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LECTURE # 2

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM - I

By
Ar. Izna Isar
Ar. Khizra Shahzad Dated: September 14th, 2018
THE RELATIONSHIP OF STRUCTURE TO BUILDING

The simplest way of describing the function of an architectural structure is to say that it is the part
of a building which resists the loads that are imposed on it.

Structure design is a combination of Safety and Economy but keeping in view the functional
aspects as well.

For this purpose a good design has to meet the requirement of;

Strength
 It is the ability of the material of structure and its parts to resist the forces setup within them by
the applied load.

Stability
 It is the ability of structure to serve the purpose & resist overall movement e.g. overturning and
to resist excessive deformation, Deflection, Cracking & Vibration.
PROPERTRIES OF STRUCTURE TO BUILDING

To perform its function of supporting a building in response to whatever loads may be


applied to it, a structure must possess four properties;

 it must be capable of achieving a state of equilibrium,


 it must be stable,
 it must have adequate strength,
 and it must have adequate rigidity.

Strength
 It is the ability of the material of structure and its parts to resist the forces setup within them by
the applied load.

Stability
 It is the ability of structure to serve the purpose & resist overall movement e.g. overturning and
to resist excessive deformation, Deflection, Cracking & Vibration.
STRESS & STRAIN

Stress:
The stress applied to a material is the force per unit area applied to the material.
The maximum stress a material can stand before it breaks is called the breaking
stress or ultimate tensile stress.

Stress = Force/Area = F/A = N/m2

Stress = stress measured in Nm-2 or pascals (Pa)


F = force in newton (N)
A = cross-sectional area in m2
STRESS & STRAIN

Types of stress:
Tensile Stress
Under tensile stress the bar suffers stretching or elongation.

Compressive Stress
Under compressive stress the bar shortening.
STRESS & STRAIN
Strain:
The ratio of extension to original length is called strain it has no units as it is a ratio of two lengths
measured in metres.

Strain = strain it has no units


L =extension measured in metres
L = original length measured in metres
STRESS & STRAIN RELATIONSHIP

Modulus of elasticity
We know that stress is directly proportional to strain within the elastic limit.
The ratio of stress to strain is a constant which is denoted as k.

Stress/Strain = K
This constant is the measure of the elasticity of the material, hence called “modulus of
elasticity”.
STRESS & STRAIN RELATIONSHIP
Yeild Stress

A material’s tensile strength is determined in the laboratory by pulling on a specimen until it


breaks. While the test is conducted, both the stress and strain are recorded. The maximum stress
that the specimen can withstand is called the ultimate strength of that particular material. From a
design stand-point, we are mainly interested in the stress where the material stops behaving
elastically.
A material behaves elastically when it returns to its original shape when an applied load is no
longer applied. This point is found by plotting stress versus strain during the test and determining
the stress at which the plot becomes non-linear. This stress is called the yield stress.

L = the limit of proportionality.


E = elastic limit, beyond this point the material is permanently stretch and it will not go back to its
original length. Elastic behavior is when a material returns to its original length, plastic behavior is
when the stretched material does not return to its original length.
Y = yield point, beyond this point small increases in force give much big increases in length.
B = breaking point / breaking stress, the material breaks at this point.