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puWILL and WOULD

USE:
We use WILL and/or WOULD to talk about a subject's willingness or capacity to
perform an action, to describe habits, and to make requests and offers. WILL
and/or WOULD can also be used to talk about future and hypothetical actions,
states, and events.

EXAMPLES:
"I'll help you with your homework."
"My first car would run for 30 miles on one gallon of gasoline."
"Cats will often play with mice for hours before killing them."
"Jack, would you please stop making that noise!"
"Don't worry; I'll explain the contract if you don't understand it."
"The President's helicopter will land at 2:15."
"I wouldn't open that box if I were you."
FORM:

AFFIRMATIVE and NEGATIVE

[SUBJECT + WILL/WOULD (+NOT) + VERB [Base Form]...]

WILL + NOT is often abbreviated to WON'T and WOULD + NOT is often


abbreviated to WOULDN'T

QUESTIONS

[(Wh Word +) WILL/WOULD + SUBJECT + VERB...]

WILL/WOULD - WILLINGNESS

USE:
WILL is often used to make an offer or to ask somebody if they are willing to do
something.

EXAMPLES:
"I'll help you with your homework."
"Will you lend me a thousand dollars so that I can go on vacation?"

WOULD is used as the past form of WILL, and to ask somebody very politely if
they are willing to do something.

EXAMPLES:
"He told me that he would give me some money."
"Excuse me, would you stop smoking, please?"

WON'T and WOULDN'T are often used to describe a refusal.

EXAMPLES:
"Mary won't clean her room even when I ask her politely."
"James wouldn't lend me his pen, although I asked him several times if I could."

WILL/WOULD - CAPACITY

USE:
WILL is used in the affirmative, negative and interrogative to talk about the
subject's capacity or ability to do something. In this case we are normally talking
about a machine or other object.

EXAMPLES:
"This tank will hold 500 liters of water."
"My car has broken down; it won't start."
"Will this camera work under water?"

We use WOULD in the same way to talk about the past.

EXAMPLES:
"My first car would run for 30 miles on one gallon of gasoline."
"When I tried to open the door, my key wouldn't fit the lock."

WILL/WOULD - HABIT

USE:
We use WILL in the affirmative and negative to talk about present habits.

EXAMPLE:
"John will often put something down, and then immediately forget where he put
it."

When the subject of the verb is a person, the use of WILL often suggests that the
speaker is slightly irritated by the action.

EXAMPLE:
"He's a clever boy, but he will frequently interrupt my lessons with annoying
questions."

We use WOULD in the affirmative and negative to talk about past habits and
customs.

EXAMPLES:
"When I was a child, I would beg my father to tell me stories."
"The ancient Britons would paint themselves blue before battle."

WILL/WOULD - REQUESTS

The interrogative forms of WILL and WOULD are used to make requests.

EXAMPLES:
"Will you open the window, please?"
"Jack, will you be quiet!"
"Excuse me, would you tell me the time, please?"

Notice that WOULD is far more polite than WILL, and is normally used when we
speak to strangers.

WOULD YOU MIND + VERB + ing is an even politer way of asking somebody to do
something.

EXAMPLE:
"Excuse me, would you mind opening the window?"

WOULD YOU MIND IF + SUBJECT + VERB [Past Form]..? is a very polite way of
asking for permission to do something.

EXAMPLE:
"Excuse me, would you mind if I borrowed your newspaper?"

WILL/WOULD - FUTURE ACTIONS and STATES

USE:
WILL and WON'T are used to talk about states or events at some time in the
future.

EXAMPLES:
"How will you open the door without a key?"
"John won't be in the office next week."
"I will never forget you."

In spoken English, WILL and WON'T are often used in a subordinate clause, when
the main clause describes the subject's attitude or beliefs about the future state or
event.

EXAMPLES:
"He hopes (that) you won't be angry with him."
"I'm sure she'll get here soon."

WOULD and WOULDN'T are used in reported speech when we are repeating
something that was said about the future.

EXAMPLES:
"Mary kissed me and told me (that) she would never forget me."
"Did he tell you what time he would arrive?"
"Last week she told me that she wouldn't be at yesterday's meeting."

WILL/WOULD - CONDITIONALS
WILL and WON'T are used in subordinate clauses to talk about the results of
possible present or future conditions which are described in the main clause. The
main clause normally begins with IF or UNLESS, and contains a verb which takes a
present form, even when it refers to the future.
EXAMPLES:
"If I win the lottery next month, I'll buy you a diamond ring."
"We won't hurt the hostages unless the police attack us."

"What will you do if you lose the next match?"


"I'll give up tennis and play chess instead."

WOULD and WOULDN'T are used to describe the results of impossible, unreal, and
very unlikely present or future conditions which are described in the main clause.
The verb in the main clause normally takes a past form, although it refers to the
present or future.

EXAMPLE:
"I hate you! I wouldn't marry you if you were the last man on earth!"

LOGICAL CONNECTORS:
PURPOSE and CONDITION

USE:
When the subordinate clause describes the purpose or intended result of the action
described in the main clause, we use the connector SO THAT.

EXAMPLES:
"The thief shone a bright light in my eyes so that I couldn't see him."

"The teacher speaks slowly so that everybody can understand."

When the subordinate clause prescribes the necessary conditions for the state or
event described in the main clause, we use the connectors IF, ON (THE)
CONDITION THAT, and PROVIDED THAT.

