10V aywvl~E<19at <101 viding his armies into large contingents. Then, even if we
KaKdv<p. lld90flat Se fI'1Se O"tlflnav-rl Tiii <1TpaTEUflaTl manage to overcome the one contingent that comes against
TEflfJp'1v ~a(1lAta, d <1w<ppOVEl, ~v flaX'1v nOlf]<1a<19at, us, he will quickly deploy the next one, and in that way will
aAA: E<; flolpa<; [Kava<; SlEAOflEVO<; aUTou Ta {LI43} <1Tpa- wear us down as we tire from fighting them. For his army is
not the sort that is routed and flees when it comes to blows.
TEuflaTa SlanElpii<19al f]flwv· Kal d flev Tfi fill} flolp"
Even in flight it is better than ours, for I have learned that
EvaVTla tovTE<; nEplYEvoLflE9a, Tfi hep" ai'i9l<; flET' OU nOAD
they can regroup and recover, and fight again so as to per-
XP'1<1aflEVO<;, E<; il S~ anayopEUElV ~flii<; KafloVTa<; flaxo- form great deeds. In sum, I believe that we should not at-
fltVOl<; EKdvOl<;' OU yap TOlOUTOV emlV TO eKdvov <1Tpa- tack Timur's army but follow it by traveling through the
TWfla, olov enElSav e<; XElpa<; a<pLK'1Tal, aUTLKa E<; <pv~v
TpanoflEvov otXE<19al' aAAa Ka1 ev Tfi TpOnti ~tATlOV f]fl wv ,
avaAafl~avElv TE <1<pii<; <1VVlovTa<; nvv9avoflal, Ka1 avafla-
XOfltvov<; flEyaAa anOSdKVV<19al epya. ll.oKEl oi'iv fl Ol
OflO<1E fleVTOl fI~ tE<19al en1 TO TEflfJpEW <1TpaTWfla, Sla Se


,WV opewv nopeuof'£VOU, E<p£ne0'9al, 0" EyyU,a,a ye- mountains, come as close as we can to them, and then, when
v0f'evou" Kat onOl ,e npoxwpol'l, KaKouv,a, ev f'''pel ,0 he advances, we can do damage to a part of his army. Clearly,
EKdvou O'1'p4,euf'a. 8~Aa S' av Y£VOLTO ,au,tl, w, oilTe if we operate in this way, Timur will no longer be able to
make a sudden attack, as we will be watching and following
E1tlSPOf'ft XP~O'aL" av hl ,ou Aomou E<plO'1'af't\Vwv ~f'WV
closely, nor will he be able to gather abundant supplies in the
Kat E1tlO'1tOf'£Vwv EyyUTaTa, O'LTl1;e0'9al ,e OOK av hl TOU
future so as to have adequate provisions. And then, when we
Aomou SUVaLTO lKavw" WO'Te 4noxpwVTa elVaL aUT@ Ta enter Timur's territory in pursuit of his army and he is hur-
E1tl~Sela. 'EnelSav S' tv Tft EKelVOU yevwf'e9a E1tlO'1tOf'e- rying to get his army back home and following the road that
VOL T@ Tef'~pew3 O'1'paTevf'aTl, T'lvlKauTa S~ opf'wf'£V4' leads there, we can stop him and fight in retaliation."
otKaSe '@ O'TpaTeUf'a" Kat EX0f'£V4' ,~, otKaSe oSou When Ibrahim spoke these words, the rest were swayed 53
En£XOlf'£V Te av Kat af'uVOf'eVOl f'axmalf'e9a." by his opinion and gave him their support. But Sultan Baye-
53 Tau,a einovTo, TOU I1pdff'ew, ,av"tl ETp4noVTO Kat ot zid reportedly said the following: "My men, it seems as
AOlnot ~V ¥i<pOV Tl9£f'evol. BaO'lAeiJ, Sl: I1aLa1;~T'l' A£ye- though you are afraid of their numbers; that is how I inter-
Tal einelv ,4Se. "To nA~90, eOlKev, w avSpe" n EyW
pret it. But you should know this too, that there is no safety
in large numbers where valor can be found. You know how
TEKf'alpof'aL, tif'ii, SeStTIe0'9al. 'AAA: EKelVO S~ Kat tif'el,
Xerxes, the son of Darius [I}, the king of the Persians, led
;i: to',e, W, nA~90u, otiSev tiyl£, EO'TlV, onou av ape~ napa-
vast multitudes and crossed over into Europe, but would
Y£V'lTaL. "IO'Te S~ Kat 8tp!;'lV TOV 8apelou, ~aO'lAta I1ep- quickly have died in that attack had not Mardonios sup-
O'wv, nA~9'l on6<ra ayof'evo, Ka1 E, ~v Evpwn'lv Sla~a,

ported him and protected him from that calamity as he was

napa ~paxV E1tJlEl an09avouf'evo" ei f'~ [I.I44} MapSovLO, returning to Susa.'o You know Alexander too, who fought
tinoO'1'a, E~ f'uvev aVT@ ,ov oAe9pov tnavlovTl E, ~ouO'a. against Darius [III} and stripped him of his throne and
Ka1 'AAt!;avSpov to'1'e, W, 8apel4' f'axm4f'evo, ,~v Te killed him as well. I think that one can also learn about many
~aO'lAelav a<pelAeTo Ka1 atiTov an£KTElve. KatnoAAou, Sl: of our Turks who have performed great deeds with only
smaIl numbers. We too in Europe have often gone into bat-
nu9£0'9aL oIf'aL ,WV ~f'e,£pwv TovpKwv OA[Ytl xelpt
tle and routed the most courageous races in the world, the
f'ey4Aa anoSel!;a0'9aL {pya. Ka1 ~f'el, S' EV Tft Eopw1tt1
French and the Hungarians. Therefore, do not belittle our
9af'a Sl: En1 Ta, f'4xa, tovTe, ytv'l Te hpey4f'e9a yev-
bravery or declare us to be worse and less significant than
valoTa,a S~ yevof'eva ,wv E, T~V OtKOUf'tV'lv E9vwv, KeA- the Skythians and the Chaghadai, who have never ever used
TOV, TE Ka1 I1alova,. Ka1 Sla ,auTa f'~ oihw <pauAt1;wv
~f'ii, E, yeVVaLOT'lTa KaKlou, Te Kat <pauAoTtpou, ano-
<pa[vou ~Ku9wv TE Kat T1;axa,dfwv, Ot !;l<pel ooSenwnoTe

ouSaf'U Exp~<1anO, aA): l'i 'to;CjJ f'OVCjJ Kat 6"i<1'toT<; ~aA­ swords but who only shoot with a bow and arrows, as they
AOV'te<; E<; xeTpa<; ltVaL ou nCtVV 'tl EetAOV<1I." positively do not want to come to blows."
54 Tau'ta elnov'to<; 'tou ~a<1lMw<; AEye'taL 'tOY E,ev£ lip- When the sultan had spoken these words, it is said that 54

xov-ra £'JtEl'JtELV 'TO laSE. '''E'JtEl 'TOlVUV SOKEI 0'0l, W ~aO'LAeu, the lord Ine added the following: "Since you have decided,
tnt 'tou<; nOAef"OV<; ~f'a<; Df'O<1e ltval, Wl S~ n£le6f'evo<;
o sultan, that we should go to meet the enemy, come, trust
me in this. Open your treasuries and give them to the army,
tf'ot 'tou<; 'te e'l<1avpou<; aveCjJyw<; S(SOV 'tcl> <1'tpa-reuf'a'tl
which has labored hard and is tired, so that, however things
nOV~<1anl S~ Kat KeKf''lK6'tl, w<; tcp' 0 'tl liv YEVOl'tO 'ta
turn out, we will benefit from having given your treasures to
. ··1 npCtYf'a'ta lDna, 'tou'twv S£ 'tWV <1WV e'l<1avpwv oihw Sl- the army. We will not have lost them, for if it goes well for
: 1
SOf'EVWV 'toT<; <1'tpa'tlw'tal<; EV KEpSel t<10f'EVWV ~f'Tv Kat us, we will have made a profit many times over. But if it goes
OUK anoAovf'EvWV. "Hv 'te tcp' ~f'Tv YEV'l'taL, nOAAanACt<1la well for the Persian, well, it will be better to have happened
e;of'ev KepSavoune<;· ~v 'te tnt 'tcl> I1Ep<1f1, lif'elvov OV in this way." Yet he did not persuade Bayezid by saying this,
'tau't!l yevof'evov." Tau'ta Mywv OUK Enelee I1aLas~'t'lv, as he was declaring his opinion that Bayezid's money was
EVea yvwf''lv anocp'lvaf'evo<; w<; -rft Tef'~pew <1cppayTSl actually stamped by Timur's stamp and it was for this rea-
t<1cppayl<1'taL lipa 'ta [I.I45J I1aLas~'tew xp~f'a'ta, Kat Sla son that he did not dare distribute it to the soldiers." That,
then, was the extent ofBayezid's deliberations.
'tau'ta ou 'tOAf'<i>'l au'ta SlaVelf'aL 'toT<; <1'tpa'tlw'taL<;. Tau'ta
After that Bayezid did not let up in his advance and 55
f'£v ouv E<; 'to<10U'tov t~ovAeue'to I1aLaS~'t!l·
reached Ankara, a city of Phrygia, where Timur was en-
55 Me'ta S£ 'tau'ta, w<; tAauvwv OUK av(el, acp'Ke'tO tnt
camped. 92 Timur's intention was to march against Mysia,
OUYKpav 't~<; IPpvy(a<; nOALV, EVea S~ Kat Tef'~p'l<; t<1'tpa- specifically Prousa, the royal court of Bayezid. When the
'toneSeue'to, tnt MV<1(av tv Vcl> EXWV Kat tnt I1pou<1av 'ta latter was close to Timur's army, he also encamped, at a dis-
~a<ro.ela I1aLas~'tew <1'tpa'teue<1eaL. '0,<; S£ anou tyEve'tO tance of fifteen stades from Timur's camp. Whereupon it
'tou Tef'~ pew <1'tpa'teuf'a'to<;, t<1'tpa'toneSeue'to Kat au'to<; is said that Timur, when he learned that Bayezid had come
tnt <1'taS(ov<; nev'teKa(SeKa ano 'tou Tef'~pew <1'tpa'tonE- against him and had encamped, admired his daring, the
Sov. "Evea S~ Mye'taL 'tOY Tef'~ P'lv, w<; tnlov'ta <1'tpa'to- speed with which he had reached him from Armenian terri-
neSeue<1eaL t7tVee-r0, eavf'Ct<1al -re ~v 'toAf'av au'tou, Kat tory, and how he was about to offer him open battle after
advancing with his army at such great speed. It is said that
w<; ano Apf'evlWv 'taXil napeYEve'to tn' au'tov, Kat w<; OU'tW
Timur mounted his horse and rode as close as he could to
tK 'tou tf'cpavou<; Kae,<1'ta'tO au'tcl> t<; f'CtX'lv, OU'tW S~ tv
'taxel <rUv 'tcl> <1'tpa'teuf'a'tl tAauvwv. Kat tcp' Innov S~ AEye-
'tal ava~Ctv'ta tAa<1aL 'te O'tl tyyv'tCt'tw 'tou <1'tpa'tonESov


