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Islamic University-Gaza

Faculty of Engineering
Department of Mechanical Engineering

EIND3101
Thermal Science Laboratory

Experiment Report

Experiment Number 08
Experiment Title Steam Plant Performance

Date of Experiment 27/4/2015


Date of Submission 12 /5/2015
Student Name ‫مازن قرادة‬
Student Number 120123398

Lab. Instructors 1. Engr. Hassan Zayed


Remarks
Table of Contents

Objectives ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 3
Apparatus ...................................................................................................................................................... 3
Procedure.................................................................................................................................................... 10
Results ......................................................................................................................................................... 13
Discussion.................................................................................................................................................... 14
Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................. 15
References .................................................................................................................................................. 15
Objectives

 To determine the performance of the steam plant cycle and analyze it in comparison with the
ideal Rankine cycle.
 To be familiar of Willans Line Analysis.
 To be familiar of Specific Steam Consumption Analysis.
 To be familiar of steady Flow Analysis (Energy Balance).

Introduction

The first law of thermodynamics suggests that a closed system conserves energy even when the
energy transfers form one form to another. The second law of thermodynamics suggests that in
any transfer of energy, some energy will be lost to other processes such as friction or heat
transfer.
In this experiment, a steam motor and energy conversion test set shown in Figure 7.1 is studied.
It uses a laboratory scale steam plant based on Rankine Cycle to help the students understand
some of the principles of thermodynamics. It can also show the performance characteristics of
steam motor, a boiler and a condenser.

Apparatus
 This experiment is undertaken using the Steam Motor and Energy Conversion Test Set which
is shown in Figure 7.1.

Figure 7.1: The steam motor and energy conversion test set
Figure 7.2: Schematic view of the Rankine cycle and the present experiment’s cycle (TD1050
cycle)

 The general Asembly of the test set

1) Steam motor
The main part of the motor splash lubricates itself from its sump. The motor has a totally enclosed
crankcase, two cast iron trunk pistons and an overhead piston valce made of stainless steel. The
over head piston is driven by an external connecting link from a vertical shaft, turned by a bevel
gear at the crank shaft. The crankcase has a combined dipstick and filler, a breather and a drain
plug. A displacement lubricator lubricates the over head piston. A guard around the motor
protects the user from parts and hot surfaces. A cross sectional view of the the steam motor is
shown in Figure 7.3.

Figure 7.3: Cross sectional view of the steam motor


2) The Pump and Boiler
An electric pump fills the boiler with water from reservior in the base of the frame. The water
passes through non-return valve from the pump to the boiler. The steel boiler contains two
electric immersion heater. They each include a thermal cutout that protects against overheating
due to low water level. A spring loaded pressure relife valve protects against over pressure in the
boiler. The top of the boiler has a steam valve or stop valve to regulate the steam flow from the
boiler. A side view of the boiler including the steam valve is shown in Figure 7.4.

Figure 7.4: Side view of the boiler including the steam valve
3) The Sight Gage
The sight gage on the end of the boiler allows the use to see the water level in the boiler. The
gauge is a glass tube surrounded by a clear safety shield that helps protect against breakage. It
has two valves for safety reasons, which the operator can also use to help bow down the sight
gauage when checking the blockages. Side view of the sight gauge with the upper and lower
valves are shown in Figure 7.5.

Figure 7.5: Side view of the sight gauge with the upper and lower valve
4) The Condenser
The exhaust steam from the motor passes through the condenser which is a heat exchanger.
Cooling water circulates through the heat exchanger cooling the steam. The steam condenses
and drains out of a connection below the condenser to a measuring vessel or to the waste tank.
The side view of the condenser is hown in Figure 7.6.
When using the calorimeter for dryness fraction testing, the outlet steam of the calorimeter also
passes through the condenser. The condenser cools this steam so only water passes down to the
waste tank.

Condens
er

Figure 7.6: The side view of the condenser

5) Brake Dynamometer with Digital Torque and Speed Display


The Brake Dynamometer (Figure 7.7) is a simple friction brake instrumentthat fits at the back of
the steam motor. As you adjust any of the two controls of the dynamometer, they pull a cord
against the dynamometer drum applying a load. A force sensor measyres the torque as you apply
the load. Another sensor measures the motor speed. The product of torque and shaft speed gives
the mechanical shaft power the steam motor absorbs from the steam flow.

Shaft power= Shaft speed (Rad/sec) X Shaft Torque (Nm)


Figure 7.7: Side view of the Brake Dynamometer
6) Heater Power
The electrical control cabient contains an isolator and indvidiual control switches with
indicator lights for the two heater elements and the feed pump. A wattmeter on the bacl of the
equibment measures electrical power input to the boiler.

7) Pressure Gauges
Two Bourdon gauges on the back panel of the equibment indicate boiler and motor inlet
pressure. Behind each gauges is an electronic pressure sensor. The electronic pressure sensors
and a low voltage signal from the wattmeter connect to a small electronic socket near to the left
hand (engine inlet) pressure gauge. This socket is connected to the analogue inputs of the VDAS
interfaceso that VDAS can record of the pressures and boiler electrical power.

8) Temperatures
Four thermocouples on the apparatus connect to a separate Digital Temeopeartre Display that
fits on the instrument frame. The thermocouples meausre the temperature of
 The boiler, T1
 The calorimeter, T2
 Cooling water inlet, T3
 Cooling water outlet, T4

9) Cooling Water Flow Rate


A flowmeter under the boiler (Figure 7.8) measures the cooling flow water flow rate.

