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Ports and Harbours Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT)

National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, MLIT


Port and Airport Research Institute

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND


COMMENTARIES FOR
PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES
IN JAPAN
THE OVERSEAS COASTAL AREA
DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE OF JAPAN

2009
Copyright © 2009 by
Authors and Editors
Ports and Harbours Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT)
National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, MLIT
Port and Airport Research Institute
Translator and Publisher
The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan, Tokyo, Japan

All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval systems,
transmitted in any form or by any means, electric, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the authors, editors and publisher.
Ports and Harbours Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT)
National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, MLIT
Port and Airport Research Institute

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND


COMMENTARIES FOR
PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES
IN JAPAN
THE OVERSEAS COASTAL AREA
DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE OF JAPAN

2009
FOREWORD

Foreword

This book is a translation of “the Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and Harbour Facilities
in Japan” (hereinafter called “the Technical Standards”), which summarizes the ministerial ordinance and
public notice articles as well as the related commentaries and technical notes in connection with the “Technical
Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities” established by Japan’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport
and Tourism (MLIT) based on the provisions of the Port and Harbour Law. This translation has been made
with the approval of the authors including the Ports and Harbours Bureau of MLIT, National Institute for Land
and Infrastructure Management (NILIM; also a part of MLIT), and the Port and Airport Research Institute
(PARI; an Independent Administrative Institution).
Japan is an island nation with few underground resources. The country comprises approximately 6,800
islands, and has an area of 380,000 square kilometers and a total coastline of 34,000 km. For this reason,
industry, which supports the nation’s economy, has been located in coastal areas with ports and harbors for
convenience in importing raw materials and exporting products. Given these conditions, Japan has constructed,
improved and modernized approximately 1,100 ports and harbors as well as approximately 3,000 fishing ports
during the past one and a half centuries. Because 99% of trade now depends on ports and harbors, they play
a particularly important role in Japan.
Japan was a closed country for about 220 years, from the early 17th century until the mid-19th century.
Following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, modernization progressed rapidly. During the modernization period,
young Japanese engineers learned from experienced engineers invited to Japan from abroad, and constructed
modern ports and harbors, such as the Ports of Yokohama and Kobe.
The first Japanese manual on port and harbor technology was released in 1943 and was subsequently
revised a number of times. Under the 1974 revision of the Ports and Harbours Law, “the Technical Standards
for Port and Harbour Facilities” are provided in the form of ministerial ordinances. The first edition of the
present “Technical Standards” was published by the Japan Port and Harbour Association in 1979 and it has
been revised three times as of this writing. An English-language edition of the “Technical Standards” was
first published in 1980, and was revised and reissued in 1991 and 2002 corresponding to the revisions of the
Japanese “Technical Standards.”
Because many ports and harbors in Japan face the open sea, a considerable number of ports are exposed
to waves with heights exceeding 10m. Furthermore, many Japanese ports and harbors have been constructed
on thick strata of cohesive soil deposited on the sea bottom. Because Japan is also one of the world’s most
earthquake-prone nations, the facilities of ports and harbors are exposed to severe natural disasters of
earthquakes and tsunamis. Many efforts for technical development have been undertaken to enable construction
of port and harbor facilities that are both safe and economical under these difficult natural conditions. As a
result of these efforts, it is fair to say that Japan possesses the world’s most advanced level of technology for
wave-resistant design, earthquake-resistant design of port and harbor facilities, and countermeasures for soft
ground.
The 2007 edition of “the Technical Standards,” in addition to incorporating the most advanced technology,
has fully incorporated the approach based on “performance-based design” in response to worldwide demands
that the national standards be based on “performance criteria,” as advocated in the TBT Agreement (Agreement
on Technical Barriers to Trade). “The Technical Standards” are consistent with the following international
standards, and represent a compilation of Japan’s world-class knowledge in connection with technology for
ports and harbors:
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

ISO2394 General principles on reliability for structures,


ISO23469 Bases for design of structures – Seismic actions for designing geotechnical works,
ISO21650 Actions from waves and currents on coastal structures.
The system of technical standards in Japan is structured with “ministerial ordinances” and “public notices”
which specify concrete methods in connection with “the Technical Standards” that port and harbor facilities
must satisfy based on the Ports and Harbours Law. They are supplemented with the “commentaries” and
“technical notes” on those ordinances and public notices. Basically, this structure is followed in the English
edition. Although there are duplications in various parts of the explanation, the reader is asked to understand
that such duplications reflect the structure of the Standards in the Japanese version. "Some description on the
performance-based design and the partial factor and system reliability" are included in Annexes as an aid for
the reader’s understanding.
Because technology in respective countries has been developed to conform to the conditions in each
country, there may be aspects of the content of “the Technical Standards” which are difficult for persons from
other countries to understand. For parts which can not be clearly understand, we recommend that the reader
refer to the reference literature for a more detailed explanation of the contents. Those with a keen interest in the
subject may also inquire of the relevant offices of the above-mentioned Ports and Harbours Bureau (MLIT),
NILIM, and PARI.
It is our sincere hope that “the Technical Standards” will contribute to the development of ports and
harbors worldwide and to progress in port and harbor technology.

October 2009

Dr. GODA Yoshimi, Dr. TAKAHASHI Shigeo, Dr. YAGYU Tadahiko, and Dr. YAMAMOTO Shuji
Supervisors for Editorial Works of the English Edition
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Acknowledgement

The publisher, Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan, sincerely appreciates the persons listed below
for their contributions in editing, translating and publishing this Technical Standards.

Members of the Editing Committee for the Japanese version of the Technical Standards published in 2007

Messrs. :
GODA Yoshimi*, KONDOU Kosuke, SHIRAISHI Satoru,
HASHIMOTO Noriaki, KOYAMA Akira, TAKAHASHI Shigeo,
HORII Osami, KUSAKABE Osamu, TAKAYAMA Tomotsuka,
IAI Susumu, MAEDA Susumu TANAKA Hiroyuki,
ISOSHIMA Shigeo, MIZOUCHI Toshikazu, UEDA Shigeru,
KAZAMA Toru, NAGAI Toshihiko, USHIJIMA Ryuichiro,
KITAZAWA Sosuke, ODANI Hiraku, YAMAMOTO Shuji,
KIYOMIYA Osamu, SAHARA Koichi, YOKOTA Hiroshi,
KOMATSU Akira,

The authors of the Japanese version of the Technical Standards published in 2007

Messrs. :
ENDO Kimihiko, KOYAMA Akira, OZAKI Ryuzo,
FUJIMORI Shugo, KOZAWA Keiji, SAHARA Koichi,
FUJIMURA Kiminori, KUNITA Atsushi, SAKAI Yoichi,
FURUKAWA Keita, KURIYAMA Yoshiaki, SAKAMOTO Akira,
GESHI Hiroyuki, MAKITO Taketo, SASSA Shinji,
HACHIYA Yoshitaka, MATSUMOTO Hideo, SATO Hidemasa,
HAMADA Hidenori, MATSUNAGA Yasushi, SHIGA Masao,
HAMAGUCHI Nobuhiko, MIYAJIMA Shogo, SHIMOSAKO Ken-ichiro,
HASHIMOTO Noriaki, MIYASHITA Ken-ichiro, SHIRAISHI Tetsuya,
HASHIZUME Tomoyoshi, MIYATA Masafumi, SUGANO Takahiro,
HIGASHISHIMA Michio, MIYAWAKI Shusaku, SUMIYA Keiichi,
HIRAISHI Tetsuya, MIZUTANI Masahiro, TAKAHASHI Hironao,
ICHII Koji, MORISHITA Noriaki, TAKANO Seiki,
ISHII Ichiro, MORIYA Yoichi, TOMITA Takashi,
ITO Akira, MOROBOSHI Kazunobu, UOZUMI Satoru,
IWANAMI Mitsuyasu, MURAOKA Takeshi, WATABE Kazushige,
IWATA Naoki, NAGAI Toshihiko, WATABE Yoichi
KASUGAI Yasuo, NAGAO Takashi, YAMADA Masao,
KATASE Makoto, NAKAMICHI Masato, YAMAJI Toru,
KAWAI Hiroyasu, NAKAMURA Satoshi, YAMAZAKI Hiroyuki,
KAWAKAMI Taiji, NARUSE Eiji, YOKOTA Hiroshi,
KAWANA Futoshi, NISHIZONO Katsuhide, YONEYAMA Haruo,
KIKUCHI Yoshiaki, NODA Iwao, YOSHIDA Hideki,
KITADUME Masaki, NOZU Atsushi, YOSHINAGA Hiroshi,
KITAZAWA Sosuke, ODA Katsuya, YOSHIOKA Takeshi,
KOHAMA Eiji, OKAMA Tatsuo,

Members of the Editing Committee for this Technical Standards (publishing in 2009)

Messrs. :
GODA Yoshimi*, MURAOKA Takeshi, YAMANE Takayuki,
MATSUMOTO Seiji, TAKAHASHI Shigeo,
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
Members of the Editing Sub-Committee for this Technical Standards (publishing in 2009)

Messrs. :
ITO Hironobu NAGAI Toshihiko, YAGYU Tadahiko*,
MIYAJIMA Syogo, NAGAO Takashi, YAMAMOTO Shuji,
MIYATA Masafumi, TUBOKAWA Yukitomo,

Other contributors

Messrs. :
HIRANO Masayoshi, OKUMURA Tatsuro, TANIMOTO Katsutoshi,
KATOH Kazumasa, OUCHI Hisao, TSUGANE Masanori,
KIHARA Tsutomu, REID Shane UEDA Hiroshi,
KOBUNE Koji SHIOZAWA Toshihiko, YAMASAKI Tsuyoshi
NODA Setsuo, TAKAHASHI Kunio, YOSHIMURA Yasuo,
OHTSU Kohei,

* indicates chiefs of committees.


ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviations

Abbreviations English term


ANSI American National Standards Institute

API American Petroleum Institute

ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

CBR California Bearing Ratio

CD Consolidated Drained

CDL Chart Datum Level

CIQ Customs, Immigration and Quarantine

CU Consolidated Undrained

DOL Deviation of Out Liar

DT Displacement Tonnage

DWT Dead Weight Tonnage

FCL Full Container Load

FLIP Finite Element Analysis Program for Liquefaction Process

FRP Fiber Reinforced Plastic

GPS Global Positioning System

HWOST High Water of Ordinary Spring Tide

HWL Mean Monthly-highest Water Level

IHO International Hydrographic Organization

IMO International Maritime Organization

IPCC International Panel on Climate Change

ISO International Organization for Standardization


JPI Japan Petroleum Institute

JSCE Japan Society of Civil Engineers

LCL Less than Container Load

LWL Mean monthly-lowest Water Level

LWOST Low Water of Ordinary Spring Tide

MIR Minimum Rate of Residual Correction Coefficient

MLIT Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism

MRI Meteorological Research Institute

MSL Mean Sea Level

NILIM National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management

NOWPHAS National Ocean Wave Information Network for Ports and Harbours

OCDI Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan

PARI Port and Airport Research Institute

PC Prestressed Concrete

PHC Prestressed Hightension Concrete

PHRI Port and Harbour Research Institute

–v–
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

PIANC World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure

RC Reinforced Concrete

REC Residue of Correlation Coefficient

RI Radio Isotope

RWL Residual Water Level

SALM Single Anchor Leg Moring

SCP Sand Compaction Pile

SI International System of Unit

SRC Steel Framed Reinforced Concrete

SMB Sverdrup-Munk-Bretshneider

TP Mean Sea Level of Tokyo Bay, Tokyo Peil

UU Unconsolidated Undrained

VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier

WTO World Trade Organization

– vi –
SYMBOLS

Symbols
Symbols Definitions

A sectional area (m 2)
Ap sectional area of pile points (m 2)
As total surface area of a pile (m2)
B width (m), ship breadth (m)
C wind coefficient, center of buoyancy
Cc compression index
CD drag coefficient
CL lift coefficient
CM coefficient of inertia force
Cm coefficient of virtual mass
Cu undrained shearing strength (kN/m 2)
Cv coefficient of consolidation (cm 2/min)
c cohesive force (kN/m 2)
c0 undrained shearing strength of original ground (kN/m 2)
cd design value of soil cohesive force (kN/m 2)
D embedded depth of a foundation (m), pile diameter (mm), depth of waterway (m)
De effective diameter of a drain pile (mm)
Dr relative density
Dw diameter of a drain pile (mm)
d load draft (m), grain size of soil particle (mm)
E Young's modulus of a pile (kN/m 2)
Ef berthing energy of a ship (kN · m)
EI flexural rigidity (kN · m 2)
e void ratio
f coefficient of friction, frequency (Hz)
f'c compressive strength of concrete (N/mm 2)
fd design value of angle of shearing resistance (°)
G shearing rigidity (kN · m 2)
GT Gross Tonnage (t)
g gravitational acceleration (m/s2)
H wave height (m), wall height (m)
H0 deepwater wave height (m)
H’0 equivalent deepwater wave height (m)
H1/10 highest one-tenth wave height (m)
H1/3 significant wave height (m)
Hb breaking wave height criterion (m)
HD wave height for design verification (m)

– vii –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
Hi incident wave height (m)
Ht transmitted wave height (m)
Hmax maximum wave height (m)
h water depth (m), thickness of layer (m)
hc crown height of breakwater above water level (m)
I moment of inertia of pile sectional area (m4)
K coefficient of earth pressure
Ka coefficient of active earth pressure
K0 coefficient of earth pressure at rest
Kd diffraction coefficient
Kr refraction coefficient
KP coefficient of passive earth pressure
Ks shoaling coefficient
Kt coefficient of wave transmission
k seismic coefficient, coefficient of permeability (cm/s)
k’ equivalent seismic coefficient
kCH coefficient of lateral subgrade reaction (N/cm3)
kh seismic coefficient for design verification
L wave length (m), embedded length of a pile (m)
L0 deepwater wave length (m)
Lpp perpendicular length (m)
M moment (kN · m), metacenter
mv coefficient of volume compressibility (m 2/kN)
N N value (Number of blows in 30cm thick of soil by Standard Penatration Test), number of waves
Nq, Nr coefficient of bearing capacity
NS stability number of armor blocks
n stress sharing ratio, ratio of Young's modulus
P acting force (kN)
PB buoyancy (kN)
PH horizontal wave force (kN)
PU uplift pressure (kN)
PV vertical force (kN)
p0 overburden pressure (kN/m 2)
p1, p2, p3 intensity of wave pressure (kN/m 2)
pu uplift pressure acting underneath bottom of vertical wall (kN)
Q longshore sediment transport rate (m3/s)
q surcharge load (kN/m 2), water volume (cm3/s), sediment transport rate per unit width (m3/m/s)
qu unconfined compression strength (kN/m 2)
rs density of soil particle (t/m3)
Rfk characteristic value of circumference resistance of a pile (kN)

– viii –
SYMBOLS
S settlement (cm)
Smax parameter representing the degree of directional spreading of wave energy
S(f) frequency spectrum of waves
Sr relative density of rubble stone against water
t time (s,m,h,d,y), thickness (mm)
T period (s), tensile strength (kN), tractive force (kN)
T1/3 significant wave period (s)
U consolidation rate (%), wind velocity (m/s), current velocity (m/s)
V volume (m3), velocity (m/s), vertical force (kN)
Vp divergent wave velocity (m/s)
Vs transverse wave velocity (m/s)
W weight of wall body (kN), width of waterway (m)
w unit weight of soil (kN/m3), width of crack (mm)
wl tide level (m)
Z section modulus (m3)
α sensitivity factor
β angle of incident wave (°), inverse of distance between virtual ground surface and virtual fixed point (m-1)
δ friction angle on a wall (°)
Δp increment of pressure (kN/m 2)
φ angle of shearing resistance (°)
γ partial factor, unit weight (kN/m3)
γ' unit weight in water (kN/m3)
γb member factor
γi structure factor
γw unit weight of sea water (kN/m3)
η* height of 0 wave pressure above water level (m)
λ1, λ2 coefficient of wave pressure correction
μ static friction coefficient
θ angle of a slope (°), slope angle of slip failure (°)
ρ density (t/m3)
ρa air density (t/m3)
ρd dry density (t/m3)
ρ0, ρw density of sea water (t/m3)
σy bending yield stress of steel member (N/mm 2)
τ shearing stress (kN/m 2)
ψ perimeter length of a pile (mm)

– ix –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

–x–
CONTENTS

Contents

Foreword

Acknowledgement

Abbreviations

Symbols

Part I General

Chapter 1 General Rules. .......................................................................................................................................... 3


1.1 Scope of Application................................................................................................................... 3
1.2 Definition of Terms...................................................................................................................... 4
1.3 Performance-based Design. ..................................................................................................... 8
1.3.1
Performance-based Design Systems................................................................................ 8
1.3.2
Classification of Performance Requirements.................................................................... 8
1.3.3
Performance Requirements............................................................................................... 9
1.3.4
Actions............................................................................................................................. 10
1.3.5
Design Situation................................................................................................................11
1.4 Performance Criteria................................................................................................................ 12
1.5 Performance Verification. ........................................................................................................ 13
1.6 Reliability-based Design Method............................................................................................ 21
1.6.1 Outline of Reliability-based Design Method..................................................................... 21
1.6.2 Level 1 Reliability-based Design Method (Partial Factor Method).................................. 21
1.6.3 Methods of Setting Partial Factors................................................................................... 22
1.6.4 Setting of Target Safety Level and Target Reliability Index/Partial Factors.................... 23
ANNEX 1 Reliability-based Design Method. .............................................................................. 27
ANNEX 2 Partial Factor and System Reliability......................................................................... 36
Chapter 2 Construction, Improvement, or Maintenance of Facilities Subject to the Technical
Standards. ................................................................................................................................................ 39
1 Design of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards............................................................... 39
1.1 Design Working Life.................................................................................................................. 39
2 Construction of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards..................................................... 40
2.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 40
2.2 Substance Set as Construction Plans................................................................................... 40
2.3 Substance Set as Construction Methods.............................................................................. 40
2.4 Content of Construction Management................................................................................... 41
2.5 Substance Set as Construction Safety Management......................................................... 41
2.6 Structural Stability during Construction................................................................................. 41
3 Maintenance of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards..................................................... 42
3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................... 43
3.2 Maintenance Programs............................................................................................................ 44
3.2.1 Maintenance Programs.................................................................................................... 45
3.2.2 Inspection and Diagnosis Programs................................................................................ 47
3.3 Measures Regarding Prevention of Danger. ........................................................................ 48
3.4 Measures Dealing with Out-of-Service Facilities................................................................. 48
4 Environmental Consideration............................................................................................................ 49
4.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 49

– xi –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Part II Actions and Material Strength Requirements

Chapter 1 General ..................................................................................................................................................... 55


1 General. ................................................................................................................................................ 55
2 Other Needs to be Considered......................................................................................................... 55
Chapter 2 Meteorology and Oceanography....................................................................................................... 57
1 Meteorology and Oceanography Items to be Considered for Performance Verification......... 57
1.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 57
2 Winds..................................................................................................................................................... 58
2.1 General. ...................................................................................................................................... 58
2.2 Characteristic Values of Wind Velocity ................................................................................. 60
2.3 Wind Pressure. .......................................................................................................................... 61
3 Tidal Level............................................................................................................................................. 68
3.1 Astronomical Tides. .................................................................................................................. 68
3.2 Storm Surge............................................................................................................................... 69
3.3 Harbor Resonance.................................................................................................................... 71
3.4 Abnormal Tidal Levels.............................................................................................................. 74
3.5 Long-term Variation in the Mean Sea Level. ........................................................................ 74
3.6 Underground Water Level and Seepage............................................................................... 75
4 Waves.................................................................................................................................................... 79
4.1 Basic Matters Relating to Waves............................................................................................ 80
4.2 Generation, Propagation and Attenuation of Waves........................................................... 84
4.3 Wave Transformations.............................................................................................................. 88
4.3.1 Wave Refraction............................................................................................................... 88
4.3.2 Wave Diffraction............................................................................................................... 91
4.3.3 Combination of Diffraction and Refraction....................................................................... 93
4.3.4 Wave Reflection............................................................................................................... 93
[1] General....................................................................................................................... 93
[2] Calculation of Reflection Coefficient.......................................................................... 96
[3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners near the Heads of Breakwaters
and around Detached Breakwaters............................................................................ 96
4.3.5 Wave Shaoling................................................................................................................. 98
4.3.6 Wave Breaking................................................................................................................. 99
4.3.7 Wave Runup Height, Wave Overtopping and Transmitted Waves................................ 105
[1] Wave Runup Height.................................................................................................. 105
[2] Wave Overtopping Quantity..................................................................................... 109
[3] Transmitted Waves....................................................................................................116
4.3.8 Rise of Mean Water Level due to Waves and Surf Beats...............................................117
[1] Wave Setup...............................................................................................................117
[2] Surf Beats..................................................................................................................119
4.4 Long-period Waves................................................................................................................. 120
4.5 Concept of Harbor Calmness................................................................................................ 122
4.6 Ship Waves. ............................................................................................................................. 124
4.7 Wave Pressure and Wave Force.......................................................................................... 128
4.7.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 128
4.7.2 Wave Force on Upright Walls ....................................................................................... 129
4.7.3 Wave Force Acting on Submersed Members and Isolated Structures.......................... 144
4.7.4 Wave Force Acting on Structures near the Water Surface............................................ 148
4.8 Design Wave Conditions........................................................................................................ 152
4.8.1 Setting of the Design Wave Conditions for Verification of Stability of Facilities
and the Ultimate Limit State of Structural Members...................................................... 152
4.8.2 Setting of Wave Conditions for Verification of Harbor Calmness.................................. 154
4.8.3 Setting of Wave Conditions for Verification of Durability, Serviceability Limit State,
of the Structural Members............................................................................................. 155
4.8.4 Conditions of Design Waves in Shallow Waters............................................................ 155
4.9 Actions on Floating Body and its Motions........................................................................... 156
4.9.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 156

– xii –
CONTENTS
4.9.2 Actions on Floating Body............................................................................................... 157
4.9.3 Motions of Floating Body and Mooring Force................................................................ 160
5 Tsunamis............................................................................................................................................. 172
6 Water Currents................................................................................................................................... 178
6.1 The Flow of Sea Water in Coastal Zone. ............................................................................ 178
6.2 Estuarine Hydraulics............................................................................................................... 178
6.3 Littoral Drift .............................................................................................................................. 180
6.3.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 180
6.3.2 Scouring around Structures........................................................................................... 189
6.4 Prediction of Beach Deformation.......................................................................................... 193
6.5 Fluid Force due to Current .................................................................................................... 196
7 Other Meteorology Items to be Considered.................................................................................. 200
7.1 Items to be Considered.......................................................................................................... 200
8 Meteorological and Marine Observations and Investigations.................................................... 201
8.1 Meteorological Observations and Investigations............................................................... 201
8.2 Tide Level Observations and Investigation......................................................................... 201
8.3 Wave Observations and Investigation................................................................................. 202
Chapter 3 Geotechnical Conditions.................................................................................................................... 207
1 Ground Investigation......................................................................................................................... 207
1.1 Methods of Determining Geotechnical Conditions............................................................ 207
1.2 Position, Spacing, and Depth of Ground Investigation Locations................................... 207
1.3 Selection of Investigation Methods. ..................................................................................... 208
2 Ground Constants............................................................................................................................. 210
2.1 Estimation of Ground Constants .......................................................................................... 210
2.2 Physical Properties of Soils................................................................................................... 214
2.2.1 Unit Weight of Soil.......................................................................................................... 214
2.2.2 Classification of Soils..................................................................................................... 216
2.2.3 Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil.........................................................................................217
2.3 Mechanical Properties of Soil. .............................................................................................. 218
2.3.1 Elastic Constants........................................................................................................... 218
2.3.2 Compression and Consolidation Characteristics.......................................................... 218
2.3.3 Shear Characteristics..................................................................................................... 223
2.3.4 Interpretation Method for N Values................................................................................ 228
2.4 Dynamic Analysis.................................................................................................................... 230
2.4.1 Dynamic Modulus of Deformation.................................................................................. 230
2.4.2 Dynamic Strength Properties......................................................................................... 233

Chapter 4 Earthquakes........................................................................................................................................... 235


1 Ground Motion................................................................................................................................... 235
1.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 235
1.1.1
Source Effects................................................................................................................ 236
1.1.2
Propagation Path Effects............................................................................................... 237
1.1.3
Site Effects..................................................................................................................... 237
1.1.4
Nonlinear Behavior of Local Soil Deposit...................................................................... 238
1.2 Level 1 Earthquake Ground Motions used in Performance Verification of Facilities... 238
1.3 Level 2 Earthquake Ground Motions used in Performance Verification of Facilities... 238
1.3.1 Outline............................................................................................................................ 238
1.3.2 Scenario Earthquakes for the Level 2 Ground Motion ................................................. 239
1.3.3 Setting the Source Parameters...................................................................................... 240
1.3.4 Evaluation of Site Amplification Factors........................................................................ 243
2 Seismic Action. .................................................................................................................................. 244
2.1 Modeling and Seismic Action of the Ground - Structure System.................................... 244
2.2 Seismic Action in the Seismic Coefficient Method ........................................................... 244
2.3 Seismic Action in the Modified Seismic Coefficient Method ........................................... 246
2.4 Seismic Action in the Seismic Deformation Method . ....................................................... 246
2.5 Seismic Action in the Seismic Response Analysis of Ground - Structure Systems. ... 247
ANNEX 3 Evaluation of Site Amplification Factors.................................................................. 248
1 Evaluation of Site Amplification Factors................................................................... 248
2 Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis..................................................................... 252
ANNEX 4 Analysis of Seismic Motion. ...................................................................................... 255

– xiii –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
1 Seismic Response Analysis of Local Soil Deposit................................................... 255
ANNEX 5 Evaluation of Ground Motion. ................................................................................... 261
1 Evaluation of Strong Ground Motion........................................................................ 261
2 Seismic Response Analysis of Local Soil Deposit................................................... 265
3 Spatial Variations in the Ground Motion Considered in Performance
Verification of Facilities............................................................................................. 265

Chapter 5 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure.............................................................................................. 271


1 Earth Pressure................................................................................................................................... 271
1.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 271
1.2 Earth Pressure at Permanent Situation............................................................................... 271
1.2.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil......................................................................................... 271
1.2.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil.................................................................................... 273
1.3 Earth Pressure during Earthquake....................................................................................... 274
1.3.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil......................................................................................... 274
1.3.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil.................................................................................... 277
1.3.3 Apparent Seismic Coefficient......................................................................................... 277
2 Water Pressure.................................................................................................................................. 279
2.1 Residual Water Pressure....................................................................................................... 279
2.2 Dynamic Water Pressure....................................................................................................... 280
Chapter 6 Ground Liquefaction............................................................................................................................ 282
1 General. .............................................................................................................................................. 282
2 Prediction and Judgment of Liquefaction...................................................................................... 282
Chapter 7 Ground Subsidence............................................................................................................................. 288
1.1.1 Ground Subsidence....................................................................................................... 288

Chapter 8 Ships......................................................................................................................................................... 289


1 Principal Dimensions of Design Ships........................................................................................... 289
2 Actions Caused by Ships................................................................................................................. 297
2.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 297
2.1.1
Ship Berthing................................................................................................................. 297
2.1.2
Ship Motions.................................................................................................................. 297
2.2 Actions Caused by Ship Berthing......................................................................................... 297
2.3 Actions Caused by Ship Motions.......................................................................................... 304
2.4 Actions due to Traction by Ships. ......................................................................................... 308
Chapter 9 Environmental Actions.........................................................................................................................311

Chapter 10 Self Weight and Surcharge................................................................................................................312


1 General. ...............................................................................................................................................312
2 Self Weight. .........................................................................................................................................312
3 Surcharge........................................................................................................................................... 314
3.1 Static Load. .............................................................................................................................. 314
3.2 Live Load. ................................................................................................................................. 316
Chapter 11 Materials.................................................................................................................................................. 325
1 General.................................................................................................................................................. 325
2 Steel .................................................................................................................................................... 325
2.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 325
2.2 Characteristic Values of Steel............................................................................................... 328
2.3 Corrosion Protection............................................................................................................... 331
2.3.1 Overview........................................................................................................................ 331
2.3.2 Corrosion Rates of Steel................................................................................................ 332
2.3.3 Corrosion Protection Methods....................................................................................... 333
2.3.4 Cathodic Protection Method.......................................................................................... 333
2.3.5 Covering/Coating Method.............................................................................................. 336
3 Concrete. ............................................................................................................................................ 338
3.1 Materials of Concrete. ............................................................................................................ 338
3.2 Concrete Quality and Performance Characteristics.......................................................... 338

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CONTENTS

3.3 Underwater Concrete. ............................................................................................................ 340


3.4 Concrete Pile Materials.......................................................................................................... 340
4 Bituminous Materials......................................................................................................................... 342
4.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 342
4.2 Asphalt Mats. ........................................................................................................................... 342
4.2.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 342
4.2.2 Materials......................................................................................................................... 342
4.2.3 Mix Proportion................................................................................................................ 343
4.3 Paving Materials...................................................................................................................... 343
4.4 Sand Mastic. ............................................................................................................................ 343
4.4.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 343
4.4.2 Materials......................................................................................................................... 343
4.4.3 Mix Proportion................................................................................................................ 344
5 Stone. .................................................................................................................................................. 345
5.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 345
5.2 Rubble for Foundation Mound............................................................................................... 345
5.3 Backfilling Materials................................................................................................................ 345
5.4 Base Course Materials of Pavement. .................................................................................. 346
6 Timber. ................................................................................................................................................ 347
6.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 347
6.2 Strength Performance............................................................................................................ 347
6.3 Durability................................................................................................................................... 349
7 Recyclable Materials......................................................................................................................... 350
7.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 350
7.2 Slag .......................................................................................................................................... 350
7.3 Crushed Concrete................................................................................................................... 351
7.4 Dredged Soil. ........................................................................................................................... 351
8 Other Materials.................................................................................................................................. 353
8.1 Plastic and Rubber.................................................................................................................. 353
8.2 Painting Materials.................................................................................................................... 355
8.3 Grouting Materials................................................................................................................... 355
8.3.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 355
8.3.2 Properties of Grouting Materials.................................................................................... 355
8.4 Asphalt Concrete Mass.......................................................................................................... 356
8.5 Oyster Shell.............................................................................................................................. 356
9 Friction Coefficient. ........................................................................................................................... 358

Part III FACILITIES

Chapter 1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 363

Chapter 2 Items Common to Facilities Subject to Technical Standards................................................. 364


1 Structural Members . ........................................................................................................................ 364
1.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 365
1.1.1 Basic Policy on Performance Verification . ................................................................... 365
1.1.2 Examination of Ultimate Limit State............................................................................... 365
1.1.3 Examination of Serviceability Limit State...................................................................... 366
1.1.4 Examination of Fatigue Limit State................................................................................ 367
1.1.5 Examination of Change in Performance Over Time...................................................... 368
1.1.6 Partial Factors................................................................................................................ 370
1.1.7 Structural Details............................................................................................................ 371
1.2 Caissons................................................................................................................................... 373
1.2.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification .................................................................. 376
1.2.2 Determination of Basic Cross Section and Characteristic Values................................. 377
1.2.3 Actions........................................................................................................................... 378
1.2.4 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 391
1.3 L-shaped Blocks...................................................................................................................... 392
1.3.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 392

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
1.3.2 Determination of Basic Cross Section and Characteristic Values................................. 393
1.3.3 Actions........................................................................................................................... 393
1.3.4 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 395
1.4 Cellular Blocks......................................................................................................................... 398
1.4.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 398
1.4.2 Setting of Basic Cross Section and Characteristic Values............................................ 399
1.4.3 Actions........................................................................................................................... 399
1.4.4 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 402
1.5 Upright Wave-absorbing Caissons....................................................................................... 403
1.5.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification .................................................................. 404
1.5.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 405
1.6 Hybrid Caissons...................................................................................................................... 407
1.6.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 407
1.6.2 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 408
1.6.3 Actions........................................................................................................................... 409
1.6.4 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 409
1.6.5 Corrosion Control............................................................................................................410
1.7 Armor Stones and Blocks.......................................................................................................411
1.7.1 Required Mass of Armor Stones and Blocks on Slope .................................................411
1.7.2 Required Mass of Armor Stones and Blocks in Composite Breakwater Foundation
Mound against Waves.....................................................................................................418
1.7.3 Required Mass of Armor Stones and Blocks against Currents..................................... 421
1.8 Scouring and Washing-out.................................................................................................... 423
2 Foundations........................................................................................................................................ 426
2.1 General Comments................................................................................................................. 426
2.2 Shallow Spread Foundations. ............................................................................................... 426
2.2.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 426
2.2.2 Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Sandy Ground .................................................... 426
2.2.3 Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Cohesive Soil Ground ........................................ 428
2.2.4 Bearing Capacity of Multi-layered Ground ................................................................... 429
2.2.5 Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Actions . .................................................. 429
2.3 Deep Foundations................................................................................................................... 434
2.3.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 434
2.3.2 Characteristic Value of Vertical Bearing Capacity......................................................... 434
2.3.3 Horizontal Resistance Force of Deep Foundations....................................................... 435
2.4 Pile Foundations...................................................................................................................... 439
2.4.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 439
2.4.2 Fundamentals of Performance Verification of Piles....................................................... 439
2.4.3 Static Maximum Axial Pushing Resistance of Pile Foundations................................... 439
[1] General . .................................................................................................................. 439
[2] Static Maximum Axial Resistance of Single Piles due to Resistance of Ground ... 441
[3] Estimation of Static Maximum Axial Resistance from Loading Tests...................... 442
[4] Estimation of Static Maximum Axial Resistance by Static Resistance Formulas.... 443
[5] Examination of Compressive Stress of Pile Material............................................... 449
[6] Decrease of Bearing Capacity due to Joints............................................................ 449
[7] Decrease of Bearing Capacity due to Slenderness Ratio....................................... 449
[8] Bearing Capacity of Pile Groups.............................................................................. 450
[9] Examination of Negative Skin Friction..................................................................... 451
[10]Examination of Pile Settlement................................................................................ 454
2.4.4 Static Maximum Pulling Resistance of Pile Foundations............................................... 454
[1] General..................................................................................................................... 454
[2] Static Maximum Pulling Resistance of Single Pile................................................... 455
[3] Items to be Considered when Calculating Design Value of Pulling Resistance
of Piles ..................................................................................................................... 456
2.4.5 Static Maximum Lateral Resistance of Piles................................................................. 456
[1] General..................................................................................................................... 456
[2] Estimation of Behavior of Piles................................................................................. 457
[3] Estimation of Behavior of a Single Pile by Loading Tests........................................ 457
[4] Estimation of Pile Behavior using Analytical Methods............................................. 458
[5] Consideration of Pile Group Action.......................................................................... 466
[6] Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles.............................................................. 466

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CONTENTS
2.4.6 General Considerations of Performance Verification of Pile Foundations.................... 469
[1] Load Sharing............................................................................................................ 469
[2] Distance between Centers of Piles.......................................................................... 470
[3] Performance Verification of Pile Foundations during Construction......................... 470
[4] Joints of Piles........................................................................................................... 473
[5] Change of Plate Thickness or Material Type of Steel Pipe Piles............................. 473
[6] Other Notes regarding Performance Verification......................................................474
2.5 Settlement of Foundations..................................................................................................... 475
2.5.1 Ground Stress................................................................................................................ 475
2.5.2 Immediate Settlement.................................................................................................... 475
2.5.3 Consolidation Settlement............................................................................................... 475
2.5.4 Lateral Displacement..................................................................................................... 478
2.5.5 Differential Settlements.................................................................................................. 478
3 Stability of Slopes.............................................................................................................................. 484
3.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 484
3.2 Examination of Stability.......................................................................................................... 486
3.2.1 Stability Analysis by Circular Slip Failure Surface ........................................................ 486
3.2.2 Stability Analysis Assuming Slip Surfaces other than Circular Slip Surface................. 488
4 Soil Improvement Methods.............................................................................................................. 490
4.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 490
4.2 Liquefaction Countermeasure Works. ................................................................................. 490
4.3 Replacement Methods. .......................................................................................................... 490
4.4 Vertical Drain Method............................................................................................................. 492
4.4.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 492
4.4.2 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 492
4.5 Deep Mixing Method............................................................................................................... 498
4.5.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 498
[1] Scope of Application................................................................................................ 498
[2] Basic Concept.......................................................................................................... 498
4.5.2 Assumption of Dimensions of Stabilized Body.............................................................. 500
[1] Mixing Design Method for Stabilized Subsoil........................................................... 500
[2] Material Strength of Stabilized Body........................................................................ 500
4.5.3 Conditions of Actions on Stabilized Body .................................................................... 503
4.5.4 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 505
[1] External Stability of Improved Subsoil..................................................................... 505
[2] Examination of Internal Stability . .............................................................................511
4.6 Lightweight Treated Soil Method. ..........................................................................................518
4.7 Blast Furnace Granulated Slag Replacement Method...................................................... 521
4.8 Premixing Method................................................................................................................... 523
4.8.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 523
4.8.2 Preliminary Survey......................................................................................................... 524
4.8.3 Determination of Strength of Treated Soil...................................................................... 524
4.8.4 Design of Mix Proportion............................................................................................... 525
4.8.5 Examination of Area of Improvement ........................................................................... 525
4.9 Sand Compaction Pile Method (for Sandy Soil Ground).................................................. 529
4.9.1 Basic Policy for Performance Verification .................................................................... 529
4.9.2 Verification of Sand Supply Rate................................................................................... 529
4.10 Sand Compaction Pile Method for Cohesive Soil Ground............................................... 533
4.10.1 Basic Policy of Performance Verification....................................................................... 533
[1] Scope of Application................................................................................................ 533
[2] Basic Concept.......................................................................................................... 533
4.10.2 Sand Piles...................................................................................................................... 533
4.10.3 Cohesive Soil Ground.................................................................................................... 534
4.10.4 Formula for Shear Strength of Improved Subsoil.......................................................... 535
4.10.5 Actions........................................................................................................................... 536
4.10.6 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 537
4.11 Rod Compaction Method....................................................................................................... 542
4.11.1 Basic Policy of Performance Verification....................................................................... 542
4.11.2 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 542
4.12 Vibro-flotation Method............................................................................................................ 542
4.12.1 Basic Policy of Performance Verification . .................................................................... 542

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
4.12.2 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 542
[1] Examination using Past Results of Execution.......................................................... 542
4.13 Drain Method as Liquefaction Countermeasure Works.................................................... 543
4.14 Well Point Method................................................................................................................... 543
4.15 Surface Soil Stabilization Method. ....................................................................................... 544
4.16 Liquefaction Countermeasure Works by Chemical Grouting Methods ......................... 544
4.16.1 Basic Policy of Performance Verification . .................................................................... 544
4.16.2 Setting of Improvement Ratio........................................................................................ 544
4.17 Pneumatic Flow Mixing Method............................................................................................ 544
4.17.1 Basic Policy of Performance Verification....................................................................... 544
4.18 Active Earth Pressure of Geotechnical Materials Treated with Stabilizer...................... 545
4.18.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 545
4.18.2 Active Earth Pressure.................................................................................................... 545
[1] Outline...................................................................................................................... 545
[2] Strength Constants................................................................................................... 545
[3] Calculation of Active Earth Pressure ...................................................................... 545
[4] Cases where Improvement Width is Limited............................................................ 547

Chapter 3 Waterways and Basins....................................................................................................................... 552


1 General. .............................................................................................................................................. 552
2 Waterways.......................................................................................................................................... 553
2.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 553
2.2 Depth of Navigation Channel. ............................................................................................... 556
2.2.1 Bases for Verification..................................................................................................... 556
2.3 Performance Verification of Width of Navigation Channel............................................... 560
2.3.1 Verification for Class 1 (Empirical Approach)................................................................ 560
2.3.2 Verification for Class 2 (Performance-based Approach) . ............................................ 560
2.4 Alignment of Navigation Channel (Bends).......................................................................... 575
2.4.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification .................................................................. 575
2.4.2 Performance Verification for Class 2............................................................................. 575
3 Basins.................................................................................................................................................. 577
3.1 Performance Criteria.............................................................................................................. 577
3.2 Performance Verification. ...................................................................................................... 579
[1] Location and Area.................................................................................................... 579
[2] Water Depth.............................................................................................................. 580
[3] Harbor Calmness .................................................................................................... 581
4 Small Craft Basin............................................................................................................................... 582
Chapter 4 Protective Facilities for Harbors....................................................................................................... 583
1 General . ............................................................................................................................................. 583
2 Common Items for Breakwaters..................................................................................................... 585
2.1 Principals of Performance Verification. ............................................................................... 588
[1] General..................................................................................................................... 588
[2] Layout....................................................................................................................... 588
[3] Selection of Structural Type and Setting of Cross Section ..................................... 589
2.2 Performance Verification. ...................................................................................................... 590
3 Ordinary Breakwaters....................................................................................................................... 592
3.1 Gravity-type Breakwaters (Composite Breakwaters)........................................................ 592
3.1.1 Principals of Performance Verification........................................................................... 595
3.1.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 596
3.1.3 Setting of Basic Cross Section ..................................................................................... 597
3.1.4 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 598
3.1.5 Performance Verification of Structural Members.......................................................... 614
3.1.6 Structural Details............................................................................................................ 614
3.2 Gravity-type Breakwaters (Upright Breakwaters).............................................................. 618
3.2.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification .................................................................. 618
3.3 Gravity-type Breakwaters (Sloping Breakwaters).............................................................. 619
3.3.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 619
3.3.2 Setting of Basic Cross Section ..................................................................................... 619
3.3.3 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 620
3.4 Gravity-type Breakwaters (Breakwaters Covered with Wave-dissipating Blocks)....... 622

– xviii –
CONTENTS
3.4.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 622
3.4.2 Setting of Basic Cross Section...................................................................................... 622
3.4.3 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 622
3.5 Gravity-type Breakwaters (Upright Wave-absorbing Block Type Breakwaters)........... 625
3.5.1 Principals of Performance Verification ......................................................................... 625
3.5.2 Setting of Basic Cross Section...................................................................................... 625
3.5.3 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 626
3.6 Gravity-type Breakwaters (Wave-absorbing Caisson Type Breakwaters). ................... 628
3.6.1 Principals of Performance Verification ......................................................................... 628
3.6.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 628
3.6.3 Setting of Basic Cross Section...................................................................................... 630
3.6.4 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 630
3.7 Gravity-type Breakwaters (Sloping-top Caisson Breakwaters)....................................... 632
3.7.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification .................................................................. 632
3.7.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 632
3.7.3 Setting of Basic Cross Section...................................................................................... 632
3.7.4 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 633
3.8 Pile-type Breakwaters ........................................................................................................... 635
3.8.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 635
3.8.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 637
3.8.3 Setting of Basic Cross Section ..................................................................................... 637
3.9 Breakwaters with Wide Footing on Soft Ground................................................................ 640
3.9.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification .................................................................. 640
3.10 Floating Breakwaters ............................................................................................................. 641
3.10.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 641
3.10.2 Setting of Basic Cross Section ..................................................................................... 642
3.10.3 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 642
4 Amenity-oriented Breakwaters........................................................................................................ 646
5 Storm Surge Protection Breakwaters. ........................................................................................... 647
5.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification......................................................................... 647
5.2 Actions. ..................................................................................................................................... 647
5.3 Setting of Basic Cross Section. ............................................................................................ 647
6 Tsunami Protection Breakwaters.................................................................................................... 648
6.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification......................................................................... 648
6.2 Actions. ..................................................................................................................................... 648
6.3 Setting of Basic Cross Section . ........................................................................................... 648
6.4 Performance Verification. ...................................................................................................... 648
6.5 Structural Details..................................................................................................................... 650
6.6 Tsunami Reduction Effect of Tsunami Protection Breakwaters....................................... 650
7 Sediment Control Groins.................................................................................................................. 651
7.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 651
7.2 Performance Verification . ..................................................................................................... 653
8 Seawalls.............................................................................................................................................. 654
9 Training Jetties................................................................................................................................... 657
9.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 657
9.2 Performance Verification . ..................................................................................................... 658
10 Floodgates.......................................................................................................................................... 659
11 Locks .................................................................................................................................................. 661
12 Revetments......................................................................................................................................... 664
12.1 Common Items for Revetments............................................................................................ 664
12.1.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification .................................................................. 664
12.1.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 665
12.1.3 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 665
12.2 Revetments with Amenity Function ..................................................................................... 669
13 Coastal Dikes..................................................................................................................................... 671
14 Groins.................................................................................................................................................. 672
15 Parapets.............................................................................................................................................. 673
16 Siltation Prevention Facilities........................................................................................................... 674
16.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 674
16.2 Facilities for Trapping Littoral Drift and River Erosion Sediment..................................... 674
16.3 Wind Blown Sand Prevention Work..................................................................................... 675

– xix –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
16.3.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 675

Chapter 5 Mooring Facilities ................................................................................................................................ 676


1 General . ............................................................................................................................................. 676
1.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 676
1.2 Dimensions and Layout of Mooring Facilities .................................................................... 678
1.3 Selection of Structural Type of Mooring Facilities . ........................................................... 678
1.4 Standard Concept of Allowable Deformation of High Earthquake-resistance
Facilities for Level 2 Earthquake Ground Motion............................................................... 678
2 Wharves.............................................................................................................................................. 680
2.1 Common Items for Wharves. ................................................................................................ 682
2.1.1 Dimensions of Wharves................................................................................................. 686
2.1.2 Protection against Scouring........................................................................................... 690
2.2 Gravity-type Quaywalls.......................................................................................................... 691
2.2.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification .................................................................. 691
2.2.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 693
2.2.3 Performance Verification .............................................................................................. 701
2.2.4 Performance Verification of Structural Members.......................................................... 709
2.3 Sheet Pile Quaywalls...............................................................................................................711
2.3.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification....................................................................715
2.3.2 Actions............................................................................................................................717
2.3.3 Setting of Cross-sectional Dimensions.......................................................................... 723
2.3.4 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 723
2.3.5 Structural Details............................................................................................................ 743
2.4 Cantilevered Sheet Pile Quaywalls...................................................................................... 744
2.4.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 744
2.4.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 746
2.4.3 Performance Verification................................................................................................747
2.5 Sheet Pile Quaywalls with Raking Pile Anchorages. ........................................................ 749
2.5.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 749
2.5.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 750
2.5.3 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 750
2.5.4 Performance Verification of Structural Members.......................................................... 750
2.6 Open-type Quaywall with Sheet Pile Wall Anchored by Forward Batter Piles..............751
2.6.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification....................................................................751
2.6.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 753
2.6.3 Layout and Dimensions.................................................................................................. 753
2.6.4 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 753
2.6.5 Performance Verification of Structural Members.......................................................... 754
2.7 Double Sheet Pile Quaywalls................................................................................................ 755
2.7.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 755
2.7.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 757
2.7.3 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 757
2.8 Quaywalls with Relieving Platforms..................................................................................... 758
2.8.1 Principles of Performance Verification.......................................................................... 760
2.8.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 763
2.8.3 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 764
2.9 Cellular-bulkhead Quaywalls with Embedded Sections. .................................................. 767
2.9.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 770
2.9.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 773
2.9.3 Setting of the Equivalent Wall Width . ........................................................................... 774
2.9.4 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 775
2.10 Placement-type Steel Cellular-bulkhead Quaywalls ........................................................ 789
2.10.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 789
2.10.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 789
2.10.3 Setting of Cross-sectional Dimensions.......................................................................... 790
2.10.4 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 791
2.10.5 Performance Verification of Structural Members.......................................................... 794
2.11 Upright Wave-absorbing Type Quaywalls........................................................................... 795
2.11.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 795
2.11.2 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 795

– xx –
CONTENTS

3 Mooring Buoys................................................................................................................................... 800