Bayezid's camp, observed the sentries and how the tents

IIata~~-rew, Kal-ril, 'l'UAaKil<; 8wmxf'evov Kat-rO er-rpa-rone-
were pitched in the camp, and laughed, saying, "I think it is
SOV, w<; terK~VW-rO, aVaKayxaerat -re Kat dnelv' "iil;lO<; ~f'lv
rigbt to compare his daring to a hurricane, but it will not go
ou-ro<; AalAanlnapa~aAAecr8at -rij<; -rOAf'']<; au-rou, ou f'ev-
well for him here on account of his valor. He seems to be
-rOl ye apE-r~<; ~veKa xalpwv ye anaAAa~e-ral. "EolKev uno driven by a demon of war. This iII-starred man is brimming
Salf'ovo<; nOAEf'lou tAauveer8at oihw navu' f'eAayxoA~ with bile and is no longer acting sensibly." Saying this, he
yilp S~ 6 KaKoSalf'wv Kat oUKe-rl erw'!'povel." Tau-ra d- rode back to his own camp.
nov-ra tAaerat -rE tnt -ro tau-rou er-rpa-roneSov. On the next day Timur took his leading men and hav- 56
56 Kat-rfi uer-repal .. au-rov crVv -rol<; aplcr-rol<; au-rou, "xov-ra ing around {.. .] he dispatched his own son Shahrukh against
af''!'t -rfi {...J, tnl1tef''itat LaXpouxov -rov nalSa au-rou Ent Bayezid. When the latter realized that Timur's army was
IIata~~-r']v. 'Ev-rau8a w<; fier8e-ro tnlov -ro Tef'~pew er-rpa-
coming against him, he too deployed on a hill there to offer
battle. The left wing of his army was commanded by the
-rEUf'a Ka-r' au-rou, nape-ra~a-ro Kat au-ro<; tnt AO'!'OU -rlVO<;
general of the east {i.e., AsiaJ, while the right wing was com-
w<; f'axouf'EVO<;. Kat -ro euwvuf'ov au-rou f'epo<; -rou Kepa-
manded by the ruler of Europe;" in the middle, upon the
-ro<; ETXev 6 -rij<; 1'w er-rpa-r']yo<;, -ro {I.I46J Se Se~[()V dXev 6 hill, Bayezid took up his position with the janissaries and his
-r~<; Eupwn']<; ~yef'wv' tv f'eer,!, Si: tnl -rou AO'!'OU !Spu-ro retinue. Shahrukh moved against Bayezid with the Chagba-
6 IIala~~'r']<; crVv -rol<; ve~Auerl Kat -rol<; af''!'' au-rov. La- dai and the leading Persians, keeping his army in formation.
Xpoux0<; Si: i'xwv -roil<; T~axa-raiSa<; Kat -rwv IIeperwv -roil<; He did not surround them but gave them room to with-
apler-rou<; En!'Jel eruv-rnayf'ev,!, -r<i' er-rpa-reuf'a-rl tnt IIal- draw, if they wanted to, so that they did not become stron-
a~~-r']v. OU f'tv-rOl ye tKUKAOU-ro, ana tSlSou xwpav an- ger than the enemy through being surrounded, in which
ltVat, d ~OUAOlV-rO, w<; av f'~ KUKAoUf'evol er'!'wv af'dvove<; case they would be fighting for their very lives. He engaged
with the European army and battle was joined. They fought
ytVOlv-rO, nEpt 'ituX~<; aywvl~0f'evol. :Euvt~aAt -re Ka-ril-r6
for most of the day so that Bayezid's army could take no
-r* Eupwn']<; er-rpa-rEUf'a, Kat Ef'aXE-rO. Xl<; Ent nOAU f'i:v
rest. The Serbs proved their mettle there and fought wor-
-rij<; ~f'epa<; tf'axov-ro, wer-re f',]S' avanaueer8at "Xelv -ro thily. They threw themselves upon the Chaghadai, broke
IIata~~-rou cr-rpa-rEUf'a. Tpl~anot Si: Ev-rau8a avSpe<; YE- their spears, and battled hard, sticking to their task in a de-
VOf'EVOl aya80l Ef'axov-rO a~lw<; AOYOU, Kat tf'~aAov-re<; t<; termined fashion.
-rOU<; T~axa-ra'iSa<; -ra -re Sopa-ra Ka-rea~av, Kat Sl']ywvl- When Bayezid saw his European army move forward in 57
~ov-ro tv-re-raf'evw<; EXOf'EVOl -rou i'pyou. the fighting, he called back the general of Europe in the
57 IIata~~-r']<; Si: w<; twpa -ro -rij<; Eupwn']<; au-r<i' er-rpa-reuf'a
KlV']8i:v t<; npoerw Kat f'axof'evov, aVeKaAel-ro f'i:v EV -rfi

254 255

aKf'U tij, EUpWTCIJ' TOV crTpa't"l]yov, 6ppwSwv f'~ TCapacru- thick of the battle, fearing that he might be carried away, bec
pEl, KUKAW9£l1J Kal KlvSuVEu011 S,a<p9apfjvaL, f'ETETCEf'TCETO come encircled, and risk being destroyed. He sent him back
Sf: E, TeV XWpOV, E, <Iv lSPUTO T~V ap)(l)v. KatTCpw-ra f'f:V to the position to which he had originally been assigned. At
first he did not obey, as he was afraid to do so. But when the
oux Vm')KOUcrE, SES,W, TO TCpiiyf'a· f'ETa SE, ""; ETCl<pEpO-
sultan berated him and began to curse him, he recalled his
f'EvOU aUTQ TOU ~acrlAEw, Kal ~Aacr<pIJf'0UVTO" aVEKa-
formation. Thereupon the Chaghadai attacked the Turks
AElTO T~V crUV't"a~lV. 'EVTau9a Ol T~axaT«iSE, ETCElcrTCEcrOV't"E,
and overpowered them, killing many, to the point that they
ToT, TOUpKOl, ETCEKElVTO TCavu <pOVEUOVTE" E, 0 S~ E<; routed them and put them to flight. And when they turned
<pUnV KaTEcrT'1crav aUToiJ<; TpaTCfjVaL. 'EvTau9a W<; Wp- to flight with the enemy in pursuit, the army of Asia also
f'1JV't"0 E, <pUyfjV, ETClKElf'EVWV TWV TCOAEf'LWV Kat TO aTCO tij<; immediately turned and fled. When Bayezid saw this he did
Acr[a, cr-rpaTEUf'a aUTLKa E<; <punv Wpf'IJTO. Kat aUTLKa " not linger, but mounted his mare and fled as fast as he could.
IIala~~TIJ' LSwv TaUTa OUKETl EVEf'ElVEV, aXX ETCt lTCTCOV According to the instructions that King Timur had given 58
9~AElav ava~a<; E<PEUYE KaTa KpaTO<;. in advance, they did not execute any of Bayezid's soldiers,
58 'EvTau9a W, TCponpov K~puYf'a TCETCOllJf'tVOU TEf'~PEW but only stripped them bare and let them go. For it was not
permissible to enslave men of the same race. But Bayezid
[r.I47} ~acrlAtw, f'IJSEva KaTaKaLvElv TWV TOU IIaLa~~TOU,
had proclaimed the exact opposite in his camp, namely that
f'6vov Sf: aTCEKSUof'EVOl TOUTOU<; ~<p[Ecrav' ou yap E~fjV
they were to kill all whom they captured from Timur's army.
"f'0<pUAOU<; OVTa, avSpaTCoSL~Ecr9aL. IIala~~T'1<; Sf: Tavav- When Shahrukh routed Bayezid, Timur's armies, both those
TLa TOUTWV K'1pu~a, E, TO crTpaToTCESoV, W<; <Iv ltv Aa~OlEV that had fought and those that were in the camp, charged
TOU TEf'~PEW crTpaTou, TCaV't"a<; KaTaKT£lVElV. LaxPOUXo, against Bayezid's army, trying to get there first. They also
f'Ev ouv W, e-rP"'vaTO IIala~~TIJV, ~SIJ Ta cr-rpaTEUf'aTa turned to plundering the countryside, making raids as far as
TEf'~ PEW, Kat Ilcra Ef'aXOV't"O Kat ocra ETCt TOU cr-rpaTOTCESoU Ionia and the Hellespont. Many villages were taken there
E-rUyxaVEV OVTa, Wpf'IJTO ETCt TOV IIala~~TEW crTpaTov and a multitude of towns was abandoned as Timur's cavalry
<p9fjVaL ~OUA0f'EVO<;. Kat ETCl T~V xwpav e-rpaTCovTo ETCt S,- raiders poured everywhere through Bayezid's territory.
As for Bayezid himself, the following happened to him. 59
apTCayfjv, ETClSpOf'U XPlJcraf'Evol, EcrTE ~v 'IwvLav Kat E<;
TOV 'EAA~crTCOVTOV, ev9a S~ TCOAAat f'f:V KWf'aL EA~<p9IJcrav,
TCoALcrf'aTa Sf: EplJf'w91J OTl TCAElcr-ra, TWV lTCTCOSpOf'WV
TOU TEf'~PEW ava ~V xwpav TOU IIala~~TEW S,a9EOVTWV
aTCaVTaxft .
59 IIEpt Sf: Tev IIala~~TIJV TOlOVSE ~uvlJvEX91J YEVEcr9aL.