Figure 7.8: Side view of the Flowmeter

10) Calorimeter and Dryness Fraction


A throttling calorimeter (Figure 7.9) allows the student to calculate the dryness fraction of the
steam that leaves the boiler. The calorimeter has a valve that stays shut during normal tests, but
you open it few seonds when doing dryness fraction tests.

Calori
meter

Figure 7.9: Calorimeter

11) Water Flow System


The water flow system in the cycle of the present experiment is shown in the Figure 7.10:

Figure 7.10: The Water Flow System of the present cycle

12) Condensate (Steam) Flow Rate


In this exepriment, measuring cylinder and stop watch are provided to meausre the flow of
condensate (steam flow) from the heat exchanger. The condensate runs down a flexuble pipe, so
that you can direct it to the waste tank for most of the time, then direct it to the measuring vessel
during experiments. The Temperature of the condesate is denoted by T 5 and mass flow rate is
denoted by m.
13) Versatile Data Acquistion System (VDAS)
In this experiment, a versatile data acquistion system (VDAS) is used and to be connected with
a suitable computer.
The VDAS will
Automatically log data from your tests
Automatically calculate data fro you
Save your time
Reduce errors
Create charts and tables of your data
Export your data for processing in other software.

Procedure
1) Create a blacnk results table similar to Table 2. If you use VDAS, the software will create it
automatically.
2) If you have the optional VDAS, select TD1050 layout
3) Note your local pressure and temperature for reference
4) Direct the flexible condensate pipe into to the waste tank
5) Unscrew the two motor bleed by 2 turn. This will help to prevent steam condesning in the
engine cyliner, producing a hyrdaulic lock during up time.
6) Switch the heaters. When the boiler pressure has reached approximately 300 kN/m 2, slowly
open the boiler steam valve about one quarter turn until the motor inlet pressure reaches
about 80 kN/m2.
7) Turn the motor starting control clock wise to start the motor. The starting control has a built-
in-centrifugal clutch, so you need to turn it quickly at first to make it work correctly.
8) Use the steam valve to control the motor speek and run the motor two mintues (warm up
time) at around 1000 revultion/mintue (rev/min).
9) Tighten the motor bleed screws.
10) Now use the steam valve to maintain a constant speed of 2000 rev/min (+,- 100 rev/min)
while you use the dynamometer to load the motor in at least six equal steps (TecQuibment
recommend steps of increasing torque of around 0.05 Nm). Continue loading the motor until
it cannot maintain its speed.
11) Use the heaters to keep the boiler pressure at just 300 kN/m2 during the experiment (you
may need to switch one heater off for a few seconds at a time with the lower steam flow). If
the pressure relif valve opens, the pressure can drop down to 200 kN/m2 and may delay your
experiment.
12) At each step record the boiler pressure and tempearture, motor inlet pressure, motor speed,
motor power (on the dynamometer display), condeser cooling water temperatures and flow
rates, and condensate flow rate. Alternatively use the VDAS to record the results.
13) Measure the condensate flow rate by directing the flexible pipe into the measuring cylinder
and measure the amount of condesate collected over intervals of 60 seconds. This allows you
to directly convert the flow into liters per minute. Use thermometer to measure the
temperature of the condensate.
14) At the end of the experiment and while the moto is still running use the calorimeter to
measure the dryness fraction. To use it fully open the calorimeter valve to a small amount of
steam to pass through for about 10 seconds (or until the calormeter temperature stabalize).
Record the boiler steam pressure, temperature and calorimeter temperature.

 Shut Down Process (Method 1)


1) Switch off the heaters.
2) Allow the motor to use up as much as the boiler steam as possible.
3) Use gloves and carfully open the boiler drain valve a small amount, allowing the hot
water to escape into cooling water reservior.
4) Leave the steam valve open to let air into boiler
5) Leave the cooling water running for about two minutes to cool the water reservior.
6) Switch off the electrical and water supply and drain any water from the apparatus.
 Shut Down Process (Method 2)
1) Switch the cooling water supply.
2) Allow the boiler to cool down naturally (about two hours).
3) Open the boiler drain valve and steam valve.
4) Switch off the electrical supply and drain any water from the apparatus.

 Notation

Table 7.1 Experiments parameters


Results

Table 7.2. Data and results


Motor Motor Heater Pressures Temperatures
speed power Power (kN/m2)
(rev/min) (W) (W) Boiler Motor T1 T4
200 7 3000 300 80 145 100.5
910 9 3000 300 80 144.1 100.6
179 16 3000 300 80 144.4 100.6
170 22 3000 300 80 144.5 100.6
161 27 3000 300 80 144.5 100.6
148.5 32 3000 300 80 144.5 100.6

Stea
m
Used
(per
hour)
(Negat (Positi
ive 0 ve
Power
axis) Powe axis)
Outpu
r t
losse
s

Figure 7.11: The Willans Line


Specific
Steam
Specific Steam
Consump
Consumption (SSC)
tion
Curve
kg/kWh) Power
Output (kW)
Figure 7.12: Curve of Specific Steam Consumption

Discussion

 Based on our results the motor power increases as the torque increases which show the
relation power = torque*revolutions.

 The temperature also increases as result of increased motor speed.


 The boiler and motor pressure are constant values of 300 and 80 kN/m^2 throughout the
experiment aswell as the heater power a value of 3KW.

Figure 7.13: The thermodynamic System of the TD 1050


Conclusions

As a result an efficiency for such motor is good for its size. It is used to demonstrate how a
steam motor works in a rankine cycle. It should only be used for commercial use and
demonstrate for students. The objective of the experiment was achieved.

References
[1] Steam Motor and Energy Conversion test set apparatus manual from Tecquipment.

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