3.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification......................................................................... 802
3.2 Actions. ..................................................................................................................................... 803
3.3 Performance Verification of Mooring Buoys....................................................................... 804
4 Mooring Piles. .................................................................................................................................... 808
5 Piled Piers........................................................................................................................................... 810
5.1 Common Items for Piled Piers...............................................................................................817
5.2 Open-type Wharves on Vertical Piles.................................................................................. 818
5.2.1
Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 818
5.2.2
Setting of Basic Cross-section....................................................................................... 819
5.2.3
Actions........................................................................................................................... 821
5.2.4
Performance Verification............................................................................................... 826
5.2.5
Performance Verification of Structural Members.......................................................... 836
5.3 Open-type Wharves on Coupled Raking Piles. ................................................................. 837
5.3.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 837
5.3.2 Setting of Basic Cross-section....................................................................................... 837
5.3.3 Actions........................................................................................................................... 838
5.3.4 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 838
5.4 Strutted Frame Type Pier....................................................................................................... 841
5.5 Jacket Type Piled Piers.......................................................................................................... 842
5.6 Dolphins.................................................................................................................................... 844
5.6.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 844
5.6.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 845
5.6.3 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 846
[1] Pile Type Dolphins.................................................................................................... 846
[2] Steel Cell Type Dolphins.......................................................................................... 846
[3] Caisson Type Dolphins............................................................................................. 846
5.7 Detached Piers........................................................................................................................ 847
5.7.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 847
5.7.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 848
5.7.3 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 848
6 Floating Piers..................................................................................................................................... 851
6.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification......................................................................... 854
6.2 Setting the Basic Cross-section. .......................................................................................... 856
6.3 Actions. ..................................................................................................................................... 857
6.4 Performance Verification. ...................................................................................................... 858
7 Shallow Draft Wharves..................................................................................................................... 864
8 Boat Lift Yards and Landing Facilities for Air Cushion Craft...................................................... 865
8.1 Boat Lift Yards. ........................................................................................................................ 865
8.1.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 865
8.1.2 Location Selection of Boat Lift Yard............................................................................... 866
8.1.3 Dimensions of Each Part............................................................................................... 866
[1] Requirements for Usability....................................................................................... 866
[2] Height of Each Part.................................................................................................. 866
[3] Front Water Depth.................................................................................................... 867
[4] Gradient of Slipway ................................................................................................. 867
[5] Area of Front Basin . ................................................................................................ 867
8.2 Landing Facilities for Air Cushion Craft............................................................................... 867
8.2.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 867
8.2.2 Selection of Location...................................................................................................... 868
8.2.3 Dimensions of Each Part............................................................................................... 868
[1] Slipway..................................................................................................................... 869
[2] Apron........................................................................................................................ 869
[3] Hangar...................................................................................................................... 869
9 Ancillary of Mooring Facilities.......................................................................................................... 870
9.1 Mooring Posts and Mooring Rings....................................................................................... 870
9.1.1 Position of Mooring Posts and Mooring Rings............................................................... 871
9.1.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 872
9.1.3 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 873
9.2 Fender Equipment................................................................................................................... 875

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
9.2.1 Fundamentals of the Performance Verification of Fender Equipment........................... 875
9.2.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 876
9.2.3 Layout of Fenders.......................................................................................................... 877
9.2.4 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 877
[1] General..................................................................................................................... 877
[2] Performance Verification.......................................................................................... 878
9.3 Lighting Facilities..................................................................................................................... 881
9.3.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 881
9.3.2 Standard Intensity of Illumination................................................................................... 881
[1] General..................................................................................................................... 881
[2] Standard Intensity of Illumination for Outdoor Lighting............................................ 881
[3] Standard Intensity of Illumination for Indoor Lighting............................................... 882
9.3.3 Selection of Light Sources............................................................................................. 882
9.3.4 Selection of Apparatuses............................................................................................... 883
[1] Outdoor Lighting....................................................................................................... 883
[2] Indoor Lighting.......................................................................................................... 883
9.3.5 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 883
9.3.6 Maintenance................................................................................................................... 883
[1] Inspection................................................................................................................. 883
9.4 Lifesaving Facilities................................................................................................................. 884
9.5 Curbings. .................................................................................................................................. 884
9.5.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 884
9.5.2 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 884
9.6 Vehicle Loading Facilities....................................................................................................... 885
9.7 Water Supply Facilities........................................................................................................... 886
9.8 Drainage Facilities................................................................................................................... 886
9.9 Fueling Facilities and Electric Power Supply Facilities. .................................................... 886
9.10 Passenger Boarding Facilities............................................................................................... 887
9.11 Fences, Doors, Ropes, etc.................................................................................................... 887
9.12 Monitoring Equipment............................................................................................................. 887
[1] Fundamentals of Performance Verification.............................................................. 887
9.13 Signs ....................................................................................................................................... 888
9.13.1 Placement of Signs and Marks...................................................................................... 888
9.13.2 Forms and Installation Sites of Signs............................................................................ 888
9.14 Aprons....................................................................................................................................... 889
9.14.1 Specifications of Aprons................................................................................................ 889
[1] Apron Widths............................................................................................................ 889
[2] Gradient of Apron..................................................................................................... 890
[3] Countermeasures for Apron Settlement.................................................................. 890
9.14.2 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 890
[1] General . .................................................................................................................. 890
[2] Fundamentals of Performance Verification.............................................................. 890
[3] Actions...................................................................................................................... 890
[4] Performance Verification for Concrete Pavements.................................................. 892
[5] Performance Verification of Asphalt Pavements...................................................... 899
9.15 Foundations for Cargo Handling Equipment....................................................................... 904
9.15.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 906
9.15.2 Actions........................................................................................................................... 908
9.15.3 Performance Verification of Pile-type Foundations....................................................... 908
[1] Concrete Beams....................................................................................................... 908
[2] Maximum Static Resistance Forces of Piles............................................................ 909
9.15.4 Performance Verification in the Cases of Pile-less Foundation.................................... 909
[1] Analysis of Effect on Quaywall ................................................................................ 909
[2] Concrete Beams....................................................................................................... 909

Chapter 6 Port Transportation Facilities............................................................................................................ 913


1 General. .............................................................................................................................................. 913
2 Roads.................................................................................................................................................. 914
2.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification . ...................................................................... 915
2.2 Carriageway and Lanes......................................................................................................... 916
2.3 Clearance Limits...................................................................................................................... 924

– xxii –
CONTENTS

2.4 Widening of the Curved Sections of Roads........................................................................ 924


2.5 Longitudinal Slopes................................................................................................................. 924
2.6 Level Crossings....................................................................................................................... 924
2.7 Performance Verification of Pavements.............................................................................. 924
3 Tunnels Constructed by the Immersed Tunnel Method. ............................................................. 927
3.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 929
3.2 Fundamentals of Performance Verification......................................................................... 929
3.3 Determination of the Basic Cross Section. ......................................................................... 930
3.4 Performance Verification. ...................................................................................................... 931
3.5 Structural Specifications........................................................................................................ 932
4 Parking Lots. ...................................................................................................................................... 933
4.1 Examination of Size and Location of Parking Lots............................................................ 933
4.2 Performance Verification. ...................................................................................................... 933
5 Bridges................................................................................................................................................ 935
5.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification......................................................................... 936
5.2 Ensuring of Durability. ............................................................................................................ 937
5.3 Performance Verification of Fenders................................................................................... 937
6 Canals. ................................................................................................................................................ 940
6.1 Performance Verification. ...................................................................................................... 940
Chapter 7 Cargo Sorting Facilities...................................................................................................................... 941
1 General. .............................................................................................................................................. 941
1.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 941
2 Stationary Cargo Handling Equipment and Rail-mounted Cargo Handling Equipment........ 942
2.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 944
2.2 Fundamentals of Performance Verification......................................................................... 944
2.3 Loading Arms (Stationary Cargo Handling Equipment).................................................... 947
2.3.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 947
3 Cargo Sorting Areas......................................................................................................................... 948
3.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 950
3.2 Timber Sorting Areas for Timber Sorting............................................................................ 950
3.3 Cargo Sorting Facilities for Marine Products...................................................................... 950
3.4 Cargo Sorting Facilities for Hazardous Cargoes .............................................................. 950
3.5 Container Terminal Areas...................................................................................................... 950
3.5.1 General.......................................................................................................................... 950
3.5.2 Performance Verification............................................................................................... 951
4 Sheds. ................................................................................................................................................. 957
4.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 957
Chapter 8 Storage Facilities.................................................................................................................................. 958
1 General. .............................................................................................................................................. 958
2 Warehouses. ...................................................................................................................................... 958
3 Open Storage Yards. ........................................................................................................................ 958
4 Timber Storage Yards and Ponds................................................................................................... 959
5 Coal Storage Yards........................................................................................................................... 959
6 Hazardous Materials Storage Facilities......................................................................................... 959
7 Oil Storage Facilities......................................................................................................................... 959
Chapter 9 Facilities for Ship Service.................................................................................................................. 961
1 General. .............................................................................................................................................. 961
2 Water Supply Facilities to Ships...................................................................................................... 961
Chapter 10 Other Port Facilities............................................................................................................................. 963
1 Fixed and Movable Passenger Boarding Facilities...................................................................... 964
1.1 Fixed Passenger Boarding Facilities.................................................................................... 964
1.1.1 Fundamentals of Performance Verification................................................................... 965
1.2 Movable Passenger Boarding Facilities. ............................................................................. 966
2 Waste Disposal Sites........................................................................................................................ 968
2.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 968
2.2 Purposes of Wastes Disposal Seawalls ............................................................................. 968

– xxiii –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
2.2.1 Inert-type Wastes Disposal Sites................................................................................... 968
2.2.2 Controlled-type Wastes Disposal Sites ........................................................................ 969
2.2.3 Strictly Controlled-type Wastes Disposal Sites............................................................. 969
2.3 Fundamentals of the Performance Verification.................................................................. 969
2.4 Performance Verification. ...................................................................................................... 969
3 Beaches.............................................................................................................................................. 972
3.1 General. .................................................................................................................................... 973
3.2 Purposes of Beaches. ............................................................................................................ 973
3.3 Fundamentals of Performance Verification..........................................................................974
3.4 Landscape of Beaches............................................................................................................974
3.5 Amenity..................................................................................................................................... 976
3.6 Conservation of Natural Environments................................................................................ 976
4 Plazas and Green Spaces............................................................................................................... 978

INDEX ......... ................................................................................................................................................................. 981

– xxiv –
Part I General
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

Chapter 1 General Rules

1.1 Scope of Application


This book is a translated version of the major parts of the Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and
Harbour Facilities in Japan, which are referred to as "the Technical Standards" hereinafter.
The Technical Standards are applied to the construction, improvement and maintenance of the port and harbor
facilities in Japan. Fig. 1.1.1 shows the statutory structure of the Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities
in Japan set forth by the Port and Harbour Law, which is composed of the Ministerial Ordinance and the Public Notice
and was enacted in July 2007, supplemented with Commentaries.

Port and Harbour Law Port and Harbour Law Port and Harbour Law
[Article 56, Paragraph 2, Item (2)] Enforcement Order Enforcement Regulations
(Technical Standards for [Article 19] [Article 28]
Port and Harbour Facilities) (Facilities subject to (Stipulation of facilities
the Technical Standards) excluded from coverage)

The Technical Standards


The Ministerial Ordinance

The Public Notice (with Commentaries)

Fig. 1.1.1. Statutory Structure of the Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities

Commentaries mainly provide engineers with explanation on the background to and the basis for the Public
Notice. In addition, Technical Notes are added at many subsections for provision of further explanation and detailed
information. They are intended to assist engineers in designing facilities, by presenting explanation of the investigation
methods and/or related standards, specific examples of structures, and other related materials.

–3–
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

1.2 Definition of Terms


The terms defined hereinafter include those defined in Article 1 of the Ministerial Ordinance and those defined in Article
1 of the Public Notice. The other terms are those used in the present Technical Standards.

Accidental actions
means the actions which can be expected to have a low possibility of occurrence during the design working life and
which have a large effect on the facilities concerned, including tsunamis, Level 2 earthquake ground motion, waves of
extremely rare event, collision by ships and fire.

Accidental situation
means the situation in which the dominating actions are accidental actions, among the states in which one action, or
combination of two or more actions such as accidental actions and permanent actions are considered in the performance
criteria and the performance verification.

Accidental waves
means the waves which have an extremely low possibility of attacking during the design working life of the facilities
concerned, among waves expected to attack at the location where the facilities are to be installed, although which will
have a major impact on the objective facilities in the event of an attack.

Annual exceedence probability


means the probability that an expected or greater action will occur one or more times in one year.

Cargo handling facilities


means the facilities provided for the use in port cargo handling, including stationary cargo handling equipment, rail-
mounted cargo handling equipment, cargo handling areas and sheds.

Characteristic value
means the values representing the respective characteristics of the strengths of the materials comprising structures
and the forces acting on the structures, corresponding to certain probability conditions, by considering the deviations
of these items.

Constructability
means the performance which enables construction while securing safety in construction work within an appropriate
construction period using suitable and reliable methods.

Design value
means the value obtained by multiplying the characteristic value of a design parameter by the partial factor.

Design situation
means the combination of actions considered in the verification.

Design working life


means the period during which facilities satisfy the performance requirements which were set in the design of the
facilities.

Encounter probability
means the probability that the action greater than the action in a certain return period will occur at least once during
the lifetime of the facilities.

Expected total cost


means the total amount of the initial construction cost of facilities and the expected recovery cost of disasters expected
to occur during a certain period.

Facilities against accidental incident


means the facilities in which there is a danger of serious impact on life, property, or socioeconomic activity
accompanying damage of the objective facilities.
Facilities against accidental incident include breakwaters, revetments, seawalls, water gates, quaywalls, buoys,
floating piers, levees, and locks and water gates constructed behind densely populated areas, and in addition, facilities
which handle hazardous cargoes, port transportation facilities used by the general public and vehicles, and tunnels and
bridges for trunk port traffic needs.

–4–
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES
Facilities for ship service
means the facilities provided for the use of ships, including water supply facilities, fueling facilities, and coal supply
facilities for ships, ship repair facilities and ship storage facilities.

Fatigue limit state


means the state in which failure similar to that in the ultimate limit state occurs due to repeated loads acting during
the lifetime of the structure.

Ground motion propagation effects


means the effect on ground motion of the propagation path from the source to the seismic bedrock of the point
concerned.

High earthquake-resistance facilities


means the port and harbour facilities which contribute to the recovery and reconstruction of the port and the surrounding
area when damage occurs due to a large-scale earthquake.
High earthquake-resistance facilities include quaywalls, piers, and lighter’s wharfs which contribute to the transport
of the emergency supplies and the trunk line cargoes, and greenbelts, and plazas, which function as the counter
disaster bases (bases contributing to the recovery and reconstruction of the port and surrounding area).

Level 1 earthquake ground motion


means the ground motion with a high probability of occurring during the design working life of the facilities, based
on the relationship between the return period of ground motion and the design working life of the objective facilities,
among ground motions expected to occur at the location where the facilities are to be installed.

Level 2 earthquake ground motion


means the ground motion having an intensity of the maximum scale, among ground motions expected to occur at the
location where the facilities are to be installed.

Life cycle cost


means the total amount of the initial construction cost of facilities and the expected recovery cost of disasters expected
during the design working life.

Limit state design


means the design method to verify the limit state which is defined as state when a load acts on a structure and some
inconvenience on the functions or the safety of the structure occurs. The states subject to the examination are the
ultimate limit state, serviceability limit state, and fatigue limit state.

Limit state function


means the function showing the relationship between the variable resistance of the structure and the variable force
acting on the structure.
The limit state function provides the limit state of the structures, and is mainly used in calculating the probability of
failure of the structures.

Maintenanceability
means the performance which is capable of continuously securing the required performance necessary in facilities by
implementing repairs and maintenance, within the range of technically possible and economically appropriate against
the deterioration and the damage of the facilities due to the use of the facilities and expected actions.

Maintenance level
means the level of maintenance control set for each member comprising the facilities, considering changes over time in
the members comprising the facilities, the ease of inspection and diagnosis, and maintenance work, and the importance
of the facilities, in accordance with the maintenance control plan for the facilities as a whole.

Mooring facilities
means the facilities where ships moor for cargo handling and passenger embarkation/disembarkation including
quaywalls, mooring buoys, mooring piles, piers, floating piers, lighter’s wharfs and slipways.

Partial factor
means the factor when using the method to verify the performance of facilities by confirming that the design value of
resistance Rd exceeds the design value of the effect of actions Sd, upon defining that the design value for that factor is
the value obtained by multiplying the characteristic value of a factor by a certain coefficient.

–5–
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Performance criteria
means the criteria which concretely describe performance requirements so that performance verification is possible.

Performance requirements
means the performance which facilities must possess in order to achieve their purpose.

Performance verification
means the act of confirming that facilities satisfy the performance criteria.

Permanent actions
means the actions which are expected to act on facilities continuously through the design working life, including self
weight, earth pressure, and environmental actions.

Permanent situation
means the situation in which the dominating actions are permanent actions, among the states in which one or multiple
permanent actions, or combination of permanent actions and variable actions are considered in the performance
criteria and the performance verification.

Port transportation facilities


means the facilities provided for the use in transportation necessary for the use of ports and harbours, including roads,
parking lots, bridges, railroads, rail tracks, canals and heliports.

Protective facilities for harbor


means the facilities which protect waterways and basins such as breakwaters, sediment control groins, seawalls,
training jetties, water gates, locks, revetments, banks, groins and parapet walls, and shore facilities such as facilities
on water area, mooring facilities and cargo handling facilities.

Random variable
means the variable which is characterized by the fact that the value of the variable changes probabilistically, as in
action forces such as waves, winds, and the resistance force of facilities to those forces.

Reliability-based design method


means the method of quantitatively evaluating the probability of failure expected in failure mode(s) when the limit
state to be verified is clearly defined and the failure mode(s) for that state are identified.

Reliability index
means the index showing the safety of a structure until failure with a certain failure probability; expressed by the ratio
of the average value to the standard deviation of the limit state function.

Restorability
means that the facilities can recover their required functions within a short period of time by repairs in a range which
is technically possible and economically appropriate.

Return period
means the average time interval (years) from the time when an action of a certain magnitude or larger occurs until that
action next occurs again.

Safety
means the performance capable of securing the safety of human life; in the event of a certain degree of damage
corresponding to the expected actions, the degree of damage shall not be fatal for the facilities, and shall be limited to
a range which does not have a serious impact on securing the safety of human life.

Sensitivity factor
means the index showing the degree of influence of respective design parameters on the total performance of facilities.

Serviceability
means the performance which enables use without inconvenience from the viewpoint of use; in the case in which
damage does not occur due to the expected action, or limited to a range in which the degree of damage is such that the
facilities can recover their required functions quickly with very minor repairs.

–6–
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES
Serviceability limit state
means the state in which comparatively minor inconvenience such as excessive cracking occurs due to actions that
frequently occur during the lifetime of a structure.

Site effects
means the effects of the earthquake motion to the deposit layers on the seismic bedrock.

Source effects of earthquake


means the effect of the rupture process of the source fault on the ground motion.

Storage facilities
means the facilities provided for the use in the storage of cargoes being handled in ports, including warehouses, open
storage yards, timber ponds, coal storage yards, yards for hazardous cargo and oil storage facilities.

System failure probability


means the probability of failure of the facilities as a whole system caused by a combination of individual failure modes
which occur under uncertain factors.

System reliability
means the reliability of the total system against failure in cases where there are multiple failure modes . The reliability
of the total system will differ depending on whether the failure mode is a series system or a parallel system.

Target safety level


means the level which is the target for defining facilities as being in a safe state in the reliability-based design method.

Ultimate limit state


means the state in which failure occurs in a structure due to the maximum load.

Variable actions
means the actions due to winds, waves, water pressure, water currents, and ship berthing force and tractive force,
and actions such as Level 1 earthquake ground motion, and surcharges which show changes over time during the
design working life that are not negligible in comparison with their average values and are not unidirectional and the
characteristic values of these actions being given probabilistically.

Variable situation
means the situation in which the dominating actions are variable actions among the states in which one or multiple
variable actions, or combination of permanent actions and variable actions are considered in the performance criteria
and the performance verification.

Variable waves
means the waves with a high possibility of attacking during the design working life of the facilities concerned, among
waves expected as attacking at the location where the facilities are to be installed.

Waterways and basins


means the water areas where ships navigate or anchor, such as navigation channels, basins, and small craft basins.

–7–
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

1.3 Performance-based Design


1.3.1 Performance-based Design Systems
Fig. 1.3.1 shows a basic framework of the performance-based design of port facilities.5) References 1), 2), 3), and 4)
are considered as higher-level standards in this system. In the figure, the “objective” is the reason why the facility
concerned is needed, the “performance requirements” is the performance of the facilities needed to achieve the objective
plainly explained from the viewpoint of accountability, and the performance criteria is the technical explanation of a
set of rules needed to verify the performance requirements. According to this hierarchy consisting of the objective,
the performance requirements, and the performance criteria, the “ministerial ordinance to set technical standards for
port facilities” (hereafter referred to as “ministerial ordinance”) corresponding to the higher-level criteria specifies
the objectives and the performance requirements of facilities, and the “public notice to set the details of technical
standards for port facilities (hereafter referred to as “public notice”)” that defines the requirements conforming to the
ministerial ordinance specifies the performance criteria.
The performance verification is an act to verify that the performance criteria are satisfied. No particular method
is mondatory for it. Actual performance verification methods, allowable failure probabilities, allowable deformation
limits, etc. are left to the discretion of the designers of the facilities concerned. This document is therefore positioned
as a reference for the designers to correctly understand the standards stipulated based on the performance criteria.
This document illustrates the standard performance verification methods, allowable failure probabilities, and the
standard ways of thinking about deformation limit values with examples. This document does not, however, intend
to discourage the development and introduction of new technologies. If the designers set performance criteria for the
performance verification of the facilities concerned other than those specified by the notifications and can prove that
the performance requirements are met, they may assume that the facilities concerned conform to the criteria.
Items to be conformed

Performance hierarchy
Objective Ministerial
ordinance

Performance
requirements

Commentary Performance Public


Interpretation criteria notice
notice on standards
Verification
hierarchy
Arbitrary

Performance
verification
items

Appendix

Fig. 1.3.1 Positioning of Performance Hierarchy and Performance Verification

1.3.2 Classification of Performance Requirements


For the sake of convenience, the performance requirements specified by ministerial ordinances of the technical
standards is classified according to the range of applicable facilities, the category of performance, and the allowable
degree of damage. The range of applicable facilities means whether the performance requirements is on a facility-by-
facility basis or common to all facilities. The category of performance means whether the performance requirements
are on structural responses to action or on the requirements for usability of facilities and enhancement of convenience.
Refer to Fig. 1.3.2 for the classification of performance requirements.

–8–
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

On a facility-by-
facility basis Action/response Serviceability

Classified according to
Restorability the allowable degree of damage

Safety
Performance
requirements

Usability/ Usability
convenience

Common to
all facilities Constructability
Classified according to
the category of performance
Maintenanceability

Fig. 1.3.2 Classification of Performance Requirements

1.3.3 Performance Requirements


Performance requirements are the performance required for facilities to achieve their objectives. It includes
performance on the structural responses and structural dimensions, constructability, maintenanceability, etc. of the
facilities. Performance on structural responses of a facility is classified into three categories according to the allowable
degree of damage: (1) serviceability, (2) restorability, and (3) safety.
These categories are arranged in order of the allowable degree of damage: (3) safety > (2) restorability > (1)
serviceability. Fig. 1.3.3 shows the performance requirements for structural responses of port facilities.5) In the
figure, the vertical and horizontal axes show the annual exceedence probability of action and the degree of damage,
respectively. The curve in the figure shows the performance of facilities. Except permanent actions, the characteristic
values of actions are generally determined depending on their annual occurrence probabilities. Different amounts of
action cause different degrees of damage to facilities. Damage to facilities caused by variable or permanent actions
with a relatively high annual exceedence probability is not acceptable. Since protecting facilities from damage by
accidental actions with a very low annual exceedence probability is economically unreasonable, a small amount of
damage to facilities caused by accidental actions is acceptable. The following summarize the basic concepts on
performance requirements for port facilities:
(1) For permanent and variable actions (with an annual exceedence probability of about 0.01 or more), the basic
requirement is serviceability. It is assumed that ensuring serviceability also ensures restorability and safety
against permanent and variable actions.
(2) As for accidental actions (with an annual exceedence probability of about 0.01 or less), satisfaction of performance
either of serviceability, restorability, or safety taking account of the expected functions and significance of facilities.
Except in the cases where facilities are high seismic resistance structure and where damage to facilities affects a
significant influence on human life, property, or social and economic activities, performance against accidental
actions is basically not required. It does not, however, deny the necessity of verification against accidental actions
conducted by the persons responsible for performance verification in facility owners.

The threshold value of 0.01 used in the above Items (1) and (2) is just for the sake of convenience and unrestrictive.
It is only a guide for the cases where design working life falls within a standard range.
For example, when designing a facility having a function of transporting emergency supply materials immediately
after a big earthquake, it is required to set its degree of damage caused by accidental actions small as shown by the
facility A in Fig. 1.3.3 (ensuring serviceability). When designing a facility having a minimum function against
accidental actions, it is necessary to set an allowable degree of damage at a relatively large value and make sure that
the facility does not suffer fatal damage (ensuring safety).

–9–
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

0 Degree of damage

Annual exceedence probability of action


Restorability
Serviceability

Accidental
Safety
Facility A

action
Facility B
0.01

Variable/permanent
Serviceability

action
1

Fig. 1.3.3 Conceptual Diagram of the Relation Between Design situations and Required Performance

Performance requirements for structural responses of the subject facilities of technical standards given in ministerial
ordinances specify, based on the above concepts, the minimum requirements for individual facilities to have from the
view point of public welfare. Responsible persons for the construction, improvement, and maintenance of the subject
facilities of technical standards can therefore set as necessary performance levels higher than these criteria as the
performance requirements for the facilities, taking account of their surrounding situations and required functions.
Requirements for crest heights, harbour calmness, and ancillary facilities are also given as performance requirements
for structural dimensions from the viewpoints of the usability and convenience of facilities. Ministerial ordinances
specify performance requirements for structural responses and structural factors on a facility-by-facility basis.
However, the following performance requirements for constructability and maintenanceability are factors common to
all facilities:
- Constructability: performance required for constructing facilities. Refer to Part I, Chapter 2, Section 2
Construction of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards.
- Maintenanceability: performance required for maintaining facilities. Refer to Part I, Chapter 2, Section 3
Maintenance of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards.

1.3.4 Actions
Actions are classified into three categories mainly according to time history in their amounts and their social risks to
be addressed: permanent, variable, and accidental actions. Table 1.3.1 shows examples of dominating actions to be
considered in the performance verification of port facilities.

Performance verification shall properly take account of the effects of actions on the facility concerned. The
return periods of actions taken into consideration in performance verification shall be appropriately set based on the
characteristics of individual actions, the significance of structures, and the design working life of the facility. It should
be noted that the return period means the average interval between the occurrence of actions of a certain amount or
more and is different from the design working life. For example, the probability that an action with a return period of
50 years (annual exceedence probability: 1/50 = 0.02) occurs during a design working life of 50 years is 1−(1−0.02)50
= 0.64 if the past history of actions does not affect the annual probability of exceedence. Actions with a return
period either longer or shorter than the design working life also have a certain probability of occurence in the design
working life. When the structure of the facilities under construction is different from the one expected at the time of
completion, it is necessary to take account of differences in the effects of actions on the structure during construction.

Table 1.3.1 Classification of Dominating Actions

Category Action
Per ma nent Self weight, earth pressure, environmental actions such as temperature stress, corrosion,
act ion freezing and thawing, etc.
Va r iable Waves, winds, water level (tide level), surcharge of cargo or vehicle, action due to ship
a ct ion berthing/tracting, Level 1 earthquake ground motion, etc.
Accide nt al Collision with a ship or other object except when berthing, fire, tsunami, Level 2 earthquake
a ct ion ground motion, accidental waves, etc.

– 10 –
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

1.3.5 Design Situation


When conducting performance verification, a design situation, which means a combination of actions taken into
account in the verification shall be defined. They are classified into three categories: permanent, variable (where
variable actions are dominating actions), and accidental (where accidental actions are dominating actions) situations.

Actions are generally divided into dominating and non-dominating actions. In the cases where the possibility
of simultaneous occurrence of dominating and non-dominating actions is low, the characteristic values of the
non-dominating actions are likely to be those frequently occurring in a design working life with a relatively high
annual exceedence probability. It is unreasonable to set all characteristic values of actions with a low possibility
of simultaneous occurrence at values with a low annual exceedence probability and to combine them. The general
principle on the combination of such actions is called the Turkstra’s rule.
In conducting performance verification of port facilities, a design situation may have a number of situations in which
dominating actions are different from each other. This document hence uses an expression “--- situation with respect
to --- (dominating action)” to distinguish dominating actions. For example, if dominating actions are variable waves,
“ variable situation in respect of waves” is written.

References
1) ISO 2394 : General principles on reliability for structures, 1998
2) Ministry of Land, Infrastructures and Transport: Basics related to Civil Engineering and Architecture Design, Oct. 2002
3) Japan Society of Civil Engineering: Comprehensive design code (draft)-Principle and guide line for the preparation of
structural design based on performance design concept-, Mar. 2003
4) Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering: design principle for foundation structures based on performance design
concept, Mar. 2006
5) Nagao, T and F. Kawana: performance prescription of the design method for port and harbour facilities, 60th Annual Meeting
of JSCE, 2005

– 11 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

1.4 Performance Criteria


Public Notice
Fundamentals of Performance Criteria
Article 2
The performance criteria for the facilities subject to the Technical Standards as specified in this Public Notice
can be used as the requirements for verification of the performance requirements. The same applies to the
performance criteria not specified in this Public Notice but proved to satisfy the performance requirements
of the facilities subject to the Technical Standards.

[Technical Note]
Performance criteria are the technical regulations needed to verify performance requirements. Meeting the
performance criteria given here is hence considered as meeting performance requirements. Public notices specify
performance criteria on only general facilities of dominating structural types. In constructing, improving, or
maintaining other structural types of the subject facilities of technical standards, or in assuming specific design
situations, therefore, performance criteria shall be properly specified taking account of performance criteria for
similar structural types and the surrounding situations of the facilities concerned.
Performance criteria given in public notices specify, according to performance requirements, the performance
required for facilities to have from the viewpoint of public welfare. Responsible persons for constructing, improving,
or maintaining the subject facilities of technical standards can hence set higher-level codes than those given in public
notices. In such cases, however, the setting should be appropriately made based on a proper approach such as life cycle
cost minimization.

– 12 –
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

1.5 Performance Verification


Public Notice
Fundamentals of Performance Verification
Article 3
1 Performance verification of the facilities subject to the Technical Standards shall be conducted using a
method which can take account of the actions to the facilities, requirements for services, and the uncertainty
of the performance of the facilities concerned or other methods having high reliability.
2 The performance verification of the facilities subject to the Technical Standards shall be made in principle
by executing the subsequent items taking into consideration the situations in which the facilities concerned
will encounter during the design working life:
(1) Appropriately select the actions in consideration of the environmental conditions surrounding the
facilities concerned and others.
(2) Appropriately select the combination of the actions in consideration of the possible simultaneous
occurrence of dominant and non-dominant actions.
(3) Select the materials of the facilities concerned in consideration of their characteristics and the
environmental influences on them, and appropriately specify their physical properties.
[Commentary]
(1) Fundamentals of Performance Verification
① Methods capable of taking account of actions, requirements for services, and the uncertainty of the
performance of the facilities concerned
The methods capable of taking account of requirements for services and the uncertainty of the
facility performance concerned are the performance verification methods capable of properly taking
account of the uncertainty of the performance of the facilities concerned such as the uncertainty of
actions and strengths caused by the uncertainty inherent to various design parameters such as natural
conditions, material characteristics, and analysis methods. Reliability-based design methods shall be
generally used.
The performance verification using a reliability design method needs to properly evaluate actions,
and the uncertainty inherent to various design parameters relating to the performance of the facilities
concerned and properly set target failure probabilities or reliability indices.
The performance verification using the level 1 reliability-based design method (partial factors
method) needs to properly evaluate the uncertainty of design parameters and set the partial factors
reflecting target reliability indices.
② Other reliable methods
Other reliable methods are in principle performance verification methods to specifically and
quantitatively evaluate the performance of the facilities concerned. They generally include numerical
analysis methods, model test methods, and in situ test methods. If these methods are inappropriate to
use, however, methods to indirectly evaluate the performance of the facilities concerned based on past
experiences taking account of various conditions such as natural conditions can be interpreted as one
of the other reliable methods.
③ Corrosion of steel products
The performance verification of the subject facilities of technical standards shall be carried out
properly taking account of the corrosion of steel products according to various conditions such as
natural conditions. Since the steel products used for the subject facilities of technical standards are
generally installed in highly corrosive environments, anticorrosion measures shall be taken using
anticorrosion methods such as cathodic protection methods, coating methods, etc.
(1) Performance Verification Methods and Performance Criteria
Performance verification is an act to verify that performance criteria are satisfied. Ministerial ordinances
and public notices do not define specifications for verification. Designers conducting performance
verification shall take responsibility for using reliable methods. Table 1.3.2 summarizes currently
available verification methods on structural responses to actions recommended for individual design
situations. Reliability-based design methods are in principle applied to the performance verification
for permanent and variable situations, and numerical analysis methods are used for accidental situation.
If the methods shown in Table 1.3.2 cannot be used due to insufficient technical knowledge, methods

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

based on past experiences may be used. When using the verification methods shown above, note the
following:
① Reliability-based design methods
The performance verification using a reliability-based design method needs to properly evaluate actions,
strengths, and the uncertainty inherent to various design parameters relating to the performance of the
facilities concerned and properly set target failure probabilities or reliability indices. The performance
verification using the level 1 reliability-based design method (partial factor method) needs to properly
evaluate the uncertainty of design parameters and set the partial factors reflecting target reliability
indices.
② Numerical analysis methods
The performance verification using a numerical analysis method needs to study the applicability of
the method concerned from the viewpoints of the behaviors of actual structures in the past and the
reproducibility of test results and carefully judge the reliability of the method concerned.
③ Model test methods or in-situ test methods
The performance verification using a model test method or a in-situ test method needs to carefully
evaluate the performance of the facilities concerned taking account of differences in response between
models and actual structures and of the accuracy of tests and tests.
④ Methods based on past experiences
When performance verification using a method based on past experiences is unavoidable, it should be
noted that the number of actual applications does not necessarily mean high reliability.

Table 1.3.2 Performance verification methods recommended for individual Design situations

Design situation Dominating action Performance verification method


Self weight, earth pressure, winds, Reliability-based design method (partial
waves, water pressure, action due to factor method and others)
ship berthing/tracting, surcharge Model test method, or in-situ test method
Level 1 earthquake ground motion Reliability-based design method (partial
Permanent situation
factor method and others)
Variable situation Numerical analysis method (nonlinear
seismic response analysis taking account
of dynamic interaction between the
ground and the structure)
Model test method
Collision with a ship, tsunami, Numerical analysis method (method
Level 2 earthquake ground motion, capable of specifically evaluating the
Accidental situation accidental waves, fire amount of deformation or degree of
damage)
Model test method or in-situ test method

Taking account of the conformity of technical standards to international standards and the
accountability of designers, this document adopts the following methods: for the permanent and
variable situations, a reliability-based design method capable of quantitatively evaluating the stability
of facilities; for the accidental situation, a numerical analysis method capable of specifically evaluating
the amount of deformation and the degree of damage caused by actions.
A typical breakwater with a design working life of about 50 years, for example, needs to have
usability against waves with a 50 year return period. Verify the usability by checking that the
probability of failure against the sliding, overturning and foundation failure of the breakwater is not
higher than the allowable value. Setting this allowable failure probability at a value as low as about
1% shall be considered to ensure the serviceability.
In performance verification for the accidental situation, properly assume actions that have a low
possibility of occurrence in the area concerned but are unignorable to ensure social safety based
on disaster cases and scenarios, use a numerical analysis method to evaluate the responses of the
facility concerned to the actions, and judge if the degree of damage falls within a permissible range.
Persons responsible for performance verification shall properly set a permissible range of deformation
depending on the functions required for the facility after suffering damage from the actions concerned.
Other performance verification methods shall include the methods that persons in charge of

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Table 1.3.3 Expected Performance Verification Methods for Each Facility or Structure Type, and for Each Design situation and Verification Item (1/4)
Facilities that can follow this
Assumed performance verification method performance verification
method
Reliability design method Methods based
Facility or structure
Design situation Verification item Level 3 reliability on specifications Methods based on
type Methods based
Level 1 reliability design methods Numerical analysis method of previous similar structure
design methods (methods on empirical
(dynamic analysis method) design methods types or other
(partial factor that consider determinations
(formal partial standards
methods) probabilistic
deformation) factor methods)

Permanent situation related Ground slip failure ○ Upright breakwater, gravity


to self weight type special breakwater,
Variable situation associated Sliding or overturning of the upright ○ ○ sediment control groin, groin,
with waves portion, bearing capacity of the Sliding
foundation ground
training jetty, etc.

Variable situation associated Sliding or overturning of the ○ ○


Composite with level 1 earthquake upright portion, bearing capacity
breakwater ground motion of the foundation ground
Accidental situation Deformation/damage ○ ○
Level 2 earthquake ground Tsunami, etc.
motion
– Crown height, harbor calmness, ○
etc.
Permanent situation Ground slip failure ○ Rubble revetment, etc.
associated with self weight

– 15 –
Variable situation associated Sliding or overturning of the ○
with waves superstructure, failure of the
ground, etc.

Variable situation associated Sliding or overturning of the ○ ○


Sloping breakwater with level 1 earthquake superstructure, failure of the
ground motion ground, etc.

Accidental situation Sliding or overturning of the ○ ○


superstructure, failure of the Level 2 earthquake ground Tsunami, etc.
ground, etc. motion
– Crown height, harbor calmness, ○
etc.
Overall ○
Pile type
breakwater

Breakwater with Overall ○


wide footing on
soft ground
Overall ○ Breakwater, parapet, seawall,
Revetment See mooring etc.
facilities, etc.
Overall ○ Water gate, etc.
Lock

* Expected verifications are shown by ○. As much as possible, this table shows all the verification items for the expected performance verification methods of this document, but does not rule out verification by other appropriate methods. This table does not include determination
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

of liquefaction or study of precipitation, so a separate study is required.


Table 1.3.3 Expected Performance Verification Methods for Each Facility or Structure Type, and for Each Design situation and Verification Item (2/4)
Facilities that can follow this
Assumed performance verification method
performance verification method
Reliability design method
Methods based on
Facility or structure Level 3 reliability Numerical specifications of Methods based on
Design situation Verification item Methods based
type Level 1 reliability design methods analysis method previous design similar structure
design methods (methods on empirical
(dynamic analysis methods (formal types or other
(partial factor that consider determinations
method) partial factor standards
methods) probabilistic methods)
deformation)
Permanent situation Ground slip failure ○ Placement type cellular-bulkhead
associated with self weight quaywall (however, not including
verification of sheer deformation,
Permanent situation Sliding or overturning of the ○ the main bodies of the cells, arcs,
associated with earth wall, bearing capacity of the and joints), gravity type revetment,
pressure foundation ground etc.
Variable situation associated Sliding or overturning of the ○ ○
Gravity type
with level 1 earthquake wall, bearing capacity of the
quaywall
ground motion foundation ground
Variable situation associated Deformation ○
with level 2 earthquake
ground motion
--- Dimensions of the base, ○
ancillary facilities, etc.

Permanent situation Ground slip failure ○ Sheet piled revetment, etc.

– 16 –
associated with self weight

Permanent situation Stress of sheet pile and tie rods ○


associated with earth
pressure
Permanent situation Stress of waling ○
associated with earth
pressure
Variable situation associated Stress of sheet pile, tie rods, and ○ ○
with level 1 earthquake waling
ground motion
Sheet Piled Variable situation associated Stress of tie rods and waling ○
quaywall with ship action

Overall Anchorage work (anchorage ○


TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

wharves, coupled pile


anchorage, anchorage sheet pile,
concrete wall anchorage)

Accidental situation Deformation/cross-sectional ○


associated with level 2 strength of sheet pile, tie rods,
earthquake ground motion and anchorage work
--- Dimensions of the base, ○
ancillary facilities, etc.

Cantilevered sheet Overall ○ Sheet piled revetment, etc.


pile type quay wall
* Expected verifications are shown by ○. As much as possible, this table shows all the verification items for the expected performance verification methods of this document, but does not rule out verification by other
appropriate methods. This table does not include determination of liquefaction or study of precipitation, so a separate study is required.
Table 1.3.3 Expected Performance Verification Methods for Each Facility or Structure Type, and for Each Design situation and Verification Item (3/4)
Facilities that can follow this
Assumed performance verification method performance verification
method
Reliability design method
Facility or structure Methods based on
Design situation Verification item Level 3 reliability specifications of Methods based on
Type Numerical analysis Methods based
Level 1 reliability design methods previous design similar structure
design methods (methods method (dynamic on empirical
methods (formal types or other
(partial factor that consider analysis method) determinations
partial factor standards
methods) probabilistic methods)
deformation)

Double sheet piled All



quaywall

Permanent situation Sheer deformation Placement type cellular-


associated with earth cell crown deformation ○ bulkhead quaywall, cell type
pressure revetment, steel cell type
Permanent situation Sliding of the wall, bearing dolphin, etc.
associated with earth capacity of the foundation ○
pressure ground
Permanent situation Stress of the main bodies of the
associated with earth cells and arcs ○
pressure
Embedded Type Permanent situation Ground slip failure
Cellular-Bulkhead associated with self weight ○
Quaywall
Variable situation associated Sliding of the wall, bearing

– 17 –
with level 1 earthquake capacity of the foundation ○ ○
ground motion ground, cell crown deformation
Accidental situation Deformation
associated with level 2 ○
earthquake ground motion
--- Dimensions of the base,
ancillary facilities, etc. ○

Quaywall with Overall



relieving platform

Variable situation associated Verification of the floating body


with wave or ship action ○

Overall Verification of the mooring


Floating pier ○ Floating breakwater, etc.

--- Dimensions and ancillary


facilities ○

Variable associated with Verification of the anchoring


ship action chain of floating body, ground

chain, sinker chain, mooring
Mooring buoy anchor, etc.
--- Dimensions, etc.

* Expected verifications are shown by ○. As much as possible, this table shows all the verification items for the expected performance verification methods of this document, but does not rule out verification by other appropriate methods. This table does not include determination
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

of liquefaction or study of precipitation, so a separate study is required.


Table 1.3.3 Expected Performance Verification Methods for Each Facility or Structure Type, and for Each Design situation and Verification Item (4/4)
Facilities that can follow this
Assumed performance verification method
performance verification method

Reliability Design Method


Methods based on
Facility or Level 3 reliability Numerical specifications of Methods based on
Design situation Verification item Methods based
structure type Level 1 reliability design methods analysis method previous design similar structure
design methods (methods on empirical
(dynamic analysis methods (formal types or other
(partial factor that consider determinations
method) partial factor standards
methods) probabilistic methods)
deformation)
Variable situation associated Verification of pile axial strength Open-type wharf on coupled
with ship action, level 1 ○ piles, strut type pier, jacket type
seismic action, or loading piled pier, detached piled pier, pile
type dolphin
Variable situation associated Pile stress
with ship action or loading ○

Variable situation associated Pile stress


with level 1 earthquake ○ ○
Open-type wharf ground motion
on vertical piles Accidental situation Deformation/damage
associated with level 2 ○
earthquake ground motion
Overall Verification of earth- retaining ○
section See mooring
facilities, etc.

– 18 –
--- Dimensions of the base,
ancillary facilities, etc. ○

Overall ○
Shallow draft
See mooring
wharf
facilities, etc.
Variable situation associated Stability of members and

with ship action structures
Mooring posts and
mooring rings --- Installation location, spacing,

etc.
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Variable situation associated Berthing energy



with ship action
Fenders
--- Arrangement, etc.

Variable situation associated Verification of pavement



with loading soundness
Aprons
--- Size, width, slope, etc.

* Expected verifications are shown by ○. As much as possible, this table shows all the verification items for the expected performance verification methods of this document, but does not rule out verification by other appropriate methods. This table does not include determination
of liquefaction or study of precipitation, so a separate study is required.
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

performance verification can freely select. Methods of performance verification other than those
listed in Table 1.3.2 may be used for the performance verification of the subject facilities of technical
standards. The persons in charge may also adopt new verification methods. The methods capable
of specifically evaluating the performance of the facility concerned, such as those to probabilistic
evaluation of indices like a total amount of deformation incurred during the design working life and
the life cycle cost, are especially recommendable from the viewpoint of the reasonable performance
verification. There may be a method, for example, to verify the performance of the facility concerned
taking account of actions corresponding to various return periods as much as possible.
A typical example is the method to use a total amount of deformation incurred during the design
working life and the life cycle cost as verification indices and their probabilistic control. From the
viewpoint of the reasonable performance verification, such a method should be recommended because
it can specifically evaluate the performance of the facility concerned. Table 1.3.2 has no intention to
exclude these methods.
The above reliability-based design methods and numerical analysis approaches have not been
established as the performance verification methods for all types of port facilities. They are inapplicable
to some facilities. It is therefore necessary to select appropriate performance verification methods
for such facilities, taking account of the methods based on the setting used in conventional design
methods (methods based on the conventional allowable safety factor method and the allowable stress
design method). The methods based on the setting used in conventional design methods are those that
use a verification equation in the form of partial factors with no essential change from conventional
design methods to allow the latest knowledge and findings to be immediately reflected on performance
verification. Table 1.3.3 shows the performance verification methods assumed in this document
corresponding to facility-wise and structure type-wise performance criteria given in public notices.
The verification of the variable situation of the cusing the seismic coefficient method needs to calculate
seismic coefficients for verification. This document describes the methods of calculating seismic
coefficients for verification with the examples of composite breakwaters, gravity-type quaywalls,
sheet pile quaywalls with vertical-pile anchorage, sheet pile quaywalls with coupled-pile anchorage,
open type wharves on vertical-piles, and the ground improved by the deep mixing method or the sand
compaction pile (SCP) method. As exemplified in Table 1.3.4, the methods of calculating seismic
coefficients for verification used for the above types of facilities can also be applied to the other types,
taking account of their structural characteristics. It should be noted that the performance verification
methods shown in this document are only examples and it has no intention to restrict the use of other
verification methods.
(2) Actions
The performance verification of a subject facility of technical standards needs to take account of its
design working life and the performance requirements, and properly set the amounts of actions. The
setting of actions needs to take account of various conditions like natural conditions, and as necessary,
actions during design working life affected by estuarine hydraulics, littoral drift, ground settlement,
ground liquefaction, and environmental actions. For further details on the setting of actions, refer to
the regulations and corresponding commentaries in Article 5 to Article 20 of the Public notice of the
Technical Standards.
(3) Combination of Actions
The combination of actions means the types and amounts of actions simultaneously considered in
performance verification. The setting of the combination of actions needs to properly take account of
the design working life of the facility concerned, its performance requirements, etc. For the combination
of dominating and non-dominating actions assumed in the performance criteria specified in the public
notices of the technical standards, refer to the tables shown in the commentaries of individual facilities.
In setting the combination of actions, non-dominating actions can be assumed to have an amount
with a relatively large annual exceedence probability and occur frequently in the design working life, if
the possibility of the simultaneous occurrence of dominating and non-dominating actions is low.
(4) Selection of Materials
Selection of materials needs to properly take account of their quality and durability. Materials used
for the subject facilities of technical standards include steel products, concrete, bituminous materials,
stone, wood, other metallic materials, plastics, rubber, coating materials, landfill materials (including
wastes), recycled materials (slag, coal ash, concrete mass, dredged soil, asphalt concrete mass, shells,
etc.). Materials conforming to the Japanese Industrial Standards can be assumed to have quality needed
to meet the performance requirements of the subject facilities of technical standards.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(5) Characteristic Values of Materials


Characteristic values of materials mean material properties such as strength, weight per unit volume,
friction coefficient, etc. Designers need to properly set the characteristic values of materials based on JIS
specification values or other reliable quality data. The setting of the physical characteristics of materials
and cross sectional dimensions needs proper consideration of material degradation due to environmental
actions.