D<; yap 1ge1 ava Kpeno<; oli-ro<;, eneKelv-ro -rE Kal EnES[w- He rode with all his might and the Chaghadai went after
him and gave chase, competing with each other to catch
KOV ot T~axa-raiSe<;, af'lAAWf'eVOl eAeTv au-rov. Kal nOAV
him. He had a strong lead as he was riding a very fast horse.
f'f.V npo~Aauvev a-re Enl 1nn'l' -raxu-ra-r'l' enl<pepof'evo<;·
But later, when he reached the river, they say that the horse
f'e-ra Se, w<; Enl -rov no-raf'ov a<p(Ke-ro, TIJv 11t1tOV Aeyou'n was thirsty and desperately wanted to drink. Bayezid's hands
S'¥1cracrav Kap-repw<; EgeA~crat -rou uSa-ro<;. I1ata~~-r'1<; and feet were in pain because of gout and he was unable to
yap Evocrel -rw xeTpe Kal -rw noSE uno noSaypa<;, Kal Ka-ra- restrain the horse. Thus the horse eased up because of the
crxElV oux 010<; -rE eyevE-ro. 'Ev-rau9a S~ IJ1t0xaAacrat TIJv water and slowed down, with the result that Timur's sol-
1nnov uno -rou uSa-ro<; Kal Ael<p9~vat -rou Spof'ou, wcr-re diers apprehended Bayezid and brought him to King Timur.
-rou<; cr-rpa-rlw-ra<; TEf'~ P'1 cruAAa~eTv -rE I1ata~~-r'1v, Kal In this battle, Musa was captured along with almost all of
ayayeTv napa ~acrlAea Tef'~ P'1v. 'EaAwcrav f'f.V ouv EV -rfi Bayezid's officers,94 but they suffered no harm beyond losing
their clothing. Musa seemed to be more powerful than the
f'axn -rau-rn Kal Mw~<; Kal nav-rE<; crxESOV ot -rou I1at-
rest, for which reason he was led around with the army
a~~-rEw iipxov-rE<;' ou f'~v xaAEnov £na90v {LI48} 6-rLOUV,
and provided with necessities. Bayezid's wife was also cap-
nA~v -rwv tf'a-r(wv. Kal yap Mw~<; eSoKEl -re -rwv aAAwv
tured at Prousa, for they raided Prousa too and removed the
Kpa-rlcr-ro<; yeyoveval' Kal S,a -rou-ro nepl~yev £Xwv -r<li harem. They also captured Lazar's daughter, who was one of
cr-rpa-roneS'l' Kal S(at-rav napexof'EVO<;. 'EaAw Se Kal ~ Bayezid's wives, and took her to the king." SiHeyman, isa,
yuv~ -rou I1ata~~-rEw ev I1poucrn' Kal yap ~v -rE I1poucrav Mehmed, and the rest ofBayezid's sons were left where they
EneSpaf'ov, Kal -ra<; yuVatKwv(-rlSa<; a<peLAov-ro. I1po<; Se were: some found safety in Europe, others in Asia, each in
Kal TIJv 'EAea~apou 9uya-repa, I1ata~~-rEw Sf. YUValKa, whatever way he could.
f.AOne<; a~yayov napa ~acrlAea. MoucrouAf'av'1<; f'ev ouv It is said that when Bayezid was summoned before King 60
Timur, the latter said this to him: "You ill-starred man, why
Kal 'I'1crou<; Kal MeXf'e-r'1<; Kal ot Aol1tol -rwv I1ata~~-rew
did you force the hand of fate in this way by challenging us
na(Swv Ka-reAel<p9'1crav, Kal Ot f'ev EV -rfi Eupwnn, ot S' EV
to battle? Haven't you learned that only the sons of unhappy
-rfi Acr(", 6V-rE<; Slecrw~ov-ro, onOl £Kacr-r'l' npouxwpel. parents resist my army?"" Bayezid replied to him, it is said,
60 T<Ii f'ev-rot I1ata~~-rn, w<; ~X9'1 evav-r(ov ~aJlAew<;, that "I would not have fallen into such misfortune ifTimur
Aeye-rat elneTv au-r<li -rolaSe. "'n KaKoSatf'oV, -r( Se ou-rw
navu -rov crau-rou Sa(f'0va e~la~ou, npoKaAouf'evo<; ~f'a<;
Enl f'aX'lv; "H OUK EnU90U, w<; -r<li Ef'<Ii -r<liSE cr-rpa-rEuf'a-rl
Sucr-r~vwv nalSe<; av-recr-r'1crav;" I1ata~~-r'1<; Se "'noAa~wv
af'el~e-ro, ii S~ Aeye-rat, w<; "OUK ltv S~ E<; -rou-ro ""X'1<;


acp"coifl'lV, ltv fl~ athQ nClpeiX£'"rD npaYflCl'rCl tKcivoo;, 'ra -re had not given me the gtounds for it, among other things
aAACI KCll ano tevwv 'rQ MeXflE't!] 'rQ ~pwlnoAefliwv eClfla because he was called in so often to help people who were
aVClKClAouflevoo;." ":A).X ~v fI~ e-re'rVcpwO"o," i:cp'l Tefl~p'lO;, the enemies of the hero Muhammad." "But if you were not
"oihw flEYCl navIJ cppOVWV, OUK av 8~ to; 'roii'ro O"IJflcpoP<XO;, so arrogant," Timur said, "and did not think so highly of
oTflCll, acpiKOIJ' oii'rW yap e'iwee 'ro eelov 'ra navIJ flEYCI cppo- yourself, I believe you would not have reached such depths
of misfortune. For God is accustomed to cut down to size
voiiv'rCl KCll necpIJO"'l flEVCI fleloiiv wo; 'ra nOAAa KCll O"fllKpU-
those who think highly of themselves and are all puffed up."
velv." 'Ev'rCliieCl 8~ tnlflEfltClO"eat ClU'rQ AEye'rCll ~Clo"lAECI
At this point it is said that King Timur reproached him for
Tefl~p'lv ~v {I.I49} tnl 'rovo; KUVClO; 're KCll iEpClKClO; CPlAO-
his passion for hounds and hawks, which made him look like
'rlfliClV, wo; av8pl KVV'lyQ t<iJK£l ~v 'rEXV'lV, KCll OUK ap- a man who was a huuter by profession, not a lord and mili-
xonl ayOV'rl to; nOAEflOlJo;' AEye'rCll yap rrCllCl~~'r'lO; to; 'rOVO; tary leader. For it is said that Bayezid owned about seven
En'rClKlO"XlA(OIJO; K'r~O"ClO"eCll iepClKocpOpOIJO; KClI KUVClO; aflcpl thousand falconers and six thousand hounds. Bayezid re-
'rOVO; E;ClKlO"XlA(OlJo;. 'Ev'rCliieCl 'rov 're rratCl~~'r'lV cpavC!l plied by sayiug, "For you, a Skythian, who are still a bandit
unoACI~ov'rCl, "aAAa 0"01 fltV'rQ LKUen, A'l<nii E'rl onl KClI and practice that art, hunting with hounds and the chase
'rClU'r'lV tnl'r'l8euoV'rl ~V 'rEXV'lV, ou navv 'rl ltv npO~Kel would not be appropriate. Yet a passion for hounds and
hawks does befit me, the son of Murad, grandson of Orhan,
aypClo; ou8£ Kvv'lyeO"iwv' tflol 8t EO; 'rou'ro -re yevV'leEV'rl
a son of sultans, who was born and raised to it." At this King
KCll 'reepClflflEV'l', 'rQ l\flovpa'rew 'rou 'Opxavew, ~Clo"lAEWV
Timur became angry and ordered him paraded through the
nC!l8(, fletijv KCll KVVWV KCll iepaKwv CPlAO'rlfl(Clo;." 'Ev'rClueCl
camp on a mule, and he was mocked and taunted by the
8~ aXeeO"eEV'rCl 'rov ~ClO"lAECI neplClXe~VC!l EO; 'ro o"'rpCl'rO- army as he was being led around. But as they were leading
ne80v tKEA£lJO"ev tnl ~fllOVOIJ, KCll (J"IJplTIoflevov uno 'rou him arouud like this, he is said to have asked whether that
O"'rpCl'ronE801J neplClyClyelv. no; 8£ neplClXeEV'rCl ~yClyOV, race actually did engage in those pursuits, like those with
EpeO"eC!l ClU'rOV AEye'rCll, ei 'rou yEVOVO; tKcivCI 'rIJyxavel Em- hawks and hounds." After that, Timur imprisoned him.
'r'l8euflCl'rCl, Wo; 'ra 'rwv [epaKwv 're KCll KVVWV. Me'ra 8t Timur broke camp and advanced with his army against 6,

'rClU'rCl tv cpvAClKij tnol~o"CI'rO. Ionia and its coastal lands. He intended to spend the winter
6, KCll apClO; O"i>v 'rQ O"'rpCl'reuflCl'rl ~ACllJvev tnl 'IwviClv KCll there and to cross over into Europe in the spring. For he was
planning, as I stated earlier, to cross over into Europe and
~V 'rClU't!] napClAov XWPClV, EV vQ i:xwv ClU'rOU 're 81Cl-
xelflaO"C!l KCll ~pOO; tmcpC!lvofltvoIJ EO; ~v Eupw1t1]v 81Cl-
~~VCll. 'Enevoel yap, wo; KCll npo'repov fl01 8e8~Aw'rCll, to;
~v Eupw1t1]v 81Cl~ao; n<xO"av -re ucp' ClU'rQ nOl~O"C!O"eC!l, to; 8


subject it all to himself until he reached the Pillars of Hera-

Sf] bet 1:a<; 'Bpad.dou<; a<p[KYJ1:aL crr~Aa<;, EV1:EVSEV St
kles, and from there to cross over to North Africa and to
avSl<; E<; Al~UYJV Sla~fjVaL, Kat S,a 'tfj<; Al~UYJ<; bcaVlevaL E<; return to his own land across North Africa, subjecting the
1:f]v eaU1:0V xwpav, ~Ufl1Caerav lJ1cayoflEVO<; 1:f]v 1:au1:!1 ~1CEl­ entire continent of the world in this way.98 He sent envoys
pOV 1:fj<; OlKOUflEVYJ<;. >E1CpEer~EUE1:0 flEV OVV Kat1Cpo<; 1:0V to the king of Byzantion {Manuel II}, seeking transport
BusaV1:[ou ~aerlAEa, ~V 1:E Sl(,,~aerlV a[1:0UflEVO<; aLJ'tOV ships and triremes from him for the crossing.
reAOla 1:£ Kat1:pl~pEl<;. King Timur is also reported to have done the following 62

62 AtyE1:aL St Kal1:oSE ~acrlAEil<; TEf'~PYJ<; E<; I1aLaS~1:YJv. to Bayezid. When the latter's wife, the daughter of Lazar,

n<; {I.I50}yap a~xSYJ ~ yuvf] aU1:0v,'EAwsapou Suya1:YJ p, whom he loved more than any of the others, had been taken
away, and Timur was taking her around in the camp with
~<; Sf] flaAlcrra 1:WV aAAWV Epaer1:f]<; EWnaVE I1aLaS~1:YJ<;,
him, he made her pour his wine in front ofBayezid, her hus-
Kat reEplfjyE flES' eau1:ov i!xwv EV 1:ili er1:pa1:oretS4J, Ereler1:fjera[
band. It is said that the latter grew very 'angry and said,
Ol EVaV1:[ov 1:0V avSpo<; au'tfj<;, o[voxofjera[ 01. Tov St EV
"Your actions do not accord with the status of your father
flaAa axSEerSEV1:a £l1Cuv AtYE1:aL, "aX).: 0151:' av C1Uf'<pWVW<; and mother. For they were ordinary people and poor, and so
1:ili erili rea1:pt Kat flYJ1:pt EpyaSOLO' [S,W1:WV yap 1:0U1:WV Kat it is not right for you to mock the children and the wives of
reEV~1:WV YEvoflEVO<; S[KaLO<; 0151:' ltv dYJ<; wer1:' ltv ErelKEp- kings, and to insult those who are your superiors by nature."
1:of'fjeraL ~aerlAEwv reaLer[ 1:E Kal yuval~[, Kat E~U~p[SEl<; E<; That is what Bayezid said, but Timur laughed at his words,
1:0il<; eroil<; 1:ft <puerEl Swreo1:a<;." Tou1:4J fltv 1:0laV1:a AEyOV1:l mocked him, and ridiculed him for thinking and saying
YEAW1:a 1:£ Ereo[" 1:oil<; A6you<;, Kat ETClXAwaswv EreterKw- crazy things. Bayezid's lords, they say, approached Timur's
TC1:EV ola ouStv Uylt<; oil1:E <pPOVOVV1:l oil1:E AtyoV1:l. O[ sappers and promised to pay them huge amounts of silver
if they could secretly get Bayezid out by digging a tunneL
fltV1:0l I1aLaS~1:£w apXOV1:E<;, E<; AOyOU<; a<plKofLEVOl 1:01<;
They actually made a tunnel under the camp heading to-
TEf'~PEW 0puK1:al<;, ii <pacrLv, U1CE<1X0V1:0 apyt\pLOv 1:EAEeraL
ward the tent in which Bayezid was being held under guard,
reafLreoAu, d U<pEAOlV1:0 I1aLaS~1:YJv ureopu~av1:£<;. "EvSa Sf] but they were seen by the guards there as they emerged and
8puYfLa 1:E reolYJerafLEvol EV 1:ili er1:pa1:0reES4J, Kal d<; 1:f]v were caught. For they did not emerge inside the tent, but
C1KYJV~V, EV ii EerK~vou rralaS~1:YJ<; EV <puAaKft WV, E~l6v1:E<;, outside, where the men stationed by Timur were keeping
w<pSYJerav urea 1:WV 1:au1:n <pUAaKWV Kat EaAWerav' ou yap watch. As they emerged there, they were caught, and the
EV1:0<; EY£VOV1:0 1:fj<; erKYJvfj<;, &X)': EK1:0<;, ii E<pUAaererov king had them beheaded.
retpl~ YEvofLEVOl iiVSpE<; urea TEfL~PEW 1:aXS£V1:E<;. Tau1:!1
w<; E~nEerav Kat EaAwerav, areE1:afLoV1:0 1:a<; KE<paAa<; urea


63 'Enl LflUPV'1<; flEV OUV a<plKOflevo<; n]V TE LflUPV'1V elAe Timur came to Smyrna and captured it with his "little 63

'rPOXi01(OI<;, Kal -riJv EV 'rQ a[YlaAQ aKpav uno 'Pwfla[wv wheels."" He took the citadel by the shore, which was held
'rau'r!] Ka'rexoflEV'1V unopu~a<; Ka'rE~aAE 'rIO, Kal 'rau'r'lV by the Romans,lOo by tunneling under it. After he had taken
it, he captured many towns in that region by marching
eAwv nOAiO'fla'ra 'rIO aAAa 'rfj<; xwpa<; 'rau'r'1<; EneAauvwv
against them, attacking each in turn as he advanced. It is
!lPe!, <0<; OL npouxwpel {LI5I} npoO'~aAAOV'r1 E<p' EKaO''rOV.
said that Timur would break into the cities in three ways
Tplxft yap, AtYe'ral, Ol!'1pel 'ra<; nOAe!<; Tefl~P'1<; 'rol<; 'rIO 'rpo- with his wheels. These were circular devices that had lad-
xol<;. KUKAol oe /Sv're<; OU'rOI Kal KAiflaKa<; exovTE<; EV'rO<;, ders inside them for scaling the walls: rwo hundred men
<OO''re ava~aive!v Enl 'r0 'relXO<;, E<; -riJv 'ra<ppov ayov're<; were assigned to each, and they would bring it up to the
Ene'rieeO'av avope<; OlaKoO'101 eKamov 're'raYflEvol, Ola'rou ditch and make the attack. Each man would enter the ditch
'rpoxou eLO'IWV eKamo<;, E<; 'r0 nEpav 'rIO Eyiyve'ro 'rfj<; by means of the wheel and would cross to the other side of
'ra<ppou, O'TEyasoflevOI uno 'rou 'rPOXOU. :0.<; OE nEpav it, protected on top by the wheel. When they reached the
yiyv01V'r0, aVE~atVOV 'ra<; KAiflaKa<;, Kat oil'rW !lpouv -riJv other side, they would climb the ladders and thus take the
nDAlv. Me'ra OE noAAol /Sv're<; aU'rQ EV 'rQ O''rpa'ronEo", city. In addition, he also had many men in his camp who
used to throw up earth around the city so that they could
i!xouv TIJv nDA1V, <OO''re Enl 'r0 'relX0<; 'ra XWfla'ra ava~aivelv,
climb the mound to the walls; thus, by reaching the top over
Kal avw Ola 'rWV XWfla'rwV ~Ai01(e'ro aU'rQ 'r0 'relx0<;. EIxe
the earthen mound, he could take the walls. Finally, he also
OE Kat 6puK'ra<; E<; flupiou<;, Kat opuO'O'ov're<; 'ra TEim Ent had about ten thousand sappers who would dig tunnels un-
flE'rewpwv ;UAWV KaeelO'n]KEO'av. Me'ra Oe 'rau'ra nup der the walls and prop them up with wooden beams. After
EVlet<; 'ra ;uAa, Kat w<; EKaie'ro 'ra ;uAa, 'ra 'relm eime'rw<; that they would set fire to the beams and, when the wood
i!nm'rov, Kat'rau'rt] EO'Emn'rOV E<; TIJV nOA1V. Oil'rw flev OUV burned through, the walls would simply collapse and they
!lpel Tefl~p'1<; 'ra<; nOAel<;. would enter the city at that point. It was in these three ways
64 :0.<; Oe ~0'1 eap unE<palvev, a<piKe'rO nap' au'rov ayyeAia, that Timur would capture the cities.
w<; 'rOU 'Ivowv ~aO'IAew<; npeO'~ela a<plKOflev'1 Ent Xepi'1v With the arrival of spring, however, news reached him 64
that envoys of the king of the Indians had arrived at Kherie
fleyaA!] Xe!pl OElVa TE -riJv nDA1V EpyaO'al'rO, Kat Ent 'rOU<;
with a large military escort and had done great harm to the
e'1O'aupou<; naplWV 'rOU ~aO'IAew<; 'rov 'rIO <popov Aa~wv
city.10l They had even entered the king's treasury and taken
OrX01'r0, Kat anelAoi'1, w<; OUKE'r1 Eflflevol 'ral<; O'novoal<; " off with the tribute, and they also threatened that the king
'Ivowv ~amAeu<;. Tau'ra w<; E"""ee'rO, neploe~<; yevoflevo<; of the Indians would no longer abide by the treaty. When
fI~, EnelO~ a<piKol'rO ~ npeO'~ela napa ~amAEa 'rwv 'Ivowv, he learned this, Timur was frightened that when the en-
voys reached the king of the Indians, the latter would come