Table 1.3.4 Method of Calculating the Seismic Coefficient for Verification, for Each Facility or Structure Type

Facilities for which the


method of calculating the Facilities to which the method of calculating the
Seismic coefficient for verification
seismic coefficient for seismic coefficient for verification can be applied
verification is specified
Composite breakwater Seismic coefficient for verification Composite breakwater (block, cellular block),
(caisson type) considering deformation upright breakwater, sloping breakwater,
breakwater armored with wave-dissipating
blocks, gravity type special breakwater, caisson
type dolphin (not affected by earth pressure), cell
type dolphin (not affected by earth pressure)
Breakwater with wide Operating seismic coefficient –
footing on soft ground (= maximum acceleration /
gravitational acceleration)
Gravity type quaywall Seismic coefficient for verification Gravity type quaywall (l-shaped block, block,
(caisson type) considering deformation cellular block), upright wave-dissipating type
quaywall, embedded type cellular-bulkhead
quaywall, placement type cellular-bulkhead
quaywall, quaywalls with relieving platforms,
caisson type dolphin (affected by earth pressure),
cell type dolphin (affected by earth pressure),
gravity type revetment, embedded type cellular-
bulkhead revetment, placement type cellular-
bulkhead revetment, rubble type revetment
Sheet piled Vertical pile Seismic coefficient for verification Sheet piled quaywall (sheet pile anchorage type,
quaywall anchorage considering deformation concrete wall anchorage type), free standing
sheet piled quaywall, sheet piled quaywall
with raking pile anchorages, double sheet piled
quaywall
Coupled pile Seismic coefficient for verification –
anchorage considering deformation
Open-type Pier Seismic coefficient for verification Open-type wharf on coupled raking piles, jacket
wharf on using the response spectrum type piled pier, strutted type pier, detached piled
vertical piles pier, pile type dolphin, pile type breakwater,
quaywalls with sheet pile walls with supporting
raking piles to the front, mooring pile
Earth- Seismic coefficient for verification –
retaining considering deformation
section
Improved Deep mixing Seismic coefficient for verification –
subsoil method considering deformation
SCP method Seismic coefficient for verification –
considering deformation
* With regard to sediment control groins, training jetties, groins, coastal dikes, parapets, seawalls, locks, water gates, shallow draft
wharves, and slipways, it is possible to consider the structure type and the facility’s response characteristics during seismic movements
when applying the above methods of calculating the seismic coefficient for verification.

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PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

1.6 Reliability-based Design Method


1.6.1 Outline of Reliability-based Design Method
The reliability-based design method is a method in which the possibility of failure of facilities is evaluated using a
technique based on probability theory, and comprises three design levels corresponding to the evaluation method.1)
Evaluations are performed by the failure probability Pf of the structure at Level 3, highest level, by the reliability
index β at level 2, and by a performance verification equation using partial factors, γ at level 1, lowest level as shown
in Table 1.6.1.
When calculating the failure probability in evaluation by the level 3 reliability-based design method, it is generally
necessary to obtain the simultaneous probability density function based on the limit state function, and to perform
multiple integrals on the result. However, conducting of standardization of the simultaneous probability density
function, and calculation of high order multiple integrals accompany difficulty, so that it is not practical normally.
For this reason, techniques such as Monte Carlo Simulation, MCS, etc. are used in numerical calculations of failure
probability. Even in such cases, from the viewpoint of reducing the computational load, it is the general practice to
apply Variance Reduction Techniques, VRT, etc. rather than the primitive crude Monte Carlo simulation. In the level
2 reliability-based design method, a reliability index which is related to the failure probability is used as an evaluation
parameter. The reliability index is calculated based on a method such as First-Order Reliability Method, FORM, or
the like. On the other hand, in the level 1 reliability-based design method, verification is performed by calculating
design values, which are the products of the characteristic values and partial factors, and then confirming that the
design values of resistance Rd are greater than the design values of the effects of actions Sd. Commentaries on the
reliability-based design method are available in References 3) and 4) .

Table 1.6.1 Three Levels in Reliability-based Design Method

Performance
Design verification Evaluation parameter
level equation
Pf T ≥ Pf
Level 3 Failure probability
Pf
βT ≤ β
Level 2 Reliability index
β
R d ≥ Sd
Level 1 Design value
Sd

Regardless of the method selected, in order to make an accurate quantitative evaluation of the performance of
facilities by the reliability-based design method, it is necessary to determine the various indeterminate factors,
namely the design parameters which intervene in the performance verification. If this is not achieved, the calculated
failure probability or reliability index will have no engineering meaning. Furthermore, in order to achieve design
rationalization and construction cost reduction by applying the reliability-based design method, it is necessary to strive
for improved accuracy in estimations of the controlling factors with the greatest effect on the design. This is because,
in addition to the average values of the design parameters, their standard deviations also affect the failure probability
Pf of structures. For this, firstly, it is necessary to designate the controlling factors. For example, evaluation using
sensitivity factors is extremely effective as a technique for this. Here, sensitivity factors are indices that express the
sensitivity or importance of the various design parameters in the performance of the facilities, as described in detail
in 1.6.3 Method of Setting Partial Factors. Because reliability indices and sensitivity factors are used in calculation
of the partial factors in the level 1 reliability-based design method, quantitative evaluation of these values has a large
engineering significance.

1.6.2 Level 1 Reliability-based Design Method (Partial Factor Method)


The international standard ISO 2394 “General Principles on Reliability for Structures” and “Basics of Civil Engineering
and Architectural Design” (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) recommend the partial factor
method as a standard performance verification method for facilities. Considering conformity to these upper-level
standards and simplicity and convenience in practical design work, this document adopts the level 1 reliability-based
design method (partial factor method) as the standard performance verification method. However, this does not
restrict the use of the level 2 and level 3 reliability-based design methods for performance verification. Rather, because
the partial factor method is a simple design method, as described below, adoption of level 2 or level 3 methods for
precise control of the possibility of failure is preferable.
The following summarizes the level 1 reliability-based design method as the standard performance verification

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
method.
The level 1 reliability-based design method is a method in which characteristic values are multiplied by partial factors
in order to calculate design values, and equation (1.6.1) is used to confirm that the design value of resistance Rd is
greater than the design value of the effect of actions Sd in order to verify the performance of the facility.

(1.6.1)
The design values of the effect of actions Sd and resistance Rd are given by equations (1.6.2) and (1.6.3), respectively.

(1.6.2)

(1.6.3)

The design values of the individual design parameters necessary in performance verification such as the wave
action, the ground motion, material characteristics, etc. are calculated from equations (1.6.4) and (1.6.5).

(1.6.4)

(1.6.5)

where
sid : design value of design parameter si of action effect
γ s : partial factor of design parameter si of action effect
sik : characteristic value of design parameter si of action effect
rjd : design value of design parameter rj of resistance
γ r : partial factor of design parameter rj of resistance
rjk : characteristic value of design parameter rj of resistance

Equations (1.6.6) and (1.6.7) give the design values of the simplest action effects and resistance, respectively, when
i = j = 1 (suffixes i, j = 1 are omitted). Equation (1.6.8) expresses the performance verification equation in that case.

(1.6.6)

(1.6.7)

(1.6.8)

1.6.3 Methods of Setting Partial Factors


The above 1.6.2 describes the outline of the partial factor method. We describe here the method of setting the
partial factors.
In the cases where the stochastic variable X has a normal distribution, the partial factor γx used in the level
1 reliability-based design method can be calculated from equation (1.6.9) using the reliability index and the
sensitivity factor described above.

(1.6.9)

where
βT : target reliability index
VX : coefficient of variation of stochastic variable X
µX : average value of stochastic variable X
X k : characteristic value of stochastic variable X

In the cases where the stochastic variable X has a logarithmic normal distribution, the partial factor can be
calculated from equation (1.6.10).

– 22 –
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

(1.6.10)

The stochastic variables used in this document have a normal distribution unless otherwise noted.

1.6.4 Setting of Target Safety Level and Target Reliability Index/Partial Factors
In application of reliability-based design methods, how the target safety level is set is a key issue. Methods of
setting the target safety level include the following method 1):
① Method based on accident statistics
② Method based on the average safety level of conventional design criteria (safety factor method, allowable stress
method)
③ Method based on comparison with other disaster vulnerabilities
④ Method based on the investment effect necessary for avoiding the risk of human loss
⑤ Method based on the minimization of the life cycle cost

A study 6) of the applicability of these methods to port and harbour facilities revealed the following: Method ①
based on accident statistics has difficulty in matching statistics on accidents, which are often caused by human error,
with failure probabilities, which are caused by various levels of actions such as waves and earthquakes, whereas
method ③ based on comparison with other disaster vulnerabilities and method ④ based on the investment effect
necessary for avoiding the risk of human loss do not have high applicability to port and harbour facilities because
they were proposed for facilities with a high possibility of direct human loss due to damage to facilities.
Taking these viewpoints into consideration, this document generally uses method ② based on calibration to
conventional design criteria as the method of setting target safety levels for cases where the probability distributions
of parameters are known and verification methods are compatible with failure mechanisms. However, use of method
④ based on the minimization of life cycle cost is not rejected.
When adopting a method using the life cycle cost as the index, the cost arising during the design working life
(assumed to be 50 years) is generally defined as the life cycle cost, and the possibility of multiple disasters is
considered. Equation (1.6.11) shows the expected value of the life cycle cost. It should be noted that this is a narrow
definition of life cycle cost.

(1.6.11)

(1.6.12)

(1.6.13)

where
LC
E : expected value of life cycle cost
Ci : initial construction cost
m : rank number of action of interest
T : design working life (50 years)
Ef j : expected number of damage occurrence caused by action of interest
Cf : cost of recovery after failure
i : social discount rate
Pf : failure probability due to actions of interest
νj : average annual occurrence rate of action of interest (=1/R)
R : return period of action of interest

Fig. 1.6.1 shows the general concept of this method. Life cycle cost generally shows different trends depending
on the side of the minimum value (optimum value). On the right side (dangerous side) of the minimum value, the
life cycle cost is sensitive to changes in failure probability, and rapidly increases as the failure probability increases.
On the left side (conservative side) of the minimum value, the life cycle cost gradually increases as the failure
probability decreases.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Expected value of life cycle cost


Life cycle cost

Optimum value

Conventional
design method

(ELC)
Initial construction cost

Failure probability Pf

Fig. 1.6.1 Method based on Minimization of Life Cycle Cost

In performance verification of mooring facilities for the permanent situation, the probability distributions of
parameters are known and verification methods are compatible with failure mechanisms. Nevertheless, the use
of method ② is not necessarily appropriate because multiple failure modes exist in each structural type and there
were large differences in the safety levels for each failure mode due to differences in setting in the conventional
design methods.7) Furthermore, the safety levels of the conventional design methods also varied greatly due to the
autocorrelation of ground strength, which is affected by the size of the slip arc as in the case of the circular slip failure
mode.8) When using method ⑤, because it is not necessary to consider the action of multiple annual exceedance
probabilities in mooring facilities in the permanent situation, the expected total cost expressed by the sum of the
initial construction cost and the expected value of failure recovery cost is used as an index, and verification is
performed by finding the failure probability for minimizing this index as the optimum value. In this case, the
expected total cost is given by equation (1.6.14).

(1.6.14)
where
TC
E : expected total cost
Ci : initial construction cost
Pf : failure probability due to action of interest
Cf : cost of recovery after failure

The method of setting partial factors used in this document is based on the following concept.
In the cases where the probability distributions of parameters are known and verification methods are compatible
with failure mechanisms, partial factors are generally determined based on calibration to conventional design
methods using the allowable safety factor method and similar approaches.
On the other hand, when in performance verification of mooring facilities for the Permanent situation,
the probability distributions of parameters are known and the verification methods are compatible with failure
mechanisms, but using the partial factors set based on calibration to conventional design methods (allowable safety
factor method, allowable stress method, etc.) sometimes leads to the setting of excessively safe and uneconomical
cross sections. In such cases, this document recommends the use of partial factors set based on minimization of
expected total costs.
In other cases, where the probability distributions of parameters are unknown or verification approaches are not
necessarily compatible with failure mechanisms, the setting of target safety levels/partial factors using a probability
theory is difficult. Therefore, in such cases, this document determines partial factors stochastically, considering the
settings used in conventional design methods (safety factor method, allowable stress method).
Table 1.6.2 summarizes the above-mentioned setting methods by type of facility.

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PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES
Table 1.6.2 Methods of Setting Target Reliability Indexes/Partial Factors of Major Facilities

Method of setting target


Facility Design situation Failure mode reliability index/partial factor
Method based on
Circular slip failure of foundation
Permanent situation minimization of expected
ground total cost
Gravity type
breakwater Sliding of breakwater body Method based on average
Variable situation with respect
Overturning of breakwater body safety level of conventional
to waves Bearing capacity of the foundation design methods
ground
Sliding of wall body
Overturning of wall body Method based on
Permanent situation Bearing capacity of foundation minimization of expected
ground total cost
Gravity type Circular slip of foundation ground
quaywall
Sliding of wall body
Variable situation associated Method based on setting
with Level 1 earthquake ground Overturning of wall body used in conventional design
Bearing capacity of the foundation
motion methods
ground
Embedded length of sheet pile Method based on
Stress of sheet pile minimization of expected
Stress of tie rods total cost
Permanent situation Circular slip of foundation ground
Stress of anchorage work (bearing Method based on setting
used in conventional design
capacity)
Sheet piled methods
quaywall Method based on setting
Embedded length of sheet pile used in conventional design
Variable situation associated methods
with Level 1 earthquake ground Stress of sheet pile
motion Method based on setting
Stress of tie member used in conventional design
Stress of anchorage work (bearing methods
capacity)
Method based on setting
Shear deformation used in conventional design
Sliding methods
Cellular- Permanent situation
Method based on average
bulkhead Stress of cell shell safety level of conventional
type Stress of arc design methods
quaywall
Variable situation with respect Method based on setting
to Level 1 earthquake ground Sliding used in conventional design
motion methods
Method based on
Stress of pile (edge yield of pile head) minimization of expected
Variable situation associated total cost
with actions caused by ships Method based on setting
Open-type Bearing capacity of pile used in conventional design
wharf on methods
vertical piles Method based on average
Stress of pile (edge yield of pile head) safety level of conventional
Variable situation associated design methods
with respect to Level 1
earthquake ground motion Method based on setting
Bearing capacity of pile used in conventional design
methods

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

References
1) Hoshitani M. And K. Ishii: reliability Design method of structures, Kajima Publishing Co., 1986
2) Naga, H: Structural reliability design as basic knowledge, Sankaido Publications, 1995
3) Melchers, R.E. : Structural Reliability Analysis and Prediction, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999
4) Haldar, A. and Mahadevan, S. : Probability, Reliability and Statistical Methods in Engineering Design, 2nd edition, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000
5) Box, G. E. P. and Muller, M. E. : A note on the generation of normal deviates, Ann. Math. Stat., 29 pp.610-611, 1958
6) Nagao, T. Y. Kadowaki and K. Terauchi: Evaluation of Safety of Breakwaters by the Reliability Based Design Method (1st
Report: Study on the Safety against Sliding), Report of PHRI. Vol. 34, No. 1, 1995
7) Nagao, T., Y. Kadowaki and K. Terauchi: Overall system stability of a breakwater based on reliability design method (First
Report)- Discussion on the stability against sliding, Proceedings of Structural Eng., Vol. 51A, pp.389-400, 2005
8) Ozaki, R. and T. Nagao: Study on Application of reliability based design method on circular arc slip of breakwaters,
Proceedings of Ocean Development No. 21, JSCE, pp. 963-968, 2005

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PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

ANNEX 1 Reliability-based Design Method

(1) Level 3 Reliability-based Design Method


In the level 3 reliability-based design method, value of failure probability is assessed directly and cross-sectional
dimensions are determined so that failure probability is equal to or lower than an allowable value. Failure
probability is calculated by multiple integrals of the joint probability density function of random variables in the
failure domain [see equation (A-1.1)].

(A-1.1)

where x1, x2, … xn are stochastic variables, fx(x1, x2, … xn) is the joint probability density function
of the random variables, and g(X) is the limit state function.
The joint probability density function can be expressed by equation (A-1.2), for example, when all
random variables are normally distributed.

(A-1.2)

where Cx is the covariance matrix, and μ is the average value.

fX1X2(x1, x2)

fX1(x1)

fX2(x2) x1
μ X1
0 x1 fX1X2(x1, x2)

( μ X1, μX2)

μ X2
Z<0
Z>0
Z<0 Z>0
Z=0
x2 Z=0
x2

Fig. A-1.1 Concept of Failure Probability

Fig. A-1.1 shows the concept of failure probability for a simple case of two independent variables, where
fx1(x1) and fx2 (x2) are marginal probability density functions, and the bell-shaped fx1x2 (x1, x2) is a joint probability
density function. In the cases of two variables, the joint probability density distribution can be expressed as a
bell-shaped distribution in a three-dimensional space and its multiple integrals gives the volume. The multiple
integrals in the whole domain results in the volume = 1. The failure probability is given by the failure domain of
this joint probability density function, i.e., the volume of the domain shown by Z < 0 in Fig. A-1.1.
The application of this multiple integrals to actual problems is, however, difficult in many cases. Triple or
higher-order multiple integrals is generally difficult. In some cases, joint probability density functions cannot be
expressed in an explicit form. In almost all cases, therefore, the value of failure probability is not assessed directly
from equation (A-1.1) but by Monte Carlo simulation (hereafter called MCS).
The following shows the general procedure of MCS:

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

① Pseudo-random numbers (uniform random numbers) are generated.


② The uniform random numbers are transformed into random numbers having a necessary probability distribution
and a correlation.
③ The safety of the structure concerned is evaluated using the combination of obtained random numbers.
④ The above evaluation is performed a large number of times, and the number of trials judged as failure is divided
by the total number of trials to determine the failure probability.

The random numbers generated by computer follow a certain rule depending on needs, and hence are called
pseudo-random numbers. Methods such as the multiplicative congruence method and linear congruence methods
have been widely used as algorithms for generating uniform random numbers. Likewise, at present, build-in
functions for various applications frequently use these methods. It should be noted, however, that the problem of
cycle length, which is one of the requirements for random number generation algorithms, has been pointed out in
the case of the linear congruence method. For this reason, other algorithms such as Mersenne Twister are often
used. The source code of Mersenne Twister is available on the internet.
The transformation of uniform random numbers into other probability distributions is carried out by inverse
operation of the probability distribution function. For example, the following equation (A-1.3) can be used for the
transformation into normal random variables:

(A-1.3)

where ri is a uniform random number, Φ is the standard normal cumulative distribution function, and μ and V
are the average value and the coefficient of variation, respectively.
In addition, the method proposed by Box and Muller 5) is also widely used for transformation into normal
random variables. Other transformation methods include the one using the central limit theorem, which uses the
fact that the sum of random numbers having the same probability distribution approximates a normal distribution.
However, in applying this method, care is necessary with regard to the applicability of the distribution tail,
because a very small failure probability is normally required for structures, and accurate evaluation of such a
small failure probability demands exact reproducibility of the tail of the probability distribution. Accordingly,
due consideration of the applicability of the distribution tail is necessary, especially in assessing value of failure
probability.
In the cases where random variables are correlated, independent random variables must be converted into
correlated random variables using the covariance matrix transformation.
MCS is the method for obtaining an approximate solution from equation (A-1.5) as an alternative to using multiple
integrals as shown in equation (A-1.4).

(A-1.4)

(A-1.5)

where I is a failure judgment function. The above expression becomes 1 for I < 0 and zero for other cases.

When using MCS, the number of trials must be set carefully because the validity of approximation in equation
(A-1.5) depends on the number of trials. In MCS, the number of trials is generally set so that the coefficient of
variations of the failure probability [equation (A-1.6)] will become sufficiently small.

(A-1.6)

where V is the coefficient of variation, pf is the assessed value of failure probability by MCS, and N is the
number of trials.
Following Shooman, 6) the error ε attributable to MCS can be calculated from equation (A-1.7).4) From this,
it can be understood that a small failure probability is likely to result in large error if the number of trials is
insufficient. Therefore, evaluation of probability based on a small number of trials due to the calculation load in
each trial must absolutely be avoided.

(A-1.7)

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PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

Several methods have been devised to improve the calculation efficiency of MCS while maintaining the
necessary calculation accuracy. These are collectively called Variance Reduction Techniques (VRTs), while the
primitive MCS with no special sampling techniques is called the crude Monte Carlo method. It is thought that
VRTs will be used as a standard technique in the future.
The Importance Sampling Method is a typical VRT.7), 8) This method introduces the sampling density function
h(x) in equation (A-1.8)] into equation (A-1.4). In determining the sampling density function, information on the
design point obtained from the FORM, as described below, are used in many cases.7), 8) It must be noted that the
improper setting of the sampling density function may result in slow convergence.

(A-1.8)

Methods of improving calculation efficiency other than the importance sampling method include, for example,
the Adaptive Sampling method, 9), 10) the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, 11) ,12) the Latin hypercube
sampling method, 13) etc. Other methods use Low Discrepancy Sequences called quasi-random numbers 14) without
using the pseudo-random numbers described above.
(2) Level 2 Reliability-based Design Method
The level 2 reliability-based design method assesses the reliability index β, instead of the failure probability, in
order to determine the cross-sectional dimensions so as to obtain a value of β greater than the permissible value.
The failure probability of a structure decreases as the reliability index increases. In some cases, the reliability
index was formerly called the safety index. However, this document will use the term “reliability index.” (The
term reliability index is also used in ISO 2394 and elsewhere.)
The reliability index β and the failure probability pf have the relation shown by equation (A-1.9). Fig. A-1.2
is a graphic representation of this relationship.

(A-1.9)

where Ф is the standard normal cumulative distribution function.

Fig. A-1.2 Relationship between Reliability Index and Failure Probability

Cornell 15) first formulated the reliability index β. Since the method uses only the first and second order
moments (called average value and variance, respectively) of limit state function, it is called the First-Order
Second-Moment (FOSM) method.
Assuming that the limit state function Z simply consists of two variables of the resistance R and the action effect S
(Z = R - S), the reliability index can be obtained from equation (A-1.10). Fig. A-1.3 shows a graphic representation.

(A-1.10)

where μ is the average value and σ is the standard deviation.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

fZ (z)
βσZ
Failure Safe
( Z ≤ 0) (Z >0)
Pf

0 µZ Z

Fig. A-1.3 Reliability index β

The above is the expression for the case of two variables. As a more general expression in the FOSM, the
limit state function g is developed around its average value by Taylor's series expansion method. The average and
standard deviation of the limit state function are evaluated by using terms up to the first order as shown in equation
(A-1.1).
When the limit state function consists of mutually independent random variables xi (i = 1, ---, n), the average
value and standard deviation are evaluated by equations (A-1.12) and (A-1.13), respectively. It must be noted that
the expression is different when the variables are correlated.

(A-1.11)

(A-1.12)

(A-1.13)

where μ is the average value and σ is the standard deviation. The mark ¯ attached to variables such as X and
xi indicates the average value of the symbol.
Equation (A-1.14) gives the reliability index.

(A-1.14)

The reliability index determined by FOSM has the following defects: It does not reflect probability distribution
of random variables. It uses a linear approximation at the average value of the limit state function, and does not
consider the probability distribution based on random variables , it may give a non-negligible error when the
limit state function is nonlinear, and it gives different reliability indexes depending on differences in the form of
expression used for the limit state function (for example, Z = R−S and Z = R/S−1). At the present time, therefore,
more accurate approaches such as the FORM described below are generally used. However, in cases, where the
object of verification is the amount of deformation and the degree of damage of the structure obtained by nonlinear
seismic response analysis, and where the calculation of the failure probability and reliability index using the MCS
described above or the FORM and SORM described below involves a heavy calculation load, using the FOSM is
considered a simple and easy option for reliability evaluation.
Hasofer and Lind 16) proposed a reliability index which overcomes the defects of FOSM. The index gives
accurate results within the range of the first order approximation when the random variables are normal. Rackwitz
and Fiessler 17) later proposed a method which extends that method to the cases of random variables other than
normal ones. Their method is called FORM (First-Order Reliability Method).
In FORM, random variables are transformed into mutually independent standard normal random variables,
and the limit state function in the standardized space consisting of standard normal random variable vectors is
assessed. Next, a search is made to identify the shortest distance from the origin of the standardized space to the
limit state curved surface (curved surface where the limit state function becomes zero). This distance is defined
as the reliability index.
Some points regarding the transformation into standard normal random variables should be noted. First, in
the cases of random variables other than normal ones, these are transformed into the normal random variables

– 30 –
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES
simultaneously giving the same values of probability density and probability distribution at the position of
interest (normal tail transformation). Since the objective here is to find failure probability, the form of the tail
distribution has no effect on the failure probability if the probability density and probability distribution are
identical. Accordingly, the above transformation into normal random variables will not cause error in the failure
probability. Next, in cases where random variables are normal and are also mutually correlated, these must
be transformed into a linear combination of independent normal random variables by Cholesky decomposition.
Furthermore, in cases of mutually correlated general random variables (random variables other than normal ones),
it is also necessary to use the Resenblatt transformation, 18) Nataf transformation 19), etc.
In assessment of the reliability index using FORM, it is necessary to search for the shortest distance between
the origin of the standardized space and the limit state curved surface. Therefore, this method can be considered
as a kind of optimization problem. Various procedures for calculating the reliability index have been proposed
(see References 3) and 4) for details), including a method of calculating convergence on the original coordinate
system. Whichever method is used, it is necessary to note that cases in which convergence is very slow or does
not occur are conceivable, depending on conditions. As described below, the process of searching for the shortest
distance requires the calculation of the directional cosine, and therefore, that of the partial differentiation of the
limit state function. However, if the analytical partial differentiation is not possible, numerical differentiation
may be used.
The reliability index used in FORM can be expressed as shown in Fig. A-1.4 for the simple case of two
independent variables as the random variables. A feature of FORM is to use the linear approximation of the limit
state function with a certain point (design point) as the center for simplification to a problem in two-dimensional
space, as shown in Fig. A-1.3, and express the reliability index as the distance between the origin and the failure
point, without calculating the volume (in the case of two variables) as shown in Fig. A-1.1. The fact that error
is set to the minimum point in this approximation is of vital importance. Because this is the point where the
joint probability density shows its maximum value on the limit state curve surface (surface where the limit state
function is zero), this is the search point. Fig. A-1.4 differs from Fig. A-1.1 in that the variables are transformed
into the standardized space, and as a result, the joint probability density has its maximum value at the origin and
is expressed by the concentric contours. Thus, the design point is the point giving the shortest distance from the
origin to the limit state curved surface.

x2'
g(x1', x2')=0

First-order approximation

g(x1', x2')<0
g(x1', x2' )>0

φ (x2') x'*

x1'

Design point
β φ (x1')

P*f u

φ (x1')

Fig. A-1.4 Reliability Index in FORM

In the cases where random variables are normal and have no mutual correlation, as dealt with by Hasofer and
Lind, 16) the reliability index is expressed by equation (A-1.15).

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(A-1.15)

where
Z : limit state function
X : value of stochastic variable X at the failure point
µ : average value
σ : standard deviation

The process of calculating the reliability index requires the calculation of the sensitivity factor α expressed by
equation (A-1.16). The sensitivity factor α is a linear approximate coefficient of limit state function.

(A-1.16)

where

(A-1.17)

Equation (A-1.16) expresses the directional cosine of the reliability index to each random variable axis in the
standardized space (see Fig. A-1.5). The sensitivity factor has a positive value for the parameters on the resistance
side and a negative value for those on the action effect side, their sum of squares being 1 when the random
variables have no correlation with each other. As is clear from the figure, as the absolute value of the sensitivity
factor of a variable approaches 1, the standardized value at the failure point tends to coincide more closely with
the reliability index. This means that the variable has a large effect on the reliability index.
In cases where random variables are mutually correlated, the correlation coefficient ρ between the random
variables is considered in the standard deviation and sensitivity factor of the limit state function, which are
expressed by equations (A-1.18) and (A-1.19), respectively.

(A-1.18)

(A-1.19)

– 32 –
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

S'
Z=0

Z<0 First-order approximation

β
S'*
cos-1( αR)

R'
R'* 0
cos-1( αs )

Fig. A-1.5 Reliability Index β and Sensitivity Factor α

The application of the FORM enables accurate evaluation of the reliability index within the range of the
first-order approximation. It must be noted, however, that FORM uses the first-order approximation of the limit
state function to evaluate the reliability index. For example, when the hatched area in Fig. A-1.5 shows a real
failure domain, FORM approximates it by the dotted line in the figure, causing an error corresponding to the
area between the solid and dotted lines. Therefore, in cases where the limit state curved surface shows strong
nonlinearity, the FORM may cause error which cannot be ignored.
As an approach to solving the problem inherent to FORM, the Second-Order Reliability Method (SORM) has
been proposed.20) SORM corrects the reliability index obtained by FORM according to the curvature of the limit
state curved surface, as shown in equation (A-1.20).

(A-1.20)

where
β : reliability index obtained by the FORM, κi: principal curvature of the i-th limit state curved
surface.

An important point in reliability analysis is the proper selection of an accurate method according to the
characteristics of the problem concerned.
Another point to note in reliability analysis is a problem of the spatial autocorrelation of the ground
characteristics.21) The natural sedimentary ground is thought to have a correlation distance of several tens of
meters horizontally and several meters vertically. Accordingly, the reliability index and the failure probability
must be assessed giving proper consideration to the vertical correlation in particular. This issue is critically
important in dealing with problems such as analysis of circular slip failure.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Coefficient of variation V of ground strength

1) Small slip arc: The number n of stochastically independent


soil layers crossed by the slip arc is small.

Coefficient of variation V of ground strength

2) Large slip arc: The number n of stochastically independent


soil layers crossed by the slip arc is large.

Fig. A-1.6 Effect of Spatial Autocorrelation

Fig. A-1.6 is a schematic illustration of this problem using circular slip failure problems as an example. If
only vertical correlation is considered, the number of stochastically independent soil layers crossed by a small slip
arc and a large arc is different, as shown in the figure. In such cases, the coefficient of variation of slip resistance
will differ depending on the size of the arcs. For example, assuming for simplicity that soil layers which are
more than several meters apart are independent, the coefficient of variation of resistance when an arc crosses n
independent layers can be expressed as the n1/2th power of V.22) When assessing value of failure probability using
MCS, the physical properties of the ground may be sampled according to the autocorrelation function.

References
1) Hoshitani M. And K. Ishii: reliability Design method of structures, Kajima Publishing Co., 1986
2) Naga, H: Structural reliability design as basic knowledge, Sankaido Publications, 1995
3) Melchers, R.E. : Structural Reliability Analysis and Prediction, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999
4) Haldar, A. and Mahadevan, S. : Probability, Reliability and Statistical Methods in Engineering Design, 2nd edition, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000
5) Box, G. E. P. and Muller, M. E. : A note on the generation of normal deviates, Ann. Math. Stat., 29 pp.610-611, 1958
6) Shooman, M. L. : Probabilistic reliability : an engineering approach, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968
7) Hohenbichler, M., Rackwitz, R.: Improvement of Second-Order Reliability estimates by Importance Sampling, Journal of
Eng. Mech., ASCE, 114, 12, pp-2195-2199, 1988
8) Harbitz, A.: An Efficient Sampling Method for Probability of Failure Calculation, Structural Safety, Vol.3, No.2, pp.109-115,
1986
9) Karamchandani, A., Bjerager, P., and Cornell, A.C.: Adaptive Importance Sampling, Proceedings, International Conference
on Structural Safety and Reliability (ICOSSAR), San Francisco, CA, pp.855-862, 1989
10) Wu, Y. T.: An Adaptive Importance Sampling Method for Structural System Reliability Analysis, Reliability technology
1992, In T.A. Cruse (Editor), ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Vol. AD-28, Anaheim, CA, pp.2I7-231, 1992
11) Iba, Y. et al.: computational statistics II, Markov chain Monte Carlo Method and related topics, Frontier of statistical science,
Iwanami Shorten Publishing, 2005
12) Gilks, W. R., Richardson, S., and Spiegelhalter, D. J. (Editors): Markov Chain Monte Carlo in Practice, Chapman & Hall/
CRC, 1996
13) Architectural Institute of Japan: Non-liner uncertain modeling of structure system, Applied Dynamics Series 6, 1998
14) Tezuka, S. et al.: Computational statistics I, New method for statistical calculation, Frontier of statistical science, Iwanami
Shoten Publishing, 2005
15) Cornell, C. A. : A probability based structural code, Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 66(12), pp.974- 985, 1969
16) Hasofer, A. M. and Lind, N. C. : Exact and Invariant Second Moment Code Format, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics
Division, ASCE, Vol. 100, No. EM 1, pp.111-121, 1974
17) Rackwitz, R. and Fiessler, B. : Structural Reliability under Combined Random Load Sequences, Computers & Structures,
Vol. 9, pp.489-494, 1978
18) Rosenblatt, M. : Remarks on a multivariate transformation, Ann. Math. Stat., 23, pp.470-472, 1952

– 34 –
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES
19) Nataf, A.: determination des distribution don’t les Marges sont Donnes, Comptes Rendus de l’Acamemie des Sciences, 225,
pp.42-43, 1962
20) Breitung, K.: Asymptotic approximations for multinormal integrals, J. Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, 110 (3), pp.357-366,
1984
21) Matsuo, M.: Geotechnical Engineering, Principle and applications of reliability design, Gihodo Publishing, 1994
22) Nagao, T.: Reliability based design way for caisson type breakwaters, Jour. JSCE No.689/1-57, pp.173-182, 2001

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

ANNEX 2 Partial Factor and System Reliability

(1) Partial Factor


As shown by equations (1.6.9) and (1.6.10), the partial factor is set based on the estimation accuracy, sensitivity
factor, and target reliability index of the design parameter. Future progress in research, the development of new
materials, and other factors may improve the estimation accuracy of design parameter, and changes in target
safety levels from the viewpoint of life cycle cost and other considerations are also conceivable. In such cases, it
is necessary to set the partial factors properly, as the sensitivity factors of the design parameters will change. As
methods of setting the partial factor in these cases, the following are considered possible:
① Method of modifying the partial factor using the sensitivity factor adopted before the change in reliability.
② Method of modifying the partial factor corresponding to the change in reliability.23)
③ Method of setting the partial factor by perform ingrecalibration.

The above method ③ is the most preferable from the viewpoint of appropriate setting of the partial factor. Method
② enables simple but reasonable design, and the simplest method ① can also be used.
In cases where the target reliability index βT is changed to βT’, the simple method ① may be used in setting partial
factors if the partial factor is set with either equation (1.6.9) or equation (1.6.10) (in which case βT used in the
equation is written as βT’), using the sensitivity factors, coefficients of variation, and bias of the average values
shown in the table of partial factors for each type of structure.
On the other hand, in setting of partial factors using method ② when the target reliability index βT is changed
to βT’, the partial factors can be set by calculating βT’’ for use in setting the partial factor from the target reliability
indexes βT and βT’, the sensitivity factor, and the coefficient of variation before and after the change, and using
equations (1.6.9) or (1.6.10) (writing βT as βT’’) based on the result.
In cases where method ③ is applied, the partial factor may be set by equation (1.6.9) or (1.6.10) by performing
level 2 or higher level reliability-based design to reevaluate the sensitivity coefficient, and using the target
reliability index and sensitivity factor after the change and the coefficients of variation and the bias of the average
values shown in the table of partial factors for each type of structure.
Adoption of new types of structures and structures having the features of multiple conventional structural
types is also conceivable. These issues are discussed in Reference 24), which describes the method of setting
partial factors for the sloping top breakwater covered with wave-dissipating blocks which has features of two
structural types, the breakwater covered with wave-dissipating blocks and the sloping top breakwater.
(2) System Reliability
In performance verification of structures, verification limited to a single failure mode is rarely sufficient.
Performance verification of multiple failure modes is normally necessary. For example, taking the problem of
stability of a breakwater against external stability as an example, it is necessary to consider three failure modes,
namely, sliding, overturning, and foundation failure. It is necessary to assess the value of failure probability of
the structure as a system taking into account such multiple failure modes. Structural systems are generally of two
types, the series system or the parallel system. A practical issue is the problem of combinations of these systems.
From the viewpoint the external stability of breakwaters, any of the failure modes of sliding, overturning, or
foundation failure is considered as the failure of the structural system. Thus, this type of system is called a series
systems. On the other hand, in the cases where the superstructure is supported by multiple piles, as in piers,
yielding of a single pile is not directly considered failure. Such systems are called parallel systems. In other
words, series systems suffer system failure when any failure mode occurs, whereas parallel systems fail only when
all failure modes occur. The essential definition of the system failure of piers is as described above. However, it
should be noted that this document specifies performance-base codes considering a safety allowance.

(a) Series system (b) Parallel system

Fig. A-2.1 System Reliability

– 36 –
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL RULES

Z1

Z2 Z3

Fig. A-2.2 System Reliability (Case of Three Modes)

In evaluations of system reliability, it is necessary to assess the possibility of higher-order simultaneous failures
among various modes. Fig. A-2-2 shows a conceptual diagram for three modes, where Z1, Z2, and Z3 are failure
modes. Referring to the figure, equation (A-2.1) is a general formula for calculating the system failure probability
P(F) when the number of modes is n.

(A-2.1)

where Zi is the i-th failure mode.

In cases where the modes can be considered independent, equation (A-2.2) expresses the system failure probability.

(A-2.2)

When modes are mutually correlated, the system failure probability cannot be assessed as simply as in the above
equation. Therefore, system reliability has been evaluated with a certain latitude. Ditlevsen 25) bounds are well-
known example of this (equation (A-2.3)).

(A-2.3)

With the Ditlevsen bounds method, a very wide range of reliability may be given in some cases, depending on
conditions. Accordingly, it is generally necessary to perform the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) in order to assess
system reliability. In the cases of two modes, however, system reliability can be evaluated easily using the FORM
results. The system reliability in this case is given by equation (A-2.4). Use of Owen’s method 26) makes it possible
to reduce the integral degree of the double integral term (third term in the right side of equation (A-2.5)) to one. In
this case, equation (A-2.5) gives the system failure probability.

(A-2.4)

(A-2.5)

where ρ12 is the correlation coefficient of the failure modes 1 and 2 and is expressed by equation (A-2.6) using the
inner product of sensitivity factor vectors.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(A-2.6)

where α x,i is the sensitivity factor of the parameter x in the i-th failure mode.

Taking as an example the system reliability assessment method for the external stability of breakwaters
adopted in this document, system reliability can be assessed with sufficient accuracy, 27) even with the upper limits
given by equation (A-2.3), as sliding is frequently the dominant mode among the three failure modes of sliding,
overturning, and foundation failure.
In addition, research is also underway on the assessment of third or higher-order system reliability within
the framework of first-order approximation methods. The methods under study replace the problem of system
reliability in systems with correlated modes of failure with the problem of system reliability in systems having
equivalent independent modes of failure. Among them, FOMN (First-Order Multinormal approach) 28), 29) and
PCM (Product of Conditional Marginals) 30) are well known.
(3) Recent Developments in Reliability Analysis Methods
Taking as examples cases in which it is necessary to assess reliability for residual deformation and the degree of
damage of mooring facilities affected by ground motion, simple assessment of the probability distribution of the
residual deformation and degree of damage included in the limit state function is difficult because these values
must be obtained by second or higher-order nonlinear seismic response analyses, and an extremely large number
of analyses is necessary to calculate their probability distribution. In such cases, the application of methods
such as the MCS, FORM, and SORM is accompanied by difficulties. A conceivable alternative is a simple
evaluation of reliability by FOSM. Because FOSM evaluates the average and standard deviation of the limit state
function through several analyses, the calculation load is dramatically reduced. For actual research examples, see
References 31), 32), and 33).
Reliability analysis is also applicable to the optimization problems in maintenance strategies which consider
deterioration of the material of existing steel structures.34)
The use of stored data and analysis results obtained through the adoption of reliability-based design method
systems reduces variations in the evaluation of various parameters, contributing to reduced construction costs.35)
Therefore, consistent efforts to accumulate various types of statistical data are extremely important.

References
23) Yoshioka, S. and T. Nagao: Determination of partial safety coefficients in accordance with the reliability, Proceedings of
Structural Engineering, JSCE, Vol. 51A, PP.401-412, 2005
24) Miyazaki, S and T. Nagao: A study on determination of partial coefficient of gravity type breakwater having plural structural
characteristics- an example of sloping top caisson breakwater covered with wave absorbing blocks,- Technical Note of
National Institute of Land and Infrastructure Management (NILIM), No. 350, 2006
25) Ditlevsen, O.: Narrow reliability bounds for structural systems, Jour. of Struct. Mechanics, Vol.7, No.4, pp.453-472., 1979
26) Owen, D. B.: Tables for computing bivariate normal probabilities, Ann, Math. Stat., Vol.27, pp. 1075-1090, 1956
27) Yoshioka, K., Nagao T., A. Washio and Y. Moriya : reliability analysis of external stability of gravity type breakwater,
Proceeding of Coastal Engineering No. 51, JSCE, pp.751-755,2004
28) Hohenbichler, M. and Rackwitz, R : First-order cocept5s in system reliability, Structural Safety, 1(3), pp.177-188, 1983
29) Tang, L. K. and Melchers, R. E.: Improved approximation for multi-normal integral, Structural Safety, 4, pp.81?93, 1987
30) Pandey, M. D.: An effective approximation to evaluate multinormal integrals, Structural Safety, 20 (1), pp.51-67, 1988
31) Oshima, Y., Z. Murakmi, H. Ishikawa and T. Takeda: Evaluation system of the stability of earth structure against earthquake,
5th Symposium on the safety and reliability of structures in Japan, Proceeding of JCOSSAR 2003 pp. 691-694, 2003
32) Matsumoto, T., S. Sawada, Y. Oshima, T. Sakata and E. Watanabe: Damage evaluation of underground structure with strong
non-linear behavior due to earthquake, Proceeding of Structural Engineering Vol.52A, JSCE, pp. 1159-1168, 2006
33) Nagao, T.: Simple method for the evaluation of residual deformation of a wharf, Proceeding of Structural Engineering No.
52, JSCE, 2007
34) Nagao, T. H. Sato and S. Miyajima: Discussions on the methodology to choose maintenance measures considering failure
probability, Journal of applied dynamics, Vol.9, pp. 1051-1060, 2006
35) Yoshioka, K. and T. Nagao: rational application method of Level 1 reliability design principle to Caisson Breakwaters, JSCE
Proceeding of Coastal Eng., Vol. 51, pp. 39-70 pp. 856-860, 2004

– 38 –
PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTION, IMPROVEMENT, OR MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES SUBJECT TO THE TECHNICAL STANDARDS

Chapter 2 Construction, Improvement, or Maintenance of Facilities Subject to the


Technical Standards

1 Design of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards


Ministerial Ordinance
Design of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards
Article 2
1 The facilities subject to the Technical Standards shall be properly designed to satisfy their performance
requirements and to avoid adverse effects on their structural stability during construction while considering
environmental conditions, usage conditions, and other conditions to which the facilities concerned are
subjected.
2 The design of facilities subject to the Technical Standards shall be made by properly setting their design
working life.
3 The requirements other than those specified in the preceeding two paragraphs for designing the facilities
subject to the Technical Standards shall be provided by the Public Notice.

Public Notice
Consideration for Construction and Maintenance in Designing
Article 4
Design of the facilities subject to the Technical Standards shall be conducted with due consideration for
proper construction and maintenance of the facilities.

[Technical Note]
1.1 Design Working Life

(1) For determining design working life, the objectives of the facilities concerned, their usage conditions of the
surroundings such as other facilities, as well as the effects of design working life on the setting of actions for
performance verification and on material selection considering environmental effects, shall be properly taken into
consideration.
(2) For determining of design working life, the classification of design working life defined in ISO 2394 (1998) shown
in Table 1.1 may be referred. The standard design working life of port facilities is the one based on the values for
Class 3 in the table.

Table 1.1 Concept of Classification of Design Working Life Defined in ISO 2394 (1998)

Class Expected design working life (year) Example

1 1-5 Temporary structures


Replaceable structural elements such as bridge abutment
2 25
beams and bearings
Buildings and other public structures, structures other than
3 50
the below
Memorial buildings, special or important structures, large-
4 100 or longer
scale bridges

(3) Structural Robustness


It is desirable for the design of facilities subject to the technical standards to ensure their structural robustness, as
well as verifying their performance (i.e. verifying their compliance with the performance requirements specified
in the Ministerial Ordinance for the Technical Standards). Structural robustness refers to the performance that
actions such as unexpected fires, crashes, etc. applied to the facilities concerned or their partial destruction have
no fatal effect on the whole structural system.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

2 Construction of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards


Ministerial Ordinance
Construction of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards
Article 3
The facilities subject to the Technical Standards shall be properly constructed based on the construction
standards provided by the Public Notice to satisfy their performance requirements, while considering
environmental conditions, usage conditions, and other conditions to which the facilities concerned are
subjected.

[Commentary]

(1) Construction of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards


The provision defines constructability as one of performance requirements for all facilities subject to
the technical standards. Construction is the action to actually construct or improve designed facilities.
The construction of facilities subject to the technical standards must meet the performance requirements
demanded by their designers.

2.1 General
The technical standards concerning construction of port and harbor facilities are specified by the Public Notice to
set forth the details necessary for construction of the facilities subject of the Technical Standards (Public Notice of
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism No. 364 of 2007), which is referred to as the "Public Notice
for Construction" hereinafter.

2.2 Substance Set as Construction Plans


Public Notice for Construction
Construction Plans
Article 2
1 Those who construct or improve facilities subject to the technical standards, including contractors, shall
normally prepare construction plans to accurately, smoothly, and safely construct the facilities concerned.
2 Construction plans shall normally include the subjects listed in the following items:
(1) Construction methods of the facilities concerned
(2) Supervision methods for construction work of the facilities concerned
(3) Supervision methods for construction safety of the facilities concerned
(4) Requirements other than those listed in the above three items to accurately, smoothly, and safely
construct the facilities concerned.
3 Those who construct or improve facilities subject to the technical standards shall normally modify
their construction plans when required by changes in work progress or construction site situations.

2.3 Substance Set as Construction Methods


Public Notice for Construction
Construction Methods
Article 3
1 Those who construct or improve facilities subject to the technical standards shall specify construction
methods taking account of the conditions, in accordance with Article 6 of the Ministerial Ordinance,
under which the facilities concerned are placed.
2 Construction methods shall normally specify the subjects listed in the following items:
(1) Construction procedures and the construction specifications of each construction stage from the
beginning to the completion of the facilities concerned
(2) Types and specifications of the major working vessels and machines used for constructing the facilities
concerned

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PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTION, IMPROVEMENT, OR MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES SUBJECT TO THE TECHNICAL STANDARDS

(3) Substance and timing of the measures taken to construct the facilities concerned other than those listed
in the preceding two items

2.4 Content of Construction Management


Public Notice for Construction
Construction Management
Article 4
1 Those who construct or improve facilities subject to the technical standards shall properly supervise
construction works in compliance with the criteria provided in the following items:
(1) Management items, content of management, management methods, quality standards, measurement
frequencies, and methods to analyze measurement results shall be specified on the materials and
structural members used for the facilities concerned, and the quality standards required for the materials
and members shall be ensured.
(2) Management items, measurement methods, measurement densities, measurement units, methods to
analyze measurement results, and allowable ranges shall be specified for the shape of the facilities
concerned, and the shape required for the facilities shall be ensured.
2 Those who construct or improve facilities subject to the technical standards shall normally supervise
progress status and work schedule management taking into account the offshore operations by working
vessels to facilitate smooth construction, in addition to the items specified in the preceding items.
3 Those who construct or improve facilities subject to the technical standards shall make use of measurement
records obtained from construction management for maintenance program so as to facilitate the proper
maintenance of the facilities concerned.