eTClWv l<a-ra(n:pe'POl-rO -r~V eau-rou xwpav, OXOV-rO<; mJ-rou against him and conquer his territory while he was preoccu-
afl'P l [LIp} -rou<; e:rnjAUOa<; nOAtflou<;, Kallifla eern£l mJ-rov pied with wars in neighboring lands. At the same time, he
Kal -ra av9pwn£la ev ouoevl eer-r!'JK(\-ra aer'PaA£l, Kal O£lVa realized that human affairs are never secure, and he took
nOl!'Jerafl£vo<; -rou<; 'Ivoou<; npter~£l<; esu~pleral e<; au-rov to heart the way in which the Indian envoys had insulted
oil-rw<; avalo!'Jv, ~Aauvev, w<; dX£ -raXler-ra, enl X£pl!'J<;, -rov him so shamelessly. So he marched to Kherie as quickly as
he could, taking Bayezid and his son with him. Timur paid
-r£ Ilma~~-r!'Jv lxwv fI£9' eau-rou Kal -rov natoa au-rou. Kal
no attention to the latter, and so he escaped to his native
ouotva AOYOV enol£i-ro au-rou T£fI~P!'J<;, aneopa enl ~v
land. 102
na-rp¢av xwpav.
They say that Bayezid died after becoming sick with 65
65 Ilma~~-r!'Jv 0, uno Avn!'J<; vo~erav-ra nAw-r~erm -rov grief Thus died Bayezid, the son of Murad, a man who,
~lov l'Paerav. Oil-rw fltv oilv e-r£A£v-r!'Jer£ Ilma~~-r!'J<; 6 wherever he went, had shown great daring and remarkable
Afloupa-r£w, av~p 6Pfl~v n Kal -roAflav enlo£lsafl£vo<;, boldness. He displayed great daring in his accomplishments
onol av napaytvol-rO, aslav AOYOU, Kal-rOAfln fI£yaAn ano- in Asia and Europe, and reigned for rwenty-five years. 103 But
o£lsafl£vo<; fpya Ka-ra -re Aerlav Kal Eupwn!'Jv, ~aerlA£vera<; he was impetuous, so that he listened to no one else, and
f-r!'J ntv-r£ Kal dKoerlv. 'Hv ot ou-rw<; au9ao!'J<;, ~ern fI!'J oevl advanced confidently against the enemy. He died in Ionia,
where Timur was spending the winter with the army.104
nd9ecr9m, w<; eau-re;; eappovv-rw<; xwp£iv enl -rou<; nOAe-
This king of the Indians is the one who is called "he of 66
fllou<;. 'E-reAev-r!'Jere 0, ev -rfi 'Iwvlq, olaxelfla~ono<; au-rou
the nine kings"; he is King Chaghadai. When he became
Tefl~p£w -rOY er-rpa-rov.
king over the nine kings, he dispatched a large army against
66 '0 ot 'Ivowv ~aerlAeu<; ou-ro<; eer-rlv 6 -rwv ewea ~aerlAewv Timur on account of the Massagetai. It is said that he
-roilvofla fxwv, T~axa-ra!'J<; ~aerlAev<;. Twv ewta 0, ~ctcrl­ crossed the Araxes in his advance, conquered most of the
Atwv ~amAta y£voflevov -rou-rov, -rov Ola -rou<; Maerera- land there, and then returned to his home. He reigns over
yt-ra<; er-rpa-rov fleyav enl Tefl~P!'Jv enl1teflvav-ra, Atye-rm ChinalO5 and all of India. His land extends to the island of
-rov -re ApaS!'Jv £nlona ola~~vm, Kal -ra nAtw ~<; -rav-en Taprobane [Sri Lanka} in the Indian Ocean, into which flow
xwpa<; Ka-raer-rpevaflevov tn' otKou ailel<; anoxwp~erm. the largest of the rivers of India: the Ganges, Indus, Ake-
sines, Hydaspes, Hydraotes, and Hyphasis, which are the
Llv!'J<; -re ~aerlAev£l Kal 'Ivola<; [Kal} SUflnaer!'J<;, Kal Ol~K£l
au-re;; ~ xwpa enl Tanpo~av!'Jv v~erov, e<; 'IvolK~v eaAaer-
erav, e<; ~v ot fleYler-rol ~<; 'Ivola<; xwpa<; no-raflol [LI53}
eKoloouerlv, 0 -re rayy!'J<;, 'Ivoo<;, AKeerlv!'J<;, '1"oaern!'J<;,
'1"opaw-r!'J<;, "1" 'Paerl<;, fltYler-rol o~ OU-rOl Ilvn<; ~<; xwpa<;.


<IMpeL S, ~ 'IVSLK~ xwpa ayaea f"v nOAAa Kat ilA~ov largest in the land. India produces many goods and much
wealth, and the king rules over the entire land. 106 Setting out
nOAUV, Kat a 'te ~ao-LAei>~ ;vf'na01]~ 'tij~ xwpa~ int' au'tov
from the land above the Ganges, as well as from coastal In-
yevof'£vl]~. 'Opf'wf'evo~ S, oO'to~ ano 'tij~ un,p raYYl]v
dia, and Taprobane, he attacked the king of Khat ai, the land
xwpa~ Kat 'tij~ napaAlov 'IVSLK* Kat Tanpo~avI]~, EAee'iv
between the Ganges and Indus, conquered that land, and
Ent 'tov ~a(nAEa Xa'taT'1~, 'tij~ xwpa~ 'tij~ EV'tO~ rayyov Kat established his own royal court in that city. It was at that
'IvSOii, Kat Ka'taerrpe"'af'evov 'tijv'tau'tt] xwpav 'ta ~aaLAeLa time when all the land of India came under the control of
EV 'tau'tt] S~ 'tfi nOAeL nOL~aao-eaL' ;vf'~ijvaL S, 'to'te one king.
yeveaeaL "'P' £vt ~aaLAe'i ;uf'nao-av 't~v 'IVSLK~V xwpav. The inhabitants of the land of Khatai lO7 believe in the 67

67 N0f'l~Ovo"l S, OO'tOL eeou~, 01 'te 't~v Xa'tat'1v xwpav gods Apollo, Artemis, and Hera. They do not all speak the
otKoiiV'te~, AnoAAw 'te Kat Ap'tef'Lv Kat S~ Kat ·Hpav. same language but are divided into many races; it is the most
<I>wv~v S£ ou 't~v au'tijv a'PlaLv leV'taL, &.1.';': E~ i'ev'1 'te well governed among all people, organized into cities and
villages. They make sacrifices of horses to Apollo and oxen
nOAAa SLn PI] f'Eva euvof'e'i'tat Ent nAe'ia'tov S~ avepwnwv
to Hera. To Artemis they sacrifice every year children who
Ka'ta 'te nOAeL~ Kat KWf'a~. Elvata~ S, avayovaLv lnnov~ have just reached puberty. The land produces wheat that re-
f"v 't<li AnoAAwvL, ~ov~ S£ 'tfi "HpW 'tfi S, Ap'tEf'LSL eUOVO"L portedly grows to a height of fifteen royal cubits, and barley
naTSa~ ap'tlw~ ~~aO"Kov'ta~ ava nav i''to~. <I>epeL S£ ~ xwpa in the same fashion, and millet to the same height. They
aihl]1tVpoi>~ f"v Entnev'teKalSeKa n~xeL~, w~ AEye'taL, ~a­ cross the river in reed boats. India produces reeds of such
aLALKou~, Kat KpLea~ S, 'tOY au'tov 'tponov, Kat f'eAlvl]v E~ a size, they say, that ships with a capacity of forty Greek
'to au'to f'EyeeO~. KaAaf'lvoL~ S, nAo[OL~ xpwf'evoL SLa- medimnoi can be built from them. lOB
nopef'euovaL 'tOY no'taf'ov. <I>epeL S, ~ 'IvSLK~, w~ AeyovaL, The fact that this race is not well known to us means that 68