2.5 Substance Set as Construction Safety Management


Public Notice for Construction
Construction Safety Management
Article 5
Those who construct or improve facilities subject to the technical standards shall study the subjects listed in
the following items in compliance with the relevant laws and regulations concerning safety of port facility
construction work, properly perform safety management, and make efforts to prevent accidents and disasters
when constructing the facilities concerned:
(1) Measures to ensure safety under the construction conditions and construction methods of the facilities
concerned
(2) Measures to ensure safety against abnormal phenomena
(3) Measures other than those listed in the preceding two items to prevent accidents and disasters

2.6 Structural Stability during Construction


Public Notice for Construction
Structural Stability during Construction
Article 7
Those who construct or improve facilities subject to the technical standards shall perform temporary works
as necessary to prevent the structures of the facilities concerned from losing structural stability during
construction.

References
1) Japan Port Association: Standard Specifications for Port Construction Work, Japan Port Association, 2004
2) Working Vessels Association: Catalogue of Working Vessels in Japan, Working Vessels Association, 1991
3) Japan Port Association: Standard Specifications for Port Design, Survey and Study, Japan Port Association, 2004

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

3 Maintenance of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards


Ministerial Ordinance
Maintenance of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards
Article 4
1 The facilities subject to the Technical Standards shall be properly maintained according to their maintenance
programs to satisfy their performance requirements through their working life.
2 The maintenance of the facilities subject to the Technical Standards shall be carried out while considering
environmental conditions, usage conditions, and other conditions to which the facilities concerned are
subjected.
3 For the maintenance of facilities subject to the Technical Standards, necessary maintenance work and
other activities shall be executed appropriately upon a comprehensive evaluation based on the results
of inspection and diagnosis of the damage, degradation, and other changes in the state of the facilities
concerned in its entirety.
4 For maintenance of facilities subject to the Technical Standards, appropriate safety countermeasures
shall be undertaken which include those such as establishing well-defined operational manuals and other
methods of hazard prevention to ensure the safe usage of the facilities concerned and other facilities
surrounding them.
5 Requirements other than those specified in the preceding paragraphs for the maintenance of facilities
subject to the Technical Standards shall be provided by the Public Notice.

[Commentary]

(1) Maintenance of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards


① Since facilities subject to the Technical Standards are generally placed under severe natural conditions,
material deterioration, damage of members, scouring, settlement, sedimentation, etc. of the foundation
mounds, etc. often cause performance degradation during the design working life of the facilities.
Planned and proper maintenance is hence needed to prevent the facilities concerned from failing
to satisfy their performance requirements during their design working life. Effective and accurate
maintenance plans shall be established.
② Facilities subject to the Technical Standards need to be properly maintained based on appropriate
maintenance plans and criteria taking into account structural types, structural characteristics of
members, and types and qualities of materials, as well as the natural conditions surrounding the
facilities concerned, their usage status, future plans, design working life, importance, substitutions,
and difficulty levels in inspection, diagnosis, and maintenance work.
③ The maintenance of facilities subject to the Technical Standards means a series of procedures to
accurately grasp changes in the facilities such as degradation and damage through timely and
appropriate inspection and diagnoses, to comprehensively evaluate the results, and to take proper
measures such as necessary maintenance work.
Here “damage” refers to the unexpected changes in structures or members caused by excessive effects
of accidental actions such as earthquakes and typhoons, and “deterioration” means the slow change
in the qualities and characteristics of materials caused by environmental effects over a period of time.
The damage and degradation, including the displacements and deformations occurring in structures
and members, are collectively called the changes of structures and members.
④ The maintenance of facilities subject to the Technical Standards requires the planned and proper
inspection and diagnosis, comprehensive evaluation, and maintenance work of the facilities concerned.
The basic concepts of the maintenance of the facilities concerned and the methods, details, timing,
frequencies, and procedures of their inspection and diagnosis shall be specified in advance as
maintenance planning documents.
Maintenance work required as a result of a comprehensive evaluation includes not only hardware side
measures, such as maintenance work, repair work, and strengthening work to recover the performance
of structures and members and prevent performance degradation from occurring, but also software
side measures such as temporary actions to stop services, restrict services, limit loads, and secure
safety.

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PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTION, IMPROVEMENT, OR MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES SUBJECT TO THE TECHNICAL STANDARDS

⑤ Since facilities subject to the Technical Standards include not only structures such as protective
facilities for harbor and mooring facilities but also mechanical equipment such as cargo handling
facilities and passenger boarding facilities, the maintenance of facilities subject to the Technical
Standards requires the proper use and operation of the facilities concerned sufficiently taking account
of their characteristics. The use of the facilities concerned requires specifying in advance actual
safety measures, responsibility, and operational rules, in order to widely ensure safety to the operators
and the general public not only in normal times but also in rough weather, and to prevent other port
facilities integrally functioning with the facilities concerned, such as the quaywalls where cargo
handling facilities are installed, from having operational difficulties.

[Technical Note]
3.1 General

(1) Maintenance should be continuously performed over the design working life specified by maintenance plans so
that the performance of the structures and members of facilities does not fall below the required level. Here the
working life may be considered as the design working life of the facilities concerned at the initial stages of their
construction or improvement.
(2) Performance degradation of the structures or members of facilities advance slowly such as the deterioration of
structural materials, ground settlement, sand washing out, etc. Facilities subject to the Technical Standards are
usually exposed to marine environments, where structural materials such as concrete and steel easily deteriorate
and the soft ground tends to cause ground settlement and sand washing out. Accidental actions such as earthquakes
and impacts may also cause sudden damage to the facilities.
(3) The maintenance of facilities subject to the Technical Standards is a series of procedures to grasp the degradation
of the structures or members due to the damage caused by their physical changes and aging deterioration through
timely and accurate inspection and diagnosis, then to comprehensively evaluate the results, and to take proper
measures such as necessary maintenance work. It needs to be performed based on appropriate plans and criteria.
Here the appropriate plans refer to the maintenance programs described in Section 3.2, and appropriate criteria
indicate Technical Manual for Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Port Facilities, 1) Standard Specifications
of Concrete Structures (Maintenance), 2) etc.
(4) Corrosion control measures for steel may apply the corrosion control levels shown in Part II, Chapter 11, 2.3
Corrosion Protection taking account of the performance requirements and design working life of the facilities
concerned.
(5) Corrosion protection measures for reinforcing bars in concrete may apply Part II, Chapter 11, 3.2 Concrete
Quality and Performance Characteristics and Part III, Chapter 1, 1.1 General, taking into account the
performance requirements and design working life of the facilities concerned. The most basic corrosion protection
measures are a reduction of water-cement ratio, an increase in concrete quality using admixtures, or an increase in
cover depth. If these measures are insufficient, other measures such as the use of epoxy-coated reinforcing bars,
the installation of surface protection, the application of cathodic protection, etc. should be considered. If such
measures are expected to be taken during the design working life, it is desirable to consider the use of structures
for which measures can be easily taken.
(6) Soil improvement, the most common measures against the soft ground, may be performed based on Part III,
Chapter 2, 4 Soil Improvement Methods.
(7) It is desirable to conduct scheduled maintenance dredging for waterway and take measures to remedy gradual
siltation.
(8) For designing of facilities subject to the Technical Standards, it is necessary to consider in advance planned and
proper maintenance inspections and diagnoses in the implementation of maintenance for in the future.
(9) Details necessary for maintenance of the facilities subject to the Technical Standards are specified by the Public
Notice to set forth the details necessary for maintenance of the facilities subject of the Technical Standards (Public
Notice of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism No. 364 of 2007), which is referred to as the
"Public Notice for Maintenance" hereinafter.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

3.2 Maintenance Programs


Public Notice for Maintenance
Maintenance Programs and Related Plans
Article 2
1 The owners of the facilities subject to the Technical Standard shall normally prepare maintenance plans.
2 Maintenance plans shall normally specify the subjects listed in the following items:
(1) The basic concepts of design working life of the facilities concerned and the maintenance of the
facilities as a whole and their structural members
(2) Planned and proper inspection and diagnosis of the damage, degradation, and other changes in the state
of the facilities concerned
(3) Planned and proper maintenance work on the damage, degradation, and other changes in the state of
the facilities concerned
(4) Maintenance efforts other than those listed in the preceding three items required for maintaining the
facilities concerned in a good state
3 The formulation determination of maintenance plans shall take into account the conditions under which
the facilities concerned are placed based on Article 6 of the Ministerial Ordinance, such conditions as
design working life, structural characteristics, material characteristics, difficulty levels in inspection,
diagnosis, maintenance work, the degree of importance of the facilities concerned, and so on.
4 For formulating the maintenance plans, it is recommended to consult with experts who have technical
knowledge on maintenance such as damage to the facilities concerned, the inspections and diagnoses
of the damage, degradation and other changes in the state of the facilities concerned, the comprehensive
evaluations of the maintenance of the whole facilities, maintenance work, and other maintenance activities.
The above shall not apply, however, to the cases where the persons responsible for the maintenance
programs are the experts in these fields.
5 Maintenance plans shall normally be modified when required by the changes in the uses of the facilities
concerned or innovations in maintenance technologies.
6 The provisions of the third and fourth items shall apply to the modification of maintenance programs.

[Commentary]

(1) The owners of facilities subject to the Technical Standards must prepare maintenance programs at
the initial time of maintenance and properly maintain the facilities concerned based on the programs.
Maintenance programs shall normally specify planned and appropriately applied maintenance items in
line with the procedure of maintenance and provide them in the form of maintenance program documents.
(2) The determination of maintenance programs shall properly specify the maintenance levels shown in
Table 3.2.1 as the basic concepts of the maintenance, taking account of the objectives of installing the
facilities concerned, their design working life, performance requirements, design concepts, substitutions,
etc.

Table 3.2.1 Maintenance Levels of Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards

Classification Concept of dealing with damage and deterioration


Implementing high-level measures against damage and deterioration to prevent the facilities
Maintenance level I
concerned from failing to satisfy performance requirements during their design working life
Frequently implementing small-scale measures at a stage of minor damage and deterioration
Maintenance level II to prevent the facilities concerned from failing to satisfy performance requirements during
their design working life
Allowing a certain degree of performance degradation within the scope of meeting
Maintenance level III performance requirements and implementing large-scale measures once or twice a design
working life to deal with damage and degradation ex post facto

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PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTION, IMPROVEMENT, OR MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES SUBJECT TO THE TECHNICAL STANDARDS

(3) Maintenance plans shall specify the methods, details, and implementation timing for inspection and
diagnosis, comprehensive evaluations, and maintenance and intervention according to the maintenance
levels of the facilities concerned. In formulating the plans, it is necessary to consider the conditions
under which the facilities concerned are placed, design working life, structural characteristics, material
characteristics, difficulty levels in inspections, diagnoses and maintenance works, and the importance
of the facilities concerned. The future performance changes with time of the structural members of the
facilities concerned shall also be considered.
3.2.1 Maintenance Programs

(1) The owners of the facilities concerned shall normally prepare the maintenance programs of the facilities. The
development of the programs need a consistent philosophy throughout the planning, design, construction, and
maintenance of the facilities concerned, and it is hence most reasonable for the owners of the facilities concerned
who are the most familiar with these processes to develop the programs.
(2) Maintenance plans shall aim to deliberately and properly maintain the facilities concerned. Maintenance program
shall be normally used to specify the maintenance program documents. Other methods may also be used if it is
substantially cover the items specified in the maintenance program documents to properly maintain the facilities
concerned.
(3) The development of maintenance programs shall materialize the basic concepts of maintenance to the actual
work levels of the facilities concerned upon sufficiently studying what their maintenance should be and possible
scenarios based on the installation objectives, design working life, and performance requirements.
(4) Facilities subject to the technical standards shall maintain the performance requirements corresponding to the
maintenance levels shown in Table 3.2.1 at any time during their design working life. For that purpose, the
initial design must satisfy designated maintenance levels and properly take account of smooth implementation of
inspections, diagnoses, and maintenance works corresponding to the designated maintenance levels.
(5) The setting of maintenance levels shall be conducted estimating the performance changes with time of the facilities
concerned from the conditions surrounding the facilities such as natural environmental conditions and usage
statuses, the structural types of the facilities and the characteristics of their structural members, and the types
and quality of the materials used for the facilities, based on the installation objectives, design working life, and
performance requirements of the facilities. Maintenance levels are normally set for whole facilities, but in most
actual cases, estimating the performance changes with time of the whole facilities concerned is difficult and setting
the same maintenance levels for all members and ancillary equipment is unreasonable. Proper maintenance levels
shall be hence set for each structural member of the facilities concerned, taking account of the study results of the
performance changes with time of the structural members of the facilities and the difficulty levels in inspections
and maintenance works, the importance of the facilities, and drawing up a maintenance scenario for the facilities
as a whole.
(6) Maintenance programs shall specify inspection and diagnosis plans and the methods, details, timing, frequencies,
procedures, etc. of maintenance works, corresponding to the maintenance levels of the facilities concerned and
following the basic stages of maintenance. Fig 3.2.1 shows the standard structure of maintenance program
documents and the items to be specified.
(7) The preparation of maintenance program documents may apply Guide for the Preparation of Maintenance
Program Documents for Port Facilities 3) and Basic Concepts for the Preparation of Maintenance Program
Documents for Port Facilities.4)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
Scope of maintenance program development

General

Prerequisites for the maintenance of the facilities concerned

- Consideration items for maintenance programs Conditions under which the facilities concerned are placed Design
- Working life (use design working life at the time of initial construction

working lifetime Structural characteristics Material characteristics Difficulty levels in inspections, diagnoses,
and improvement time)
- Basic concepts of maintenance (→ setting of maintenance levels, etc. )

Promotion of planned maintenance

Inspection and diagnosis plans

maintenance works, etc. Importance of the facilities concerned Performance requirements


Emergency response
Normal times at abnormal times

General periodic Detailed periodic General temporary

- Opinions from those having professional knowledge and technologies or skills


Daily
inspections inspections and inspections and inspections and
diagnoses diagnoses diagnoses
Abnormal Abnormal
Abnormal
Nothing Detailed temporary
abnormal Abnormal inspections and
diagnoses

Nothing Nothing Nothing


abnormal abnormal abnormal

Comprehensive
evaluations

- Estimation, based on engineering knowledge and judgment, of the degrees of


performance deterioration of the facilities concerned from the results of
inspections and diagnoses
- Study of the necessity of measures such as maintenance works
- Administrative judgment of financial conditions, urgency of measures, etc.

Maintenance works are needed The modification of


inspection and diagnosis
plans is needed
No measures
Maintenance and repair plans are needed

Plans for implementing maintenance works

Implementation of maintenance works

Review of maintenance programs

Fig. 3.2.1 Standard Structure of Maintenance Program Documents and the Items to be Specified

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PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTION, IMPROVEMENT, OR MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES SUBJECT TO THE TECHNICAL STANDARDS

3.2.2 Inspection and Diagnosis Programs

(1) General
① Since the changes in the state of structural members of facilities subject to the technical standards are strongly
correlated with each other, inspection and diagnosis plans must select items, methods, and procedures for
efficient and effective inspections with full understanding of the link of changes in state described in Item (ii).
② Facilities subject to the technical standards have relatively complex structures and their structural members are
correlated with each other. Various external factors act on the structures. The occurrence and development
of changes are hence complicated. It is desirable for reasonable maintenance to select inspectable damage,
degradation that have significant effects on component performance as major changes in state, and inspect and
diagnose them. The selection of major changes in state shall fully take account of the linked changes, which
are the progressive processes of the causes, occurrence, and effects of changes resulting in the performance
deterioration of the facilities. Focusing on and making inspection and diagnosis of the most important
linked changes are useful for reasonable maintenance. Refer to Technical Manual for Maintenance of Port
Facilities 1) for the linked changes of facilities subject to the technical standards.
③ The implementation of planned and proper inspections and diagnoses based on the above-mentioned concept
of the linked changes is essential to effectively detect the deterioration which has occurred in facilities subject
to the technical standards. The following constitute the inspections and diagnoses of facilities subject to the
technical standards:
(a) Initial inspections: They are performed to grasp the initial maintenance state of not only the whole facilities
concerned but also their members and ancillary equipment at the completion stages of construction or
improvement work, or at the preparation stages of maintenance programs for existing facilities. When they
are performed immediately after the completion of construction or improvement work, initial state may be
grasped based on the results of quality inspections and workmanship inspections performed at the time of
completion.
(b) Daily inspections: They are performed to check routinely inspectable parts for changes in state and their
degrees.
(c) Periodic inspections and diagnoses: They are performed to periodically check routinely uninspectable
structures and members including the details of changes in state and their degrees. They are classified into
general periodic inspections and diagnoses and detailed periodic inspections and diagnoses. The former
are conducted on the parts above the sea level mainly by visual inspections or simplified measurement at
relatively short intervals. The latter are conducted at relatively long intervals and their objects include the
parts on which the former are unpractical.
(d) General temporary inspections and diagnoses: They are performed to check the facilities for changes and their
degrees mainly by visual inspections or simplified measurement at the earliest possible stage at abnormal
times after the occurrence of earthquakes and rough weather.
(e) Detailed temporary inspections and diagnoses: They are performed when particular or unexpected
abnormalities are found from the results of periodic or general temporary inspections and diagnoses.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

3.3 Measures Regarding Prevention of Danger


Public Notice for Maintenance
Measures Regarding Prevention of Danger
Article 4
1 The owners of facilities subject to the technical standards shall normally take measures specified in the
following items as the measures to clarify the operational methods provided in the fourth item of Article
4 of the Ministerial Ordinance and other safety measures, taking account of natural conditions, usage
statuses, and other conditions under which the facilities concerned are placed:
(1) Designation of persons responsible for inspecting or examining and implementing the measures
concerned before and after the operation of the facilities concerned
(2) Designation of persons responsible for necessary measures to safely maintain the facilities concerned
and responsible for implementing the measures concerned in rough weather
(3) Development of the operational rules required for safely maintaining the facilities concerned or the
confirmation of the operational rules prepared by the facility management bodies, in addition to those
specified in the preceding two items.
2 The measures provided in the preceding items shall be normally taken by those who have professional
knowledge and skills for ensuring of safety of facilities subject to the technical standards and their
surrounding facilities which are used integrally with mutual operational relations.

3.4 Measures Dealing with Out-of-Service Facilities


Public Notice for Maintenance
Out-of-Service Facilities Subject to the Technical Standards
Article 6
Proper actions shall be taken as necessary on out-of-service facilities subject to the technical standards such
as their removal, proper maintenance, ensuring the safety of their neighboring areas to prevent the facilities
concerned from obstructing the development, use, and maintenance of the ports.

References
1) Port and Airport Research Institute (Edition): Maintenance Manual for port facilities, Coastal Development Institute of
Technology. 2007
2) JSCE Guidelines for concrete, Standard Specifications for Concrete Structures-2001 “Maintenance”, JSCE, Mar. 2005.
3) Port and Harbour Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Edition): Guideline for the Preparation of the
Maintenance Plan of Port Facilities, Coastal Development Institute of Technology. 2007
4) Takahashi, N., M. Iwanami and H. Yokota: Fundamental concept on Maintenance Plan of Port Facilities, Technical Report of
National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, No.376、2007

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PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTION, IMPROVEMENT, OR MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES SUBJECT TO THE TECHNICAL STANDARDS

4 Environmental Consideration
Ministerial Ordinance
Environmental Consideration
Article 5
1 The design, construction, and maintenance of facilities subject to the Technical Standards shall endeavor
to preserve the natural environments around a port, to form good landscapes, and to ensure the security of
the port area by considering the environmental conditions, usage conditions, and other conditions to which
the facilities concerned are subjected.
2 Installation of facilities to be utilized by an unspecified large number of people and subject to the Technical
Standards shall consider the safe and smooth usage of the facilities by seniors, handicapped persons, and
others whose daily or social lives are restricted due to physical disabilities while considering environmental
conditions, usage conditions, and other conditions to which the facilities concerned are subjected.

[Technical Note]
4.1 General

(1) Environmental Consideration


It is desirable for the construction, improvement, and maintenance of facilities subject to the technical
standards to consider the natural environment and the good port landscapes of the regions, taking
account of the constructability, economy of the facilities concerned, when determining their layouts,
scales, and specifications, and selecting their structural types, materials used, and construction methods.
(2) Considerations for Natural Environment
In the construction, improvement, and maintenance of facilities subject to the technical standards, it is
necessary to preserve the natural environments of the ports, paying attention to creating a better natural
environment, as well as to eliminate bad effects on the natural environments. For the creation of the
better natural environments such as beaches, in particular, a comprehensive planning method, which is
one of integrated approaches through the planning, design, construction and maintenance of the facilities
concerned, and one of adaptive management methods taking account of the variability and uncertainty
of the natural environment can be applied. Here the environmental qualities of ports mean water
quality, bottom sediment quality, and air quality. It is desirable for the construction, improvement, and
maintenance of facilities subject to the technical standards to take account of the effects of the facilities
concerned on the habitation of life around of the facilities in terms of changes in the environmental
quality.
(3) Primary Factors Controlling the Natural Environment
The actions of tides and waves are the primary factors controlling material advection and diffusion
and the habitats for marine organisms related to the natural environment of ports. The construction,
improvement, and maintenance of facilities subject to the technical standards need to properly take into
consideration that the changes in these actions accompanying the construction of the facilities concerned
and related activities spread widely in time and space.
(4) Environmental Quality
① As for water quality, it is desirable to focus not only on the level of water pollutants such as CODs,
nutrient salts, floating suspended substances, etc., but also on the phenomena such as the upwelling of
low oxygen water mass, blue tides etc., and the occurrence of red tides resulting from water pollution,
and study water quality from the viewpoint of sound material circulation.
② As for bottom sediment quality, it is necessary to focus on particle size distributions and the contents
of organic matter, trace chemical substances, heavy metals, etc., and pay attention to the spread of the
influence, of their interactions with water quality, avoiding secondary pollution such as the accelerated
formation of low oxygen bottom water due to their decomposition, the accelerated elution of nutrient
salts in low oxygen environments.
It should also be noted that the bottom sediment stirred up by navigating ships tends to cause the
emission of offensive odors and the degradation of water quality and that fine particles tend to deposit
in calm areas and absorb toxic substances such as heavy metals.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

③ As for air quality, it is necessary to focus on the heat, gases such as NOX, SOX, CO2, , and fine particles
emitted into the air by ships, vehicles, port cargo handling equipment, and activities of firms located
in port areas, etc. They are mostly caused by port activities, although it is also necessary to carefully
select working vessels and machines for constructing and maintaining the facilities concerned.
(5) Adaptive Management Methods
The basic concepts of adaptive management methods are to adjust to the changes in the natural
environment and social backgrounds, monitor circumstances using the latest information and the most
advanced technologies, regularly verify the achievement of individually set objectives, then introduce
feed back mechanisms to modify plans if necessary. Implementing adaptive management enables
the management bodies of nature recovery projects to learn from experience, adjust to the changes in
the factors affecting the characteristics, continuously improve management methods, and verify the
appropriateness of management.
(6) Considerations for Forming Good Regional Landscapes
It is desirable for the formation of good regional landscapes to not only give consideration to the
appearances of each facility but also understand the landscape implication of the surrounding spaces of
the facilities concerned to preserve, use, or improve their landscape values. For good regional landscape
formation, it is desirable to perform the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of facilities
subject to the technical standards based on a consistent objective or a design concept on landscapes
throughout all stages of their design working life.
(7) Considerations for Port Security
It is desirable for port facilities to secure monitoring functions and eliminate blind spots from structures
to ensure security according to the characteristics of the facilities.
The important international wharf facilities specified in the Law for Security of Ships and of Port
Facilities (Law No. 31 of April 14, 2004) also need to meet the technical standards for wharf security
equipment provided in the Law.
(8) Considerations for Senior Citizens and Disabled Persons on the Facilities Used by a Number of
Unspecified
Persons
It is desirable for the facilities used by a number of unspecified majority of persons such as mooring
facilities, beaches, green spaces, etc. to consider that all persons including senior citizens and disabled
persons can safely and smoothly use the facilities equipped with ship boarding/unboarding function and
amenity-oriented function.
The passenger ship terminals specified in the Law for Promoting Easily Accessible Public
Transportation Infrastructure for the Aged and the Disabled Persons (Law No. 91 of June 21,
2006) also need to meet the standards provided in the Law.
(9) Considerations for the Recycle of Resources
The construction, improvement, and maintenance need to make efforts to consider the recycle of resources
through the proper treatment of construction byproducts and the utilization of recycled resources.
(10) References 1) – 4) provide information on the consideration of port facilities for the natural environment
and on adaptive management study.
(11) Reference 5) – 11) provide information on the landscape study of port facilities.

References
1) Working Group for marine natural reclamation: Handbook of Marine Natural reclamation, Gyosei, 2003
2) Study Group for the formation of natural symbiotic type coast: Process to form marine natural Procedure, National Association
of Sea Coast, 2003
3) Kameyama, A., N. Kuramoto and Y. Hioki: Natural reclamation, Soft Science Co., 2005
4) Port and Harbour Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport: “Greenization “ of Port Administration
(Environment friendly Administration of Ports and Harbours, Independent Administrative Institution National Printing
Bureau, 2005.
5) Nakamura, Y, Y. Tamura, T. Higuchi, and O. Shinohara: Theory of Landscaping, Shokoku Publishing, 1977
6) Shinohara, O: Landscape planning in Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering New Series No. 59, Giho-Do Publications, 1982,
326p.
7) JSCE: Landscape design of Port, Giho-Do Publications, Dec. 1991, 286p.
8) JSCE, Civil Engineering Handbook, Giho-do Publications, 1989, 4133p.

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PART I GENERAL, CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTION, IMPROVEMENT, OR MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES SUBJECT TO THE TECHNICAL STANDARDS
9) Shinohara, O: Landscaping Dictionary, Shokoku Publishing Co., 1998
10) Port Planning Laboratory, Port and Harbour Research Institute, Ministry of Transport: For the Realization of Beautiful Port
landscape. 1993
11) Port and Harbour Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport: Guideline for Complete Inspection of Port
Landscape, 2005.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

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Part II Actions and Material Strength Requirements
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 1 GENERAL

Chapter 1 General

Ministerial Ordinance
Requirements for the Setting of Environmental and Other Conditions
Article 6
In designing, constructing, and maintaining the facilities subject to the Technical Standards, required items
for the setting of the environmental conditions, usage conditions, and other conditions for the facilities
concerned shall be provided by the Public Notice..

Public Notice
Setting of Environmental and Other Conditions
Article 5
The items specified in Article 6 of the Ministerial Ordinance for the setting of the conditions surrounding
the facilities concerned shall be provided in the subsequent article through Article 20..

[Technical Note]
1 General

(1) The performance verification of port facilities need to properly set actions and material strength requirements
as design conditions according to the performance required for the facilities concerned and the situations under
which the facilities are placed.
Conditions such as natural conditions include winds, tides, waves, tsunamis, movement of sea water, estuary
hydraulics, littoral drift, ground conditions, earth and water pressures, ground settlement, ground motions, ground
liquefaction, principal dimensions of design ships, environmental actions, self weights, and surcharges.
(2) The setting of design conditions has significant effects on the performance, economic efficiency, etc. of the
facilities, and hence it should be carried out carefully. Design conditions generally need to be properly set based
on the results of sufficient preliminary surveys and tests. It is necessary to understand the methods and results of
the surveys and tests.

2 Other Needs to be Considered


In addition to the items listed above, it is desirable for the performance verification of port facilities to consider the
following as necessary:
(1) Encounter Probabilities
Encounter probabilities can be calculated from equation (2.1).

(2.1)
where
E1 : encounter probability
L1 : design working life (year)
T1 : return period (year)

(2) Construction Methods


The sufficient consideration of construction methods is essential for reasonable design.
(3) Construction Accuracy
Facility design needs to take account of actually achievable construction accuracy.
(4) Construction Periods
In the cases where construction periods are designated, it is necessary to give consideration both to the design
and the construction method, in order that it will be possible to complete construction work within the designated
period. Construction periods generally depend on the difficulty of material procurement, construction equipment,
the difficulty of construction, opening date, natural conditions, etc.
(5) Construction and Costs, etc.
Construction and costs, etc. include initial investment costs and maintenance costs. The design of port facilities

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

needs to take all of them into account. The initial investment costs include indirect costs such as compensation
costs.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

Chapter 2 Meteorology and Oceanography

1 Meteorology and Oceanography Items to be Considered for Performance Verification


1.1 General
The following meteorology and oceanography items, shall be considered with regard to the performance verification
of port facilities.
① Atmospheric pressure and its distribution are factors that generate winds.
② Winds generate waves and storm surge, and affect the wind pressure that acts upon port facilities and moored
vessels, and become a factor to interfere with cargo handling and other port operations. See 2 Winds for details.
③ The tidal level affects soil pressure and water pressure, which act on port facilities, and becomes a factor to
interfere with cargo handling and other port operations. Also, it has an effect on waves in areas of shallow water.
See 3 Tidal level for details.
④ Waves exert wave force on port facilities, and become a factor to interfere with the functioning of port facilities.
They also act on moored vessels, causing them to move and interfere with cargo handling and other port operations.
They also can raise the mean water level, which has effects similar to the tidal level as mentioned above. See 4
Waves for details.
⑤ Tsunami exerts wave force and fluid force on port facilities, and becomes a factor to interfere with the functioning
of port facilities. It also acts on moored ships, causing them to move. See 5 Tsunamis for details.
⑥ Water currents affect sediments on the sea bottom and become a factor to interfere with the functioning of port
facilities. See 6 Water Currents etc. for details.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

2 Winds
Public Notice
Winds
Article 6
Characteristics of winds shall be set by the methods provided in the subsequent items corresponding to the
single action or combination of two or more actions to be considered in the performance criteria and the
performance verification:
(1) Ocean surface winds to be used in the estimation of waves and storm surge shall be appropriately
defined in terms of wind velocity, wind direction and others based on the long-term wind observation
or weather hindcasting.
(2) Winds to be used in the calculation of wind pressures shall be appropriately defined in terms of the
wind velocity and direction corresponding to the return period through the statistical analysis of the
long-term data of observed or hindcasted winds or other methods.
(3) Winds to be used in the calculation of wind energy shall be appropriately defined in terms of the joint
frequency distribution of wind velocity and direction for a certain duration of time, based on the long-
term data of observed or hindcasted winds.

[Commentary]

1) Winds to be used in the Estimation of Waves and Storm Surge:


Winds to be used in the estimation of waves and storm surge shall be observed or hindcasted values for
30 years or more as a standard.
2) Winds to be used in the Calculation of Wind Pressure:
Winds to be used in the calculation of wind pressure shall be observed or hindcasted values for 30 years
or more as a standard.

[Technical Note]
2.1 General

(1) Wind is one of the most distinctive meteorological phenomena, namely, the phenomenon that the air moves due
to atmospheric pressure differences and heat. The conditions under which winds blow over the ocean are usually
very different than for those over land. Wind velocities over the ocean are much higher than those over land near
the shore.1) For performance verification of port facilities, the effects of winds must be appropriately evaluated.
(2) Gradient Winds
① The velocity of the gradient wind can be expressed as a function of pressure gradient, radius of curvature of
barometic isolines, latitude, and air density as in equation (2.1.1).

(2.1.1)

where
Vg : velocity of gradient wind (m/s); in the case of an anticyclone, equation (2.1.1) gives a negative
value and so the absolute value should be taken.
∂p/∂r : pressure gradient (taken to be positive for a cyclone, negative for an anticyclone) (kg/m 2/s2)
r : radius of curvature of barometic isolines (m)
ω : angular velocity of Earth's rotation (1/s) ω =7.27×10 -5/s
φ : latitude (°)
ρa : density of air (kg/m3)

Before performing the calculation, measurement units should first be converted into the MKS units listed
above. Note that 1º of latitude corresponds to a distance of approximately 1.11 × 105 m, and an air pressure of
1.0 hPa is 100kg/m/s2.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

② A gradient wind for which the barometic isolines are straight lines (i.e., their radius of curvature in equation
(2.1.1) is infinite) is called the geostrophic wind. In this case, the wind velocity is as equation (2.1.2).

(2.1.2)

③ The actual sea surface wind velocity is generally lower than the value obtained from the gradient wind equation.
Moreover, although the direction of a gradient wind is parallel to the barometic isolines in theory, the sea
surface wind blows at a certain angle α to the barometic isolines in reality as illustrated in Fig. 2.1.2. In the
northern hemisphere, the winds around a cyclone blow in a counterclockwise direction and inwards, whereas
the winds around an anticyclone blow in a clockwise direction and outwards. It is known that the relationship
between the velocity of gradient winds and that of the actual sea surface wind varies with the latitude. This
relationship under the average conditions is summarized as in Table 2.1.1.3)
α α

Low High

(a) Cyclone (b) Anticyclone

Fig. 2.1.2 Wind Direction for a Cyclone (Low) and an Anticyclone (High)

Table 2.1.1 Relationship between Sea Surface Wind Speed and Gradient Wind Speed
Latitude (°) 10 20 30 40 50
Angle α (°) 24 20 18 17 15
Velocity ratio Vs /Vg 0.51 0.60 0.64 0.67 0.70

(3) Typhoon Winds


In calculations concerning the generation of storm surge or waves due to a typhoon, it is common to assume that
the air pressure distribution follows either Fujita’s equation (2.1.3) 4) or Myers’ equation (2.1.4) 4) ; the constants
in the chosen equation are determined based on actual air pressure measurements in the region of typhoons.

Fujita’s formula

(2.1.3)

Myers’ formula

(2.1.4)

where
p : air pressure at a distance r from the center of typhoon (hPa)
r : distance from the center of typhoon (km)
pc : air pressure at the center of typhoon (hPa)
r0 : estimated distance from the center of typhoon to the point where the wind velocity is maximum
(km)
∆p : air pressure drop at the center of typhoon (hPa) ∆p=p∞ -pc
p∞ : air pressure at r =∞ (hPa); p∞=pc+∆p

The size of a typhoon varies with time, and so r0 and ∆p must be determined as the functions of time
(4) Meteorological GPV
Organizations such as the Japan Meteorological Agency, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
Forecasts (ECMWF), and America’s National Center for Environmental Protection (NCEP), calculate the values
of items such as air pressure, wind velocity, wind direction, and water vapor flux, based on calculation models
for meteorological values that use a three-dimensional calculation grid, and the values at the grid points (GPV:
grid point values) are saved. These GPV’s may be used instead of wind hindcastings based on equation (2.1.1)
through equation (2.1.4). However, when a grid with large spacing is used for meteorological calculations the
atmospheric pressure and winds may not be satisfactorily reproduced at places where meteorological conditions
change drastically with position, such as near the centers of typhoons. Therefore, when GPV’s are used, it is
preferable to use observational values to verify the precision.
(5) Wind Energy
If winds are considered as the movement of the air then the wind energy that crosses a unit cross-sectional area in
unit time is given by equation (2.1.5).1)
Winds for estimating the wind energy shall be appropriately specified with joint statistic distributions for
velocity and direction for a fixed time (usually, one year), based on long-term (usually, three years or more)
observed or hindcasted data.

(2.1.5)

where
P : wind force energy per unit cross-sectional area (W/m 2)
ρa : air density (kg/m3)
V : wind velocity (m/s)

In other words, the wind force energy is proportional to the cube of the wind velocity, so a small difference in
wind velocity can mean a big difference in energy (power generation). Therefore, during performance verification
of facilities that use wind force energy, it is important to accurately understand how the conditions change with
regard to time and space.
In the coastal zone the wind conditions varies drastically between land and sea. Also, wind velocity shows
great variation on land due to altitude, but over the sea the changes in wind velocity with altitude are gradual, so
it is possible to obtain highly stabilized winds that are appropriate for power generation at relatively low altitudes.
For example, the results of measurements in the vicinity of the Kansai International Airport, show that the wind
energy over the course of a year at a measurement tower (MT station) placed at a height of 15 meters over the
ocean were roughly the same as at a land station (C station) with an altitude of 100 meters, and about five times
greater than at a land station with an altitude of 10 meters.5)

2.2 Characteristic Values of Wind Velocity

(1) Determination of Wind Characteristics


The elements of winds are direction and velocity, where the wind direction is expressed as one of sixteen directions
and the wind velocity is the mean velocity over 10 minutes. The velocity of winds that acts directly on port
facilities and moored ships is specified in general as a velocity for a certain period of occurrence, as estimated
from the probability of occurrence distribution of wind velocity based on long-term measured values over 30 years
or more. Using the annual maximum 10-minute mean wind velocities over about 35 years, based on Measurement
Technical Data Sheet #34 of the Japan Meteorological Agency, 7) and assuming a double exponential distribution,
the expected wind velocities over 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 years have been calculated at 141 meteorological
stations. For performance verification of facilities, these data can be used as reference values, however if the
location of study has different topographical conditions from the closest of these meteorological stations then it is
necessary to take measurements for at least one year to determine the effect of the topography.8)
(2) The wind velocities obtained at the meteorological stations are the values at about 10 meters above the ground.
Therefore, when using the measured values to estimate the winds over the ocean, if the height of the target facility
is very different from the height mentioned above, then correction of the height shall be performed for the wind
velocity. The vertical distribution of wind velocity is usually shown on a logarithmic scale, however for simplicity
an exponential scale is often used during performance verification of various types of facilities.

(2.2.1)

where
Uh : wind velocity at height h (m/s)
U0 : wind velocity at height h0 (m/s)

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
(3) The exponent n in equation (2.2.1) varies with the roughness of the nearby terrain and the stability of the air,
but in general it is possible to use a value of n = 1/10 to 1/4 for performance verification when specifying the
wind velocity for purposes such as calculating wind pressure, and a value of n ≥ 1/7 is often used over the ocean.
Statistical data for wind velocity is usually the mean wind velocity over 10 minutes, however depending on the
facility the mean wind velocity over a shorter time period may be required, or the maximum instantaneous wind
velocity may be required, and in such cases one should understand the characteristics of the region such as the
relationship between the main wind velocity and the maximum wind velocity, and the gust factor (defined as
the ratio between the maximum instantaneous wind speed and the 10-minute mean wind velocity) should be
estimated.

2.3 Wind Pressure

(1) Wind pressure shall be appropriately specified by considering items such as facility structure and facility
location.
(2) Wind pressure that acts on sheds, warehouses, and cargo handling equipment shall be specified as follows.
(a) Structural standard for mobile crane

In Article 9, Structural Standard For Mobile Crane, it is specified that the wind load shall be calculated as
follows:
① The value of the wind load is calculated from equation (2.3.1):

(2.3.1)

where
W : wind pressure force (N)
q : velocity pressure (N/m 2)
C : wind pressure coefficient
A : pressure-receiving area (m 2)
② The value of the velocity pressure in equation (2.3.1) can be calculated from either equation (2.3.2) or equation
2.3.3 depending on the condition of the crane:

(2.3.2)

(2.3.3)

where
h : height (m) above ground of the surface of the crane that receives the winds
use h : 16 m if the height is less than 16 m.
③ For the value of the wind pressure coefficient it is possible to use the value found in wind tunnel tests of the
crane , or the value given in Table 2.3.1 for the category of the surface of the crane that receives the winds. A
“surface composed of flat surfaces” in Table 2.3.1 means the surface of a structure with a box-like shape such
as a box girder, operator’s cab, machine chamber, or electrical chamber. A “cylindrical surface” includes the
surface of a wire rope. The “face area” means the area of the shaded portion in Fig. 2.3.1.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
Table 2.3.1 Wind Pressure Coefficients for the Wind Load on a Crane

Classification of crane surfaces that receive winds Value


Surfaces composed with horizontal trusses (Other than horizontal W 1 < 0.1 2.0
trusses made with steel pipe) 0.1 ≤ W 1 < 0.3 1.8
0.3 ≤ W1 < 0.9 1.6
0.9 ≤ W1 2.0
Surfaces composed of flat surfaces W2 < 5 1.2
5 ≤ W2 < 10 1.3
10 ≤ W2 < 15 1.4
15 ≤ W2 < 25 1.6
25 ≤ W2 < 50 1.7
50 ≤ W2 < 100 1.8
100 ≤ W2 1.9
Surfaces composed of cylindrical surfaces or horizontal trusses W3 < 3 1.2
made with steel pipe 3 ≤ W3 0.7
Note: In this table, W1, W2, and W3 represent the following values, respectively:
W1: Area Occupying Ratio (the value obtained by dividing the projected area of the surface of the crane
that receives the winds by the area of the surface that receives that same winds)
W2: The value obtained by dividing the length in the longitudinal direction of the surface of the crane
that receives the winds by the width of the surface that receives that same winds.
W3: The value obtained by multiplying the projected width of the cylinder or steel pipe (unit: m) by the
square root of the value shown in 2) for the velocity pressure (unit: N/m 2) when the crane stops.

Projected Area Ar : Area of the shaded portion


h Ar
Area Occupying Ratio W1 =
h


Fig. 2.3.1 Projected Area

④ The pressure-receiving area in equation (2.3.1) shall be the area of the surface of the crane that receives the
winds projected onto a surface perpendicular to the direction of the winds (hereafter in this section referred
to as “projected area”). When there are two or more surfaces of the crane that receive the winds, the area
subject to wind pressure calculation is determined by summing up the following;
1) the projected area of the first surface in the direction of the winds
2) the areas obtained by multiplying the portions of the surface areas of the second and later surfaces in
the direction of the winds (hereafter in this paragraph “second and later surfaces”) that overlap the first
surface in the direction of the winds by the reduction factors shown in Fig. 2.3.2
3) the projected areas of the portions of the surface areas of the second and later surfaces that don’t overlap
the first surface in the direction of the winds.
In Fig. 2.3.2, b, h, φ, and η represent the following values, respectively:

b : distance between the beams of the crane that receive the winds (see Fig. 2.3.3)
h : height of the first beam in the direction of the winds, among the beams that receive the winds (see
Fig. 2.3.3)
φ : the area occupying ratio of the first beam in the direction of the winds among the beams for the
surfaces of the crane that receive the winds (for surfaces that are formed of horizontal trusses φ is the
value W1 specified in the note of the table of the previous section, and for surfaces formed of flat
surfaces or cylindrical surfaces it is 1)
η : reduction factor

– 62 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

b/h=6
1

0.8
b/h=5
0.6
η b/h=4
0.4 b/h=3

b/h=2
0.2
b/h=1
b/h=0.5
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
φ
Fig. 2.3.2 Reduction Factors for Projected Areas

b h b h

(a) Beams of Steel Structure (b) Beams of Box Type Structure

Fig. 2.3.3 Measurement of b and h

(b) Structural standards for mobile crane


In Article 9, Structural Standard For Mobile Crane, it is specified that the wind load shall be calculated as
follows:
① The value of the wind load can be calculated from equation (2.3.1).
② The velocity pressure can be calculated from equation (2.3.2).
③ For the value of the wind pressure coefficient it is possible to use the value found in wind tunnel tests of the
mobile crane that receives the winds, or the value given in Table 2.3.1 of Section a), Structural Standard
For Mobile Crane”. For the value of velocity pressure in W3 calculation, the value from equation (2.3.3)
shall be used.
④ The pressure-receiving area can be calculated by the method of 4) in Section a) Structural Standard For
Mobile Crane.

(c) Structural standard for derrick crane


In Article 11, Structural Standard For Derrick Crane, it is specified that the wind pressure force shall be
calculated as follows:
① The value of the wind pressure force can be calculated from equation (2.3.4). In this case the wind velocity
is taken to be 50 m/s at the time of storms, and 16 m/s at all other times.

(2.3.4)
where
W : wind pressure force (N)
q : velocity pressure (N/m2)
C : wind pressure coefficient
A : pressure-receiving area (m 2)
② The wind velocity pressure can be calculated from equation (2.3.5):

(2.3.5)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
where
q : velocity pressure (N/m2)
U : wind velocity (m/s)
h : height (m) above ground of the surface of the crane that receives the winds
(use h = 15 m , if the height is less than 15 m)
③ For the value of the wind pressure coefficient it is possible to use the value found in wind tunnel tests or the
value given in Table 2.3.2 for the kind of the surface and the completeness ratio of the surface that receives
the winds.

Table 2.3.2 Wind Pressure Coefficients for the Wind Pressure Force of a Derrick
Completeness Wind pressure
Classification of the surface that receives the winds ratio coefficient
Surfaces composed of horizontal lattices or horizontal trusses W1 < 0.1 2
0.1 ≤ W1 < 0.3 1.8
0.3 ≤ W1 < 0.9 1.6
0.9 ≤ W1 2
Surfaces composed of flat surfaces --- 1.2
Wire rope surfaces --- 1.2
Note: The value of the area occupying ratio is the value obtained by dividing the projected area of the surface
of the crane that receives the winds by the area of the surface that receives that same winds.

④ The pressure-receiving area is the area that receives the wind projected onto a surface perpendicular to the
direction of the winds. When there are two or more surfaces that overlap in the direction of the winds, it shall
be calculated as follows;
The area subject to wind pressure calculation is determined by summing up the following;
1) In case there are two overlapping surfaces that receive the winds
i) the projected area of the first surface in the direction of the winds
ii) 60% of the areas of the portions of the second surface in the direction of the winds that overlap the first
surface
iii) the projected areas of the portions of the second surface in the direction of the winds that don’t overlap
the first surface.
2) In case there are three or more surfaces that receive the winds
i) 50% of the projected areas of the portions of the third and later surfaces in the direction of the winds
that overlap the first surface
ii) the projected areas of the portions of the third and later surfaces in the direction of the winds that don’t
overlap the first surface.

The wind pressure that acts upon structures such as highway bridges and elevated highways can be specified
according to the Highway Bridge Specifications and Commentary.10) In the Highway Bridge Specifications
and Commentary, the wind pressure force that acts upon a bridge is specified by appropriately considering
the location, topography, and ground conditions of the bridge construction, the structural characteristics of
the bridge, and its cross-sectional shape.
a) Steel beams
The wind pressure force that acts on a steel beam is the value given in Table 2.3.3, which is the value per one
meter of length in the bridge axial direction for one span.

Table 2.3.3 Wind Pressure Force for Steel Beams (Units: kN/m)

Cross-sectional shape Wind pressure force


1 ≤ B/D < 8 4.0 - 0.2 BD D ≥ 6.0
8 ≤ B/D 2.4 D ≥ 6.0
where B = the total width of the bridge (m) (see Fig. 2.3.4)
D = the total height of the bridge (m) (see Table 2.3.4)

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

Fig. 2.3.4 Measurement of B

Table 2.3.4 Measurement of D

Bridge Wall type rigid Other than a


guard fence guard fence wall type rigid guard fence
0.4m

Measurement of D D
D

(b) Dual main truss


The wind pressure force that acts on a dual main truss is the value shown in Table 2.3.5, per 1 m2 of the effective
perpendicular projected area on the windward side. For a standard dual main truss it is also possible to use the
wind pressure force shown in Table 2.3.6 per one meter of length of the arch material on the windward side in
the bridge axial direction.

Table 2.3.5 Wind Pressure Force on a Dual Main Truss (Unit: kN/m2)


When there is a live load 1.25 /√ φ
Truss —
When there is no live load 2.5 /√ φ
When there is a live load 1.5
Bridge foundation
When there is no live load 3.0
0.1 ≤ φ ≤ 0.6
where φ = area occupying ratio of the truss (the ratio of the truss projected area to the truss enveloped area)

Table 2.3.6 Wind Pressure Force on a Standard Dual Main Truss (Units: kN/m)

Arch material Wind pressure force



Loaded arch When there is a live load — √λh ≥ 6.0
1.5 + 1.5 D + 1.25
When there is no live load 3.0 D + 2.5√λh ≥ 6.0

When there is a live load 1.25√—λh ≥ 3.0
Not loaded arch When there is no live load 2.5√λh ≥ 3.0
7 ≤ λ / h ≤ 40
where D : total height of the bridge floor (m) (not including the height of the portion that
overlaps the arch portion as seen from the horizontal direction perpendicular to the
bridge axis) (see Fig. 2.3.5)
h : height of the arch portion (m)
λ : main truss height (m) from the center of the lower arch portion to the center of the upper arch portion

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Wall type rigid guard fence


Bridge protective fence other
than a wall type rigid guard fence

D1 0.4m
h
D
Arch
Vertical Floor portion
beam beam
Arch
Floor Vertical portion
D=D1–h beam beam
(a) Upper roadway truss (b) Lower roadway truss

Fig. 2.3.5 Measurement of D for a Dual Main Truss

(c) Other types of bridges


Either (a) or (b) depending on the beam shape shall be applied to obtain the wind pressure force on other types
of bridge beams. The wind pressure force on members not described under (a) or (b) is the value given in Table
2.3.7 depending on the cross-sectional shape. When there is a live load, the wind pressure force is taken to be
1.5 kN/m for the live load at a position 1.5 m from the bridge’s upper surface.