'toaov'tov 'to f'eyeeo~, werre an' au'toii vavnYJyeTaeaL nAoTa there are many incredible stories told about them that are
not to be believed, at least as far as I can ascertain. The land
f'eSlf'vwv 'teaaapaKov'ta 'EAA'1VLKWV.
is very remote and so it is not easy to learn how it is settled
68 To f"v yevo~ 'tov'to ou naw yvwa'tov ~f'Tv yevof'evov
in its interior and what its customs and way of life are. This
nOAAa~ a1tla'tla~ napexeL f'~ neieeaeat nept au'twv, oaa
race became very powerful in the past and the kings of the
nvveavof'at. "H 'te yap xwpa au't'1npMw [I.I54} EKnoSwv Persians and Assyrians, the rulers of Asia, served the kings
yevof'£v'1 ou navv EnL~SeLO~ eraw <!>K'1'tat 'te Kat onoL i'XeL
~ewv 'te Kat SLal't'1~' revo~ f'EV'tOL taxvpo'ta'tov yevof'evov
'to naAalov 'tou~ 'te ITepawv ~aaLAeT~ Kat Aaavptwv, ~yov­
f'evov~ 'tij~ Aala~, eepaneueLv f'£v 'toi>~ 'IvSwv ~aaLAe'i~,

bee[ 'tE LEflipafll, Kat Kupo, 6 'tou Kafl~uero1J 'tov Apa;I]v of the Indians, ever since Semiramis and Cyrus, the son of
Sla~av'tE, flEyaA,!, 'ttiJ reoAefl'!' £xp~eraV'to. "'H 'tE yap LEfli- Cambyses, crossed the Araxes and found themselves in-
pafll, 'twv Aerer1Jpiwv ~aerLAlerera eret 'twv 'IvSwv ~aerlAea volved in a major war. For Semiramis, the queen of the As-
eAaUV01Jera flEyaAn reapaCTKE1Jij, eree[ 'tE 'tov reo'taflov Slt~I], syrians, launched a major expedition against the king of the
ereErepayEl 'tE xaAErew'ta'ta Kat au'tou 'tau-rn e'tEAEu'tl]erE. Indians and yet, when she crossed the river, she fared very
ME'ta Sf. 'tau'ta Kupo, 6 Kafl~uerEw, ITEperwv ~acrlAEu" badly and died there. After that it is said that Cyrus, the son
of Cambyses and king of the Persians, crossed the Araxes
AeyE'tat S~ 'tov 'tE Apa;I]v Sla~a" Kai SlaywvleraflEvo,
and fought with the Massagetai. But he too fared very badly
repo, 'tou, Maereraye'ta, ~repa;e 'tE 'ta xaAErew'ta'ta, Kat
and was killed there by a woman, Tomyris, the queen of the
athou ureo yvvalKo, TOfluPLO, TIj, MaererayE'twv ~aerlAE1J­ Massagetai. 109
ouerl], are08avETv. So when Timur learned from the messenger about the 69
69 TEfI~Pl], flf.V ouv W, ureo 'tou ayytAo1J erc68E'to 'ta reEpt embassy sent by the king of Khatai, he marched, as quickly
~v repeer~e[av 'tou Xa'tall], ~aerlAtw" are~Aa1JVeV, w, elXe as he could, to Kherie. As I said, Bayezid died along the
'taxo1J" eret Xepi'l,' ITalas~'tl], Se, w, e'ipl]'tal, Ka'ta ~v way, overcome by depression and grie£ His son Musa was
6Sov heAeu't'lerev, ureEvex8el, e, 't~v fltAalVaV (mo Aurel]" released by King Timur and returned to his native landYo
Mwiicrfj, Sf. 6 reaT, au'tou, a<pe8el, (mo ~aerlAtw, Tefl~pl], When King Timur reached his palace, he arranged the af-
fairs of his realm in the way that seemed best to him, and
erei 't~v rea'tptiJav xwpav a<piKe'to. BaCTlAeu, Sf. Tefl~pl], W,
waged war against the king of the Indians over their differ-
eytve'to e, 'ta ~aerLAela 'ta ta1J'tou, 'ta 'te tv 'tij apxu au'tou
ences. After that he made peace on the condition that they
Ka8 iCT'tl] , ii tSoKel KaAAlCT'ta eXelV au'ttiJ, Kat repo, 'tov be friends and allies with each other."! The sons born to
'IvSwv ~aCTlAta Slevex8el, ereOAeflel. {!.I55} Me'ta Sf. 'tau'ta him were Shahrukh, Baysunqur, and ~bd-al-Lati£"2 He ap-
etp~vl]v 'te treol~era'to, t<p' <Ii 'te ;evol 'te Kat <pLAOl elVat pointed the eldest son, Shahrukh, to be king after him,1I3
aAA~AOl" Tou't'!' eyevov'to reaTSe, LaXpouxo, 'tE Kat ITa- while he himself indulged in sex and died preoccupied with
'iayyoupl], Kat A~S1JAa'tou<pl]" LaXpouxov 'tov repeer~u­ that."4 In fact it is said that Timur was tormented by his na-
'tepov reaTSa au'tou Ka'teAme ~aerlAta areoSel;aflevo,. Au- ture more than any other person, to such a degree that he
'to, Sf. reept epw'ta, exwv Kat ev'tau8a reoA1JrepaYflovwv ordered young men to copulate with women in front of him
t'tEAeu'tl]ere. AeyE'tal yap S~ Tefl~pl], flaAler'ta S~ av8pw- in order to become aroused enough himself for the act. But
rewv e, 'toerou'to ureo <puerew, ax8~vat, wer'te veaVierK01J,
tvav'tiov au'tou yvval;t KeAeuelv flicryeer8at, wCT'te Kat 't~v
<puerlv epe8iselV au'tou eret 'toU'to. :0., Sf. areo tpw'twv

27 0

when he set sex aside, he would immediately turn to war

ytVOl'"t"O, btt :n:oAEfllov<; au'dKa S~ 'tpt:n:Ecr9at, fI,]St:n:O'tE
against his enemies, so that he was never at rest. It is said
~crvxlav /iyov'ta. Kat E;v~plcrat S~ AtyE'tal ~v <pucrlV
that he committed offenses against his nature with his sex-
au'tou 8<; 't~v Slat'tav :n:Epl a<ppoSlcrla YEvoflEVOV. ualhabits.
70 Tou'tov flEv S~ 'tEAWrllcrav'to<; fcrxE 't~v ~acrlAelav ~a­ When Timur died, Shalrrukh took the throne. He was a 70
Xpoux0<;, av~p 'ta 'tE /iAAa E:n:lElK~<;, Kat 'toT<; :n:EpLOlKOl<; 'ta man who was generally reasonable and who, for the most
:n:OAAa cr:n:EVSOflEV6<; 'tE Kal ~ovxlav /iywv SlE'teAEl. MET' part, made treaties with his neighbors and maintained
ou :n:oAv 'tEAev't~crav'to<; ~axpouxov 'tou TEfI~PEW I1aYay- peace. Shalrrukh, the son ofTimur, died shortly afterward,
youp']<; " VEW'tEpO<; :n:aT<; fcrxE 't~v ~acrlAelav, :n:po<; 'tov<; and Baysunqur, the younger son, took the throne and fen
aSEA<pov<; au'tou SlEVEX9el<;. OUAl']<; flE:V yap 't~v 'tE KaSov- out with his brothers.ll5 For UIug-Beg held the land of the
crlwv xwpav Kal 'YpKavlav Ka'ttxwv :n:po<; A~SvAa'tou<p']v Kadousioi and Hyrkania and fought against his brother
Abd-al-Latif after falling out with himY' But Baysunqur
'tOV aSEA<pov SlEVEX9el<; E:n:OAtflEl, Kat w<; I1a"layyoup,]<;
came against him, stripped him of his land, captured him
E:n:ayoflEVO<;, 't~V 'tE xwpav a<pelAE'to, Kat au'tov ~wyp~cra<;
alive, and imprisoned him. After that, when Baysunqur died,
eTXEV EV <pvAaKft. ME'ta SE: 'tau'ta 'tEAev~crav'to<; I1a"lay- Juki held the throne. ll7 Babur "of the nine kings" made a
you pEW T~OKl']<; lcrxE ~V ~acrlAelav. I1po<; 'tou'tOV marriage alliance with him, and so he held the throne after
M:n:a"lfl:n:ouP,]<; [I.I56} 'tWV EWea ~acrlAtwv E:n:lyafllav :n:Ol,]- inheriting it. liB He also took over the affairs of Samarkand,
craflEVO<; Kal E1tl'tpa<p9el<; ecrxE ~V ~acrtAelav' Kat 'ta made an alliance with the Indians, and fought against Juki,
~aflapxavStj<; :n:paYfla'ta Ka'tacrxwv, Kat'IvSwv ovflflaxlav the son ofBaysunqur.Juki brought in the Skythians, reigned
E:n:ayoflEvo<;, :n:po<; 'tE 'tov T~OKl']v I1a'layyoupEw E:n:OAtflEl over the land of the Assyrians, and fen out in a war with his
:n:aISa. T~OKl']<; flE:V ouv 'tou<; 'tE ~Ku9a<; E:n:ayoflEvo<;, Kal brother Baysunqur. He marched against him, defeated him
in battle, and took over Samarkand. 1l9
'tij<; Acrovplwv xwpa<; ~acrlAEuwv E:n:t I1a'layyoup']v 'tov
Shortly afterward, relying on the king of the nine as his 7'
aSEA<pov 'tov 'tE :n:OAEflOV Slt<pEPE Kat cr'tpa'tevcraflEvo<;
ally and using Tabriz, a prosperous city of the Assyrians, as
flax!] 'tE tKpa't']crE Kat ~aflapxavS']v :n:apEcr~cra'tO. his royal capital, Juki waged war against the White Sheep
7' Ou :n:OAV SE: iI<Y'tEpOV 'twv Evvta ~acrlAe1 OVflflUX'l' and besieged the city of Shemakha, the palace of Kara
XptjcraflEvo<; Kat EV 't4i Ta~pt~1l:n:6AEl EuSalflovl Acrovplwv Yiililk.120 Tabriz is a large city, prosperous, and, after Samar-
'ta ~acro..Ela :n:ol,]craflEvo<; :n:po<; 'tE 'tOV<; AevKupva<; :n:o- kand, first among all the cities in Asia in its income and
AEflWV SlE'ttAEl Kat ~aflaxl']v :n:OAlv 8:n:OAlOPKEl, 'ta 'tou
KapaYAouKEw ~acro..Ela. Ta~pE~'] Se :n:OAl<; elvat flEyaA,] 'tE
Kat EuSalflwv Kat 'twv EV 'tft Acrlq flE'ta yE ~aflapxavS']v