Table 2.3.7 Wind Pressure Force Acting on Bridge Members other than Steel Beams and Dual Main Trusses
(Unit: kN/m2)

Wind pressure force


Cross-sectional shape of members Members on the Members on the leeward
windward side side
When there is a live load 0.75 0.75
Circular shape
When there is no live load 1.5 1.5
When there is a live load 1.5 0.75
Polygonal shape
When there is no live load 3.0 1.5

(d) Parallel bridges


When the steel beams are parallel, appropriately correct the wind pressure force of Table 2.3.3 by considering
that effect.
(e) The wind pressure force that acts directly on the lower portion of the structure is taken to be a horizontal load
that is either perpendicular to the bridge’s axial direction or parallel to the bridge’s axial direction. It is assumed
that it doesn’t act simultaneously in both directions. The magnitude of the wind pressure force shall be the value
shown in Table 2.3.8 for the effective vertical projected area in the wind direction.

Table 2.3.8 Wind Pressure Force Acting on the Lower Portion of the Structure (Unit: kN/m2)

Cross-sectional shape of the body Wind pressure force


When there is a live load 0.75
Circular or elliptical shape
When there is no live load 1.5
When there is a live load 1.5
Polygonal shape
When there is no live load 3.0

References
1) Nagai, T., K. Sugahara, K. Sato and K. Kawaguchi: Characteristic of Japanese Coastal Wind Power based on Long Term
Observation, Technical Note of PHRI, No.999, p.59, 2001
2) Nagai, T: Observed Offshore Wind Characteristics from a View of Energy Utilization, Technical Note of PHRI, No.1034,
p.34, 2002
3) Takahashi, K: Study on quantitative weather forecasting based on extrapolation (Part 1), Study Bulletin No. 13, 1947
4) JSCE: The Collected Formula of Hydraulics (1985 Edition), JSCE, Nov. 1985

– 66 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
5) Nagai, T., H. Ogawa, A, Nakamura, K. Suzuki and T. Nukada: Characteristics of occurrence of offshore wind energy based
on observation data, JSCE Proceedings of Coastal Eng,. ,pp.1306-1310, 2003
6) Nagai, T, I. Ushiyama, Y. Nemoto, K. Kawanishi, T. Nukada, K. Suzuki and T. Otozu: Examination of field application of
lighting system utilizing coastal wind force, Journal of the Japan Society for Marine Survey and Technology Vol. 17 No. 1,
JSMST, 2005
7) Japan Meteorological Agency, Catalogue of annual maximum wind speed (1928-1966)at various places in Japan and the
probability of occurrence, Meteorological Agency observation Technical Note No. 34, 1971
8) JSCE, Civil Engineering Handbook, Giho-do Publications, 1974, pp. 541-544
9) Industrial Health Division, Industrial Safety and Health Dept., Labour Standards Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and
Welfare: Commentary of structural standards of various types of cranes, Japan Crane Association, 2004
10) Japan Road Association: Specifications and commentary of highway bridges, Part I General and Part II Steel Bridge, 2002

– 67 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

3 Tidal Level
Public Notice
Tidal Level
Article 7
The tide level shall be appropriately specified as the water level relative to a datum level for port and harbor
management through the statistical analysis of the observed or hindcasted data and/or others, by taking into
account the astronomical tides, meteorological tides, wave setup (rise of water level by waves near the shore),
and abnormal tidal levels due to tsunamis and others.

[Commentary]

(1) Tidal Level:


When specifying the tidal level for the performance verification of facilities subject to technical standards,
appropriately consider how the tidal level affects the action of waves and water pressure. Also, when
specifying the combination of tidal level and waves in the performance verification of facilities subject
to technical standards, among the tidal levels that have a high likelihood of occurring simultaneously
with waves, take as a standard the tidal level that would be most dangerous from the viewpoint of the
performance verification of such facilities.
(2) Astronomical Tides:
With regard to astronomical tides that are considered in the specification of the tidal level, take as a
standard the specification of chart datum level, mean sea level, mean monthly-highest water level, and
mean monthly-lowest water level, based on measured values for one year or more.
(3) Storm Surge:
When specifying storm surge, appropriately consider long-term measured values. As a standard, long-
term means 30 years or more. When specifying storm surge, if long-term measured values cannot
be available, then appropriately consider items such as hindcasted values of storm surge based on
meteorological conditions and records in past disasters. In the storm surge hindcasting, wave-stepup
due to wave breaking near the shore shall be appropriately considered as necessary.

[Technical Note]
3.1 Astronomical Tides

(1) Definitions 1), 2), 3)


Astronomical tides are tides produced by the gravity of the moon and sun and can be viewed as a sum of components
known as tidal constituents. The definitions for the representative types of water level are as follows:
① Mean sea level (MSL)
The average height of the sea level over a certain period is referred to as the mean sea level for that period. For
practical purposes, the mean sea level is taken to be the average of the water level over one year.
② Chart datum level (CDL)
The standard water level obtained by subtracting the sum of the amplitudes of the four principal tidal constituents
(M2, S2, K1 and O1) from the mean sea level. This is used as the standard for water depth in nautical charts.
③ Mean monthly-highest water level (HWL)
The average of the monthly-highest water level, where the monthly-highest water level for a particular month is
defined as the highest water level occurring in the period from 2 days beore to 4 days after the day of the lunar
syzygy (new moon and full moon).
④ Mean monthly-lowest water level (LWL)
The average of the monthly-lowest water level, where the monthly-lowest water level for a particular month is
defined as the lowest water level occurring in the period from 2 days before to 4 days after the day of the lunar
syzygy.
⑤ Mean high water level (MHWL)
The mean value of all of the high water levels, including the spring tide and the neap tide.
⑥ Mean low water level (MLWL)
The mean value of all of the low water levels, including the spring tide and the neap tide.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

⑦ Near highest high water level (NHHWL)


The water level obtained by adding the sum of the amplitudes of the four principal tidal constituents (M2, S2,
K1 and O1) to the mean sea level.
⑧ High water of ordinary spring tides (HWOST)
The water level obtained by adding the sum of a half amplitude of the tidal constituents M2 and S2 to the mean
sea level. The height of the HWOST as measured from the chart datum is known as the spring rise.
⑨ Low water of ordinary spring tides (LWOST)
The water level obtained by subtracting the sum of a half amplitude of the tidal components M2 and S2 from
the mean sea level.
⑩ Mean sea level of Tokyo Bay (TP)
Mean sea level for Tokyo Bay determined during the Meiji period from tidal level observations. Since then, TP
has become the standard for measuring altitude in Japan. The bench mark is located in Nagata-cho, Chiyoda-
ku, Tokyo. Incidentally, TP does not correspond to the present day mean sea level of Tokyo Bay.

There are four principal tidal constituents, namely, the M2 tide (the principal lunar semi-diurnal component
of tides, period = 12.421 hours), the S2 tide (the principal solar semi-diurnal component of tides, period =
12.00 hours), the K1 tide (the luni-solar diurnal component of tides, period = 23.934 hours), and the O1 tide (the
principal lunar diurnal component of tides, period = 25.819 hours).
(2) Seasonal and Annual Changes in Mean Water Level 2)
The mean water level for each month varies over the year due to factors such as the ocean water temperature and
the atmospheric pressure distribution near the Japanese islands, and in many places the mean water level can vary
by ± 5 to 20 cm over the year. Typically along the Japanese coast it is higher in the summer and lower in the winter.
The annual mean water level is also affected by factors such as the ocean water temperature and atmospheric
pressure distribution for that year, and there may be variations of ± 10 cm depending on the ocean region.
(3) Occurrence Probability Distribution of Astronomical Tidal Levels 4)
Astronomical tidal levels have repeated high tides and low tides about twice per day, and repeated highest tides
and lowest tides about twice per month. The shape of the occurrence probability distribution of these astronomical
tidal levels varies with location, and the tidal levels that have the highest probability of occurrence are the tidal
levels that are close to the mean sea level, while the occurrence probability of high tidal levels such as the mean-
monthly highest water level, or low tidal levels such as the mean monthly lowest water level, are small.

3.2 Storm Surge

(1) Definitions
Besides astronomical tides that are caused by the gravity of the moon and sun, the height of the ocean surface
can change due to factors such as changes in atmospheric pressure and winds accompanying the passage of
low atmospheric pressure systems (including typhoons, hurricanes, and cyclones) and high atmospheric pressure
systems. Such meteorological changes in the sea surface are called meteorological tides, and the difference
between the measured tidal level and the forecasted astronomic tidal level is called the tidal level anomaly. In
particular, among meteorological tides, the rise in tidal level due to the passage of a low pressure system is called
a storm surge.
(2) Causes of Storm Surge
If the atmospheric pressure at the sea surface is lowered 1 hPa for a sufficiently long time so that the sea surface
is in equilibrium with the atmospheric pressure at the sea surface, for example, then the ocean surface rises by
about 1 cm higher than normal level. Or, if the winds blow at a constant wind velocity for a long time from the
entrance of an internal bay toward the throat of the bay so that the sea surface rises toward the throat of the bay and
reaches equilibrium then the amount of sea level rise at the furthest point inside the bay is roughly proportional to
the square of the wind velocity, and it is also larger when the bay is longer or shallower. During an actual typhoon
the atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction on the sea surface changes in a complicated way at
different locations and times.
(3) Empirical Formula to Predict Storm Surge
The tide anomaly due to a typhoon can be roughly estimated from an empirical formula, such as equation (3.2.1).5)

(3.2.1)

– 69 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
where
ξ : tide anomaly (cm)
p0 : reference atmospheric pressure (1010 hPa)
p : lowest atmospheric pressure at the target location (hPa)
W : maximum value of the 10-minute average wind speed at the target location (m/s)
θ : angle between the main wind direction for the bay and that of the maximum wind speed W
a, b, c : constants determined from past observational results at the target location
(4) Numerical Calculation of Storm Surge
A numerical calculation is conducted to analyze the phenomenon of storm surge in more detail. In this numerical
calculation, items such as the atmospheric pressure that acts on the sea surface, the frictional stress on the sea
surface due to winds, the frictional stress that acts on the currents at the sea bottom, and the eddy viscosity of the
sea water are taken into consideration, and the changes in tidal level and flux flow at the grid points are calculated
at each time step from the time the typhoon approaches until it passes.8)
The distributions of the atmospheric pressure and the wind velocity of the typhoon are calculated from the
central (atmospheric) pressure, the radius of maximum wind velocity, and the forwarding speed of the typhoon.
The sea bottom topography of a bay is approximated using a grid with a spacing of several hundred meters, or
finer than that, giving the water depth at each grid point. There are various models for the numerical calculation
of storm surge, therefore an appropriate calculation method that sufficiently reproduces storm surges in the target
sea region shall be used.
In recent years, numerical calculation models have been developed that consider density layers and water
discharged from rivers, as well as models that do not treat storm surge, astronomical tides, and waves as an
independent phenomena but rather consider their interactions, and such models may sometimes better reproduce
the actual phenomena.9), 10), 11), 12)
(5) Storm Surge and Astronomical Tides
Storm surge is caused by meteorological disturbances such as typhoons, while astronomical tides are caused
mainly by the gravity of the moon and sun. Since storm surge and astronomical tides are phenomena with
independent causes, the time of maximum tide anomaly due to storm surge might overlap either the astronomical
high tide or the low tide. In particular, the astronomical tide range is large at internal bays at the Seto Inland
Sea and along the coast of the East China Sea, so that even if there had been a remarkable tide anomaly it might
have been possible to avoid great damage if it overlaps low tide. When specifying the design tidal level, in order
that one does not overlook such a storm surge, one should not consider the tidal level obtained by combining the
storm surge with the astronomical tide, but rather one should consider the characteristics of the occurrence of tide
anomalies just due to storm surge.
(6) Coincidence of Storm Surge and High Waves
A storm surge in an internal bay mainly occurs due to the suction effect of depression and wind setup effect.
Usually, at the bay entrance the suction effect predominates, and the tide anomaly is maximal when a typhoon
is closest and the atmospheric pressure has dropped the most. At the bay throat often the wind setup effect
predominates, so that the tidal level anomaly is greatest when the typhoon winds are blowing from the entrance
of the bay toward its throat. On the other hand, waves are not directly related to suction effect, but rather they
develop due to winds, and their propagation is affected by the topography of the sea bed. Waves are also affected
by the surrounding topography, and can easily be sheltered by capes or islands. Since storm surge differs in
these ways from waves, the peak of the tide anomaly and the peak of the waves may not occur simultaneously,
depending on the track and the location of the typhoon within the bay.13)
(7) Mean Water Level Rise due to Wave Breaking
In the surf zone, regardless of whether the sea level is being drawn up by depression or wind setup effect, there is a
rise of the mean water level due to wave breaking, and there is long period oscillation. As part of this process, the
rise of the mean water level is called wave setup. The amount of rise depends on factors such as the slope of the
sea bottom and the steepness of the incident waves, and it tends to be larger near the shoreline, and may be 10% or
more of the significant wave height at offshore. Therefore, at the shore that is directly hit by waves, the absolute
value of the amount of rise of the mean water level is large, this is also an important factor of the tide anomaly.
For the performance verification of port facilities in the surf zone it is necessary to consider the rise of the
mean water level due to wave breaking as well as the oscillation, however usually the calculation formulas and
diagrams for factors such as wave height in surf zone, wave force, and wave overtopping rate include the effect
of rise of the mean water level, therefore it is not necessary to separately add the amount of rise of the mean
water level into the design tidal level. However, in areas where reefs have widely formed the rise in water level is
especially large, sometimes even one meter or more, so in such places it is preferable to include the rise in mean
water level in the tidal level for the purpose of performance verification in such locations.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

3.3 Harbor Resonance

(1) Definition
In locations such as a lake whose perimeter is closed or a bay whose entrance is narrow so that there is little
exchange of water with the outer ocean the internal water has a natural oscillation with a constant period due to
variations in actions such as winds. This phenomenon is called seiche. On the other hand, the oscillation that
occurs in a bay or harbor where one part is open to the outer ocean so that water can go in and out is called harbor
resonance. Harbor resonance is the main problem for performance verification of port facilities, where one must
consider the oscillation period and amplitude.
Harbor resonance is divided into two main types. One is when it occurs within a bay due to suction effect of
depression and wind setup effect. Fig. 3.3.1 shows the observational records of tidal level in Tokyo Bay during
Typhoon 2001/5 (Danas), when remarkable harbor resonance occurred as shown by the arrows.
The other is the type of oscillation that occurs within a bay or harbor due to waves that impinge from the
outer ocean and their accompanying long-term water level variations and currents. This type of oscillation can
cause a large resonance with an oscillation period that is unique for the shape and size of the bay or harbor. In
particular, in places where the shape is long and narrow, such as an artificially excavated port, and the water area
is surrounded by the facilities with a high refraction coefficient such as quaywalls, remarkable harbor resonance
often occurs.
The period for harbor resonance is usually from several minutes to several tens of minutes, and the amplitude
may reach several tens of centimeters. Nagasaki Bay has seen amplitudes of about 2 meters. Even though the
vertical amplitude of the water level due to harbor resonance may only be several tens of centimeters, the current
velocity in the horizontal direction is large, so this can be a great problem for ship mooring and cargo handling
operations. Waves that contain component waves with a period of 30 to 300 seconds in the frequency spectrum
as analyzed from continuous measurement recordings of 20 minutes or more are defined as long period waves (for
long-period waves, see Section 4.4, Long-period Waves).
Therefore, it is necessary to know a natural frequency period of a port for performance verification of port
facilities. Unoki 17) has conducted a research on the characteristics of harbor resonance in the major ports of
Japan. It is also possible to use numerical calculations of waves with frequencies from several minutes to an hour
that impinge on ports to calculate their amplitude ratios.18)

Fig. 3.3.1 Tidal Level Observational Recordings During Typhoon 2001/5 (Danas)
(Japan Coast Guard home page)

(2) Harbor Resonance Periods


For harbors which can be modeled by simple shape their natural frequency period and amplitude amplification
ratio can be found by theoretical calculations. However, shapes and boundary conditions of real harbors are
extremely complicated, so it is preferable for their natural frequency periods and amplitude amplification ratios to
be found by on-site observations or numerical calculations.18) For reference, formulas for the natural frequency
periods in the simplest cases are given as follows:

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

① Rectangular harbor of constant depth (surroundings are closed, no water enters or leaves, Fig. 3.3.2 (a)):

(3.3.1)

where
T : natural frequency period (s)
l : length of the water surface (the longitudinal direction) (m)
m : mode of the oscillation (1, 2, 3, ...)
g : gravitational acceleration (9.8 m/s2)
h : water depth (m)
② Rectangular harbor of constant depth (as in Fig. 3.3.2 (b), water can freely enters and leaves in one place, and
the harbor is narrow and long):

(3.3.2)

The amplitude amplification ratio often takes its maximum when m is 0 or 1, so in practice it is acceptable
to just investigate this case. In reality, not only the sea water within the harbor but also the sea water in the
outer ocean near the harbor entrance also oscillates to some extent, therefore the value of the natural frequency
period becomes somewhat longer from that given by equation (3.3.2) and becomes the value given by equation
(3.3.3) 19):

(3.3.3)

where
l : longitudinal length of a harbor
α : harbor entrance correction, given by equation (3.3.4):

(3.3.4)

where
π : ratio of the circular constant
b : width of a harbor

Table 3.3.1 shows values of the harbor entrance modification coefficient α for representative values of b/l, as
calculated from equation (3.3.4).

Table 3.3.1 Harbor Entrance Modification Coefficients

b/l 1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/10 1/25


α 1.320 1.261 1.217 1.187 1.163 1.106 1.064

③ Rectangular harbor of constant depth (as in Fig. 3.3.2 (c), water can freely enter and leave in one place, and the
harbor entrance is narrow):

(3.3.5)

where
b : width of a harbor (m)
l : length of a harbor
n : number of nodes in the width direction of a harbor (n = 0, 1, 2, ...)

In actual cases, the natural frequency period has a somewhat smaller value than that calculated from equation
(3.3.5) due to the effect of the harbor entrance.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

 

b
(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 3.3.2 Models of Harbor Shapes

(3) Amplitude
The amplitude of harbor resonance is determined by the wave period that cause it as well as by the accompanying
long-period water level variations and current variations, and the amplification ratio for those periods. If the
period of the action equals the natural period for the harbor then resonance occurs, so that the amplification ratio
takes on a high value. However, bottom friction causes irregular waves and eddies at the harbor entrance, leading
to a loss of energy, so that the amplitude of the harbor resonance does not increase without any limitation. A
harbor resonance with a small amplitude still forms even if the period of the action is different from the natural
period of the harbor.
If the width of the harbor entrance is narrowed in order to increase the calmness within the harbor, it may
instead make harbor resonance more likely to occur. This phenomenon is called the harbor paradox. When
the shape of the harbor is changed, such as by extending the breakwaters, one must be careful not to cause a
remarkable harbor resonance.
If the energy loss at the harbor entrance is neglected, the amplitude amplification ratio R at the inside corners
of a bay with a rectangular harbor can be calculated from the ratio of the length of the harbor and the wavelength,
using Fig. 3.3.3 20) and Fig. 3.3.4.20) According to these Figs, for the long and narrow rectangular harbor of Fig.
3.3.3, resonance occurs more easily for lengths that are somewhat longer than the resonance conditions. In Fig.
3.3.4 the resonance points are roughly the same as the resonance points for a completely closed rectangular shaped
lake, as approximated by equation (3.3.6):


m, n = 0, 1, 2, ... (3.3.6)

20 10
Amplitude Amplification Ratio R

Amplitude Amplification Ratio R

2d 2b/ =0.2
n=0
m=0

18 2b/ =0.2
2d 2b d/b=0.01
16 d/b=0.01  0.1
8
n=0
m=0

 0.1 1.0
2b
m=1
n=0

14 1.0
m=2
m=3 n=4
m=1
n=0

n=2
m=2
m=2
n=0

12 6
n=0
m=2

m=1
n=2
n=0
m=3

10
n=0

8 4
6
4 2
2
π 2π 3π π 2π 3π
0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Relative Length of the Harbor k = 2π/L Relative Length of the Harbor k = 2π/L
Fig. 3.3.3 Resonance Spectrum for a Fig. 3.3.4 Resonance Spectrum for a
Long and Narrow Rectangular Harbor 20) Wide Rectangular Harbor 20)

(4) Countermeasures Against Harbor Resonance


Harbor resonance is the phenomenon whereby long-period waves penetrate into a harbor from the entrance, repeat
perfect reflection within the harbor, and increase their amplitude. In order to hold down the amplitude of harbor
resonance, it is necessary to minimize reflectance around the inner perimeter of the harbor or alter the shape of
the harbor to reduce resonance generation, or increase the energy loss within the harbor. For this reason, it is
not advisable to build upright quay walls around the whole perimeter of a harbor. If a permeable rubble-mound
breakwater with a gentle slope is used, wave reflection can be reduced to some extent, and in addition one can

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
expect a certain energy loss in a sloping breakwater. Furthermore, by installing an inner breakwater close to the
position of a node of the harbor resonance in a harbor, the amplitude of the harbor resonance can be somewhat
reduced. Regarding the shape of the harbor, it is considered that an irregular shape is better than a geometrically
regular shape.

3.4 Abnormal Tidal Levels

(1) Causes of Abnormal Tidal Levels


Besides storm surge by typhoons and tsunamis, various other reasons can be given for abnormal tide generation,
such as current variations of the Kuroshio current, rise in the ocean water temperature due to the influx of warm
water, and the long-term continuation of westward-moving wind-driven currents. Such abnormal tidal levels may
continue from several days to several months, and in cases such as when the monthly-highest tides overlap with
storm surge there can be damage from water flooding.
The analysis of abnormal tidal levels reveals not only abnormally high tidal levels but also abnormally low
tidal levels. It is important to clarify their causes for each ocean region.
(2) Effects of Abnormal Tidal levels
The effect of abnormal tidal levels on the stability of port facilities and the verification of the ability to withstand
events such as wave overtopping can be considered by reflecting them in design tidal levels. For example, with
regard to the stability of breakwaters, an abnormally high tidal level can increase the buoyancy of breakwaters
and thereby decrease stability.21) Yoshioka et. al. have evaluated the probability distribution of abnormal tidal
levels at 97 places throughout Japan based on tide observational data including as much as for 29 years, and they
have performed a reliability analysis based on this, to study the effect on the sliding and overturning stability of
breakwaters. Within the scope of their results, the decrease in the safety index due to abnormal tidal levels is
small enough that it can be neglected.22)

3.5 Long-term Variation in the Mean Sea Level

(1) Prediction of Variations in the Mean Sea Level


Separate from the considerations of astronomical tidal levels and storm surge in the specification of design tidal
levels, there have been studies both within Japan and abroad of the long-term rise in the level of the ocean surface.
According to the evaluation report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 23), 24) the
global mean sea level is predicted to rise between 0.09 and 0.88 meters from 1990 to 2100. Fig. 3.5.1 shows
IPCC’s predicted future variation in the mean sea level.

Complete
IS92
Rise in the Water Level of the Ocean Surface (m)

SRES Scenario
Complete SRES Envelope
Including the Uncertainties
Concerning Continental Ice

Complete SRES Scenario


Envelope According to
Several Models

Mean Model Envelope for


Complete SRES Scenario

Bars show the range of


prediction results for the
year 2100 according to
several models.
Year

Fig. 3.5.1 Predicted Future Variation in the Mean Water Level of the Earth’s Ocean Surface
According to IPCC’s Third Evaluation Report
(From the Third IPCC Evaluation Report, First Operating Committee Report,
Climate Change 2001, Scientific Basis, Summary for Government Policy Makers)

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
(2) Effect of the Mean Sea Level Rise, and its Adaptation
If the mean sea level rises, and a storm surge or tsunami occurs, the heights of the shores and river banks will be
insufficient, thereby lowering the safety of their facilities and increasing the risk of disasters. Also, there will be
an effect on the logistics infrastructure, such as usage limitations on port facilities.
Measures to take against a mean sea level rise include such measures as facility development, changes in land
use, and strengthening of disaster prevention system, and it is necessary to clearly understand the advantages
and disadvantages of such measures, taking into account factors such as the social characteristics and natural
conditions of the target areas, and combining all such measures into an adaptable plans.26) In order to develop
facilities, such as port facilities, sewer facilities, and roads (bridges), it is necessary to compensate for the effects of
mean sea level rise. However, it is necessary to keep in mind facility planning, the accompanying design working
time, cost-effectiveness, the effect on the surrounding environment, and the uncertainties in the predictions of the
sea level rise.

3.6 Underground Water Level and Seepage

(1) As necessary, performance verification of port facilities must appropriately consider the underground water level
at sandy coastal areas.
(2) As necessary, performance verification of port facilities must consider the velocity and discharge of seepage
within permeable foundations and facilities.
(3) Groundwater Level in Coastal Aquifer
The elevation of brackish groundwater intruding in a coastal aquifer may be estimated using the following equation
(see Fig. 3.6.1).

(3.6.1)

where

h : depth below the sea surface of the interface between fresh water and saltwater at the distance x (m)
h0 : depth below the sea surface of the interface between fresh water and saltwater at x = 0 (m)
hl : depth below the sea surface of the interface between fresh water and saltwater at x = L (m)
ρ1 : density of the fresh water (g/cm3)
ρ2 : density of saltwater (g/cm3)
ζ0 : elevation of fresh water above the sea surface at the coast (x = 0) (m)
ζ : elevation of fresh water above the sea surface at x = L (m)
L : distance from the coast (x = 0) to the reference point (m)
x : landward distance from the coastline (m)

Equation (3.6.1) cannot be applied if an impermeable layer exists close to the ground surface or in the aquifer:
For the relationship between the rise of groundwater level due to wave runup and beach profile change, see in 10.1
General [Technical Notes] (8)

x=0
L
x

Fresh water
level
ζ0 ζ ζl
Fresh water
Sea h0
h ρ1
h1
Salt water Salt water
level
ρ2

Fig. 3.6.1 Schematic Drawing of Groundwater at Coast

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
(4) Seepage within Foundations and Facilities
① Formula for Calculating the Seepage discharge
When the fluid that is flowing in the seepage layer is a steady laminar flow, the discharge of seepage can be
calculated from the Darcy formula. Steady flows within the usual seepage layers made of soil and sand, such
as surface layers and filtration layers, are extremely slow. In such cases the flow follows the Darcy formula of
equation (3.6.2)

(3.6.2)

where
q : discharge of water flowing in a seepage layer per unit time (cm3/s)
k : permeability coefficient (cm/s)
h
i : hydraulic gradient i=
h : head loss (cm) L
L : length of seepage current path (cm)
A : cross-sectional area (cm2)

The applicability limits for this formula are determined by the diameters of the particles that form the seepage
layer and the Reynolds number for the seepage rate, however it is better to verify this by measurement because
there still is no sufficiently agreed upon solution.31) For the applicable ranges and permeation coefficients see
Chapter 3, 2.2.3, Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil.
② Permeation through a sheet pile wall
The flow rate of permeation through a sheet pile wall is not determined purely by the permeability of the wall;
rather, the permeability of the soil behind the wall has a dominating influence. Shoji et al.13) examined this
problem, and carried out comprehensive permeation experiments in which they not only varied the tension
of the joints, but also added the cases with and without sand filling in the joint section. They proposed the
following experimental formula:

(3.6.3)

where
q : flow rate of permeation through a sheet pile joint per unit length in the vertical direction (cm3/s/
cm)
K : permeation coefficient for the joints (cm 2-n/s)
h : pressure head difference between the front and back of a joint (cm)
n : coefficient depending on the state of the joints
(n ≒ 0.5 when the joints are not filled with sand, and n ≒ 1.0 when the joints are filled with
sand)

When there was sand on both sides of the sheet pile and the joints were under tension, Shoji et al. obtained
a value of 7.0 × 10-4 cm/s for K in their experiments. However, they also pointed out that if the permeation
flow is estimated with this value, then the flow rate turns out to be as much as 30 times that observed in the
field. For actual design, it is thus necessary to pay close attention to any difference between the state of the
sheet pile wall used in the experiments and those used in the field.
③ Permeation through rubble mound
The flow rate of permeation through a rubble mound foundation of a gravity type structure may be estimated
using the following equation:

(3.6.4)

where
q : flow rate of permeation per unit width (m3/s/m)
U : mean permeation velocity for the whole cross section of rubble mound (m/s)
H : height of the permeable layer (m)
d : rubble stone size (m)
g : gravitational acceleration (= 9.81 m/s2)
Δ H/ΔS : hydraulic gradient
ζ : resistance coefficient

– 76 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
Equation (3.6.4) has been proposed based on the experimental results using eight different types of stones
of uniform size, with the diameter ranging from 5 mm to 100 mm. The virtual flow length ΔS may be taken
to be as the total of the 70% to 80% of the permeable layer height and the width of the caisson base. The
coefficient of resistance is shown in Fig. 3.6.2. When Re(=Ud /ν)>104, it is acceptable to take ζ ≒ 20

103 .
d(mm) ∆S(cm)
5 – 10 100
5 – 10 75
10 – 15 100
10 – 15 75
15 – 20 100
20 – 25 100
25 – 30 99
ζ 30 – 35 100
102 95 104
100 102

10
10 102 103 104
Ud
Re =
v

Fig. 3.6.2 Relationship between Resistance Coefficient ζ and Reynolds Number

References
1) Japan Coast Guard: Tide Table, Vol. 1, 1996
2) Japan Meteorological Agency: Tide Table 2004, 2003,
3) Study Group of Analysis and utilization of coastal wave observation data,: measurement of tide, Coastal Development
Institute of Technology, Coastal development Technical Library. No.13,2002.
4) Kawai, H. T. Takayama, Y. Suzuki and T. Hiraishi: Failure Probability of Breakwater Caisson Tidal Level Variation, Rept. of
PHRI Vol. 36 No.4, 1997.12, pp. 3-42
5) Japan Meteorological Agency: Tide Table 2004, Japan Meteorological Agency, 2003,
6) Takahashi, H. A. Takeda, K. Tanimono Y. Tsuji and I. Isozaki: Prediction and preventive measure of coastal disaster- How to
prepare for tsunamis and storm surges, Hakua Publishing, 408p. 1988
7) Hiraishi, T. K. Hirayama and H.Kawai: A Study on Wave-0vertopping by Typhoon No. 9918, Technical Note of PHRI,
No.972, 2000.12, 19p
8) Shibaki, H., T. Ando, T. Mikami and C. Goto: Development of integrated numerical research system for prevention and
estimation of coastal disaster, Jour. JSCE No586/11-42,pp.77-92,1998
9) Yamashita, T., Y. Nakagawa: Simulation of a storm surge in Yatsushiro Sea due to Typhoon No. 9918 by wave-storm surge
coupled model considering shear stress of white cap breakers, Proceeding of Coastal Eng. No. 48, pp.291-295, 2001
10) Takigawa, K.. and M. Tabuchi: Preparation of hazard maps of storm surges and high waves under the most probable occurrence
based on tide-wave interaction analysis, probable assumption, Proceeding of Coastal Eng. No. 48, pp. 1366-1370, 2001
11) Shibaki, H. and A. Watanabe: Study on Multi-level simulation model fore storm surge considering density stratification and
wave setup, Journal of the JSCE, No. 719/II pp. 47-61, 2002
12) Kawai, Y., K. Kawaguxhi and N. Hashimoto: Modeling of wave-storm surge two-way joint hindcasting and case study for
Typhoon 9918 hindcasting,, Proceeding of Coastal Eng. No. 50, pp. 296-300, 2003
13) Kawai, Y., S. Takemura and N. Hara: Characteristics of storm surge-high wave joint occurrence and duration in Tokyo Bay,
Proceeding of Coastal Eng. No.49, pp. 241-245, 2002
14) Konishi, T.: Situations of damages of storm surges and status of the study for forecasting, Oceanographic Society of Japan,
Coastal Oceanography Research Vol. 35 No. 2, 1998
15) Tatsuo Konishi: A Cause of Storm Surges Generated at the Ports Facing Open Oceans- Effect of Wave Setup-, Sea and sky
Vol. 74, No. 2, 1997
16) Shibaki, H., F. Kato and K. Yamada: Hindcasting of abnormal storm surge in Tosa Bay considering density stratification and
wave setup, Proceeding of Coastal Eng. No. 48, pp. 286-290, 2001
17) Unoki, S: On seiche and long period waves in harbours, Proceeding of 6th conference on coastal Engineering, pp. 1-11, 1959
18) Takayama, T. and T. Hiraishi: Amplification Mechanism of Harbor Oscillation Derived From Field Observation And

– 77 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Numerical Simulation, Technical Note of PHRI No.636,pp.70, 1988


19) Honda, K,, Terada, T., Yoshida, Y. and lshitani, D.: Secondary undulation of oceanic tides, Jour. Collage of Science, Univ. of
Tokyo, Vol.26, 1943
20) Goda, Y: Secondary undulation of tide in rectangular and fan-shaped harbour, JSCE 10th conference on Coastal Eng., pp.
53-58, 1963
21) Coastal Development Institute of Technology (CDIT): Survey report on Extra-high tide level Fiscal 2002, pp. 86, 2003
22) Yoshioka, K., T. Nagao, E. Kibe, T. Shimono and H. Matsumoto: Effect of extra-high tide on the external stability of caisson
type breakwaters, Technical Note of National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, No.241, 2005
23) IPCC: Climate Change 2001, Scientific Basis, Cambridge University Press, p.881, 2001
24) Assemblymen in charge of Environment, Synthetic Science and Technology Conference and, Cabinet Office Director-general
for Politics on Science and Technology Condition: Study Report on Climate Change, Synthetic Science and Technology
Conference, Global Warming Study Initiative, Frontier of Climate Change Studies, Knowledge and Technology in the
Century of Environment, 2002, p. 142, 2003
25) Nagai, T. K. Sugahara, H. Watanabe and K. Kawaguchi: Long Term Observation of the Mean Tide Level and Long Waves at
the Kurihama-Bay, Rept. Of PHRI Vol. 35 No.4, 1996. 12, pp. 3-36
26) Task Force of the Study on Land conservation against sea level rise due to global warming: Report of the Land Conservation
Task Force on sea level rise due to the global warming, ,p.35, 2002
27) Todd, D.K.: Ground water hydrology, John Wiley & Sons,Inc.,1963
28) JSCE: The Collected Formula of Hydraulics (1985 Edition), JSCE, Nov. 1985
29) Ishihara, T. and H. Honma: Applied Hydraulics (Vol. II No. 2), Maruzen Publishing, 1966
30) Sakai, G: Geohydrology, Asakura Publishing, 1965
31) Iwasa, Y.: Hydraulics, Asakura Publishing, p.226, 1967
32) Yamaguchi, H: Soul Mechanics, Giho-do Publishing, p.76, 1969
33) Shoji, Y. M. Kumeda and Y. Tomita: Experiments on Seepage through Interlocking Joints of Sheet Pile, Rept. PHRI Vol.21
No.4 1982.12

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

4 Waves
Public Notice
Waves
Article 8
Characteristics of waves shall be set by the methods provided in the subsequent items corresponding to the
single action or combination of two or more actions to be considered in the performance criteria and the
performance verification:
(1) Waves to be employed in the verification of the structural stability of the facilities, the failure of the
section of a structural member (excluding fatigue failure), and others shall be appropriately defined in
terms of the wave height, period and direction corresponding to the return period through the statistical
analysis of the long-term data of observed or hindcasted waves or other methods.
(2) Waves to be employed in the verification of the assurance of the functions of a structural member
and the failure of its section due to fatigue shall be appropriately defined in terms of the wave height,
period, direction and others of waves having a high frequency of occurrence during the design working
life through the statistical analysis of the long-term data of observed or hindcasted waves.
(3) Waves to be employed in the verification of the harbor calmness shall be appropriately defined in terms
of the joint frequency distributions of the wave height, period and direction of waves for a certain
duration of time through the statistical analysis of the long-term data of observed or hindcasted waves.

[Commentary]

(1) Waves employed to verify the stability of facilities, to verify the failure of the section of a structural
member.
① Return period of variable waves
When setting the waves to be considered in the verification of serviceability for a variable state where
dominating action is variable waves, the purpose of the facilities and the performance requirements
must satisfied, and in addition the return period of the waves are set appropriately by considering
suitably the design working life and degree of importance of objective facilities, as well as the natural
condition of objective location.
② Return period of accidental waves
When setting the waves to be considered in the verification of serviceability for a accidental situation
where dominating action is accidental waves, the waves that become the severest among the waves
that can occur in objective marine waters or waves with a return period of 100 years or longer are set
appropriately.
③ Period of observed values or estimated values
A period of 30 years or longer is used as the standard for the long-term observed values or estimated
values.
(2) Waves employed to verify the assurance of the functions and the failure of sections due to fatigue of the
facilities relating to structural members
① The verification of the assurance of the functions of the facilities relating to structural members refers
to verification of the limit state in which function-related trouble occurs in structural members, and in
addition the verification of failure of sections due to fatigue refers to verification of the limit state in
which destruction of a section occurs in a structural member due to repeated action.
② The waves to be considered in the verification of the assurance of the functions of the facilities relating
to structural members employ as the standard waves for which the number of times which the waves
with a wave height greater than that strike in the design working life is about 10,000 times.
③ When setting the waves to be considered in the verification of destruction of a section due to fatigue,
the various conditions such as the natural condition of objective facilities are considered, and the
number of times of appearance relating to the wave height and period of the waves that occur during
the design working life. The period of the observed values and estimated values is based on (1) ③
above.
(3) Waves employed to verify harbor calmness
A period of 5 years or longer is used as the standard for the long term (observation or estimation). In addition,

– 79 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
when setting the waves to be considered in the verification of harbor calmness, long period waves should be
included in areas where occurance of long period waves is predicted.

[Technical Note]
4.1 Basic Matters Relating to Waves

(1) Definition of Waves


The waves of the oceans are one of the principal actions acting on the port facilities, and are in principle treated
as random waves, and are set appropriately based to the greatest possible extent on past observation data and the
latest findings. Fig. 4.1.1 shows the definition of waves. Here, the height from the trough to the peak of one wave
is the wave height H, the spatial length is the wavelength L, and the speed at which it is propagated is the wave
celerity C calculated by the zero-upcross method. The length of the period from the start of a wave to the start
of the next wave expressed in a case observed at a fixed point is the period T. Reference 1) can be referred for the
specifics on the basic nature of waves.

4
3 Wave height H (m)
2
Water level (m)

1
0
-1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

-2
-3 Period T
-4
Time (s)

Fig. 4.1.1 Definition of Waves

(2) Introduction of Random Waves


The wave height and period of ocean waves vary for each wave. Such waves are called random waves, and it is
preferable in principle that random waves are employed in the performance verification. It is possible to consider
random waves to be the overlapping of regular waves with various periods, and the respective regular waves are
called component waves. It is the frequency spectrum of a wave that indicates the degree of the energy of the
component waves, and a spectrum shape corresponding to the properties of ocean should be employed in the
performance verification. Based on observed cases to date on Japan’s seacoast, the Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu
spectrum 2) is commonly employed.
The Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu spectrum shape is expressed by the following equation.

(4.1.1)

where
S ( f ) : f requency spectrum of the wave
H1/3 : significant wave height
T1/3 : significant wave period
f : f requency

However, in inner bay areas like Tokyo Bay, the peak of the spectrum often becomes pointed, so it is preferable
to introduce a spectrum shape of the JONSWAP type 3) based on observations to the greatest extent possible, or to
employ a spectrum that can reflect appropriately the observation results.
(3) Introduction of Multi directionality of Waves
In shallow waters, the wave height of the component waves becomes orthogonal to the shoreline due to refraction
effects, and the nature of the waves becomes closer to uni-directional random waves. Accordingly, a case in which
the water depth to the wavelength ratio of offshore waves (h/L0) becomes 0.1 or smaller is used as the benchmark,
and in waters shallower than this it may be approximated as a wave that acts by an uni-directional random wave
composed of component waves that are unidirectional only, limited to cases where a wave is employed as the
variable action. In deeper waters, its character as a multi directional random wave where the energy of the
component waves advances in various directions becomes stronger, and it is preferable to treat the wave as a
multi directional random wave. In addition, since the multi directionality of the wave has a major effect in the

– 80 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
performance verification of the stability of the breakwater head of a breakwater or floating facilities, so the multi
directionality of the waves in waters should be examined beforehand with appropriate observation data. The wave
direction has a major effect on the results in the calculation of the degree of calmness, so the waves are calculated
as multi directional random waves.
A directional wave spectrum is employed as an index for showing the multi directionality of a wave. The
directional wave spectrum is the product of the above-described frequency spectrum S( f ) and the directional
spreading function G( f, θ), and is expressed as S( f, θ) = S( f )G( f, θ). The Mitsuyasu type directional spreading
function is commonly employed in most cases as the directional spreading function. Fig. 4.1.2 shows the
distribution shape of the Mitsuyasu directional spreading function. f, fp and l in the figure are respectively the
frequency, peak frequency of the frequency spectrum and coefficient employed when computing the directional
wave function in cosine shape. The parameter of the directional wave function Smax is the directional spreading
parameter introduced by Goda and Suzuki, 4) and the following numerical values can generally be used.

Wind waves Smax = 10


Swell with a short attenuation distance Smax = 25
Swell with a long attenuation distance Smax = 75

However, the variance of the directional spreading parameter is large on-site, and when the directional wave
spectrum is observed on-site, these values should be used as a reference.

G( θ) 2.5

f* 1(f/f p =0.80)
f* 0(f/f p =1.00)
ℓ= 5 f* 2(f/f p =1.38)
ℓ= 9 f* 3(f/f p =1.65)
ℓ=11
ℓ=13 ℓ

-90° 0° θ 90°
(1) When Smax = 75

G( θ ) f* 1(f/f p =0.80)
2
f* 0(f/fp =1.00)
ℓ=1 f* 2(f/f p =1.38)
ℓ=3 f* 3(f/f p =1.65)
1

-90° 0° θ 90°
(2) When Smax = 25

G(θ )
2 f* 1(f/f p =0.80)
f* 0(f/f p =1.00)
ℓ=1
f* 2(f/f p =1.38)
ℓ=3 f* 3(f/f p =1.65)
1
ℓ=5

-90° 0° θ 90°
(3) When Smax = 10

Fig. 4.1.2 The Distribution Shape of the Mitsuyasu Type Directional Spreading Function

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
The directional spreading parameter Smax of offshore waves that expresses the directional spreading of wave
energy varies depending on the wave shape steepness, and it can be estimated with Fig. 4.1.3 in the event that
adequate observation data is not obtained. In addition, in shallow waters, the directional spreading of waves varies
depending on the sea bottom topography, so it is preferable to estimate this by a wave deformation calculation,
but in those cases where the coastline is close to linear having simple topography and the water depth contour is
deemed to be parallel to the shoreline, the changes in Smax may be estimated by the diagram in Fig. 4.1.4.

200

Smax
100

50

20

10

1
0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05
H0/L0

Fig. 4.1.3 Changes in Smax due to Wave Shape Steepness

100
90 (Smax )0= 75
80
70
60
Smax

50
40
(Sma
x )0 = 25
30

20
(α p )0= 0°
(Smax )
30° 0= 10
60°
10
0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0
h/L0

* (Smax) indicates the value of offshore waves, and (αp)0 indicates the principal wave direction of offshore waves. L0 indicates the wave
height of offshore waves, and h indicates the water depth.

Fig. 4.1.4 Changes in Smax due to Water Depth

(4) Waves Represented in Perfomance Verification


Since the wave height of random waves varies depending on the time, representative waves shall be employed
in the performance verification. Significant waves are normally employed as representative waves. Since the
significant wave height H1/3 is calculated by calculating the wave height for each wave obtained by the zero-
upcross method, and then calculating the mean value of 1/3 of the upper value of wave height that are rearranged

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
in descending order. And the significant wave period T1/3 is the value averaging the period of the wave employed
for calculation of the significant wave height. The mean of the individual waves included in all data are expressed
as the mean wave height R and mean wave period T . The wave with the greatest wave height among a series
of waves is called the highest wave, its wave height and period are respectively called the highest wave height
Hmax and highest wave period Tmax, and the action due to the waves employed in the verification of stability of a
breakwater shall be calculated from the dimensions of the highest wave. On the assumption that wave energy is
concentrated in the extremely narrow range of a certain frequency, the occurrence frequency of the wave heights
included in the wave group of offshore waves follows the Rayleigh distribution. In the event that the occurrence
frequency of wave heights follows the Rayleigh distribution, the following relationship exists between the highest
wave height Hmax and the significant wave height H1/3. 5)

(4.1.2)

The following relationship exists for the period.

(4.1.3)

The Rayleigh distribution is expressed by the following equation.

(4.1.4)

where
H is the mean wave height of all waves in the wave group.

As in the case of the method for calculating the significant wave height, the wave height calculated with 1/10
of the upper value of wave height is called the highest 1/10 wave height. The following formulas are established
between H , H1/3 and H1/10.

(4.1.5)

(5) Deformation of waves in shallow waters


The phenomenon where the wave height or direction of progress of waves varies due to the effects of the water
depth is called the deformation of waves, and a deformation of waves in waters that are shallower than ½ of the
wavelength L0 (= 1.56 T02) of offshore waves should be taken into consideration. The deformation of waves includes
such phenomena as refraction or diffraction, wave shoaling, breaking and, reflection, and calculation of these is
done with the respective appropriate numerical calculation methods. Since these respective phenomena occur by
mutually affecting one another, the application of a calculation method that can take all of them into consideration
at once is preferable, but at present there is no calculation method that can consider all of these phenomena
simultaneously in practical use. In principle, the waves that act on the port facilities are those appropriate waves
that are most disadvantageous for the stability of the structure of the port facilities or the utilization of the port
facilities, in view of refraction, diffraction, shoaling, and breaking due to the propagation of offshore waves.
(6) Shallow waters and deep waters
In waters where the water depth is at least ½ the wavelength, the waves are hardly affected by the sea bottom, and
proceed without deforming. However, waves are gradually affected by the sea bottom when they invade waters
where the water depth is less than ½ the wavelength, and the wave celerity becomes slower, the wavelength shorten,
and the wave height also changes. Given this fact, waters where the water depth is at least ½ the wavelength is
called deep waters, and the waters shallower than this is called shallow waters. When setting the waves in shallow
waters, due consideration must be given to the deformation of the waves. For the distinction between shallow
waters and deep waters for random waves, the wavelength L0 of offshore waves is calculated by L0 = 1.56 T02 (m),
and then the waters may be distinguished by the water depth relative to this wavelength. Moreover, it is necessary
to take into consideration the fact that the shape of the spectrum and the frequency distribution of the wave height
differ from the state of offshore waves, due to the effects of refraction, diffraction, shoaling, and breaking in
shallow waters.
(7) Long period waves and harbor resonance
Long period waves, which have a water surface fluctuation whose frequency is several tens of seconds or longer,
may exert a major impact on the mooring facilities or topography of the sea bottom, and it is preferable to examine
as necessary, based on on-site observations and the analytical results to date. Harbor resonance, which is the

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
natural resonance of harbors and bays, has effects on not only moored ships but also the water level of the inner
part of the bay, so in the event that clear harbor resonance is found from the tide records to date, or in the event
that the topography of the harbor varies widely, it is preferable to examine this with an appropriate numerical
calculation method. 6)
(8) Wave direction
The wave direction is an important parameter for determining the direction of the forces acting on the facilities.
It is preferable to determine the principal wave direction to the greatest extent possible by observation of the
directional wave spectrum or of the flow speed of two components. 7) The principal wave direction is the orientation
where the peaks in the wave train are distributed most densely on a wave form of a certain direction, and it is
considered as an angle where the peak in directional wave spectrum appears. However, in the event that the swells
from outside the harbor or the wind waves that occur inside the harbor overlap, bidirectional waves that have
two peaks for the directional spreading function appear frequently. 8) In these cases, even if the principal wave
direction is determined, it is seldom that this principal wave direction represents the direction in which the energy
of the wave proceeds, so one should examine special measures such as carrying out the performance verification
of the facilities at the wave direction that is most dangerous, or carrying out the performance verification for the
respective wave directions, and setting the facilities to be stable for both.
(9) Setting of waves
In the performance verification, the above-described properties of waves shall be considered, and first of all the
offshore waves composing variable action or accidental action shall be determined, in accordance with the function
of the facilities. The directional concentration of the energy of the wave is set, in addition to the significant wave
height, significant wave period and wave direction, as the conditions of the waves. Next, the wave deformation
calculation shown in the next chapter is carried out in shallow waters, and the conditions of the waves that act on
the facilities shall be determined.

4.2 Generation, Propagation and Attenuation of Waves

(1) Summary of the Wave Hindcasting Method


Wave hindcasting estimates the temporal and spatial changes in wind direction and wind velocity of the prescribed
water area from the topography and the meteorological data, and estimates the waves under the wind field. There
are various methods for wave hindcasting, but in general these can be divided roughly into the significant wave
method and the spectrum method, and the mainstream method at present is the spectrum method.
(2) Wave Hindcasting by the Significant Wave Method
The modern wave hindcasting method that was first developed in the world treats the series of phenomena known
as the generation, development, propagation and attenuation of waves collectively, and estimates the wave height
H1/3(m) and period T1/3(s) with the wind velocity U10(ms) value at 10 m above the sea surface, wind duration t (s)
and fetch length F(m) as the parameters. Its forerunner is the S-M-B method, which was proposed by Sverdrup
and Munk 9) in the 1940s and revised by Bretschneider. 10), 11)
Currently, the improved Wilson IV formula, 12) is generally employed:

(4.2.1)

(4.2.2)

Fig. 4.2.1 illustrates these relational expressions (the unit of the fetch length F in equation (4.2.1) and equation
(4.2.2) is expressed by kilometer units in Fig. 4.2.1). However, these relational expressions are for cases where
the wind is continuously blowing constantly for an adequately long time, and for a while after the wind starts
blowing it does not reach this wave height or period. The time required for a wave that occurs at the upper
extremity of the fetch to reach the point at distance F(m) while it develops is called the minimum wind duration
tmin(s), and is expressed by the following equation.

(4.2.3)

where
Cg(x) is the group velocity of the waves. In addition, it is possible to make a rough estimate by means
of the following equation.13)

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

(4.2.4)

Where, tmin’ is the minimum wind duration (hr), and F’ is the fetch length (km), and it is necessary to pay
attention to the fact that the units differ from equations (4.2.1) and (4.2.2). When the wind duration is shorter
than the minimum wind duration, the waves are in the process of developing with time. Therefore, in those cases
where the fetch length and the wind duration are simultaneously provided, the smaller ware of the two calculated
waves must be adopted.
The SMB method fundamentally applies to constant fetch, but in the event that the wind speed is changing
gradually, the waves can be hindcasted by using the equi-energy line (the line showing H1/32 · T1/32 = const).
In the event that the width of the fetch is narrower than the fetch length in a lake or bay, or in the event that the
fetch length is determined by the opposite shore distance, and the opposite shore distance varies widely relative
to minute fluctuations of the wind direction, equation (4.2.1) and equation (4.2.2) provide a wave height or period
that is much larger than it really is. In such cases, it is best to employ the effective fetch length 14) provided by the
following formula.

(4.2.5)

Here, Feff is the effective fetch length, Fi is the opposite shore distance in the number ith direction from the
hindcasting point of the wave, and θi is the angle formed by the direction of the opposite shore distance Fi and the
principal wind direction, and is -45° ≤ θi ≤ 45°.

1 2 3 4 6 8 10 2 3 4 6 8 102 2 3 4 6 8 103 2 3 4 6 8 104


60
4 50
40 5 30
50 35 28
30 26
2 28
24 6 24
40 2 22 22
18 0
16 20
14
35 12 18
1
9 0 16
30 8 14
28
7

26 12
6
Wind velocity U (m/s)

24
4

22 10
3.
5
3

20 9
2.
5

8
2

18
7
1.

16
5

6
1

14
0.

5
75

12
0.
5

10
3.
5
H

9
=0

3
.25

8
2.
5

7
0.75

150
2

200
6

300
100

400
8
7

25

80
14
16
10

40
12

50
18

60

90
t =0.50

30

70
2.5

20
1.5

5
4
3
1

6
T
=1
.5

5
1 2 3 4 6 8 10 2 3 4 6 8 102 2 3 4 6 8 103 2 3 4 6 8 104

Fetch length F (km)

Wave height H1/3 (m) Period T1/3


Minimum wind duration t (h) Equi-energy line (H1/32 • T1/3) = const.

Fig. 4.2.1 Wind Hindcasting Diagram by the S-M-B Method

In the SMB method, when the variation of the wind field is significant as in the case of a typhoon or extra
tropical cyclone, it is difficult to provide suitably the values for wind velocity U10 , fetch length F or wind duration
t. A method that solves this problem is Wilson’s graphical calculation method, 15) and the methods of Ijima and
Horikawa, 16), 17) which solve Wilson’s equation numerically, are commonly employed.
As shown in equation (4.2.1) and equation (4.2.2), the significant wave method is nothing more than formula
that links experientially the development of wind waves with the basic parameters, and is not formula that is
constructed in line with the mechanisms of generation and development of waves. Owing to this nature, it leaves
a number of vague points, such as how to handle cases where the wind gradually deflects, the transition from wind
waves to swells, the method for synthesizing wind waves and swells. In addition, there is also the problem that
the wave direction obtained by hindcasting displays the wind direction of the final step of calculation. However,
compared to a case where the wind field has a simple nature and the effects of swells can be ignored, it is a
practical estimation method that is simpler than the spectrum method and whose calculation time is also short.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
As far as the swells that wind waves propagate distant from the generation and development areas are
concerned,

(4.2.6)

(4.2.7)

Here, (H1/3)F and (T1/3)F are the wave height and period of a significant wave at the terminus of the fetch, (H1/3)
D and (T1/3)D are the wave height and period of a swell, Fmin is the minimum fetch length that generates the wave,
D is the attenuation distance, that is the distance terminus of the wind field to the arrival point of a swell, and k1
0.4, and k 2 2.0. In addition, the propagation time t of a swell is given by the following equation.

(4.2.8)

A wave hindcasting method for shallow water area has also been proposed.19)
(3) Wave Hindcasting by the Spectrum Method
In general the following formula is employed for wave hindcasting by the spectrum method.

(4.2.9)

Here, Cg is the group velocity, the first term at left stands for the local temporal change in spectrum energy
E(ω, θ), and the second term stands for the changes due to the transmission effect of the spectrum energy. In
addition, Snet(ω, θ) on the right side is the term expressing the total amount of change in energy related to the
change of the spectrum components, and in general is provided by the following formula:

(4.2.10)

Here, Sin is the energy transmitted from the wind to the waves. Snl is the gain and loss of energy that occurs
between the four component waves with different wave numbers, and is called transport of wave energy by
nonlinear interactions (hereinafter, “nonlinear transport of wave energy”). The nonlinear interactions due to
these four waves cause the shape of the directional wave spectrum to vary, with the total sum of energy that the
waves have constant. Sds stands for the effects where the energy of the waves dissipates due to white-cap breaking
waves or the internal viscosity of seawater.
Models based on the spectrum method are classified into the disjoined propagation (DP model), the coupled
hybrid (CH) model and the coupled disjoined (CD) model, depending on how the nonlinear transport of wave
energy Snl is treated. In the DP model, the nonlinear transport of wave energy term is not introduced directly,
and the respective frequency and directional components are not coupled to each other. In the CH model, the
nonlinear interactions between component waves are parameterized and introduced. In the CD model, the
nonlinear interactions are introduced directly in some form or other.
On the other hand, the models are also classified by the period when they were developed. The DP model,
which was developed from the 1960s to the beginning of the 1970s, is the first generation model, and the CH
model and CD model, which were developed from the 1970s to the 1980s, are second generation models, and the
CD model, which was developed from the latter half of the 1980s to the present, and which handles the nonlinear
interactions with higher accuracy than previously, is called the third generation model. In the third generation
model, the degree of flexibility of the scheme of the nonlinear transport of wave energy term is high, and it is
possible to hindcast with good accuracy even in the case of waves where bidirectional waves, wind waves and
swells are all present.
The wave hindcasting model of the Japan Meteorological Agency started from MRI, 20) the first generation
model, and developed into MRI-II 21) and MRI-II new, 22) the second generation models, and currently MRI-III, 23)
the third generation model, is being employed. In addition to these, the Inoue model 24) and the Yamaguchi-
Tsuchiya model 25) are known as a first generation model, and the Tohoku model 26) is known as a second generation
model. In addition, in the first generation models, a one point method where the waves at one spot are calculated

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
from a calculation along the wave ray of each component wave that arrives at one spot has been developed.
(4) MRI Model 20)
The MRI model that was developed in 1973 is the model that was employed for the numerical wave report service
of the Japan Meteorological Agency over approximately a decade from 1977.
In the MRI model, the linear development and exponential development of wind waves due to wind, and the
physical mechanisms of energy dissipation due to the effects of breaking waves and internal friction and headwinds,
are taken into consideration. The effects of nonlinear transport of wave energy Snl are not considered formally, but
the effects of on-linear transport of wave energy are expressed indirectly by employing the development equation
24) for wind waves, which does not separate the nonlinear transport of wave energy S from the transport of wave
nl
energy Sin from the wind to the wave.
The total amount of change in energy Snet(ω, θ) is divided into the cases of tailwinds and headwinds, and is
expressed as follows.

(4.2.11)

Here, f is the frequency, θ is the wave direction, θ w is the wind direction and E = E( f, θ) is the directional
spectrum of the wave. EPM is the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum, and is employed as the standard form of a
saturated spectrum. In addition, Γ (θ-θ w) is the directional wave function that is proportionate to cos2θ, A and B
are the linear and exponential development rates 24) of wind waves per unit time, and D is the coefficient of internal
friction (eddy viscosity).
In a DP model including the MRI model, the spectrum shape of the waves is expressed so as to gradually
approximate a saturated spectrum, by multiplying the term of the form {1 – (E - EPM )2}, and – (E - EPM )2
expresses the formal energy dissipation. In addition, in the DP model, the calculation time is short, and it has
practical accuracy with respect to wave height, so it is employed currently as a wave model that can be used simply
and conveniently.

(5) WAM Model28)


The WAM model is a representative third generation wave hindcasting model that directly calculates the nonlinear
interactions of four wave resonance, by the discrete interaction approximation 29) of S. Hasselmann and K.
Hasselmann.
In the model of the spectrum method, the transport of wave energy from wind to wave is generally provided
by the following.

(4.2.12)

Here, A corresponds to the Phillips resonance mechanism, and BE to the Miles instability mechanism. The
Phillips resonance mechanism is a mechanism where the random pressure fluctuations of wind that blows over a
still water surface, and the component waves that have a spatial scale and phase velocity that matches the former,
cause resonance, and owing to the phenomena a wave is generated. On the other hand, the Miles instability
mechanism is a mechanism where the airflow on the water surface is disturbed and becomes unstable owing to
the unevenness of the water surface due to the waves, and energy is efficiently transmitted from wind to waves
due to this phenomenon. In the WAM model, the following equation, from which the items related to the Phillips
resonance mechanism are omitted, is adopted:

(4.2.13)

However, in this method, if the initial value of the spectrum energy of the waves is assumed to be 0, no waves
are generated, so it is possible to provide as the initial value a spectrum calculated from the fetch length and initial
velocity.
In Cycle 4 of the WAM model, Janssen’s quasi-linear theory 30), 31) has been incorporated in the calculation
equation for the transport of wave energy term from wind to waves. Owing to this, even in the event that the
conditions of the offshore winds are identical, it is possible to calculate closer to reality, such that the amount of
wave energy transported is greater for waves whose wave age is younger.
In the energy dissipation term of the WAM model, the effects of white-cap breaking waves and sea bottom
friction have been taken into consideration.
In the nonlinear transport of wave energy term, the nonlinear interactions of the four wave resonance have

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
been taken into account. Nonlinear interactions are a phenomenon where the component waves making up the
spectrum exchange the energy that they respectively have, and although no change is imparted directly to the
total energy of the wave, effects appear themselves on the amount of energy transport from wind to waves and the
amount of energy dissipation due to the fact that the spectrum shape changes. Then, the nonlinear transport of
wave energy of four wave resonance is expressed by the following equation. 32)

(4.2.14)

Here, n(k) = E(k)/ω stands for the wave action density, Q( ) the joint function of the spectrum components,
δ the delta function, k the wave vector, and the subscripts are the four wave components. The delta function
expresses the resonance conditions, and nonlinear interactions occur between the component waves that satisfy
the following expression.

(4.2.15)

However, an incalculable number of combinations of resonance that satisfies this expression exist. Owing to
this, an immense calculation burden is involved in calculated all of these combinations, so in the actual model one
representative combination is decided on, and Snl is approximated.
A model expanded so that topographical breaking waves and wave set up based on WAM can be considered
is SWAN, 33) and this is employed for wave hindcasting in shallow waters.

4.3 Wave Transformations


In general, the waves to be considered to exert actions on port facilities shall be the waves that are most unfavorable
in terms of the structure stability or the usage of the port facilities. In this consideration, appropriate attention
shall be given to wave transformations during the propagation of waves from deepwater toward the shore, which
include refraction, diffraction, shoaling, breaking, and others. The wave transformations to be considered shall be
multi directional random waves, 34) and these will have to be calculated after assigning them with an appropriate
directional wave spectrum 35) while in deepwater. However, when determining the rough wave height of the action,
an approximate solution may be calculated using regular waves with representitive wave heights and wave periods (for
example H1/3, T1/3) of random waves.

4.3.1 Wave Refraction

(1) In shallow waters, the changes in wave celerity accompanying the changes in water depth cause the wave refraction
phenomenon. Changes in wave height and wave direction due to refraction must therefore be considered.
(2) Refraction Calculation for Random Waves
① Calculation methods
Calculation method for refraction analysis for random waves include the following: ① the component wave
method, whereby the directional wave spectrum is divided into an appropriate number of component waves, a
refraction calculation is performed for each component wave, and then the wave refraction coefficient for the
random wave is evaluated by making a weighted average of the component wave energies; ② methods in which
the wave energy balance equation 37) or the mild-slope equation for wave is solved directly using a computer
with finite difference schemes. As with the component wave method, the energy balance equation is derived
by assuming that wave energy does not cut across wave rays and flow out. This means that the technique is
basically the same in both cases. However, with the energy balance equation method, refraction within a micro-
finite region is calculated, meaning that the wave refraction coefficient does not become infinite even at a point
in which two regular wave rays may converge. On the other hand, the mild-slope equation method for wave is a
strictly analytical method, but it is difficult to apply it to a large region. When determining the wave refraction
coefficient for random waves, it is acceptable to use the component wave method, which involves the linear
superposition of wave refraction coefficients for regular waves and is thus simple and convenient. However,
when intersections of wave rays occur during a refraction calculation for a component wave, the energy balance
equation method may be used for practical purposes with the exception of the case that the degree of intersection
is large.
② Effects of diffraction
When deepwater waves have been diffracted by an island or a headland, the wave spectrum becomes generally
different from a standard form that has been assumed initially. Thus it is necessary to use the spectral form after
diffraction when performing the refraction calculation.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

③ Diagrams of the wave refraction coefficient and angle for random waves at a coast with straight, parallel depth
contours
Figs 4.3.1 and 4.3.2 show the wave refraction coefficient Kr and the principal wave direction (αp)0, respectively,
for random waves at a coast with straight, parallel depth contours, with the principal direction of deepwater
waves (αp)0 as the parameter. The direction (αp)0 is expressed as the angle between the wave direction and
the line normal to the boundary of deepwater. Smax is the maximum value of the parameter that expresses the
degree of directional spreading of wave energy (see 4.1 Basic Matters Relating to Waves).

1.0
Kr (α p)0=0°
20°
0.9 30°
40°
50°
0.8 60°
Smax=10
0.7

1.0
Kr ( α p)0=0°
20°
0.9 30°
40°

0.8 50° Smax=25


60°
0.7

Kr 1.0
( αp)0=0°
20°
30°
0.9 40°

50°
Smax=75
0.8
60°
0.7
0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0
h/L0
Fig. 4.3.1 Wave Refraction Coefficient of Random Waves at Coast with Straight, Parallel Depth Contours

80°

70°
(αp)0=70°
60°
60°
50°
50°

αp 40°
40°
30°
30°

20° 20°
15°

10° 10°


0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0
h/L0
Fig. 4.3.2 Change Due to Refraction in the Principal Direction αp of Random Waves at Coast with Straight,
Parallel Depth Contours

(3) Energy Balance Equation


The energy balance equation calculates the changes due to refraction in shallow waters of the frequency spectrum
of random waves, and calculates the wave height change in shallow waters. Equation (4.3.1) shows the basic
equation of the energy balance equation.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(4.3.1)

(4.3.2)

Here, S is the directional spectrum of the wave, C is the wave celerity, Cg is the group velocity of the waves,
and θ is the wave angle that is measured from clockwise to counterclockwise of the x axis. Equation (4.3.1) can be
solved from offshore towards the direction in which the waves proceed. In equation (4.3.1), the left term is 0, and
the total energy of the wave being propagated is treated not to vary. Takayama et al.have taken into consideration
the energy loss due to breaking waves, and improved it so that the effects of breaking waves can be treated as well.
Fig. 4.3.3 is an example of improved calculation by the energy balance equation.

5.5
5.5
5.0
4.5
3.0 5.0 4.0
3.5 2.5 1.0
3.0 2.0
4.5 1.5
3.5
4.0
0.6 1.0
3.5 0.6
0.5
3.0
1.5 0.5
1.0
2.5
1.0 2.5 3.0
1.0 H1/3(m)
2.0 EBM
2.0
Diffr Method
1.5 2.0

1.5

Fig. 4.3.3 Example of Calculation of the Wave Height Distribution by the Energy Balance Equation

In the figure, the solid line is the wave height based on the energy balance equation, and the broken line is
the wave height distribution calculated by taking into consideration only the refraction inside the harbor. In the
energy balance equation, there are cases where the effects of not only refraction but also diffraction are also
applied to large wave fields. Since the the invasion of wave energy due to directional dispersion of random waves
are dominant compared to that due to diffraction, it is possible to examine the wave height inside a harbor that is
shielded by a breakwater, excluding the area immediately behind it.
(4) At places where the water depth is 0.5 times or less the offshore wave height, the nature of waves as a flow is more
prominent than the nature as a wave, so the refraction calculation employed for computing the wave height and
refraction coefficient is applied to the range where the water depth is deeper than 0.5 times of the offshore wave
height.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

4.3.2 Wave Diffraction

(1) Wave Diffraction


① The wave height in regions in which waves are anticipated to be greatly affected by the phenomenon of diffraction
caused by obstacles such as breakwaters or islands needs to be calculated using an appropriate method.
② Diffraction is a phenomenon whereby waves invade into a water arear sheltered by breakwaters. It is the most
important phenomenon when determining the wave height in a harbor. The irregularity of waves should be
considered in a diffraction calculation. For a harbor within which the water depth is assumed uniform, the
diffraction diagrams for random waves with regard to a semi-infinite length breakwater or straight breakwaters
with one opening are prepared. The ratio of the wave height after diffraction to the incident wave height is
called the diffraction coefficient Kd. The diffraction coefficient Kd is given by the following equation:

(4.3.3)

where
Hi : incident wave height outside harbor
Hd : height of wave in harbor after diffraction

Diffraction diagrams and diffraction calculation methods assume that the water depth within the harbor is
uniform. If there are large variations in water depth within the harbor, the errors will become large, in which
case it is preferable to examine the wave height in the harbor by either hydraulic model tests or numerical
calculation methods that also take the effect of refraction into account.
③ Treatment of obliquely incident waves
When waves are obliquely incident to breakwaters with opening, it is preferable to obtain the diffraction diagram
by a numerical calculation. When this is not possible, or when the diffraction diagram is only required as a
rough guideline, the following approximate method may be used instead.
(a) Determining the axis of the diffracted wave
When waves are obliquely incident to breakwaters with opening, the direction θ' of the axis of the diffracted
waves (see Fig. 4.3.4) varies slightly from the direction of incidence θ. Tables 4.3.1 (a) - (c) list the direction
of the axis of the waves as a function of the breakwater opening width ratio B/L and the direction of incident
waves. These tables are used to obtain the direction θ' of the axis of the waves after diffraction, and then the
virtual ratio B'/L corresponding to θ' is obtained from the following equation:

(4.3.4)

Principal direction of diffracted waves

θ'

θ B

B'

Principal direction of incident waves

Fig. 4.3.4 Virtual Opening Width B' and Angle of Axis of Wave after Diffraction θ

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
Table 4.3.1 Angle of Axis of Wave after Diffraction θ

(a) Smax=10 [Angle in the parentheses is the angle of deffraction relative to the angle of incidence]

Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction θ


B/L
15° 30° 45° 60°

1.0 53° (38°) 58° (28°) 65° (20°) 71° (11°)


2.0 46° (31°) 53° (23°) 62° (17°) 70° (10°)
4.0 41° (26°) 49° (19°) 60° (15°) 70° (10°)

(b) Smax=25
Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction θ
B/L
15° 30° 45° 60°

1.0 49°(34°) 52°(22°) 61°(16°) 70°(10°)


2.0 41°(26°) 47°(17°) 57°(12°) 67°( 7°)
4.0 36°(21°) 42°(12°) 54°( 9°) 65°( 5°)

(c) Smax=75
Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction θ
B/L
15° 30° 45° 60°

1.0 41° (26°) 45° (15°) 55° (10°) 66° ( 6°)


2.0 36° (21°) 41° (11°) 52° ( 7°) 64° ( 4°)
4.0 30° (15°) 36° ( 6°) 49° ( 4°) 62° ( 2°)

(b) Fitting of a diffraction diagram


Out of the diffraction diagrams of normal incidence, the diffraction diagram that has a ratio of an opening
width B to a wave length L nearly equal to the breakwater opening width virtual ratio that is selected. This
diffraction diagram is next rotated until the direction of incident waves matches the direction of the axis of
the diffracted waves as determined from Table 4.3.1. The diffraction diagram is then copied and taken to
be the diffraction diagram for obliquely incident waves. The errors in this approximate method are largest
around the opening in the breakwaters; in terms of the diffraction coefficient, the maximum error with the
approximate method may amount to around 0.1.
④ Method to determine diffraction coefficient in a harbor
The diffraction coefficient within a complex shape of harbor is generally estimated by numerical computation
with a computer. Diffraction calculation methods include Takayama’s method, which involves linear super
position of analytical solutions for detached breakwaters, and calculation methods that use the Green functions.38)
⑤ Angular spreading method
When the width of an island or the width of the entrance of a bay is at least ten times the wavelength of the
incident waves, there will not be a large difference between the wave height estimate by the direct diffraction
calculation and the estimate using the amount of directional wave energy that arrives directly at the point of
interest behind the island or in the bay; the latter is called the directional spreading method. However, if the
point of interest is just behind an island or headland, the effects of diffracted waves will be large, and so the
angular spreading method cannot be applied.
⑥ Studies by hydraulic model tests
Thanks to improvements in multi directional random wave generating devices, it is easy to reproduce waves that
have directional spreading in the laboratory nowadays, meaning that diffraction model tests can be carried out
relatively easily. When carrying out a model test, an opening in the harbor model is set up within the effective
wave generating zone, and the wave height is simultaneously measured at a number of points within the harbor.
The diffraction coefficient is obtained by dividing the significant wave height in the harbor by the significant
wave height at the harbor entrance over at least two observation points.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

4.3.3 Combination of Diffraction and Refraction

(1) When carrying out diffraction calculations for waves in waters where the water depth varies greatly, wave
refraction must also be considered.
(2) When the water depth within a harbor is more-or-less uniform by dredging, often seen in large harbors, the
refraction of waves after diffraction can be ignored. In order to determine the wave height in the harbor in this
case, it is acceptable to first carry out a calculation considering only refraction and breaking from the deepwater
wave hindcasting point to the harbor entrance. Next, a diffraction calculation for the area within the harbor is
carried out, taking the incident wave height to be equal to the estimated wave height at the harbor entrance. In
this case, the wave height at a point of interest within the harbor is expressed using the following equation:

(4.3.5)

where
Kd : diffraction coefficient at the point of interest
Kr : refraction coefficient at the point of interest
Ks : shoaling coefficient at the harbor entrance (see 4.3.5 Wave Shoaling)
H0 : deepwater wave height

The energy balance equation method or the improved energy balance equation method 35) in which a term
representing dissipation due to wave breaking is added is appropriate as the calculation method for refraction
analysis for the ocean. Takayama's 42) harbor calmness calculation method, whereby diffraction solutions for
detached breakwaters are superimposed in order to obtain the change in the wave height of random waves within
the harbor due to diffraction and reflection, can be used for the diffraction calculation for the area within the
harbor, provided there are no complex topographic variations within the harbor.
In equation (4.3.5) the assumed wave height by multiplying Kr and Kd by H0 is used as the equivalent deepwater
wave height H0' and calculated with the following equation.

(4.3.6)

The equivalent deepwater wave height is the assumed deepwater wave used for the performance verification
on the results obtained from two-dimensional water tank experiments. And it is obtained by calculating the
effects of refraction and diffraction in advance, and by using wave height H0' multiplied by H0, it is possible to be
obtained by using the calculation diagrams shown in 4.3.5 Wave Shoaling and 4.3.6 Wave Breaking.
(3) When there are large variations in water depth even at places sheltered by breakwaters often seen in the case
with relatively small harbors and coastal areas, it is necessary to simultaneously consider both diffraction and
refraction within the harbor. If ignoring wave reflection and just examining the approximate change in wave
height, it is possible to carry out refraction and diffraction calculations separately, and then estimate the change in
wave height by multiplying together the refraction and diffraction coefficients obtained.
Calculation methods that allow simultaneous consideration of refraction and diffraction of random waves
include a method that uses time-dependent mild-slope equations for wave,43) a method in which the Boussinesq
equation is solved using the finite difference method, 44) and the multicomponent coupling method of Nadaoka
et al.45) There are also references in which other calculation methods are explained.38) The wave transformation
calculation model using the Boussinesq equation has been modified and NOWT-PARI (Nonlinear wave
transformation model by Port and Airport Research Institute) has been proposed as one of the models that can be
used at ports.46) Modified versions that allow simultaneous consideration of runup and seawall wave overtopping
in shallow waters have also been proposed.47) Designers should use appropriate numerical calculation methods,
taking into consideration water area characteristics and the application limit of the program.

4.3.4 Wave Reflection


[1] General

(1) In the performance verification of port facilities, examination shall be carried out on the effects of reflected waves
from neighboring structures on the facilities in question and also the effects of wave reflection from the facilities
in question on neighboring areas.
(2) It is necessary to take note of the fact that waves reflected from port facilities can exercise a large influence on the
navigation of ships and cargo handling. For example, waves reflected from breakwaters can cause disturbances in
navigation water ways, and multiple-reflected waves from quaywalls can cause agitations within harbors.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
(3) Composition of Reflected Waves and Incident Waves
The wave height Hs when incident waves and waves reflected from a number of reflective boundaries coexist can
be calculated using the following equation. Here, a train of incident waves and those of reflected waves from
reflective boundaries are termed the “wave groups”.

(4.3.7)

where
Hs : significant wave height when all of the wave groups are taken together
H1, H2,…, Hn : significant wave heights of wave groups

However, if the wave action varies with the wave direction, the differences in the wave directions of various
wave groups must be considered. The calculated wave height is valid for places that are at least about 0.7
wavelengths away from a reflecting boundary.
Regarding the diffraction or refraction of waves for which wave direction is an important factor, the significant
wave height is determined separately for each wave group by carrying out whatever calculation is necessary for
that wave group, when the wave directions of various wave groups differ. Then the composite wave height
is calculated by putting these significant wave heights into equation (4.3.7). An acceptable alternative is to
determine the spectrum for each wave group, add these spectra together in order to calculate the spectral form
when the wave groups coexist, and then perform direct diffraction or refraction calculations using this spectrum.
(4) Composition of Periods
The significant wave height to be used in calculating the wave force when two wave groups of different periods
are superimposed may be determined by the energy composition method (as shown in, equation (4.3.7)). The
significant wave period T1/3 may be determined using the following equation (4.3.8) 48):

(4.3.8)

where
(4.3.9)

(4.3.10)

(4.3.11)

(4.3.12)

(4.3.13)

(4.3.14)

(H1/3)I, (H1/3)II : significant wave heights of wave groups I and II before superimposition,
respectively (m)
(T1/3)I, (T1/3)II : significant wave periods of wave groups I and II before superimposition,
respectively (s)

Note that, in the above equations, I is assigned to the wave group with the shorter period and II to that with
the longer period.
(5) Methods for Calculating the Effects of Reflected Waves
Calculation methods for investigating the extent of the effects of waves reflected from a structure include the
calculation method of wave height distribution around an island 49) and a simple method by means of diffraction
diagrams.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

① Calculation method of wave height distribution around an island 49)


In this calculation method, the theoretical solution that shows the wave transformation around a single convex
corner is separated into three terms, representing the incident, the reflected and the scattered waves, respectively.
The term for the scattered waves is progressively expanded to obtain an approximate equation, so that the
method can be applied to the case where there are a number of convex corners.
When there are a number of convex corners, it is assumed as a precondition that the lengths of the sides
between convex corners are at least five times the wavelength of the incident waves, so that the convex corners
do not interfere with each other. It is necessary to pay attention on to the fact that errors may become large
if the sides are shorter than this. Since another assumption is made such that the water depth is uniform, the
refraction of reflected waves cannot be calculated. In general, it is sufficient for practical purposes if the lengths
of the sides between convex corners are at least about three times the wavelength of the incident waves. This
calculation method can also be applied to the reflection of random waves by means of superposing component
waves. Although the wave diffraction problems can also be analyzed with this calculation method, there will
be large errors if it is applied to the diffraction of waves by thin structures such as breakwaters.
② Simple method by means of diffraction diagrams
Explanation is made for the example shown in Fig. 4.3.5. The wave height at a point A on the front face of a
detached breakwater is estimated when waves are incident on the detached breakwater at an angle α.
Instead of the detached breakwater, it is supposed that there are two semi-infinite virtual breakwaters with
opening, such as shown with dashed lines in Fig. 4.3.5. Next, one considers the situation whereby waves are
incident on the virtual opening from both the wave direction of the incident waves and the direction symmetrical
to this with respect to the detached breakwater (i.e., the direction shown by the dotted arrow in Fig. 4.3.5),
and draws the diffraction diagram for the opening (dotted lines in Fig. 4.3.5). The range of influence of the
reflected waves is represented by means of the diffraction diagram for the virtual breakwaters with opening.
Accordingly, supposing that the diffraction coefficient at point A is read off as being 0.68, then the wave height
ratio with respect to the incident waves at point A is obtained by combining this value of 0.68 with a value
of 1.0 representing the incident waves; since it is the energies that are added, the wave height ratio becomes
It should be noted, however, that this value of 1.21 represents the mean value of the wave
height ratio around the point A. It is not preferable to use this method for points within 0.7 wavelengths of the
detached breakwater, because the errors due to a phase coupling effect will be large.
For the case of wave reflection by a semi-infinite breakwater, the virtual breakwater also becomes a semi-
infinite breakwater in the opposite direction, and so the diffraction diagram for a semi-infinite breakwater
is used. When the reflection coefficient of the breakwater is less than 1.0 due to wave-dissipating work for
example, the diffraction coefficient should be multiplied by the reflection coefficient before being used. For
example, if the reflection coefficient of the detached breakwater is 0.4 in the previous example, the wave height
ratio at the point A becomes .

0.5

0.6
A
0.8

Fig. 4.3.5 Sketch Showing the Effect of Reflected Waves

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

[2] Calculation of Reflection Coefficient

(1) Ref lection coefficients need to be determined appropriately based on the results of field observations,
hydraulic model tests, and past data.
(2) Approximate Values for Reflection Coefficient
It is preferable to calculate the value of reflection coefficient by field observations. However, when it is difficult
to carry out observation or when the structure in question has not yet been constructed, it is possible to estimate
reflection coefficient by referring to the results of hydraulic model tests. In this case, it is preferable to use random
waves as the test waves.
The following is a list of approximate values for the wave reflection coefficients of several types of structures.

0.7 – 1.0
Upright wall:
(0.7 is for the case of a low crown with much overtopping)
Submerged upright breakwater: 0.5 – 0.7
Rubble mound: 0.3 – 0.6
Wave-dissipating blocks: 0.3 – 0.5
Upright wave-dissipating structure: 0.3 – 0.8
Natural beach: 0.05 – 0.2

With the exception of the upright wall, the lower limits in the above ranges of reflection coefficient correspond
to the case of steep waves and the upper limits to waves with low steepness. It should be noted, however, that with
the upright wave-dissipating structure, the wave reflection coefficient varies with the wavelength, and the shape
and dimensions of the structure. In addition, compared to swells with a period of several tens of seconds or long
period waves with a period of several tens of seconds, the wave reflection coefficient becomes higher than the
above-mentioned values in the case of deformed wave-dissipating blocks or upright wave-dissipating structures.
In recent years there have been reports about calculation methods that incorporate a function that can reproduce
the nature whereby the reflection characteristics of the waves vary in accordance with the thickness of the wave-
dissipating layer and the void ratio in nonlinear wave transformation model, which can calculate a wave form
temporally and spatially.50) The section on long period waves can be referred, for the wave refraction coefficient
of long period waves.

[3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners near the Heads of Breakwaters and around Detached
Breakwaters

(1) Around the concave corners of structures, near the heads of breakwaters, and around detached breakwaters,
the wave height becomes larger than the normal value of standing waves owing to the effects of diffraction and
reflection. This increase in wave height shall be examined thoroughly. Moreover, the irregularity of waves shall
be considered in the analysis.
(2) Influence of Wave Irregularity
When the wave height distribution near the concave corner or the head of a breakwater is calculated for regular
waves, a distributional form with large undulations is obtained. However, when wave irregularity is incorporated
into the calculation, the undulated form of the distribution becomes smoothed out, excluding the region within one
wavelength of a concave corner, and the peak value of the wave height becomes smaller. Calculation using regular
waves thus overestimates the increase in the wave height around concave corners and the heads of breakwaters.
(3) Graphs for Calculating Wave Height Distribution around a Concave Corner
Wave height distributions for random waves near a concave corner are shown in Fig. 4.3.6. This figure exhibits
the form of the distribution of the maximum value of the wave height, as obtained from numerical calculations
for each principal wave direction. It has been assumed that waves are completely reflected by the breakwater.
In the diagram, Kd is the ratio of the wave height at the front of the main breakwater to the wave height of the
incident waves. The random waves used in the calculation has a spectral form with Smax = 75, which implies
a narrow directional spreading. The long dash-dot line in each graph shows the distribution of the maximum
value of the wave height at each point as obtained using an approximate calculation. The length l1 is that of the
main breakwater, l2 is that of the wing breakwater, and β is the angle between the main breakwater and the wing
breakwater. This figure may be used to calculate the wave height distribution near a concave corner. When it is
not easy to use the calculation program, the approximate calculation method may be used.

– 96 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
(4) Wave Height-Reducing Effects of Wave-dissipating Work
When a wave- dissipating work is installed in order to reduce the increase in wave height around a concave corner
and if the wave-dissipating work is such that the reflection coefficient of the breakwater becomes no more than
0.4, it is quite acceptable to ignore the increase in wave height due to the presence of concave corner. However,
this is only the case when the wave-dissipating work extends along the whole of the breakwater. If the breakwater
is long, one cannot expect the wave-dissipating work to be very effective unless it is installed along the entire
length of the breakwater, because the effect of waves reflected from the wing breakwater extend even to places
at a considerable distance away from the concave corner. The same can be said for the influence of the main
breakwater on the wing breakwater.

2
2
4
β=120˚ 1 =∞, 2 =∞
3
Kd
2

4
β=120˚ 1 =5L1/3 , 2 =L1/3
3
Kd
2

4
β=135˚ 1 =∞, 2 =∞
3
Kd
2

4
β=135˚ 1 =5L1/3 , 2 =L1/3
3
Kd
2

4
β=150˚ 1 =∞, 2 =∞
3
Kd
2

4
β=150˚ 1 =5L1/3 , 2 =L1/3
3
Kd
2

4
β=165˚ 1 =∞, 2 =∞
3 1 =5L1/3 , 2 =L1/3
Kd
2

1
0 1 2 3 4 5
x/L1/3 ; Computer method
; Approximate solution
method

Fig. 4.3.6 Distribution of the Maximum Value of the Wave Height around Concave Corner 54)

(5) Increase in Wave Height at the Head of a Breakwater


Near the head of a semi-infinite breakwater or those of breakwaters with opening, specifically within a distance
of one wavelength from the head, waves diffracted by breakwaters exercise an effect of local wave height increase
over the normal standing wave heights. Because the wave height distribution has an undulating form even at the
back of a breakwater, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the difference in water level between the inside
and the outside of the breakwater gives rise to a large wave force. Fig. 4.3.7 shows an example of the results of a
calculation of the ratio of the wave force to that of a standing wave near the head of a breakwater.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

1.4
1.2

Wave force ratio


1.0
0.8
Random waves
Regular waves
h=10m
T=10s L=92.4m

0 100 200
x(m)

Fig. 4.3.7 Wave Force Distribution along a Semi-infinite Breakwater 55)

(6) Increase in Wave Height around Detached Breakwater


Along a detached breakwater, waves with the height greater than that of normal standing waves are produced,
and the wave height distribution takes an undulating form even at the back of the breakwater. This is due to the
effect of wave diffraction at the two ends of the breakwater.56) The wave force also becomes large due to the
difference between the water levels in the front and back sides of the breakwater. In particular, it is necessary to
pay attention to the fact that, with a detached breakwater, the place where the maximum wave force is generated
can shift greatly with the wave direction and the ratio of the breakwater length to the wavelength.
Fig. 4.3.8 shows an example of the results of a calculation of the wave force distribution along a detached
breakwater for unidirectional random waves. In this calculation, the wave direction for which the largest wave
force occurs is α = 30º of obliquely incident with a relatively shallow angle.

1.6

1.4

1.2
90˚
60˚ 75˚
1.0
Wave force ratio

45˚
0.8
α=30˚
0.6

0.4

0.2 α
x
0
50 100 150 200
x(m)

Fig. 4.3.8 Wave Force Distribution along a Detached Breakwater

4.3.5 Wave Shaoling

(1) When waves propagate into shallow waters, shoaling shall be considered in addition to refraction and diffraction.
It shall be considered that the nonlinearity of waves when calculating the shoaling coefficient.
(2) Shoaling is one of the important factors that lead to changing of the wave height in coastal waters. It exemplifies
the fact that the wave height in shallow waters is also governed by the water depth and the wave period. Fig. 4.3.9
has been drawn up based on Shuto’s nonlinear long wave theory.57) It includes the linearized solution by the small
amplitude wave theory and enables the estimation of the shoaling coefficient from deep to shallow waters. In the
diagram, Ks is the shoaling coefficient, H0’ is the equivalent deepwater wave height, H is the wave height at water
depth h, and L0 is the wavelength in deepwater.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

h/L0
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
3.0 H 1.0
1/ Ks
3 2%
0.9
de
ca
y
2.5 lin
tan e
θ=
1/1
0 H0'/L0=
1/2 0.005
Ks= H 2.0 0
H0' H0'/L0=0.0005
1/1
0 00 0.01
0.001
0.002
1.5 0.02

0.04

1.0

0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

h/L0

Fig. 4.3.9 Diagram for Evaluation of Shoaling Coefficient

4.3.6 Wave Breaking

(1) At places where the water depth is shallower than about three times the equivalent deepwater wave height, changing
of the wave height due to wave breaking need to be considered. It is standard to consider the irregularity of waves
when calculating the change in the wave height due to wave breaking.
(2) After the height of waves has increased owing to shoaling, waves break at a certain water depth and the wave
height decreases rapidly. This phenomenon is called the wave breaking. It is an important factor to be considered
when determining the wave conditions exercising on coastal structures. For regular waves, the place at which
waves break is always the same: this is referred to as the “wave breaking point”. For random waves, the location
of wave breaking depends on the height and period of individual waves, and wave breaking thus occurs over a
certain distance: this area is referred to as the “breaker zone”.
(3) Change in Wave Height due to Wave Breaking
The change in wave height due to wave breaking may be determined using Figs. 4.3.10 (a) ~ (e) or Figs. 4.3.11
(a) - (e). These figures show the change in wave height for random waves as calculated by Goda 58) using a
theoretical model of wave breaking. For the region to the right of the dash-dot line on each diagram, the change
in wave height is calculated using the shoaling coefficient (see 4.3.5 Wave Shoaling). For the region to the left
of this dash-dot line, the change in wave height due to wave breaking dominates, and so the wave height must be
determined using this diagram. As for the sea bottom slope, it is appropriate to use the mean sea bottom slope
over the region where the water depth to equivalent deepwater wave height ratio h/H0' is in the range of 1.5 to 2.5.
(4) Scope of Application of Graphs of Wave Height Change
At places where the water depth is shallower than about one half of the equivalent deepwater wave height, a major
portion of wave energy is converted to the energy of flows rather than to that of water level changes. Therefore,
when calculating the wave force acting on a structure in a very shallow water, it is preferable to use the wave
height at the place where the water depth is one half of the equivalent deepwater wave height, if the facilities in
question are highly important. However, it is necessary to estimate the wave force acting on facilities constructed
on land areas from the shoreline with another proposed equation.59)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

3.0 3.0
Bottom slope 1/10 Bottom slope 1/20
H0'/L0=0.002
2.5 2.5

e
lin
H0'/L0=0.002

cay

e
De

in
2.0 2.0

yl
0.005

2%

ca
(H1/3 KsH0')

De
0.005

2%
H1/3 0.01 H1/3
1.5 1.5
H 0' H 0' 0.01
0.02 (H1/3 KsH0')
0.02
0.04
1.0 1.0 0.04

0.08
0.08
0.5 0.5

0 0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
h/H0' h/H0'

Fig. 4.3.10 (a) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Fig. 4.3.10 (b) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the
Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/10 Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/20

3.0 3.0
Bottom slope 1/30 Bottom slope 1/50

2.5 2.5
H0'/L0=0.002
H0'/L0=0.002
e
2.0 2.0
lin
c ay

0.005
De

0.005
H1/3 H1/3
2%

1.5 1.5
H 0' 0.01 H 0' 0.01
(H1/3 KsH0') (H1/3 KsH0')
0.02 0.02
1.0 0.04 1.0 0.04

0.08 0.08

0.5 0.5

0 0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
h/H0' h/H0'

Fig. 4.3.10 (c) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Fig. 4.3.10 (d) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the
Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/30 Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/50

– 100 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

3.0 3.5
Bottom slope 1/100 Bottom slope 1/10
H0'/L0=0.002 0.005
3.0
2.5

e
y lin
H0'/L0=0.002 Hmax H1/250
0.01
2.5

a
Dec
2.0

2%
e 0.02
lin 2.0
H1/3 0.005 c ay Hmax
1.5 De 0.04
H 0'
0.01 2% H 0'
0.08
(H1/3 KsH0') 1.5
0.02
1.0 0.04
1.0
0.08
0.5
0.5

0 0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
h/H0' h/H0'

Fig. 4.3.10 (e) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Fig. 4.3.11 (a) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the
Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/100 Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/10

3.5 3.5
Bottom slope 1/20 Bottom slope 1/30

3.0 H0'/L0=0.002 3.0 H0'/L0=0.002


0.005
ine
Hmax ≡H1/250  Hmax≡H1/250  0.005 yl
e
lin

2.5 2.5
ca
cay

De

0.01 0.01
2%
De
2%

2.0 0.02 2.0


Hmax Hmax 0.02
H 0' 0.04 0.04
H 0'
1.5 0.08 1.5 0.08

1.0 1.0

0.5 0.5

0 0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
h/H0' h/H0'

Fig. 4.3.11 (b) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the Fig. 4.3.11 (c) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the
Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/20 Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/30

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

3.5 3.5
Bottom slope 1/50 Bottom slope 1/100
H0'/L0=0.002 H0' L =0.002
3.0 3.0
/ 0
Hmax≡H1/250  Hmax≡H1/250 
0.005 0.005
2.5 2.5

ine

ine
yl

yl
0.01

ca
0.01

ca
De
2.0 2.0

De
2%
Hmax 0.02 Hmax 0.02

2%
H 0' 0.04 H 0' 0.04
1.5 0.08 1.5 0.08

1.0 1.0

0.5 0.5

0 0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
h/H0' h/H0'

Fig. 4.3.11 (d) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the Fig. 4.3.11 (e) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the
Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/50 Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/100

(5) Approximate Calculation Formulas for Breaking Wave Height


Calculation of wave height changes based on a theoretical model for wave breaking generally requires use of a
computer. However, considering the variability of the phenomenon and the overall accuracy, it is acceptable to
calculate wave height changes using the following simple formula in the case of a beach with constant seabed
slope of about 1/10 to1/75.58)

(4.3.15)

where

(4.3.16)

The shoaling coefficient Ks is determined using Fig. 4.3.9, the operators min{ } and max{ } express minimum
and maximum value of within the braces, respectively, and tanθ is the sea bottom slope.
Similarly, an approximate calculation formula for the highest wave height Hmax is given as follows:

(4.3.17)

where

(4.3.18)

– 102 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
(6) Diagram for Calculating Breaking Wave Height 58)
If the maximum value (H1/3) peak of the significant wave height in the breaker zone is taken as representative of the
breaking wave height, then the breaker index curve becomes as shown in Fig. 4.3.12. If the water depth (h1/3)
peak at which the significant wave height is a maximum is taken as representative of the breaker depth, then the
diagram for calculating the breaker depth becomes as shown in Fig. 4.3.13.

2.5
Note: (H 1/3) peak is the maximum 3.5 Note: (H 1/3) peak is the water
   at which H 1/3 is a
depth

Bo
  of H 1/3 in the breaker zone
value
maximum in the breaker zone

tto
m
Bo 3.0
2.0

slo
tto
1/ m sl

pe
(H1/3)peak (h 1/3)peak
20

1/1
1/1 op 2.5
H0' 00 e H0'

00
1.5 1/1 1/3
0 0
1/3 2.0 1/20
0
1/1
1.0 0
1.5

0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1

H0'/L0 H0'/L0

Fig. 4.3.12 Diagram of Maximum Value of the Fig. 4.3.13 Diagram of Water Depth
Significant at which the Maximum Value of the
Significant Wave Height Occurs

(7) Limiting Breaking Height for Regular Waves


Fig. 4.3.14 shows the limiting breaking height for regular waves. This figure can be used to calculate the limiting
breaking height in hydraulic model tests using regular waves. The curves in the diagram can be approximated
with the following equation:

(4.3.19)

where
tanθ denotes the seabed slope.

Fig. 4.3.14 shows the limiting wave height at the point of first wave breaking. At places where the water
is shallow, the water depth increases owing to the wave setup caused by wave breaking. When estimating the
limiting wave height in the breaker zone, it is thus necessary to consider this increase in water level.