XP'l f'cnwv -re 1tpOo-oS", Kat -rft aAAn EvSaLf'ov(<;< 1tpoexouo-a· other wealth. The land produces silkworms and the finest
mjp4<; -re -rpe'l'EL ~ xwpa aih'l f'e-ra!;4v -re KaAA.lo--r'lV silk, better than that of Shemakha. It also produces a pur-
1tOLOVf'ev'l Kat 't"ij<; Laf'axi'l<; 4f'elvw. WepEL Sf. Kat KPLf'i~LV ple silk that is called "crimson," which highlights garments,
mjpa oihw KaAoUf'EVOV 1tOP'l'vpOUV, t1tt -ra If'4-rLa, -r4 -rE those of both wool and silk, with a remarkable dye. Most
a1tO tpiwv Kat o-'lpWV, ~a'l'~v evSELKvuf'eva 4!;(av AOyOV. things in this land are produced by Persians called Ajems;
for all who speak the language of the Ajems are Persians and
"Eo--rL 151: 1tAta -ra ev -rftSE -rft xwp<;< ITEpo-WV -rwv jh~af'(wv
can converse in the Persian language. I2l They inhabit Tabriz,
KaAovf'evwv' Oo-OL yap ~v A-r~af'iwv 'l'wv~v 1tpolEV'raL,
Kaginos, and Nigeti, prosperous cities of the land of the
ITepo-aL 1:'£ O,,-rOL o-Uf'1tav-rE<; Kat -rfi ITEpo-WV {I.I57} 'l'wvfi Medes and Assyrians. Shemakha is situated toward the land
SLaAtyoV'raL. OlKouo-i -rE Ta~pt~'lv -rE Kat KaYLVOV Kat of the Armenians, and is a prosperous and populous city.
NLye-r('lV, 1tOAEL<; EuSa[f'ova<; -rWV M~Swv Kat Ao-o-vpiwv Jahanshah,122 the son of Kara Yusuf and grandson ofJuki, 72
xwpa<;. Laf'axi'l 151: 1tpo<; -rft APf'EV[WV xwp<;< <!JK'lf'ev'l, was born to the daughter ofJuki, the wife of Kara YUSU£I23
1tOAL<; EvSa(f'wv -rE Kat 1toAv4v8pw1t0<;. He ruled Baghdad near Babylon and conquered the land
72 A1tO Se 't"ij<; 8vya-rpo<; T~OKiEW, Kapa"lo-ou'l'ew Sf. yv- of the Assyrians, subjecting Tabriz to himself and fighting
vaLKo<;, eytvE-ro T~avLo-a<; 1tal<; Kapdio-ouq>EW, T~OK(EW Se against Babur's son. He advanced on Erzinjan, besieged it,
and took it, and he subjected all the land of the Armenians
41toyovo<;. O,,-ro<; -rE ITaySa-rl'l<; 't"ij<; Ba~vAwvo<; e1t~p!;e,
bounded by the Euphrates. I24 When Juki's son set out from
Kat Ao-o-vp[wv ~v xwpav Ka-rao--rpE'/t4f'EVO<; Ta~p£~'lv -rE
Samarkand, he besieged Babylon and, whenJahanshah came
Eav-r4i U1tf]y4yE"t"D Kat 1tpO<; -rov M1ta"lf'1toUpEW 1talSa SL-
against him, he defeated him in battleY5 He took Babylon
E1toAtf'EL. 'E1tEA4o-a<; 151: 1tpO<; 'Ep-r~Lyy4vLV e1tOALOpKEL and advanced on Tabriz, and is still waging this war. Mean-
1tapao-"'lo-af'EVO<;, Kat -r~v Apf'EViwv tv-ro<; Evq>pa-rov xw- while, Hasan the Tall, who was a descendant of rskender
pay e-runavev oi'io-av u1tf]yaYE-ro. ME-ra Se -rou T~OKiEW who had once held Erzinjan and belonged to the tribe of
1taLSo<; wPf''lf'tvov a1to Laf'apxavS'l<; -r~v -rE Ba~vAwva Kara Yiiliik, came to power over the Armenians, and the
t1tOALOpKeL, Kat av-rov t1tLOV'ra ol f'aXn e1tEKpa"'lo-E. Kat sons of Kara Yiiliik marched with himY' For when they
~v Ba~vAwva EAwv, t1tt Ta~pt~'lv eAauvwv, e<; -rOVSE o-vv- were besieged in Shemakha127 by King Jahanshah, Kara
SLaq>£pEL -rov 1tOAEf'OV. Xao-av'l<; f'tV-rOL 6 f'aKpo<;, LKEV-
Stpew -rou -ro 'Ep-r~LyyavLv SLaKa-rtxov-ro<; a1toyovo<; wv
Kat 't"ij<; Kapa"t'AoUKEW f'oipa<;, e1tt ~v ap~v 1tapeyevE-ro
~v APf'EV(WV, o-vvEAavv0f'£vwv av-r4i -rwv -re Kapdi-
AOUKEW 1taiSwv. O,,-rOL yap w<; U1tO -rou ~ao-LA£w<; T~avLo-a,

274 275

KapaY<Y01J<pEW 1talSO" tv Laflaxln 1tOAlOpKOUflEVOl tv Yusuf's son, they did not know what to do and so begged
cmop<!' dXOVTO, 1tpO<YESeOV'tO 'tOU M1ta'(fl1tOUPEW £<Y~aA£lv Babur to invade Media. He agreed and invaded, whereupon
Jahanshah picked up and went against him, partly by engag-
£, -rfJV M'lSIK~V, il, 1tEl<YSEl, 'tE £<Ye~aAE, Kat cmave<Y't'l 'tE
ing with him directly and partly by plundering his territo-
6 T~avl<Yii, imoxwpwv 1tpo<; 'tov M1taYfl1toup'lv, 'tiL flEV . 128Meanwhile, t h e other rulers [of Asia Minor},
<Yufl~aAAwv, 'tiL SE A'l·(~oflEVO<; -rfJv xwpav £KElVOU. Ot
Mentqe, Aydm, and Saruhan, reclaimed their lands at
fleVTol ~YEfloVE<;, I) 'tE MEvSE<Yla" A:(Slv'l<; Kat Lapxav'l<;, Timur's order when Bayezid was captured, so each of them
aAOv'tO, rrata~~'tEW 't~v [!.I5B} 't£ xwpav Ka'teAa~ov £1tl- was restored to his own land.l29 When Hasan saw that a sig-
K£AEUOVTO, TEfl~PEW, Kat £<; 't~V tau'tou xwpav KaSlma'to nificant force was attacking him, he subjected the land of
"Kamo<;. 'OpWV S1: Xa<Yav'l, <Yufl~aAAoflev'lv au't<li Suva- the Armenians andJanids, and made peace with the kings of
fllV a;loxpEWV, ~v 'tE l\PflEVlwv xwpav u1t1']yayE'tO Kat Kolchis through a marriage alliance. 130
'toil<; T~avlSa<;, Kat 1tpO, 'toil<; KOAXlSo<; ~a<YlAEr<; £1tl-
yafllav 1tOl'l<Yafl£vo, elp~v'lv £1tOl~<Ya'to.
/1' Book 4
[I.I59} Me-rl< flev ouv -r~v Tefl~pew avaxWp']OlV trei ~en Timur left for Kherie, Isa, Bayezid's eldest son,1
Xepf'], 'I']crou, 0 repecr~u-repo, -rwv I1ata~~-rew rea[Swv ~v took the throne, gathering to his side the leading men of his
-re ~acrlAdav Ka-rtcrxe, cruUt;a, -re -rou, ap[cr-rou, -rwv father's Porte, and securing the support of as many of the
eupwv -rou rea-rpo" Kat ve~AuSa, repocrayoflevo" iScrou, S~ janissaries as he could. For Bayezid had the following sons:
~Suva-ro. T", yl<p S~ I1ala~~'t!1 tytvov-ro naiSe, olSe, 1']- Isa, Siileyman, Musa, Mehmed, isa the Younger, 2 and Mus-
crou, -re Kat MoucrouAflav,], Kat Mwm;, Kat MeXflt-r,], Kat tafa. After Timur's departure, Isa was in Asia and, given that
1']crou, 0 vew-repo, Kat Moucr-racpa,. 1']crou, flev au-r[Ka he had the janissaries with him and as many of the nobles as
had escaped from King Timur, he took control of the palace
fle-rl< -r~v Tefl~pew avaxwp']crlv tv 'tft Acr[", yevoflevo"
at Pronsa, assumed control of all the affairs of the realm in
i'xwv -rou, -re ve~AuSa, fle-r' au-rou Kat -rwv ap[cr-rwv, acral
Asia, and distributed the offices. 3 He then crossed over into
SltcpUyov ~acrlAta Tefl~p,]v, -ra -re I1pouCTl], ~acr£Aela i'crxe, Europe and took over the kingdom while the Greeks held
Kat ~v &U']v 'tfj, Acr[a, ap~v tau-r", ureayoflevo, -ra,-re their capital in Europe. 4 He appointed a governor in Eu-
apxa, Sltvelfle, Kai t, ~v Eupwre']v Sla~l<, ~v -re ~acrl­ rope, someone whom he thought would be useful to him.
Adav Ka-rtcrxev 'EU~vwv trei -rl< Eupwre'], ~acr£AEla ov-rwv. But Siileyman set out from Byzantion to engage with Isa. 2