1.5
Bottom slope 1/10
L0=1.56T 2

1/20
1.0 1/30
1/50 or less
Hb
hb

0.5
S.W.L. Hb
hb

0
0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0

hb/L0

Fig. 4.3.14 Limiting Breaking Height for Regular Waves

– 103 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
(8) Change in Wave Height at Reef Coasts
At reef coasts where shallow water and a flat sea bottom continue over a long distance, the change in wave height
cannot be calculated directly using Figs. 4.3.10 and 4.3.11. Instead, the following empirical equation 61) may be
used:

(4.3.20)

where
H0′ : equivalent deepwater wave height
Hx′ : significant wave height at a distance x from the tip of the reef
h′ : water depth over the reef
′ : increase in the mean water level at a place sufficiently distant from the tip of the reef

The coefficients A and α are 0.05 and 0.33, respectively, according to the results of hydraulic model tests.
However, it is advisable to use the following values that have been obtained from the data of field observations. 62)

(4.3.21)


The coefficient B corresponds to the bottom slope at the front of the reef. Using Fig. 4.3.10, it is obtained
from the significant wave height Hx=0 at water depth h as follows.

H x =0 h + η∞
B= −α (4.3.22)
H 0' H 0'

The term is given by

(4.3.23)


where
β= 0.56. From the continuity of the mean water level at the tip of the reef (x = 0), C0 is given by

(4.3.24)

The term represents the rise in the mean water level at water depth h, which is controlled by the bottom
slope in front of the.
However, there are major localized variations in reef topography on actual coastlines. Wave height may
increase behind circular reefs due to wave concentration and, therefore, it is preferable to conduct experiments
using multi directional random waves wherever possible.63) Reference can be made on 4.3.8 Rise of Mean Water
Level due to Waves and Surf Beats for more information on the concept of increased mean water level. The
calculation method in the above has been derived under the assumption that the water depth h over the reef is
small and waves break over the reef. It is thus not possible to apply the method when the water is deep and wave
breaking does not occur.
Considering the breaking wave height criterion of a solitary wave, the highest wave height Hmax, x at the
distance x from the tip of the reef may be obtained as follows.

(4.3.25)

– 104 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

where, min{a, b} is the smaller value of a or b, and is the rise in the mean water level at the distance x and
is given by the following equation:

(4.3.26)

4.3.7 Wave Runup Height, Wave Overtopping and Transmitted Waves


[1] Wave Runup Height

(1) Wave runup need to be calculated appropriately by taking into account the configuration and location of the
seawall and the sea bottom topgraphy.
(2) The phenomenon of wave runup is dependent upon a whole variety of factors, such as the wave characteristics,
the configuration and location of the seawall, and the sea bottom topography; thus the runup height varies in a
complex way. There are calculation diagrams and equations based on the results of past researches that may be
used, although they are applicable only under certain limited conditions. When the seawall and sea bottom are
complex in form, it is preferable to determine wave runup heights by carrying out hydraulic model tests. When
conducting the performance verification of sloping revetments, it is preferable to set the crown elevation of the
revetment to be higher than the runup height for regular waves. However, for random waves, depending on the
wave height, overflow can occur, and so ultimately the crown elevation and the form of the seawall are preferably
determined so as to make the quantity of wave overtopping (see 4.3.7 [2] Wave Overtopping Quantity) no more
than a certain permissible value.
(3) The results proposed by Mase 64) are simple, and the scope of application is wide, for the wave runup height of
random waves to a uniform slope.

(4.3.27)

Here, x, a and b stand for the coefficients of the statistical values and calculated values of the wave runup
height, and are provided as shown below.

Table 4.3.2 Coefficients of Equation (4.3.27)

Rx Rmax R2% R1/10 R1/10 R


a 2.32 1.86 1.70 1.38 0.88
b 0.77 0.71 0.71 0.70 0.69

Here, Rmax is the maximum value of the wave runup height, and R2% is the value at which the wave runup
height calculated in an experiment exceeds 2%. R1/10, R1/3 and R are 1/10 and 1/3 maximum wave runup height
and the mean value respectively that can be calculated by the same method as a case in which random waves are
statistically analyzed. ξ is called the surf similarity parameter, and . tanβ is the sea bottom
slope.
It is possible to employ the following equation, which has been verified to accord well with experimental
results, for the 1/3 maximum wave runup height 65).

(4.3.28)

– 105 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
(4) As for the wave runup height of a rubble slope, there is Van der Meer-Sten’s equation available. 66)

(4.3.29)

Here, the coefficient is shown in the following table. In addition, in , Hs is the


significant wave height at the water depth at the foot of a seawall, and Tm is the mean period.
The following equation is proposed for the wave runup height of a slope that has permeability.

(4.3.30)

Table 4.3.3 Coefficients of Equation (4.3.29)

Rx Rmax R2% R1/10 R1/10 R


a 1.12 0.96 0.77 0.77 0.47
b 1.34 1.17 0.94 0.88 0.60
c 0.55 0.46 0.42 0.41 0.34
d 2.58 1.97 1.45 1.35 0.82

(5) In the case of complex cross sections, studies into random waves are still insufficient but Saville's virtual slope
method 67) and Nakamura's modified virtual slope method 68) may be used for regular waves.
A “complex cross section” refers to the case where the sea bottom topography and the configuration and
location of the seawall are as shown in Fig. 4.3.15.
① When the cross section can be considered to be complex, the runup height of the seawall is obtained as follows
(refer to Fig. 4.3.15).38)
(a) The wave breaking point B is determined from the deepwater wave characteristics.
(b) Next, the runup height R is assumed and the point A is set at the maximum runup point. Then, the points A
and B are joined by a straight line, and the gradient of this line yields the virtual gradient cotα.
(c) The runup height for this virtual gradient is calculated using Fig. 4.3.16, and the calculated height is compared
with the initially assumed runup height. If the two do not agree, then a new runup height is assumed, and the
estimations are repeated. This iterative process is repeated until convergence is achieved.
(d) The value so obtained is taken to be the runup height for the complex cross section in question.

Maximum runup point


A Wave breaking point
S.W.L.

Actual cross section hb


Virtual gradient α
B

Fig. 4.3.15 Complex Cross Section and Virtual Gradient

– 106 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

10
8
6
0.002 0.001
4 0.004
H0' 0.008
0.012
L0 0.020
2 0.029
0.049
0.078
R
H0' 1.0 0.001
0.8
0.6 0.002
0.004
0.4 H0'
h 0.008
1< H ' <3 0.012 L0
0 0.020
0.2 0.029
0.049
0.078
0.1
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.60.81.0 2 4 6 810 20 40 60 80100
cot α

Fig. 4.3.16 Runup Height on a Slope

② When the results obtained from this method are compared with actual experimental results for a complex cross
section, it is generally found that there is good agreement between the two, with the error usually being no more
than 10%. However, if the bottom slope is too gentle, the agreement between the two becomes poor, and so this
method is to only be used when the bottom slope is steeper than 1/30.
③ Fig. 4.3.17 shows experimental results 69) obtained for a bottom slope of 1/70. This figure provides a useful
reference when estimating the runup height for a complex cross section with a gentle bottom slope.

6.0
5.0 H0'/L0=0.007
4.0
3.0 0.01
0.025
R 2.0 0.035
H0'
1:112
1.0 1.2m 1:20
0.8
0.7 1.0m 0.8m 1:70 1:6
0.6
0.5
0.4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 20 30 40 60
cot α

Fig. 4.3.17 Runup Height on Seawall Located Closer to Land than Wave Breaking Point

(6) Oblique Wave Incidence 70)


Fig. 4.3.18 shows the relationship between the incident angle coefficient Kβ and the angle β. Here, β is the
angle between the wave crest line of the incident waves and the centerline of the seawall, and the incident angle
coefficient Kβ is the ratio of the runup height for angle β to the runup height when the waves are normally incident
(i.e., when β= 0). This figure can be used to estimate the effect of wave incident angle on the runup height.
(7) Effects of Wave-dissipating Work
The runup height can be significantly reduced when the front of a seawall is completely covered with wave-
dissipating blocks. Fig. 4.3.19 shows an example. However, the effect of the blocks varies greatly according
to the way in which they are laid, and so in general it is preferable to determine the runup height by means of
hydraulic model tests.
(8) Estimation Errors
It is important to note that the curves for determining the runup height have been obtained by averaging
experimental data that show a large scatter. It should also be noted that actual wave runup will frequently exceeds

– 107 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
the design crown height because of wave irregularity when the crown height of a seawall is verified against the
significant waves, even if the scatter of the experimental data is not considered; in fact, in extreme cases as many
as about a half of the waves may exceed this height. Accordingly, the crown height of a seawall should not be
decided based purely on the runup height of regular waves; rather, it is necessary to give consideration to the
quantity of wave overtopping (see 4.3.7 [2] Wave Overtopping Quantity).
(9) Use of Super Roller Flume for Computer Aided Design of Maritime Structure
It is possible to use CADMAS-SURF to carry out a numerical simulation in calculating the runup height on a
slope. The calculation method for the runup height of regular waves on a uniform slope has been identified by the
study group 71) on the application of CADMAS-SURF in wave-resistant design. The validity of this method has
been confirmed by Sakuraba 72) et. al. through comparisons with experimental values. Hence this method may
be referred to.

1.0 1+cos β
2 (Holland)
H0'/L0
0.8 0.010
0.015

0.6 0.020
Kβ cos β 0.025
0.030
0.4 0.040
1 0.050
1+cos2α –tan2 β (Russia) 0.060
0.2

0
0 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚
β

Fig. 4.3.18 Relationship between Wave Incident Angle and Runup Height
(Solid Lines: Experimental Values by Public Works Research Institute, Ministry of Construction)

4.0
3.0 Smooth surface

2.0 1:1.5
Surface covered with 1:5 1:4 1:1.25
wave-dissipating 1:2
concrete blocks 1:2.5
1.0 1:3
1:1.25
0.8
R/H0' 0.6 1:1.5
1:2
0.4 1:2.5
0.3 1:3
1:4
0.2
1:5

0.003 0.006 0.01 0.03 0.06


0.002 0.004 0.008 0.02 0.04 0.1 0.2

H0'/L0

Fig. 4.3.19 Reduction in Runup Height due to Wave-dissipating Work 54)

– 108 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

[2] Wave Overtopping Quantity

(1) For structures for which the wave overtopping quantity is an important performance verification factor, the wave
overtopping quantity must be calculated by carrying out hydraulic model tests or by using data from hydraulic
model tests carried out in the past. In this case, wave irregularity need be considered. If the sea bottom topography
is complex, the planar distribution of the wave overtopping rate may be determined by calculating the wave acting
on the seawall via wave transformation calculations and then by using the overtopping rate equation.73)
(2) The "wave overtopping quantity" is the total volume of overtopped water. The "wave overtopping rate", on the other
hand, is the average volume of water overtopping in a unit time; it is obtained by dividing the wave overtopping
quantity by the time duration of measurement. The wave overtopping quantity and the wave overtopping rate are
generally expressed per unit width.
(3) If the wave overtopping quantity is large, then not only there will be damage to the seawall body itself, but also
damage by flooding to the roads, houses and/or port facilities behind the levee or seawall, despite that the levee or
seawall is intended to protect them. There is further a risk to users of water frontage amenity facilities that they
may be drowned or injured. When verifying performance, it is necessary to set the wave overtopping quantity so
that it is equal to or less than the limit value that has been determined in line with the characteristics of structures
and the situation with regard to their usage. Furthermore, when estimating the wave overtopping quantity by
means of experiments, it is preferable to consider changes in tidal water level, i.e., to carry out experiments for
different water levels.
(4) Design Diagram of wave overtopping rate 74)
For an upright or wave-dissipating type seawall that has a simple form (i.e., that does not have anything like a
toe protection mound or a crown parapet), the wave overtopping rate may be estimated using Figs. 4.3.20 to
4.3.23. These diagrams have been drawn up based on experiments employing random waves. From the results of
a comparison between the experiments and field observations, it is thought that the accuracy of the curves giving
the wave overtopping rate is within the range listed in Table 4.3.4. The wave overtopping rate for the wave-
dissipating type seawall has been obtained under the condition that the upper armor layer at the crown consists of
2 rows of wave-dissipating concrete blocks.

Table 4.3.4 Estimated Range for the Actual Wave Overtopping Rate relative to the Estimated Value

Wave-dissipating
2 g ( H 0' )
3
q Upright seawall type seawall

10 -2 0.7–1.5 times 0.5–2 times


10 -3 0.4–2 times 0.2–3 times
10 -4 0.2–3 times 0.1–5 times
10 -5 0.1–5 times 0.05–10 times


Note that when obtaining rough estimates for the wave overtopping rate for random waves using Figs. 4.3.20
to 4.3.23, the following should be considered:
① If the actual values of the bottom slope and the deepwater wave steepness do not match any of the values on
the diagram, the diagram for which the values most closely match should be used, or alternatively interpolation
should be carried out.
② The wave-dissipating concrete blocks in the figures are made up of two layers of tetrapods (upper armor layer
at the crown consists of 2 rows). Therefore, even if the same kind of wave-dissipating concrete block is used, if
there are differences in the crown width, in the way, or in the form of the toe, then there is a risk that the actual
wave overtopping rate may considerably differ from the value obtained by the diagrams.
③ If the number of rows of concrete blocks at the crown is increased, the wave overtopping quantity tends to
decrease.75)
④ When there are difficulties in applying the diagrams for estimating the wave overtopping rate, the approximate
equation of Takayama et al.76) may be used.

– 109 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

2 (a) H '/L =0.012 2


10-2
0 0
.5 hc /H 10-2
5 '=0 0 '=0
.5 5
/H 0
2 hc 75 0.75 2
0. .0 10-3
10-3 1 25
1. .5 1.0 5

1m

q / 2g(H0')3
5
q / 2g(H0')3

1 .75

0 '=
2 1 .0 1.2 2

2
H

4 3
2 5
10-4

10 8 6
10-4

5
5 1.5 5
2 hc 2

1.
10-5

75
10-5 h
5 1:30 5

2.0
2 2
10-6 10-6
-0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

2 (b) H '/L =0.017 2


0 0
10-2 10-2
0.5 hc /H '=
5 '0= 0 0.5 5
/H 2
2 h c 75 0.75
10-3 0. .0 10-3
1 25
5 1. .5 5

1m
1.0
q / 2g(H0')3

q / 2g(H0')3
1 .75
0 '=
2 2

2
1.2
1 2.0 H

4 3
5 10-4

10 6
10-4

8 5
5 1.5 5
2 2
hc
10-5 10-5
1.
75 2.0

5 h 5
1:30
2 2
10-6 10-6
-0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

2 (c) H '/L =0.036 2


0 0
10-2 10-2
.5 hc /H0'=0.5
5 '=0 5
/ H0 2
2 hc 0.75
5
10-3 0.7 .0 10-3
5 1 5 1.0 5
1m
q/ 2g(H0')3

q/ 2g(H0')3

1.2 5
0 '=

2 1. 5 2
2
H

1.25
4 3

1.7 10-4
10 6

10-4
8 5

5 2.0 1.5 5
2 2
hc
1.75
10-5 10-5
5 h 5
1:30 2.0
2 2
10-6 10-6
-0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

Fig. 4.3.20 Diagrams for Estimating Wave Overtopping Rate for Upright Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/30)

– 110 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

2 2
.5
10-2 h c/H 0'=0 hc /H 10-2
0 '=0
5 .5 5
0.75
2 0.75 2
10-3 1.0 10-3
1.25 1.0 5

q / 2g(H0')3
1m
5
q / 2g(H0')3

0 '=
2 1.5 1.2 2

2
H
5

4 3
10-4
1.75

10 8 6
10-4

5
5 1.5 5
2.0
2 hc 2

1.
10-5 10-5

75
h
5 1:10 5
(a) H0'/L0=0.012

2.0
2 2
10-6 10-6
-0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

2 (b) H '/L =0.017 2


0 0
10-2 hc /H 10-2
.5 0 '=0
5 h c/H 0'=0 .5 5
5
2 0.7 0 0.75 2
10-3 1. 5 10-3
1.2 5 1.0 5

1m

q / 2g(H0')3
5
q / 2g(H0')3

1. 5

0 '=
2 1.7 .0 1.2 2

2
H

4 3
2 5 10-4

10 6
10-4

5
1.5

8
5 5
2 hc
2
1.

10-5 10-5
75

h 5
5 1:10
2.0

2 2
10-6 10-6
-0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

2 (c) H '/L =0.036 2


0 0
10-2 10-2
5 .5 hc /H0'=0.5
5
'=0
H
h c/
0
2 5 2
0.7 .0 0.75
10-3 1 10-3
5
1.2 1.0 5
1m

5
q / 2g(H0')3
q / 2g(H0')3

1.5 5
0 '=

2
2 1.7 0
2
H

1.25
4 3

2. 10-4
10 8 6

10-4
5

5 1.5 5
2 hc
2
1.7
10-5 5 10-5
h
5 1:10 2.0 5
2 2
10-6 10-6
-0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

Fig. 4.3.21 Diagrams for Estimating Wave Overtopping Rate for Upright Seawall
(Bottom Slope 1/10)

– 111 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

2 2
(a) H0'/L0=0.012
10-2 hc /H '= 10-2
5 .5 0 0.5 5
'o =0
H 2
2 h c/ 75 0.75
10-3 0. 10-3
0
1. 5

1m
5

q / 2g(H0')3
q/ 2g(H0')3

25 1.0

0 '=
2 1. .5 2

2
H

4 3
1 1.2
75

10 6
10-4

5
5 10-4
1.

8
5 5

2.0
2 1.5 2
10-5 hc
10 -5

5 5

1.
blo
ck

75
h
2 1:30 2

2.0
10-6 10-6
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

2 hc 2
blo (b) H0'/L0=0.017
10-2 ck
h
10-2
5 1:30 hc /H '= 5
0 0.5

2 2
5
10-3 0. 0.75 10-3
'=
75 5
1m
/H
0

q / 2g(H0')3
5
q/ 2g(H0')3

hc 0. 1.0 0 '=
2 2
2
0
H
1.
4 3
10 6
10-4 25
5
10-4
1. 1.25
8
5 5 5
1.
2 75 2
1. 1.5
10-5 0 10-5
2.
5 1.7 5
2 2.0 5 2
10-6 10-6
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

2 2
hc (c) H0'/L0=0.036
10-2 blo
ck
10-2
5 h hc/H0'=0.5 5
1:30
2 2
10-3 0.75 10-3
5
0.5

1m

q / 2g(H0')3

5
q/ 2g(H0')3

75 1.0
o '=

0 '=

2 0. 2
2
H
/H

4 3

.0
10 6
hc

10-4 1
5

1.25 10-4
25
8

5 1. 5
2 2
5 1.5
10-5 1. 10-5
5 5
5

1.75
1.7

2 2
10-6 10-6
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 56 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

Fig. 4.3.22 Diagrams for Estimating Wave Overtopping Rate for Wave-dissipating Type Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/30)

– 112 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

2 hc/H0'=0.5 2
10-2 0.75 hc /H 10-2
5 1.0 0 '=0 5
.5
1.25 2
2 1.5 0.75
10-3 1.75 10-3
5

1m
5

q / 2g(H0')3
q/ 2g(H0')3

2.0 1.0

0 '=
2 2

2
H

4 3
1.2

10 6
10-4

5
5 10-4

8
5 5
1.5
2 2
10-5 hc 10-5

1.
75
blo
5 ck
h
5
(a) H0'/L0=0.012

2.0
2 1:10 2
10-6 10-6
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

2 (b) H0'/L0=0.017 2
10-2 10-2
5 hc/H0'=0.5 hc /H '=
5
0 0.5
0.75
2 1.0 2
0.75
10-3 10-3
1.25 5

1m
5

q / 2g(H0')3
q/ 2g(H0')3

1.0
2 1.5 0 '= 2
2
H

4 3
10 6
10-4 1.2

5
10-4
5
75

8
5 5
1.

2 1.5 2
2.0

10-5 hc 10-5
blo
5 ck 5
h
1.

2
75

2 1:10 .0 2
10-6 10-6
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

2 hc 2
blo (c) H0'/L0=0.036
10-2 ck h 10-2
1:10
5 hc/H0'=0.5 5
5

2 2
0.
0 '=

10-3 5 0.75 10-3


0.7
c /H

5
h

5
1m

q / 2g(H0')3
q/ 2g(H0')3

1.0
0 '=

2 1.0 2
2
H

4 3
10 6

10-4 10 -4
5
5

1.25
1.2

5 5
1.5

2 75 1.5 2
10-5 1. 10-5
5 1.75 5
0
2.

2 2.0 2
10-6 10-6
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 1010-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1

h/H0' q(m3/m/s)

Fig. 4.3.23 Diagrams for Estimating Wave Overtopping Rate for Wave-dissipating Type Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/10)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
(5) Allowable Wave Overtopping Rate
The allowable wave overtopping rate depends on factors such as the structural type of the seawall, the situation
with regard to land usage behind the seawall, and the capacity of drainage facilities; it needs to be set appropriately
depend on the situations. Although it is thus impossible to give one standard value for the permissible wave
of overtopping rate, Goda 77) et al. nevertheless gave the values for the threshold rate of wave overtopping for
inducing of damage as shown in Table 4.3.5 based on the past cases of disasters. Also, Fukuda et al.78) gives
the values shown in Table 4.3.6 as values for allowable wave overtopping rate in view of the land usage behind
the seawall. Furthermore, Nagai et al.79) have considered the degree of importance of the facilities behind the
seawall and have come up with the values for the allowable wave overtopping rate as shown in Table 4.3.7, using
the results of experiments with regular waves. Suzuki et al.63) have proposed 0.01m3/m/s as the allowable wave
overtopping rate for amenity-oriented revetment When conducting the performance verification, these must be
set appropriately by considering the importance of the facilities and the capacity of drainage facilities.
CADMAS-SURF 80) or flooding analysis models such as those that use the MARS method 81) can be used
when calculating wave overtopping precisely with the inclusion of items such as the permeability of the soil
behind the seawall and the characteristics of wave-dissipating work configurations.

Table 4.3.5 Threshold Rate of Wave Overtopping for Inducing of Damage

Type Armor Layer Wave Overtopping Rate (m3/m/s)


Paved behind 0.2
Seawall Not paved behind 0.05
Covered with concrete on 3 sides 0.05
Levee Crown paving/rear slope non constructed 0.02
Crown not paved 0.005 or less

Table 4.3.6 Allowable Wave Overtopping Rate in view of State of Land Use

User Distance from dike Wave overtopping rate (m3/m/s)


Land right in back 2 x 10 -4
(50% degree of safety)
Pedestrian
Land right in back 3 x 10 -5
(90% degree of safety)
Land right in back 2 x 10 -5
(50% degree of safety)
Automobile
Land right in back 1 x 10 -6
(90% degree of safety)
Land right in back 7 x 10 -5
(50% degree of safety)
House
Land right in back 1 x 10 -6
(90% degree of safety)
Table 4.3.6 is a table created with the results where people who watch a wave overtopping observation video
make a judgment, and indicates a wave overtopping rate that at least that percentage of people judged to be safe.

Table 4.3.7 Permissible Wave of Overtopping Rate in view of Degree of Importance of Hinterland (m3/m/s)

Districts where significant damage is expected


particularly by the invasion of wave overtopping Around 0.01
and spray due to a dense concentration of
residential houses and public facilities in the rear.
Other important districts Around 0.02
Other districts 0.02 – 0.06

(6) Equivalent Crown Height Coefficient


The equivalent crown height coefficient can be used as a guideline when setting the wave overtopping rate for a
seawall upon which wave-dissipating concrete blocks are laid or for a wave-dissipating type seawall with vertical
slits. The equivalent crown height coefficient is the ratio of the height of the seawall in question to the height of
an imaginary upright seawall that results in the same wave overtopping quantity, where the conditions in terms of
waves and the sea bottom topography are taken to be the same for the both cases. If the equivalent crown height
coefficient is less than 1.0, this means that the crown of the seawall under study can be lowered below that of an

– 114 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
upright seawall and still give the same wave overtopping quantity; in other words, the seawall under study has
a form that is effective in reducing the wave overtopping rate. Below are the reference values for the equivalent
crown height coefficient β for typical types of seawall.

Wave-dissipating block type seawall 76) : β = 0.9– 0.7


Vertical-slit type seawall 76) : β = 0.6
Parapet retreating type seawall 75) : β = 1.0– 0.5
Stepped seawall 75) : β = 1.7 – 1.0
When the waves are obliquely incident 82), 83) :

(θ is the angle of incidence of the waves; it is 0º


when the waves are incident perpendicular to the
seawall faceline)
(7) Effect of Winds on the Wave Overtopping Quantity
In general, winds have a relatively large effect on wave overtopping quantity when it is small, although there is
a lot of variation. However, the relative effect of winds decreases as the wave overtopping rate increases. Fig.
4.3.24 shows the results of an investigation on the wind effect on the wave overtopping quantity based on field
observations. The abscissa shows the spatial gradient of the horizontal distribution of the wave overtopping
quantity, while the ordinate shows the wave overtopping quantity per unit area. As can be seen from the figure,
when the wave overtopping quantity is small, the larger the wind velocity, the smaller the spatial gradient of the
horizontal distribution of the wave overtopping quantity becomes. When the wave overtopping quantity is large,
the spatial gradient of the horizontal distribution of the wave overtopping quantity increases. This shows that,
when the wave overtopping quantity is small, the distance over which a mass of water splash strongly affected by
the wind velocity, with a larger distance at a higher wind velocity; however, when the wave overtopping quantity
is large, the difference in the splash distance becomes small.

10-1 6.8 7.2


6.8 6.8 7.2
∆h= ∆qx
11.1
Wave overtopping rate per unit area q

5 7.2
∆ 9.9 8.6
U ∆q q 13.3 7.2 13.6
2 11.1 8.6
1/2∆ x 11.1
10-2 1/2 x∆ 13.6 9.9 8.6
13.3 6.8
13.6 9.9 8.6 7.2
9.9 13.3 11.1
2.8
5 13.6 6.8 8.6
13.6 13.3 7.2
11.1 11.1
9.9 6.8 6.8
9.9 8.6
2 11.1 13.3 11.1 11.1
11.1 11.1
8.6 9.9
Wind velocity vector
10-3 13.3 8.6 6.8 U (m/s)
(m/s) 13.3 8.6 9.9 6.8
5
14 13.3 9.9 6.8
12
9.9 10 8 6 4
2 8.6

10-4
10-5 2 5 10-4 2 5 10-3 2 5 10-2 2 5 10-1
Gradient ∆h (m3/m2/h)/m

Fig. 4.3.24 Wind Effect on Spatial Gradient of Horizontal Distribution of Wave Overtopping Quantity 78)

(8) Wave Overtopping of Multi Directional Random Waves


In waters where the multi directionality of waves is well clarified, the wave overtopping rate may be corrected in
accordance with Smax as in reference 83).
(9) Effects of Parapet
Parapet on a revetment is effective in reducing wave overtopping. Reference 84) can be referred for wave
overtopping of sloping dikes with parapet.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

[3] Transmitted Waves

(1) It shall be standard to calculate the height of waves transmitted behind a breakwater by overtopping and/or
permeation through the breakwater or the foundation mound of breakwater by referring to either the results of
hydraulic model tests or the past data.
(2) It is necessary to appropriately estimate the transmitted wave height after waves have overtopped and/or passed
through a breakwater, because the transmitted waves affect the wave height distribution behind the breakwater.
Transmitted waves include waves that have overtopped and/or overflowed, as well as waves that have penetrated
through a sloping breakwater or a foundation mound of composite breakwater. The latter in particular is sometimes
referred to as penetrated waves. Recently, several breakwaters have been built with caissons, which are originally
not permeable, having through-holes in order to enhance the exchange of the seawater in a harbor. In this case,
it is necessary to examine on the wave coefficient of wave transmission, because the coefficient serves as an
indicator of the efficiency of the exchange of seawater.
(3) Coefficient of Wave Transmission for Composite Breakwater
Fig. 4.3.25 may be used to calculate the height of waves that are transmitted into a harbor when they overtop a
composite breakwater or permeate through a foundation mound. Even when the waves are random, the coefficient
of wave transmission agrees pretty well with that shown in Fig. 4.3.25. It has also been shown that Fig. 4.3.25
is valid not only for the significant wave height, but also for the highest one-tenth wave height and the mean wave
height.85)

1.0
d/h=0.5 HT B HI
d/h=0.7 R
0.8 d
d/h=0.3 h
d/h=0
0.6
HT
KT=
HI
0.4

0.2

0
-2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
R
HI

Fig. 4.3.25 Diagram for Calculating Coefficient of Wave Transmission 86)

(4) Period of Transmitted Waves of Composite Breakwater


The period of the transmitted waves drops to about 50 to 80% of the corresponding incident wave period in both
the significant wave and the mean wave.86)
(5) For composite breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks, sloping breakwaters covered with
wave-dissipating concrete blocks, and other such breakwaters, experiments on the transmitted wave height have
been carried out by the Civil Engineering Research Institute of Hokkaido Development Bureau.87), 88)
(6) Coefficient of Wave Transmission of Structures
① For a porous and permeable structure such as a sloping breakwater or a wave-dissipating concrete block type
breakwater, Kondo's 53) theoretical analysis may be referred to. The following empirical equation may be used
to obtain the coefficient of wave transmission of a typical structure.

Stone breakwater 89):

(4.3.31)

– 116 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
where
kt : in the case of sloping breakwater and in the case of

deformed block type breakwater


B : crown width of the structure
dt : Nominal diameter of rubble or height of deformed block
H : height of transmitted waves
L : wavelength of transmitted waves

② For a curtain wall type breakwater, the empirical solutions of Morihira et al.90) may be used.
③ For the coefficient of wave transmission of an upright breakwater of permeable type that has slits in both the
front and rear walls, the experimental results 52) are available.
④ Types of breakwater aiming to promote the exchange of seawater include multiple-wing type permeable
breakwaters, multiple vertical-cylinder breakwaters, horizontal-plate type permeable breakwaters, and pipe
type permeable breakwaters. The coefficient of wave transmissions of these types of breakwater are obtained.52)
(7) Coefficient of Wave Transmission of Submerged Breakwater
A submerged breakwater is usually made by piling up natural stones or crushed rock to form a mound, and then
covering the surface with concrete blocks to prevent underlayers from sucking out. For a submerged breakwater
of crushed rock, a diagram 52) showing the relationship between the crown height of the breakwater and the
coefficient of wave transmission is available.

4.3.8 Rise of Mean Water Level due to Waves and Surf Beats
[1] Wave Setup

(1) When constructing structures within the breaker zone, it is preferable to consider the phenomenon of wave setup
as necessary, which occurs in the breaker zone owing to wave breaking as they approach the coast.
(2) Rise of the mean water level due to breaking waves
The phenomenon where the mean water level near the shoreline rises due to breaking waves, so-called “wave set
up”, was known long ago through observations at the seashore and so on, but theoretical proof about the causes
for the occurrence of this phenomenon has been lacking. In 1962, Longuet-Higgins and Stewart 91) indicated
that when a series of waves whose wave height varies approach the shore, this becomes the conveyance of a large
momentum at the places where the wave height is large, and it becomes smaller at the places where the wave height
is small, so apparent stress ends up being generated, and the mean water level changes. This apparent stress was
termed the radiation stress. This radiation stress is an amount proportionate to the square of the wave height, and
in that sense is an amount of the same order as the energy of a wave.
(3) Radiation Stress
With the introduction of the concept of radiation stress is introduced, the change in the mean water level can be
explained as follows.
When a wave approaching from offshore reaches shallow waters, the wave height increases due to shallow
water deformation as the water depth becomes more shallow. When the wave height becomes larger, the
conveyance of momentum becomes larger, and the mean water level begins to decline (wave set down). When
the wave approaches the place where it is even shallower, it breaks due to the wave height corresponding to the sea
bottom slope and water depth, and suddenly the wave height is diminished, and the sudden decline of this wave
height causes the conveyance of momentum to decrease suddenly, and the mean water level rises. The rise in the
mean water level in the vicinity of the shoreline is viewed as a typical example of a phenomenon caused by such
radiation stress.
(4) Diagrams for Estimating the Amount of Wave Setup
The changes in the mean water level by random wave breaking on the bottom slopes of 1/100 and 1/10 as calculated
by Goda 47) are shown in Figs. 4.3.26 and 4.3.27. The smaller the wave steepness (H0'/L0) the faster and larger the
rise of mean water level becomes. Fig. 4.3.28 shows the rise of mean water level at the shoreline. The smaller
the wave steepness, and the steeper the bottom slope, the larger the rise of mean water level becomes. When H0'/
L0 is in the range 0.01-0.05, with the exception of very steep bottom slope, the rise of mean water level near the
shoreline is of the order (0.1-0.15)H0', where H0' is the equivalent deepwater wave height and L0 is the wavelength
of the deepwater wave. Fig. 4.3.29 is a diagram for estimating the amount of wave setup that has newly been
proposed taking the directional wave spectrum into account. The values are slightly smaller compared to Fig.
4.3.28 in ranges where the wave steepness is small.92)

– 117 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

0.25
H0'
=

Change in mean water level η / H'0


0.20 L0 tanθ =1/10

0.15 0.005
0.01
0.10 0.02
0.04
0.05
0.08
0

-0.05

-0.10
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
h/H0'

Fig. 4.3.26 Change in Mean Water Level (Bottom Slope 1/10)

0.20
H0'
Change in mean water level η / H'0

= tanθ =1/100
0.15 L0
0.005
0.10 0.01
0.02
0.05 0.04
0.08
0

-0.05

-0.10
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

h/H0'

Fig. 4.3.27 Change in Mean Water Level (Bottom Slope 1/100)

0.45

0.40
Rise in mean water level η max/ H'0

0.35
tanθ =1/10
0.30

0.25
1/20

0.20
1/50
1/100
0.15

10

0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1


Wave steepness H0'/L0

Fig. 4.3.28 Rise in Mean Water Level at Shoreline

– 118 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

0.35

0.3

Mean water level rise η0 0.25

0.2

0.15 Seabed slope


1/10
0.1 1/20
1/30
0.05 1/50
1/100
0
0.001 0.01 0.1
Wave steepness H0'/ L0

Fig. 4.3.29 Figure Diagram of Water Level Rise at Shoreline considering the Multi Directionality of Waves

(5) Consideration of the rise in mean water level in the performance verification
Since the wave breaking point varies, and the breaking wave height becomes larger, owing to the rise of the mean
water level, it is important to consider the rise in mean water level in order to carry out accurate computation of
the design wave height in shallow waters.

[2] Surf Beats

(1) Surf beat with a period of one to several minutes, which occurs along with wave deformation in shallow waters, is
examined, as necessary.
(2) Random wave height fluctuations lasting one to several minutes in the vicinity of the shoreline are called surf beat,
and this has a major effect on the runup height of waves, wave overtopping and stability of beaches at the beach.
It is preferred that the size of the surf beat is estimated as appropriate by either Goda’s approximation formulas 58)
or on-site observations.
(3) Goda’s Formulas for Estimating Surf Beat Amplitude
Based on the results of field observations of surf beat, Goda 58) has proposed the following relationship:

(4.3.32)

where
ζrms : root mean square amplitude of the surf beat wave profile
(ηrms)0 : root mean square amplitude of the deepwater wave profile
H0' : equivalent deepwater wave height
L0 : wavelength in deepwater
h : water depth

This equation shows that the amplitude of the surf beat is proportional to the deepwater wave height, that it
falls as the water depth increases, and that it increases as the deepwater wave steepness (H0'/L0) decreases.

– 119 –
TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1
ζrms 0.08
(ηrms)0
0.06

0.04
Around shoreline Offshore
Ooarai
Niigata
0.02
Miyazaki

0.01
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

H0' h 1/2
(1+ )
L0 H0'

Fig. 4.3.30 Ratio of Surf Beat Amplitude for Deepwater Wave

4.4 Long-period Waves

(1) With regard to long-period waves and seiche in harbors, field observations should be carried out as far as possible,
and appropriate measures to control them must be taken based on the results of these observations. Here, long-
period waves are defined as waves composed of component waves with periods between 30 seconds to 300 seconds
included in the frequency spectrum analyzed from an uninterrupted observation record taken over a period of 20
minutes or more.
(2) Water level fluctuations with the period between 30 seconds and several minutes sometimes appear at observation
points in harbors and off the shore. Such fluctuations are called long-period waves. If the period of such long-
period waves is close to the natural frequency period of the vibration system made up of a ship and its mooring
ropes, the phenomenon of resonance can give rise to a large surge motion even if the wave height is small, resulting
in large effects on the cargo handling efficiency of the port. If it is clear from observations that long-period waves
of significant wave height 10 - 15 cm or more frequently arise in a harbor, it is advisable to investigate either hard
or soft countermeasures.93)
When conspicuous water level fluctuations within the period several minutes or longer occur at an observation
point in a harbor, it is highly likely that the phenomenon of “seiche” is taking place. This phenomenon occurs
when small disturbances in water level generated by changes in air pressure out at sea are amplified by the natural
frequency of the harbor or bay. If the amplitude of such seiche becomes significantly large, inundation at the head
of the bay or reverse outflow from municipal drainage channels may occur. Also high current velocities may
occur locally in a harbor, resulting in breaking of the mooring ropes of small ships. When drawing up a harbor
plan, it is thus preferable to give consideration to making the shape of the harbor to minimize the seiche motion
as much as possible. At marinas and other small ports, the natural frequency of the port may be close to the
frequency of long-period waves and the propagation of long-period waves from the open sea may excite the seiche
in the port. The two aspects are therefore highly correlated. If seiche excitation by long-period waves becomes
apparent from observations or numerical calculations, it is preferable to deliberate countermeasures while giving
thought to these aspects.
(3) Critical Wave Height for Cargo Handling Works Effected by Long-period Waves
It is necessary to give due consideration to the fact that long-period waves in front of a quaywall can induce
ship surging with the amplitude of several meters through resonance. The critical wave height for smooth cargo

– 120 –
PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
handling works effected by long-period waves depends on the factors such as the wave period, the dimensions
of the ship in question, the mooring situation, and the loading conditions. Nevertheless, according to field
observations carried out in Tomakomai Bay, 96) it corresponds to a significant wave height of about 10 - 15 cm.
(4) Calculating Propagation of Long-period Waves
It is preferable to calculate the propagation of long-period waves into a harbor by setting up incident wave boundary
out at sea and then using either the Boussinesq equation 97) or a calculation method that uses long linear wave
equations.98)
(5) Standard Spectrum for Long-period Waves
When there are insufficient field observation data of long-period waves out at sea and the long-period waves
conditions that determine the external forces are not established, the standard spectrum shown in reference 99) or
its approximate expression may be used for the long-period waves performance verifications.
Fig. 4.4.1 shows a comparison between an observed spectrum and an approximate form of the standard
spectrum. The term α  in the diagram is a parameter that represents the energy level of the long-period waves.
This shows the relationship between the spectrum peak frequency of short-period wave components and boundary
frequency f b for calculating the energy of long-period waves components. From the past observations, the value
is between 1.6 and 1.7. The smaller the value of α  , the larger the energy of the long-period waves becomes.

101

Observed spectrum
0
10
Approximate form
of the standard
spectrum
10-1
S ( f ) fp / E

a  =1.60
-2
10

a  =1.65

10-3 a =1.70

10-4 -2
10 10-1 100 101 102
f / fp

Fig. 4.4.1 Comparison between Standard Spectrum with Long-period Components and Observed Spectrum

(6) Wave Direction of Long-period Waves


In the event of long-period waves are propagated, there are many cases where they overlap with waves reflected
from the longshore, and it is difficult to determine the wave direction. However, the energy of the principal long-
period waves may propagete according with the principal wave direction of a short-period wave (wind wave).
(7) Method for Calculating Harbor Resonance
See 3.3 Harbor Resonance for the method for calculating harbor resonance.
(8) Countermeasures for Long-period Waves and Harbor Resonance
In waters where long-period waves are marked, it is preferable to establish a breakwater layout plan in order to
inhibit the ingress of long-period waves into the harbor. At this time, in the event that the particle diameter of the
mound materials is large, almost all of the energy of the long-period waves is transmitted into the harbor, so it is
preferable to undertake appropriate examination on the formation of the breakwater and mound structure.
In order to control the surge oscillation of ships, it is preferable to shift the natural period of the mooring
system from the period of the invading long-period waves. To this end, such measures as changing the place
where the mooring facilities are installed and the initial tension, as well as an increase in the number of mooring
lines using improve the rope materials and new installation of land winches, are desirable, but the results should

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
be examined beforehand and appropriate measures should be devised based on suitable numerical calculations.
There are many instances where long-period waves are reflected and amplified by the facilities in a harbor,
and in particular upright wave-dissipating revetments have almost no wave-dissipating function for long-period
waves and swells, so it is necessary to revise the reflection coefficient of the facilities in estimation of the long-
period waves height inside harbors. The Environment Assessment Manual of Long-Period Waves in Harbors 100)
can be used as a reference for the rough order of magnitude and calculation method of the reflection coefficient.
Long-period wave-dissipating revetments that employ backfilling materials of a two-sided slit caisson wall that
has a slit wall on both sides and a gravel material with a large particle diameter allow waves to pass through and
dampen long-period waves have been developed as an engineering method that lowers the long-period waves
height inside harbors.
The width of the transmitting layer with the gravel material is preferably 50 to 100 meters. It is preferable
to set the width of the water transmitting layer, place of installation and installation range so that the maximum
effects are achieved in the hydraulic model test and numerical calculations. Since the distribution of long-period
waves is not uniform within the harbor, it is preferable to examine as well modifications of the berth location at the
planning stage in the event that it is clear that the long-period waves in the target berth exceed the limit values.
(9) Distinction between Long-period Waves and Harbor Resonance
In an ordinary harbor, the period of harbor resonance is longer than that of long-period waves by several minutes,
and it is possible to distinguish the two from analysis of the oscillation period. However, the period of harbor
resonance may become shorter to 2 to 3 minutes in the case of small craft basins and marinas, and this makes
the discrimination difficult. In that case, it is preferable to make a judgment as suitable based on the observation
results for offshore waters and the circumstances in the surrounding harbor.

4.5 Concept of Harbor Calmness

(1) Factors of Calmness and Disturbance


① When evaluating the harbor calmness, the factors causing disturbances in the harbor need to be set
appropriately.
② The problem of harbor calmness is extremely complex. It involves not only physical factors such as waves,
winds, ship motions, and the wind- and wave-resistance of working machinery, but also the factors requiring
human judgment, such as the easiness of ships entering and leaving of harbor, ship refuge during stormy
weather, and the critical conditions of works at sea. The harbor calmness is further related with the economic
factors, such as the efficiency of cargo handling works, the operating rate of ships, and the cost of constructing
the various facilities required to improve the harbor calmness. The factors that lead to wave disturbances in
harbors, which constitute the basis of the criteria for determining the harbor calmness, include the following:
(a) Waves penetrating through the harbor entrance
(b) Transmitted waves into the harbor
(c) Reflected waves
(d) Long-period waves
(e) Harbor seiche
In large harbors, wind waves generated within the harbor may require attention, and the ship waves by larger
ships may cause troubles for small ships.
(2) Points to remember when carrying out harbor calmness calculations
It is necessary to bear the following points in mind when carrying out harbor calmness calculations.
① Set the wave height and period frequency distribution at the port entrance.
② In the event that the depth of navigation channel differs markedly from the surrounding water depth, or shoals
may exist inside the harbor, or the water depth changes suddenly in the port entrance, consider the water depth
change inside the harbor to the extent possible in the calculation of wave height inside the harbor.
③ Introduce the effects of the period as concerns the permissible value of the wave height in the harbor.
④ Consider the future state of the use of ports as concerns the target value for harbor calmness.
(3) Computation of Harbor Calmness
The harbor calmness can be calculated with the temporal probability of the occurrence of a wave height that does
not exceed the critical wave height for cargo handling works or the critical wave height for anchoring. The critical
wave height for cargo handling works is the wave height of the limit at which the ships moored at the quaywall or
dolphin can safely perform cargo handling activities. The critical wave height for anchoring is the wave height at
which anchoring in the basin and buoy mooring as well as mooring at the mooring facilities is possible. Here, the
temporal probability of the occurrence of a wave height that exceeds the critical wave height for cargo handling

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
works is called the cargo handling operating rate, and in general the harbor calmness is assessed as the cargo
handling operating rate (see Fig. 4.5.1).

*- Hearings from ship owners, and past disaster results


- Observation, prediction and numerical analysis, etc.
using the manual for long-period waves, etc.
[No] Is there any risk that cargo [Yes]
handling damages will be
incurred due to swells and Stringent analysis
long-period waves? method

[Further stringent analysis


is required]

- Are the ships that utilize the target


[No] berth specified to a certain extent? [Yes]
- Or, are countermeasures and examination
of mooring facilities, etc. of the target
berth required?

Conventional
method
Standard analysis Detailed analysis
- Examination of wind waves and swells method method
- Critical wave height for cargo handling
works (set based on the ship size) - Examination of wind waves and swells - Examination of wind waves and swells
+ long-period waves + long-period waves
- Critical wave height for cargo handling - Critical wave height for cargo handling
works (set based on the wave direction works (set based on the permissible
and ship type, ship size, etc.) amount of turbulence for cargo handling)

[Environment Assessment Manual of


Long-Period Waves in Harbors]

Is a cargo handling operating rate of at least 97.5% assured?

Fig. 4.5.1 Example of Performance Verification Steps Relating to Harbor Calmness

① Harbor calmness for abnormal waves


The harbor calmness for abnormal waves which is equivalent to a probablistic wave with a return period of 50
years, for facilities with a design working life of 50 years in the case of waves as variable action, can be generally
assessed by considering the fact that the waves inside the harbor have a major effect on the performance of
harbors. The evaluation of the habor calmness can be performed by, setting the critical value of the wave height
such that abnormal waves inside the harbor do not cause major damage to the facilities of the harbors, and
confirming that the wave height computed by in-harbor wave height calculation does not exceed this critical
value.
② Calculation of the cargo handling operating rate for long-period waves
Setting the critical wave height for cargo handling works.
For the setting of the critical wave height for cargo handling works for the long-period waves portion, it is
preferable to consider the type of ship and the cargo handling system in question, and to determine the wave
heights separately based on a survey of the actual state of cargo handling. The critical wave height for cargo
handling works for long-period waves is defined in Table 4.5.1.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
Table 4.5.1 Critical Wave Height for Cargo Handling Works for Long-Period Waves 102)

Critical wave height for


Level of the significant wave
Assumed conditions cargo handling works
height of long-period waves
(m)
Ship classes for which the permissible amount of motions in cargo
handling is relatively large for surging, or ships whose natural period
1 0.20
for surging is less than 1.5 minutes (medium sized ships: 1,000 to 5,000
DWT)
Ship classes for which the permissible amount of motions in cargo
handling is moderate for surging, and ships whose natural period for
2 0.15
surging is less than 1.5 minutes (general cargo ships: 5,000 to 10,000
DWT)
Ship classes for which the permissible amount of motions in cargo
handling is small for surging, or ships whose natural period for surging
3 0.10
is 2-3 minutes and under (container ships, mineral ore ships: 10,000 to
70,000 DWT)

4.6 Ship Waves

(1) It is preferable to consider ship waves during ship navigation in canals and waterways.
(2) Ship waves are caused when ships navigate. The large the ship is and the faster its speed is, the greater is the wave
height of ship waves. When the propagation distance of ship waves becomes larger they end up attenuating, so
they cause no serious problems in wide water areas. However, there are cases when they cause motions in small
ships under anchor, floating docks, etc. inside harbors, in narrow. In addition, there are also cases where they
have an effect on wave overtopping at revetments on both sides of a waterway, scouring and stability of armored
blocks.
(3) Pattern of Ship Waves
If ship waves are viewed from air, it appears as shown in Fig. 4.6.1. It is composed of two groups of waves. One
group of waves spread out in a shape like “ ” from a point slightly ahead of the bow of the ship. The other group
of waves is behind the ship and is such that the wave crest is perpendicular to the ship’s navigation line. The
former waves are termed the “divergent waves”, while the latter are termed the “transverse waves”. The divergent
waves form concave curves; the closer to the navigation line, the smaller the gap between waves. On the other
hand, the transverse waves are approximately arcshaped, with the gap between waves being constant. In deep
water, the area over which the ship waves extend is limited within the area bounded by the two cusplines with the
angles ±19º28' from the navigation line and starting from the origin lying somewhat in front of the bow of the ship.
The divergent waves cross the transverse waves just inside the cusplines; this is where the wave height is largest.
The wave steepness is smaller for the transverse waves than for the divergent waves, implying that the transverse
waves often cannot be distinguished from an aerial photograph.

19˚ 28'
Ship’s navigation line

Fig. 4.6.1 Plan View of Ship Waves


(Solid lines show divergent waves and dotted line show transverse waves)

(4) Wavelength and Period of Ship Waves


The wavelength and period of ship waves differ for the divergent waves and the transverse waves, with the latter
having both a longer wavelength and a longer period. Amongst the divergent waves, the wavelength and period
are both longest for the first wave and then become progressively shorter.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

① The wavelength of the transverse waves can be obtained by the numerical solution of the following equation,
which is derived from the condition that the celerity of the transverse waves must be the same as the velocity at
which the ship is navigating forward.

: (4.6.1)

where
Lt : wavelength of transverse waves (m)
h : water depth (m)
V : ship’s navigation speed (m/s)

Note however that when the water is sufficiently deep, the wavelength of the transverse waves is given by the
following equation:

(4.6.2)

where
L0 : wavelength of transverse waves at places where the water is sufficiently deep (m)
V k : ship’s navigation speed (kt); Vk = 1.946V

② The period of the transverse waves is equal to the period of progressive waves with the wavelength Lt in water
of depth h. It is given by equation (4.6.3) or (4.6.4).

(4.6.3)

(4.6.4)

where
Tt : period of transverse waves in water of depth h (s)
t0 : period of transverse waves at places where the water is sufficiently deep (s)

③ The wavelength and period of the divergent waves are given by equations (4.6.5) and (4.6.6), which are derived
from the condition that the component of the ship’s speed in the direction of travel of the divergent waves must
be equal to the celerity of the divergent waves.

Ld = Lt cos 2 θ (4.6.5)

Td = Tt cos θ (4.6.6)

where
Ld : wavelength of divergent waves as measured in the direction of travel (m)
Td : period of divergent waves (s)
θ : angle between the direction of travel of the divergent waves and the navigation line (º)

According to Kelvin’s theory of wave-generation at places where the water is sufficiently deep, the angle
of travel θ of the divergent waves can be obtained as shown in Fig. 4.6.2, as a function of the position of the
place under study relative to the ship. Note however that for actual ships the minimum value of θ is generally
about 40º, and θ is usually about 50º - 55º for the point on a particular divergent wave at which the wave height
is the maximum. Note also that, as shown in the illustration in the figure, the angle θ directs the location of the
source point Q from where the divergent wave has been generated; α is the angle between the cuspline and the
navigation line.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

90 0.9

Angle between the direction of travel of the divergent

Ratio of the period of the divergent waves to that


T / T0=0.816
80 0.8

x / s=2.83
70 0.7
x
60 O Q 0.6
α θ

of the transverse waves Td / T0


50 Td / P 0.5
T0 =
cos
waves and the sailing line θ (˚)

θ tan θ 2
40 35.3° 1+ tan α = 0.4
cos2θ
30 0.3

20 0.2
x / s=2.83

10 0.1

0 0
3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5

Relative position of observation point x/s

Fig. 4.6.2 Wave Height and Period of Divergent Waves at Places Where the Water is Sufficiently Deep

(5) Shoaling Effect on Ship Waves


As common with waves in general, ship waves are affected by the water depth, and their properties vary when the
water depth decreases relative to the wavelength of ship waves. This shoaling effect on ship waves may be ignored
if the following condition is satisfied:

(4.6.7)

The critical water depth above which ship waves may be regarded as deepwater waves is calculated by
equation (4.6.7), as listed in Table 4.6.1. As can be seen from this table, the waves generated by ships in normal
conditions can generally be regarded as deepwater waves. Situations in which they must be regarded as shallow
water waves include the following cases: a high-speed ferry travels through relatively shallow waters, a motorboat
travels through shallow waters, and ship waves propagate into shallow waters. Note that ship waves in shallow
water have a longer wavelength and period than those generated by the ship navigating in deep water at the same
speed.

Table 4.6.1 Conditions under which Ship waves can be regarded as Deepwater Waves

Speed of vessel Vk (kt) 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 25.0 30.0
Water depth h (m)≥ 1.4 3.1 5.5 8.6 12.4 16.9 22.0 34.4 49.6
Period of transverse waves T0 (s) 1.7 2.5 3.3 4.1 5.0 5.8 6.6 8.3 9.9

(6) Height of Ship waves


The ship wake wave research committee of the Japan Association for Preventing Maritime Accidents has proposed
the following equation for giving a rough estimate of the height of ship waves:

(4.6.8)

where
H0 : characteristic wave height of ship waves (m), or the maximum wave height observed at a distance
of 100 m from the navigation line when a ship is navigating at its full-load cruising speed
Ls : length of the ship (m)
VK : f ull-load cruising speed (kt)
EHPW : wave-generation horsepower (W)

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
The wave-generating horsepower EHPW is calculated as follows. Refer to Reference 104) for the ship
dimensions.

(4.6.9)

(4.6.10)

(4.6.11)

(4.6.12)

(4.6.13)

where
SHPm : continuous maximum shaft power (W)
ρ0 : density of seawater (kg/m3) ρ0 =1030(kg/m3)
V0 : f ull-load cruising speed (m/s) V0 = 0.514VK
CF : f rictional resistance coefficient
ν : coefficient of kinematic viscosity of water (m 2/s) ν≒1.2×10 -6 (m2/s)
∇ : f ull-load displacement of ship (m3)

Equation (4.6.13) has been obtained by assuming that the energy consumed through wave-generation resistance
is equal to the propagation energy of ship waves, while the values of the coefficients have been determined as
averages from the data from ship towing tank tests. The characteristic wave height H0 varies from ship to ship,
although for medium and large-size ships it is about 1.0 ~ 2.0 m. Tugboats sailing at full speed produce relatively
large ship waves.
It is considered that the wave height attenuates in proportional to S -1/3, where S is the distance of the
observation point from the navigation line. It is also considered that the wave height is proportional to the cube
of the cruising speed of the ship. Accordingly equation (4.6.13) has been obtained by assuming that the energy
consumed through wave-generation resistance is equal to the propagation energy of ship waves, while the values
of the coefficients have been determined as averages from the data from ship towing tank tests. The characteristic
wave height H0 varies from ship to ship, although for medium and large-size ships it is about 1.0 ~ 2.0 m. Tugboats
sailing at full speed produce relatively large ship waves.
It is considered that the wave height attenuates in proportional to S-1/3, where S is the distance of the observation
point from the navigation line. It is also considered that the wave height is proportional to the cube of the cruising
speed of the ship. Accordingly:

(4.6.14)

where
max : maximum height of ship waves at any chosen observation point (m)
H
S : distance from the observation point to the navigation line (m)
V k : actual cruising speed of the ship(kt)

Equation (4.6.14) cannot be applied if S is too small. However, equation (4.6.14) can be applied when either
the ship length Ls or 100 m, whichever is the smaller.
The upper limit of the height of ship waves occurs when the wave steepness of the maximum wave of the
divergent wave reach to the breaking criterion of Hmax /Lt = 0.14. If the angle between the wave direction and the
navigation line is assumed to beθ= 50º at the point on a divergent wave where the wave height becomes largest,
the upper limit of the wave height at any given point is given by equation (4.6.15). However, the conditions for
deepwater waves shall be satisfied.

(4.6.15)

where
Hlimit : upper limit of the height of ship waves as defined by the wave breaking conditions (m)

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
(7) Propagation of Ship Waves
① Among two groups of ship waves, the transverse waves propagate in the direction of ship’s navigation line, and
continue to propagate even if the ship changes course or stops. In this case, the waves have a typical nature
of regular waves with the period being given by equation (4.6.3), and they propagate at the group velocity,
undergoing transformation such as refraction and others. Takeuchi and Nanasawa 105) gave an example of such
transformations. Note however that as the waves propagate, the length of wave crest spreads out, and even when
the water is of uniform depth, the wave height attenuates in a manner inversely proportional to the square root
of the distance traveled.
② The direction of propagation of a divergent wave varies from point to point on the wave crest. According to
Kelvin’s theory of wave-generation, the angle between the direction of propagation and the navigation line
is θ= 35.3º at the outer edge of a divergent wave. As one moves inwards along the wave crest, the value of θ
approaches 90º. The first wave arriving at a any particular point has the angle θ= 35.3º, while θ getting gradually
larger for subsequent waves. This spatial change in the direction of propagation of the divergent waves can be
estimated using Fig. 4.6.2.
③ The propagation celerity of a divergent wave at any point on the wave crest is the group celerity corresponding
to the period Td at that point (see equation (4.6.6)). In the illustration in Fig. 4.6.2, the time needed for a
component wave to propagate at the group celerity from the point Q at wave source to the point P is equal to
the time taken for the ship to travel at the speed V from the point Q to the point O. Since each wave profile
propagates at the wave celerity (phase velocity), the waves appear to pass beyond the cuspline and vanish one
after the other at the outer edge of the divergent waves.
(8) Generation of Solitary Waves
When a ship navigates through shallow waters, solitary waves are generated in front of the ship if the cruising
speed Vk (m/s) approaches . Around the river mouths, there is a possibility of small ships being affected by
such solitary waves generated by other large ships.106)

4.7 Wave Pressure and Wave Force


4.7.1 General 107), 108)

(1) Wave Force Calculation


The wave force acting on port facilities is generally determined using appropriate hydraulic model tests, numerical
calculations or methods described in 4.7.2 Wave Force on Upright Wall, with the waves determined by the
procedures described in Chapter 4 Waves. However, in the event of an increase in wave height or an increase
in wave force due to impulsive breaking waves, appropriate consideration needs to be given to these aspects
depending on the shape and structural characteristics of the breakwater.
(2) Structure Type and Wave Forces
Wave forces can be generally classified by the type of structure as follows:
① Wave force acting on a wall-type structure
② Wave force acting on armor stones or concrete blocks
③ Wave force acting on submerged members
④ Wave force acting on structures near the water surface
The wave forces are different for each type of structure. It is thus necessary to use an appropriate calculation
method in accordance with the conditions including structural type. For some types of structures with a few
experiences of construction, their wave actions have not been sufficiently resolved, and therefore it is preferable
to carry out studies including hydraulic model tests for such structures.
Wave forces and resistance forces acting on armor stones and concrete blocks differ greatly depending on
their shapes and positions in addition to conditions of the waves acting on them. Therefore, when verifying
performance, the required mass for the armor stones and concrete blocks are usually determined directly from
wave conditions rather than calculating the acting wave force (see Part III, Chapter 2, 1.7.2 Required Mass of
Armor Stones and Blocks in Composite Breakwater Foundation Mound against Waves).
(3) Wave Irregularity and Wave Force
Sea waves are irregular with the wave height and period varying from wave to wave. Depending on the water
depth and the topography of the sea bottom, wave forces such as non-breaking, breaking or after-breaking act on
the structure. When calculating the wave force, it is important to include the waves that cause the severest effect
on the structure. It is necessary to give sufficient consideration to wave irregularity and to the characteristics of
the wave force in accordance with the type of structure.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
In general, it may be assumed that the larger the wave height, the greater the wave force becomes. It is thus
acceptable to focus on the wave force of the highest wave among a train of random waves attacking the structure.
However, with regard to the stabilities of concrete blocks or armor stones on the slope and wave force acting on
the floating structures and cylindrical structures with small rigidity, it is preferable to consider the effect of the
successive action of the random waves.
(4) Examination of Wave Force by Hydraulic Model Tests
When examining wave force by hydraulic model tests, it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the failure
process of the structure and to use an appropriate measurement method. It is also preferable to give sufficient
consideration to the irregularity of waves. In particular, when carrying out experiments using regular waves, an
examination against the highest wave should be included.
(5) Examination of Wave Force by Numerical Calculation
A great deal of labor and expense is required for examining the wave force due to model tests, and usually
there are limits to the experimental case and the measurement items. On the other hand, in recent years it
has become possible to employ numerical calculations when computing the wave force acting on structures.
When the numerical calculations are employed in actual design, it is necessary to verify the appropriateness of
the calculation results by comparing them with on-site observations and model tests, but once the suitability is
confirmed, computation of wave force with less labor and expense becomes possible. The CADMAS-SURF 109)
is a numerical computation program developed for the purpose of assisting the structually resistive design against
wave action and with it is possible to examine the interactions of waves, ground and structures and the impulsive
breaking pressure.
(6) Design Values for Wave Force
The partial factors differ depending on the structural type as far as the design values for the wave force are
concerned. The wave force as used here in principle indicates the characteristic value of the wave force. The
partial factor for wave force can be referred to the respective structure type.

4.7.2 Wave Force on Upright Walls 110), 111), 112), 113)

(1) General Characteristics of Wave Force on Upright Walls


① The major parameters that affect the wave force acting on an upright wall are wave period, wave height, wave
direction, water level, water depth, bottom slope, water depth of the crown of the foundation mound, the front
berm width of foundation mound, slope of foundation mound, the crown height of upright wall, and water depth
at base of the upright wall. In addition, it is also necessary to consider the effect of the wall alignment. The
wave force on an upright wall with a concaved alignment may be larger than that on an upright, straight wall of
infinite length. Furthermore, if the front of upright wall is covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks, the
characteristics of these blocks and the crown height and width will affect the wave force.
② Types of wave force
The wave force acting on an upright wall can be classified according to the type of waves such as a standing
wave force, a breaking wave force, or a wave force after breaking. It is considered that the changes of wave
forces are continuous. A standing wave force is produced by waves whose height is small compared with the
water depth, and the change in the wave pressure over time is gradual. As the wave height increases, the wave
force also increases. In general, the largest wave force is generated by the waves breaking just a little off the
upright wall. Accordingly, with the exception of very shallow water conditions, the force exerted by waves
breaking just in front of an upright wall is larger than the wave force by higher waves that have already broken.
It is necessary to note that when breaking waves act on an upright wall on a steep seabed, or on an upright wall
set on a high mound, a very strong impulsive breaking wave force may appear.
(2) Wave Forces of Standing Waves or Breaking Waves when the Peak of Waves is on the Wall Surface
① Goda’s formula
(a) It is standard to calculate the maximum horizontal wave force acting on an upright wall and the simultaneous
uplift using Goda’s formula as shown below. Goda’s formula is that proposed by Goda taking into consideration
wave pressure experiments and results of application of the formula to the existing breakwaters and modified
to include the effects of wave direction. Its single-equation formula enables one to calculate the wave force
from the standing to breaking wave conditions without making any abrupt transition. However, where the
upright wall is located on a steep seabed, or built on a high mound, and is subjected to a strong impulsive
wave pressure due to breaking waves, the formula may underestimate the wave force. It should therefore
be carefully applied with consideration of the possibility of occurrence of impulsive wave pressure due to
breaking waves (see 4.7.2 (4) Impulsive Breaking Wave Force).
The wave pressure given by Goda’s formulas takes the hydrostatic pressure at the still water condition as

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
the reference value. Any hydrostatic pressure before wave action should be considered separately. Further,
the formula aims to examine the stability of the whole body of an upright wall. When breaking wave actions
exist, the formula does not necessarily express the local maximum wave pressure at the respective positions;
thus such should be considered during examination of the stress of structural members.
(b) Wave pressure on the front face according to the Goda’s formulas
The wave pressure on the front face of an upright wall in the Goda’s formula is a linear distribution. Wave
pressure is 0 at the height expressed as η* in equation (4.7.1), maximum value expressed as p1 in equation
(4.7.2) at still water level, and expressed as p2 in equation (4.7.3) at the sea bottom. The formula considers
wave pressure from the bottom to the crown of the upright wall (see Figs. 4.7.1 and 4.7.2).

(4.7.1)

(4.7.2)

(4.7.3)

(4.7.4)

In this equation, η*, p1, p2, p3, ρ0, g, β, λ1, λ 2, h, L, HD, α1, α2 and α3 respectively represent the following
values:
η* : height above still water level at which intensity of wave pressure is 0 (m)
p1 : intensity of wave pressure at still water level (kN/m 2)
p2 : intensity of wave pressure at sea bottom (kN/m 2)
p3 : intensity of wave pressure at toe of the upright wall (kN/m 2)
ρ0g : unit weight of water (kN/m3)
β : angle between the most dangerous direction within the range of ±15° from the main wave
direction and the line perpendicular to the faceline of the upright wall (°)
λ1, λ 2 : wave pressure correction factor (1.0 is the standard value)
h : water depth in front of the upright wall (m)
L : wavelength at water depth h used in calculation as specified in the item (d) below (m)
HD : wave height used in calculation as specified in the item (d) below (m)
α1 : value expressed by the following equation:

(4.7.5)

α2 : smaller value of

(4.7.6)

α3 : value expressed by the following equation:

(4.7.7)

In this equation, hb, d and h' respectively represent the following values:

hb : water depth at an offshore distance of 5 times the significant wave height from the upright
wall (m)
d : water depth at the crest of either the foot protection works or the mound armoring units of
whichever is higher (m)
h' : water depth at toe of the upright wall (m)

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
p1

η*

d h' Buoyancy
h
pu

p2
p3

Fig. 4.7.1 Wave Pressure Distribution Used in Design Calculation


Perpendicular to the face line

β 15° Principal direction of wave

90°
Face Line

Fig. 4.7.2 Way of Obtaining Incident Wave Angle β 

(c) Uplift on the bottom of upright wall


In Goda’s formulas, the uplift acting on the bottom of an upright wall is described by a triangular distribution,
with the pressure intensity at the front toe pu given by the following equation and 0 at the rear toe.

(4.7.8)

In this equation, pu and λ3 respectively represent the following values:

pu : uplift pressure acting on the bottom of the upright wall (kN/m 2)


λ3 : uplift pressure correction factor (1.0 is the standard value)

(d) Wave height and wavelength used in the wave pressure calculation
In Goda’s formulas, the wave height HD and the wavelength L are the height and wavelength of the highest
wave. The wavelength of the highest wave is that corresponding to the significant wave period, while the
height of the highest wave is as follows:
1) When the highest wave does not have effect of wave breaking:

(4.7.9)

In this equation, Hmax and H1/3 respectively represent the following values:

Hmax : highest wave height of incident waves as a progressive wave at the water depth of the upright
wall (m)
H1/3 : significant wave height of incident waves as a progressive wave at the water depth of the upright
wall (m)
2) When the highest wave has effect of wave breaking:
HD: maximum wave height considering transformation due to the breaking of random waves (m)
(e) Highest wave
Since Goda’s formulas represents the wave force on individual wave, in the breakwater performance

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
verifications in general, it is necessary to use the wave parameters of the largest wave force from a wave
group. The highest wave shall be subject to consideration. The occurrence of the highest wave in a random
wave group is probabilistic, and so it is not possible to determine the parameters of the wave explicitly.
Nevertheless, after examination of the results of applying the current method to breakwaters in the field, it is
standard to use 1.8 times the significant wave height as the height of the highest wave where no transformation
of breaking wave is observed. It has also become standard to use the wavelength corresponding to the
significant wave period as the wavelength of the highest wave.
In order to determine whether or not the highest wave is subject to wave breaking, the diagrams for
determining the highest wave height (Fig. 4.3.10 (a)–(e) in 4.3.6 Wave Breaking) should be used by
referring to the location of the peak wave height in the zone in the onshore side of the 2% attenuation line. It
is acceptable to consider that the highest wave is not subject to wave breaking when the water is deeper than
that at the peak height, but that it is subject to wave breaking when the water is shallower than this. If the
highest wave height is to be obtained using the approximate equation (4.3.23) in 4.3.6 Wave Breaking, hb
should be substituted as h in the first term in the braces { } on the right-hand side of the equation.
If using a value other than 1.8 as the coefficient on the right-hand side of equation (4.7.9), it is necessary to
conduct sufficient examinations into the occurrence of the highest wave and then choose an appropriate value
(see 4.1 Basic Matters Relating to Waves).
(f) Wave pressure correction factor λ1, λ2, λ3
Equations (4.7.1) – (4.7.8) are the generalized version of Goda’s formulas. It contains three correction factors
so that it can be applied to walls of different conditions. For an upright wall, the correction factors are of
course 1.0. The wave pressure acting on other types of wall such as a caisson covered with wave-dissipating
concrete blocks or an upright wave-dissipating caisson may be expressed using the generalized Goda’s formulas
with appropriate correction factors (see 4.7.2 (5) Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall covered with Wave-
dissipating Concrete Blocks and 4.7.2 (7) Wave Force Acting on Upright Wave-absorbing Caisson).
(g) Features and application limits of the Goda’s formulas
The first feature of Goda’s formulas is that the wave force from standing waves to breaking waves can be
calculated continuously, including the effect of surrounding conditions. The parameter α1 given by equation
(4.7.5) expresses the effect of the period (strictly speaking h/L); it takes the limiting values of 1.1 for shallow
water waves and 0.6 for deepwater waves. The effect of period also appear when determining the maximum
wave height to be used in the calculation; for a constant deepwater wave height, the longer the period, the
larger the maximum wave height. Since Goda’s formulas incorporates the effect of period on the wave
pressure as well as on the maximum wave height, it is necessary to take sufficient care when determining the
period in the design conditions.
Another feature of Goda’s formulas is that the change in the wave force with the foundation mound height
and the bottom slope is considered by means of the parameter α2. As can be seen from equation (4.7.6), as the
foundation mound height is gradually increased from zero (i.e., d = h), α2 gradually increases from zero to its
maximum value. After reaching its limit value, α2 then decreases until it reaches zero again when d = 0. The
limit value of α2 is 1.1; combining this with the limit value of α1 of 1.1, the intensity of the wave pressure p1 at
the still water level is given 2.2ρ0gHD.
With regard to the effect of the bottom slope, hb within the equation for α2 is taken as the water depth at the
distance of 5 times the design significant wave height from the upright wall. Because of this artifice, a steep
bottom slope results in the same effect as having a high foundation mound. The effect of the bottom slope
also appears when determining the maximum wave height to be used in the calculation. In the wave breaking
zone, the steeper the bottom slope, the larger the wave height, because the wave height used in the calculation
is the maximum wave height at a distance 5H1/3 offshore from the upright wall. The bottom slope thus has
a strong influence on the wave force, and so care must be taken when setting the bottom slope in the design
conditions.
As explained above, Goda’s formulas consider the effects of the foundation mound height and the bottom
slope on the wave pressure. Nevertheless, for an upright wall on a high mound or a steep seabed, a large
impulsive breaking wave force may act, and under such conditions the Goda’s formulas may underestimate
the wave force. When applying the Goda’s formulas, it is thus preferable to pay attention to the risk of an
impulsive breaking wave force arising. In particular, with a high mound, it is necessary to consider not onlyα2
in equation (4.7.6) but also the impulsive breaking wave force coefficient αI by Takahashi et al.116) (see 4.7.2
(4) ⑥ Impulsive breaking wave forces acting on composite breakwater), and to use αI in place of α2 when
αI is the larger of the two.
One more problem with Goda’s formulas concerns its applicability to extremely shallow waters, for example
near to the shoreline. It is difficult, however, to clearly define where the limit of applicability lies. For cases
such as the wave force acting on an upright wall near the shoreline, it is advisable to use other calculation
equations together with the Goda formula. (See 4.7.2 (10) Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall Located
Considerably Toward the Landside from the Breaker Line).

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
(h) Effect of wave direction in Goda’s formula
Although results from a number of experiments on the effect of wave direction on the wave force are available,
there are still many points that are unclear. Traditionally, for standing waves, no correction has been made
for wave direction to the wave force. The effects of wave direction have been considered only for breaking
waves, by multiplying the wave force by cos2β. However, this has resulted in the irrational situation whereby
the breaking wave force is assumed to decrease as the wave angle increases, reaching zero at the limiting
value β = 90º, and yet standing waves are assumed to remain at the perfect standing wave condition. In other
words, because actual breakwaters are finite in extension, when the incident angle is large (i.e., oblique wave
incidence), it takes a considerably large distance from the tip of breakwater until the wave height becomes
two times the incident height. At the limiting value of β = 90º, it becomes an infinite distance. In this case, it
is appropriate to consider that the wave pressure of progressive waves acts on the upright wall. Furthermore,
even in cases where the breakwater can be taken to extend infinitely, when using second-order approximation
finite amplitude wave theory, the wave pressure form oblique incident waves decreases slightly in comparison
to incidence at right angles and its degree becomes proportionate to the wave steepness. Considering these
points and application to the breakwaters in the field, equation (4.7.2) for wave direction has been corrected by
multiplying α2 which represents mound effects with cos2β, and then multiplying the whole term by 0.5(1+cosβ).
② Application of other theory and formulas
Goda’s formula enables continuous determination of wave forces with considerable precision from standing
waves to breaking waves without categorizing them by their application limits. But when the ratio of the
wave height to the water depth is small and a standing wave force is obviously exerted on an upright wall, a
high-accuracy standing wave theory may be applied. In this case, however, it is necessary to give sufficient
consideration to the irregularity of waves in the field, and preferable to examine the force for the highest wave.
Moreover, the Sainflou formula 117) and Hiroi’s formula 118) may also be used for wave force calculations. When
applying these methods, adequate care is needed in determining applicability.
③ Wave force and significant wave period for waves composed of two wave groups with different periods
Examples of two wave groups with different periods being superimposed are such a case that waves enter a bay
from the outer sea and another group of waves are generated within the bay. Another case is the superposition
of diffracted waves coming from the entrance of a harbor and waves transmitted by wave overtopping. In such
cases, the spectrum is bimodal (i.e., having two peaks), and there are actual cases of such observations in the
field. 120) Tanimoto, Kitamura et al.121)) carried out experiments on the wave force acting on the upright section
of a composite breakwater by using waves with a bimodal spectrum, and verified that Goda’s formulas can
be applied even in such a case. They also proposed a method for calculating the significant wave period to be
used in the wave force calculation (see 4 Waves). If each frequency spectrum of the two wave groups before
superimposition can be considered to be a Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu type, the significant wave period after
superimposition may be obtained using the method by Tanimoto et al. Then this significant wave period may
be used in wave force calculation.
④ Wave force for low crested upright wall
When applying Goda’s formulas on breakwaters, if the crown height of the upright wall is low, the reduction in
resistance force due to the fall in weight becomes greater than the reduction in wave force resulting from the
decrease in the range of wave pressure acting on the wall. Therefore, in general, the wall needs to be widened.
However, the stability of an upright wall does tend to increase as the crown height is reduced. Nakata, Terauchi
et al.122) have proposed a method for calculating the wave force for a breakwater with a low crown height. In the
method, the front wave pressure and the uplift from the Goda’s formulas are multiplied by a modification factor
λh, thus reducing the wave force.
⑤ Wave force for high crested upright wall
When the crown of the upright wall is considerably higher than that for a normal breakwater, there will be no
wave overtopping, meaning that the wave force may be larger than that given by Goda’s formulas. Mizuno,
Sugimoto et al.123) carried out experiments into the wave force acting on a breakwater with a high crown. This
result may be referred.
⑥ Wave force on inclined walls
When the wall is slightly inclined, such as a trapezoidal caisson, the horizontal wave force is more-or-less the
same as that for an upright wall. However, it is necessary to consider the vertical component of the wave force
acting on the inclined surface, along with the reduction in uplift. Tanimoto and Kimura 124) have carried out
experiments on the wave force for slightly inclined walls, and have proposed a method for calculating the wave
force.
⑦ Uplift on caisson with footing
When a caisson has a footing, a wave force acts downwards on the upper surface of the footing on the seaside,
and an uplift of pu’ acts at the front toe, while the uplift at the rear toe is zero. Nevertheless, in general the

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
resultant force is not significantly different to that without the footing. It is thus acceptable to ignore the footing,
and to assume that the uplift has a triangular distribution as shown in Fig. 4.7.3, with the uplift pu at the front
toe being given by equation (4.7.8), and the uplift at the rear toe being zero. If the footing is extremely long,
however, it is necessary to calculate the uplift appropriately, considering the change in the uplift pu’ at the front
toe of the footing.

p'u pu

Fig. 4.7.3 Uplift when there is a Footing

⑧ In case of wide mound berm in front of upright wall


The wave force acting on the upright wall of a composite breakwater varies not only with the mound height
but also with the berm width and the front slope of foundation mound (see 4.7.2 (4) Impulsive Breaking Wave
Force). As explained, of these three factors, Goda’s formulas incorporates only the effect of the mound height.
Consequently, if the width and/or slope of the foundation mound are considerably different from normal, it is
preferable to carry out examination using hydraulic model tests. Note however that if the berm is sufficiently
wide, it may be considered as a part of the topography of the sea bottom. Even with the standard formula, if the
width is more than one half of the wavelength, it is possible to use the water depth on the mound for calculation
of both the wave height and the wavelength.
⑨ Wave force acting on an upright wall comprised of vertical cylinders
Nagai, Kubo et al.125) as well as Hayashi, Karino et al.126) have carried out studies on the wave force acting on an
upright wall comprised of cylinders such as a pile breakwater. Through their researches, it has been verified that
the wave force is not greatly different from that acting on an upright wall with a flat face. It is thus acceptable
to treat an upright wall comprised of cylinders as having a flat face and calculate the wave force using Goda’s
formulas.
(3) Negative Wave Force of Wave Troughs on Wall Surfaces
① General
When the trough of a wave is at a wall, a negative wave force acts corresponding to the trough depth of the
water surface from the still water level. A negative wave force is a wave force that obtained through suitable
hydraulic model tests or through appropriate calculations. It is a force directed seaward and may be comparable
in magnitude to a positive wave force when the water is deep and the wavelength is short.
② Negative wave pressure distribution
The negative wave pressure acting on an upright wall at the wave trough can be approximately estimated as
shown in Fig. 4.7.4. Specifically, it can be assumed that a wave pressure acts toward the sea, with the magnitude
of this wave pressure being zero at the still water level and having a constant value of pn from a depth 0.5HD
below the still water level right down to the toe of the wall. Here, pn is given as follows:

(4.7.10)

where
pn : intensity of wave pressure in constant region(kN/m 2)
ρ0g : Unit weight of seawater (kN/m3)
HD : wave height used in performance verification (m)

In addition, the negative uplift acting on the bottom of the upright wall can be assumed to act as shown
in Fig. 4.7.4. Specifically, it can be assumed that an uplift acts downwards with its intensity being pn as
given by equation (4.7.10) at the front toe, zero at the rear toe, and having a triangular distribution in-between.
Incidentally, it is necessary to use the highest wave height as the wave height HD used in the performance
verification.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY

Seaward Shoreward

0.5HD

pn

pn

Fig. 4.7.4 Negative Wave Pressure Distribution

③ Negative wave force by finite amplitude wave theory


Goda and Kakizaki 127) have carried out a wave force calculation based on the fourth order approximate solutions
of a finite amplitude standing wave theory, and presented calculation diagrams for negative wave pressure. It
has been verified that their calculation results agree well with experimental results. When the water is deep
and standing waves are clearly formed, it is acceptable to use the results of this finite amplitude standing wave
theory of higher order approximation. It should be noted that, for a deepwater breakwater, the negative wave
force at the wave trough may become larger than the positive wave force at the wave crest, and that the upright
wall may slide toward offshore.
(4) Impulsive Breaking Wave Force
① General
An impulsive breaking wave force is generated when the wave front of a breaking wave strikes a wall surface.
It has been shown from model tests that under certain conditions the maximum wave pressure may rise as much
as several tens of times the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to the wave height (1.0ρ0gHD). However, such a
wave pressure acts only locally and for a very short time, and even slight changes in conditions lead to marked
reduction in the wave pressure. Because of the impulsive nature of the wave force, the effects on stability and the
stress in structural elements vary according to the dynamic properties of the structure. Accordingly, when there
is a risk of a large impulsive breaking wave force due to breaking waves being generated, it is necessary to take
appropriate countermeasures by understanding the conditions of the impulsive breaking wave force generation
and the wave force characteristics by means of hydraulic model tests. It is preferable to avoid the use of cross-
sectional shapes and structures that may give rise to a strong impulsive breaking wave force. Where generation
of strong impulsive breaking wave force is unavoidable due to steep sea bottom or other reasons, it would be
preferable to arrange ways of mitigating wave forces such as by installing appropriate wave-dissipating works.
② Conditions of Generation of Impulsive Breaking Wave Forces
A whole variety of factors contribute to generation of an impulsive breaking wave force, and so it is difficult to
describe the conditions in general. Nevertheless, based on the results of a variety of experiments, it can be said
that an impulsive breaking wave force is liable to occur in the following cases when the wave incident angle β
(see Fig. 4.7.2) is less than 20º.
(a) In the case of steep bottom
When the three conditions, such that the bottom slope is steeper than about 1/30; there are waves that break
slightly off the upright wall; and their equivalent deepwater wave steepness is less than 0.03, are satisfied
simultaneously, then an impulsive breaking wave force is liable to be generated.
(b) In the case of high foundation mound
Even if the bottom slope is mild, the shape of the rubble mound may cause an impulsive breaking wave force
to be generated. In this case, in addition to the wave conditions, the crown height, the berm width and the
slope gradient of the mound all play a part, and so it is hard to determine the conditions under which such
an impulsive breaking wave force will be generated. In general, an impulsive breaking wave force will be
generated when the mound is relatively high, the berm width is relatively wide or the slope gradient is gentle,
and breaking waves form a vertical wall of water at the slope or at the top of the mound.128) When the seabed
slope is gentler than about and the ratio of the depth of water above the top of the mound including armor units
to the water depth above the seabed is greater than 0.6, it may be assumed that a large impulsive breaking
wave force will not be generated.
③ Countermeasures
If a large impulsive wave force due to breaking waves acts on an upright wall, the wave force can be greatly

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
reduced by sufficiently armoring the front with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. In particular, with a high
mound, a sufficient covering with wave-dissipating concrete blocks can prevent the generation of the impulsive
breaking wave force itself. In some cases the action of an impulsive wave force can also be avoided by using
special caissons such as perforated-wall caissons or sloping-top caissons.128) The wave direction also has a large
effect on the generation of an impulsive breaking wave force, and therefore, one possible countermeasure is to
ensure that the wave direction is not perpendicular to the breakwater alignment.
④ Examining wave force using model tests
When examining the wave force using hydraulic model tests for the case that an impulsive breaking wave force
due to breaking wave acts, it is necessary to give consideration to the response characteristics of the structure.
For example, the examination of the stability of upright wall as a whole is preferably conducted by sliding
experiment and the strength of members such as parapets by stress measurement experiment.
⑤ Impulsive breaking wave force due to breaking waves acting on an upright wall on a steep seabed.
(a) Water depth of upright wall inducing maximum wave pressure and the mean intensity of wave pressure
Mitsuyasu, 129) Hom-ma, Horikawa et al.130), Morihira, Kakisaki et al.131), Goda and Haranaka,132) Horikawa
and Noguchi, 133) and Fujisaki, Sasada et al.134) have all carried out studies on the impulsive breaking wave
force due to breaking waves acting on an upright wall on a steeply sloping sea bottom. In particular, Mitsuyasu
carried out a wide range of experiments using regular waves whereby he studied the breaking wave force
acting on an upright wall on uniform slopes of gradient 1/50, 1/25, and 1/15 for a variety of water depths. He
investigated the change in the total wave force with the water depth at the location of the upright wall, and
obtained an equation for calculating the water depth hM at the upright wall for which the impulsive wave force
is largest. When the Mitsuyasu equation is rewritten in terms of the deepwater wavelength, it becomes as
follows:

(4.7.11)

where
(4.7.12)

H0 : deepwater wave height (m)


L0 : deepwater wavelength (m)
tanθ : gradient of uniform slope

Hom-ma and Horikawa et al.135) have proposed a slightly different value for CM based on the results of
experiments with a gradient of 1/15 and other data. In any case, the impulsive breaking wave pressure is
largest when the structure is located slightly shoreward of the wave breaking point for progressive waves.
Fig. 4.7.5 shows the total wave force when the impulsive breaking wave force is largest for a number of
slope gradients, as based on the results of Mitsuyasu’s 129) experiments. In this figure, the mean intensity of
the wave pressure p, determined by assuming that wave pressure acts from the sea bottom to the height of 0.75
times limiting breaker height Hb above the still water surface, has been obtained and then divided by p0gHb
to make it dimensionless; it has then been plotted against the deepwater wave steepness. It is possible to gain
an understanding of the overall trend from this figure. Specifically, it can be seen that the smaller the wave
steepness, the larger the impulsive breaking wave force is generated. Also, as the slope gradient becomes
smaller, the intensity of the maximum impulsive breaking wave force decreases.
(b) Conditions for generation of impulsive breaking wave force
The conditions for the occurrence of an impulsive breaking wave force on a steep seabed, as described in
4.7.2 (4) ② (a) in the case of steep sea bottom, have been set by primarily employing Fig. 4.7.5 as a gross
guideline. For random waves in the sea, the equivalent deep water wave steepness can be calculated as the
ratio of the equivalent deepwater wave height corresponding to the highest wave height Hmax to the deepwater
wavelength corresponding to the significant wave period: where the wave height Hmax is to be calculated at the
distance 5H1/3 from the upright wall taking into account of wave transformation due to random wave breaking.
One may refer to Fig. 4.7.5 in order to obtain an approximate estimate of the mean intensity of the wave force
for this equivalent deepwater wave steepness. In this case, Hb should be taken to be the aforementioned Hmax.
One can also envisage an installation of a breakwater at a place where the risk of impulsive breaking wave
force generation is not large for the design waves. However, when placing an upright wall closer to the shore
where waves already broken act upon, it becomes important to carry out examination for waves with a height
lesser than that of the design waves.

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
(c) Impulsive breaking wave force acting on an upright wall on a horizontal floor adjoining a steep slope
Takahashi and Tanimoto et al.135) have carried out studies on the impulsive breaking wave force acting on an
upright wall on a horizontal floor joining to a steep slope. They employed a horizontal berm connected to a
slope of gradient 1/10 or 3/100 in a water tank, and then measured the wave pressure that acts on an upright
wall at a variety of positions with regular waves. They have proposed an equation valid for certain wave
conditions for calculating the upright wall position at which the wave force is largest and the maximum wave
force in that condition.

5.0
i=1/15
4.0 1/30
1/50
p 3.0
ρ 0 g Hb
2.0

1.0

0
0.5 1 2 3 4 5 10
H 0 / L0 ×10-2

Fig. 4.7.5 Mean Intensity of Wave Force for the Severest Wave Breaking (Upright Wall on a Steep Slope)

⑥ Impulsive breaking wave force acting on composite breakwater


(a) Effect of the mound shape (impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient)
Takahashi et al.116) have proposed, based on the results of sliding experiments, 128) the impulsive breaking
wave pressure coefficient αI. This is a coefficient that represents the extent of the impulsive breaking wave
force due to breaking waves when the foundation mound is high. It is expressed as the function of the ratio
of the wave height to the depth of water above the mound in front of the caisson HD /d, the ratio of the depth
of water above the mound to the original water depth at the upright wall d/h, and the ratio of the berm width
of the mound to the wavelength at this place BM /L. Note that the wave height HD is the design wave height,
namely highest wave height. The impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient αI is expressed as the product
of αI0 and αI1 as in the following equations:

(4.7.13)

(4.7.14)

Fig. 4.7.6 shows the distribution of αI1. It attains the maximum value of 1 when d/h is 0.4 and BM /L is 0.12.
The impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient αI takes values between 0 and 2; the larger the value of αI,
the larger the impulsive breaking wave force is. When calculating the wave force using Goda’s formulas,
among αI and α2, whichever larger shall be used. The equation for αI has been formulated based mainly on the
results of sliding experiments when HD/h is relatively large and may be used when examining the sliding of an
upright wall on the condition of HD/h≥0.5. When HD/h<0.5, h=2HD may be used, for the sake of convenience,
in the calculation of αI1.136)
(b) Effect of the crown height of the upright wall
The higher the crown height, the greater the risk of an impulsive breaking wave force being generated. This
is because the steep front of a breaking wave often takes a nearly vertical cliff of water above the still water
level, and if there is an upright wall at this place, the impact of the wave front results in the generation of an
impulsive force. For example, Mizuno et al.123) have pointed out the tendency that, when the crown is high,
an impulsive breaking wave force is generated even when the mound is relatively low.
(c) Effect of the wave direction
According to the results of the sliding experiments of Tanimoto et al.127), even if conditions are such that a
large impulsive breaking wave force is generated when the wave angle β is 0º, there is a rapid drop in the

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
magnitude of the wave force as β increases to 30º or 45º. When the alignment of breakwater is oblique at
the direction of incident waves, the impulsive breaking wave force will not generate or actually be neglected
because of the weak effect of it against sliding, even if generated. By considering the fluctuation in the wave
direction, it is reasonable to assume that the condition for the generation of an impulsive wave force is that β
is less than 20º.
(d) Dynamic response of the upright section to an impulsive breaking wave force and the sliding of upright
section
When an impulsive breaking wave force due to breaking waves acts on an upright section, the instantaneous
local pressure can rise up to several tens of times the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to the wave height,
although the duration time of the impulsive breaking wave force is very short. It is necessary to evaluate the
contribution of the impulsive breaking wave force to sliding in terms of the dynamic response, considering
deformation of the mound and the subsoil. Goda 137) as well as Takahashi and Shimosako, 138) have carried
out calculations of the shear force at the bottom of an upright section using dynamic models. Judging from the
results of these calculations and the results of various sliding experiments, it would seem reasonable to take
the mean intensity of the wave pressure statically equivalent to the sliding of the upright wall on the mound to
be (2.5 – 3.0) ρ0gH. The impulsive breaking wave force coefficient has been introduced based on the results
of sliding experiments with consideration of such dynamic response effects.

1.0 0

α I1
0.8 0.1 0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
0.6 0.9 0.4

h-d d
h h

0.4 0.6
0.0

BM
0.2 aI = aI0 aI1 0.8
HD HD
: <2 d
aI0 = d d h
2: H D
>2
d
0 1.0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

BM
L

Fig 4.7.6 Impulsive Breaking Wave Pressure Coefficient

(5) Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-dissipating Concrete Blocks
① General
If the front of an upright wall is covered with wave-dissipating deformed concrete blocks, the features of wave
force acting on the wall varies. The extent of this variation depends on the characteristics of incident waves,
along with the crown height and width of the wave-dissipating work, the type of wave-dissipating concrete
blocks used, and the composition of the wave-dissipating work including the presence or non-presence of core
materials such as rubble. In general, when standing waves act on an upright wall, the variation in wave force on
the upright wall is not large. However, when a large impulsive breaking wave force acts, the wave force can be
reduced significantly by covering the upright wall with wave-dissipating blocks. Nevertheless, such a reduction
in the wave force is only achieved when the wave-dissipating work has a sufficient width and crown height; in
particular, it should be noted that if the crown of the wave-dissipating work is below the design water level, the
wave-dissipating work often causes an increase in the wave force.
② Wave force calculation formula for upright wall sufficiently covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks
The wave force acting on an upright wall covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks varies depending on
the composition of the wave-dissipating work, and therefore it should be evaluated using the results of model
tests corresponding to the design conditions. However, if the crown elevation of the wave-dissipating work
is as high as the crown of the upright wall and the wave-dissipating concrete blocks are sufficiently stable

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PART II ACTIONS AND MATERIAL STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS, CHAPTER 2 METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY
against the wave actions, the wave force acting on the upright wall may be calculated by applying the extended
Goda’s formulas. In this method with the standard formula given in 4.7.2 (2) Wave Forces of Standing Waves
or Breaking Waves when the Peak of Waves is on the Wall Surface, the values of η*, p1, and pu given by
equations (4.7.1), (4.7.2), and (4.7.8) are used respectively, but it is necessary to assign appropriate values to the
wave pressure correction factors λ1, λ2 and λ3 in accordance with the design conditions.
③ Wave pressure correction factors to the extended Goda’s formulas
The method using the extended Goda’s formulas can be applied for not only breaking waves but also non-
breaking waves by assigning appropriate wave pressure correction factors λ1, λ2 and λ3. Studies about the wave
pressure correction factor have been carried out by Tanimoto et al.139), 140), Takahashi et al.141), Sekino, Kakuno
et al.142), and Tanaka, Abe et al.143) They have revealed the following:
(a) Wave-dissipating concrete blocks results a considerable reduction in the breaking wave pressure, and so it is
generally acceptable to set the breaking wave pressure correction factor λ2 to zero.
(b) The larger the wave height, the smaller the correction factor λ1 for standing wave pressure and the correction
factor λ3 for uplift become.
(c) The larger the ratio of the width of covering block section to the wavelength, the smaller the correction factors
λ1 and λ3 become.
(d) If even a small portion of the upper part of the upright section is left uncovered, there is a risk of the wave
force here becoming an impulsive breaking wave force. Based on such experimental results, Takahashi et
al.141) have proposed that in general, when the upright wall is sufficiently covered with wave-dissipating
concrete blocks, the wave pressure reduction coefficient λ2 may be taken to be zero, while the values of λ1 and
λ3 depend primarily on the wave height H (the highest wave height). They have thus proposed the following
equations:

(4.7.15)

In the breaker zone, where breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks are generally used,
the above equations give λ1 =λ3 = 0.8.
④ Wave force on the discontinuous part of wave-dissipating block covering
In those cases where wave-dissipating blocks are placed partially at corners of breakwater alignment, a
discontinuous part of a wave-dissipating block covering appears at the end of wave-dissipating works. In cases
where the crest height of a wave-dissipating work is lower than the design tide level, care is required since the
wave force may increase greatly when it is not armored, and a similar large increase in the wave force may occur
also at the discontinuous part of the wave-dissipating block covering.144)
Shiomi, Yamamoto, et al.145) have conducted a hydraulic experiment for the wave force at the discontinuous
part of the wave-dissipating block armoring and examined the following calculation method. The target range
for wave force calculation of the discontinuous part is set at as from the slope toe end of the wave-dissipating
work to the point where H.W.L. crosses the slope. The armored length is divided into unit lengths l. For each
divided water depth of the wave-dissipating work is assumed to be the water depth d on the mound armored
work crest, and the wave-dissipating work crest width is assumed to be the mound crest width BM, shown in
Fig. 4.7.6 and the wave pressure and uplift intensity is calculated by Goda’s formulas employed the impulsive
breaking wave pressure coefficient αI) in 4.7.2 (2) Wave Forces of Standing Waves ot Breaking Waves when
the Peak of Waves is on the Wall Surface, and the wave pressure of each divided section is determined. The
wave force is calculated such that the mean wave pressure intensity (p1, p3, p4) and the uplift pressure intensity
(pu) of the one caisson act on the entire caisson located in the discontinuous portion. The division length l is
determined such that the full wave force over the length of one caisson becomes maximum, but in general it is
set at 1/4 to 1/1 of the partition wall interval of the caisson.
⑤ Morihira’s formula
The formula proposed by Morihira, et. al.131) may be used for the breakwater which is located in surf zone,
where there is a significant wave height decrease by the effect of wave breaking, and is covered sufficiently with
wave-dissipating concrete blocks.
⑥ Wave force acting on the superstructure of a sloping breakwater covered sufficiently by wave-dissipating blocks
Tanimoto and Kojima 146) have proposed a calculation equation for the wave pressure correction factor λ for

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN
cases where the foundation ground exists near the still-water surface, and where it is covered sufficiently with
wave-dissipating blocks similar to the superstructure of a sloping breakwater.
⑦ Block load due to wave action
Wave force as the direct action of waves and the action due to the leaning of the blocks acts on an upright wall
that is covered with wave-dissipating blocks. The latter is called the block load. Research on the block load has
been carried out by Hiromoto, Nishijima, et al.147), Tanaka, Abe, et al.143), and Takahashi, Tanimoto, et al.141),
and the results have b