Kat &PX0v-ra Se tcp[cr-r']crlV tv -rli Eupwret], S~ au-r", trel- He was a capable man when it came to war and was joined
-r']Sdw, "XElV tcpa[ve-ro. by the leading men and janissaries who lived in Europe. He
MoucrouAflav,], flev ouv opflwflevo, ana Bu~av-r[ou advanced, marching through Europe and subjecting it to
himself while isa was absent and busy in Asia. After that he
cruv[cr-ra-ro tret -rav 'I']crouv, Kat -rl< reoA£fI,a yevoflevo, av~ p
crossed over into Asia with the army from Europe and
ayaeo" Kat tre' au-rov repocryevofltvwv -rwv 'tfj, Eupwre'],
ap[cr-rwv Kat ve']AuSwv, iScrOl -re au-rou tV<i>KOUV, tnnel -re
S,l< 'tfj, Eupwre'], tree;eAeWV Kat ureayoflevo, -rau-r']v
tau-r"" areov-ro, -rou 1']crou t, ~v Acr[av Kat Sla-rp[~ov-ro,.
Me-rl< Se -rau-ra t, -r~v Acr[av Sla~a" "xwv -ra area 'tfj,


Eupwnl]<; IY'rpaTWf'a, eO'TpaTEUETO enl 'II]O'OVV TOV [Lr6o} campaigned against his brother isa, who was spending his
time in Kappadokia, as the rulers of Sinope had allied with
aSEA'I'OV SlaTpl~ov-ra nEpl KannaSoKiav, end O'UVEf'axouv
him along with the other tyrants of the alliance. Siileyman
ot TOV Llvwnlou ~yEf'0VE<; aUT<ji Kal ol Tii<; O'uf'f'axia<; AOl-
attacked his brother there, routed his army, and killed many
nol TWV Tupavvwv. LUf'~aAwv Sf. aUTov Tau't)] T<ji aSEA'I'<ji of his men in the battle. He also captured isa alive and killed
Kat TpE'/taf'EVO<; nOAAa TE TOV O'TpaTEUf'aTO<; aUTOV ev Tfi him, after he had reigned for four years. isa, then, was de-
f'axn SlE'I'9ElPE, Kal S~ Kal 'II]O'OVV ~wyp~O'a<; SlExp~O'aTO posed in this way by Siileyman, and died. 5
~aO'lAEuO'avTa hI] TEO'O'apa. OUTO<; f'f.V S~ OUTW Ka9atpE- When Siileyman established himself on the throne and J
9el<; uno MouO'ouAf'avEw hEAEUTI]O'EV. began to reign, Musa, who had gained some experience and
n<; Sf. MOuO'ouAf'avl]<; e<; ~v ~a(J'lAe!av KaTeO'TI] Kal had then been released by King Timur, also returned by
e~aO'iAwE, Mw<ri'j<; f'Ef'a91]f'Evo<; Kal a'l'E9el<; uno TEf'~­ sea to his native land. 6 He went to the sons of Umur, who
were enemies of Siileyman on account of their alliance with
pEW ~a(J'lAew<; eKof'i~ETO enl T~V naTp£iJav xwpav Kal enl
isa, namely to Sinope and Kastamonu,' and from there he
9aAaTTl]<;. 1\.'I'lKOf'EVO<; Sf. enl TOU<; 'Of'OUpEW narSa<; TOU<;
crossed the Black Sea to Wallachia and approached Mircea,
MouO'OUAf'aVEW nOAEf'lou<; Sla ~V npo<; TOV 'II]O'ovv aUTwv
the ruler ofWallachia. 8 He spoke with him about many mat-
O'uf'f'ax1av, enl Llvwnl]v TE Kal KalY'raf'ova, Kal eVTEv9EV ters, including how he might take over the throne with his
enl ~aKlav Sla~a<; Sla TOV Eu~e!vou novTou Kal enl Mup- help, for which he would give him an income in Europe and
~av TOV ~aKla<; ~yEf'6va, aUT<ji TE SlEAEX91] Ta TE /ina, Kat a lot of land. Mircea was hostile to the Greeks because they
w<; ~V enl ~V ~a(J'lAe!av O'UVEmAa~I]Tat, SOVVat aUT<ji had received his son in Byzantion and had promised to assist
np6<roSov ev Tfi Eupw1t]'] Kal xwpav OUK OAlyl]v. rIpo<; TE the latter to gain the throne with the help of their ally Siiley-
yap "Enl]va<; nOAEf'la ~V aUT<ji, ene! TE MUP~EW narSa man.' So he received Musa gladly, maintained him and pro-
vided him with necessities, and gave him his army.
aUTov ev Bu~av-rl", unESe~aVTO, Kal unerrxOVTO ~V apx~v
At this point, when Siileyman went off to Asia, men from 4
aUT<ji f'ETa MouO'OUAf'aVEW enlTl]Se!ou O'UYKaTEpyaO'E-
Europe, who hated Siileyman because they had not been
O'eal. OUTO<; f'Ev ouv TOV TE Mw<ri'jv unESe~aTO /iO'f'EVO<;,
treated well by him, flocked to Musa. Musa set out with
Kal aim;; nape!XETo ~v TE SlalTav Kal Ta emT~SEla, Kal them and a large army of Wallachians, and Dan, a ruler of
TOV O'TpaTov Sf mh<ji eSISou.
4 'Ev-rEVeEV Sf. w<; e<; T~V 1\.O'lav MOuO'ouAf'avl]<; a:n:i'jv,
emppEovTWV aUT<ji TWV ano Ti'j<; Eupwnl]<;, OO'Ol ~Xeov-ro
MOUO'OUAf'aVn OUK EU 'l'EpOf'EVOl nap' aUT<ji, Kal apf'wf'E-
VO<; Aa~wv TE TOUTOU<; Kal ana [I.I6r} ~aKWV IY'rpaTOV

280 28r

lKavov, e1ClJ'JCofltvOtJ au'ti!i Kat Ll.avotJ 'tou Ll.aKwv ~yeflo­ the Wallachians, went with him. lO He took over Europe and
vo~, -n'jv 'tE Eupwnl]v Ka'ttcrxe, Kat ent 'ta ~acrLAela 'tij~ when he reached the palace at Adrianople he declared him-
A8plavotJnoAew~ naplwv Kagelcr-n'jKel 'te ~acrlAeu~, Kat ent self sultan,l1 and prepared to campaign against his brother
in Asia. But Siileyman, who had crossed over into Asia, has-
'tOV a8eAq>ov e~ -n'jv Acrlav napecrKetJa~e'to cr'tpa'teuecr9al.
tened to make the first move. For he realized that whichever
MOtJcrotJAflavI]~ 81: ~nelye'to Kat au'to~ q>9iiVal npo'tepo~
of them crossed over into the other's territory and fought
e~ -n'jv Acrlav 8la~a~' 8ltyvw yap Kat aflq>oiv liflelvov Kat
the war there, rather than waiting for his brother to attack
npo~ 'tOU E'ttpOtJ elval, "no'tepo~ liv ent -n'jv 'tou htpotJ him, would be at an advantage over the other. So he crossed
apx~v Sla~a~ -n'jv flaXl]v nOl~cral'tO au'tou Kat fI~ e1Clflelv!] over to Byzantion, given that he was on friendly terms with
'tov a8eAq>ov enl6v'ta. Ll.la~a~ 'tE ent 'to BtJ~av-rlOv, wcr'te the king of Byzantion {Manuel II}, and married the king's
au'ti!i q>LAla elvalnpo~ 'tov BtJ~av-rlotJ ~aCTlAta, liye'tal-n'jv granddaughter, the daughter of the Genoese man Doria.l2
~acrlAtw~ tJl'i80uv 'IavtJ'totJ 'toii N'top,a 9tJya't£pa. Yl'L80iiv So Siileyman, the son of Bayezid, married the granddaugh-
81: 'toii ~acrlAtw~ 'EAA~VWV ayoflevo~ MOtJcrotJAflavl]~ " ter of the king of the Greeks, crossed over to Byzantion, and
marched against his brother.
rrala~~'tew nai~, Kat e~ BtJ~av'tlOv 8la~a~ ecr-rpa'teue'to ent
As soon as Musa learned that Siileyman was staying in 5
'tov aSeAq>ov.
Byzantion with the king of the Greeks, he advanced imme-
5 Mwcrii~ 81: w~ 'tax,cr'ta eJtUge'to napa ~acrlAta 'EAA~VWV
diately and intercepted him at Byzantion, not allowing him
Ka'taAuelv ev BtJ~av'tl"" au'tlKa e~AatJve, Kat anoAa~wv to move into Europe and roll him back. Siileyman ferried
ev BtJ~av'tl", OUK e'(a e~ -n'jv Eupwnl]v e;eA90v'ta avacr-rptq>e- the largest army he could from Asia over to Byzantine ter-
cr9al. MOtJcrotJAflavl]~ fl1:v ouv cr'tpa'tov, w~ ~8uva'to, fltyl- ritory and encamped there, awaiting his brother's attack.
cr'toV ano 'tij~ Acrla~ 8lanop9f1eucra~ ent -n'jv BtJ~av-rlotJ Both sides deployed for battle, engaged, and fought,1l Musa
xwpav au'toii ecr'tpa'tone8eue'to, Kat 'tov ye a8eAq>ov enl- had the Wallachians and Serbs on his side along with Stefan,
ov-ra entflelvev. 'Ev-raii9a w~ liflq>w e~ flaXI]v nape'ta;av-ro, the son of Lazar,!4 and he also deployed the European army
crtJvt~aAov Kat eflaxov-ro. Mwcrii~ fl1:v 'tou~ 'te Ll.aKa~ Kat of the Turks. The king of the Greeks, however, sent word