EXAMPLES:
"I'll cook the dinner provided that you do the shopping."
"Fred will lend you his car on (the) condition that you drive very carefully."
"The bank will take away our house if we don't pay back the loan."

The negative equivalent of IF ( = IF + NOT) is UNLESS.

EXAMPLE:
"The bank will take away our house unless we pay back the loan."

When the subordinate clause describes a possible (but uncertain) event which
explains the action described in the main clause, we use the connector IN CASE.

EXAMPLE:
"I'm taking my umbrella in case it rains."
against your wishes
expression

forced to do something you don't want to do
He had to retire against his wishes.

ashamed of oneself
expression

embarrassed about what one has done
I'm ashamed of myself for the way I treated you.

determined to
adjective

set on doing something, not willing to let something get in your way of doing something
I'm entering the marathon and am determined to run the entire way.

do me a favor
expression

help me out, do something to help me
Would you do me a favor and make me a cup of coffee?

drop by
phrasal verb

stop by, come and visit briefly
Why don't you drop by my office one day, and we'll go for lunch?

have difficulty
expression

have a hard time doing something
I'm having difficulty solving this math problem. Can you help me?

it’s not as if
expression

it's not like, it's not the case that
Don't feel bad taking a day off, because it's not as if you do it all the time.

react
expression

respond to someone or a situation by doing something
She reacts to unfriendly people by being extra friendly.

seriously doubt whether


expression

really don't think that something will happen, uncertain about something
I seriously doubt whether you'll be able to help me, but you can try.

so as to be sure that
expression

make certain that
I left early for the dinner, so as to be sure that I'd get there on time.

want to do nothing less than


expression

to have no desire to do something
I'd love to come and visit you, but after commuting for four hours today, there's nothing I
want to do less than get back in the car.

what's been going on


expression

what has been happening
What's been going on in your life?

work things out


phrasal verb

solve problems, come to an agreement
Alex and I are having some difficulties in our relationship, but we're trying to work things
out.

worse than
expression

more unpleasant than...
Sitting in this lecture is worse than being at the dentist!

you can always find


expression

an action that someone does often or habitually
You can always find me sitting at home, reading a book.

COMMON ERRORS: ORDER OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives which describe the nature or the properties of something (such as BIG,
YELLOW, STRONG, DULL, etc.) are known as ADJECTIVES of QUALITY. When a
single noun is preceded by several adjectives of quality, they must appear in the
correct order.
In many cases it is sufficient to observe the simple rule that "the most objective
adjective stays closest to the noun".

If we want to say that a book is both "in English" and "interesting", we note that
"interesting" is a relatively subjective adjective (I find the book interesting,
somebody else might find it boring), while "English" is relatively objective (nobody
can deny that the book is English). Thus we say "an interesting English book," and
not "an English interesting book".

EXAMPLES:
"a beautiful Chinese doll"
"an old wooden table"
"an ugly old man"

When there are several equally objective adjectives, they normally come in the
following order, with 8 being the one closest to the noun:

1. NUMBER (AN, FIVE, A HUNDRED, etc.)


2. SIZE (LARGE, SMALL, HUGE, etc.)
3. AGE (NEW, OLD, etc.)
4. SHAPE (LONG, OVAL, SQUARE, etc.)
5. COLOR (LIGHT, BLACK, RED, etc.)
6. MATERIAL (STEEL, CANVAS, etc.)
7. ORIGIN (FRENCH, AFRICAN, etc.)
8. PURPOSE (COOKING, HUNTING, etc.)

EXAMPLES:
"an enormous brown leather chair"
"a pair of new French riding boots"
"three tiny round copper coins"

authorization
noun

official permission
Did you receive authorization to sell your products at this booth?

first preference
expression

number one choice
Out of all the restaurants you mentioned, my first preference would be the Turkish Grill.

freelance
adjective

work you do for a company or companies of which you are not a permanent employee
I do freelance writing work for a few different advertising companies.
fringe benefits
noun

something given by an employer to an employee in addition to his or her salary, such as a
car, vacation, or health insurance
The salary at my new job is not so high, but at least they give a lot of fringe benefits.

implement a plan
expression

to put an idea into effect
The first thing I'll do if I'm elected mayor, is implement a plan to lower taxes.

inadequate funding
expression

not enough money to support something
Because the school received inadequate funding, it had to close down.

nationwide trend
expression

general tendency or movement throughout the country
There is a nationwide trend to lower prices on medication.

pension
noun

a sum of money paid regularly to someone after he or she has retired (stopped working
because he or she has reached a certain age)
Now that my dad has retired, he will start receiving his pension.

reimburse
verb

to pay someone back
Pay for whatever teaching supplies you need and the school will reimburse you.

sales figures
noun

number of items that a company sells in a given time period
Our sales figures this month were the highest they've been all year.

self-employed
adjective

working for oneself instead of an employer
The problem with being self-employed is that you have to pay your own health insurance.

tax rebate
noun

when you get money back from the government because you paid more taxes than you
owe
According to my accountant, I should be receiving a tax rebate this year.

tax return
noun

document you fill out indicating how much money you earn, so the government will know
how much tax you owe
You only have one more week to mail in your tax return.

unemployed
adjective

out of work, having no job
She's already been unemployed for two months even though she's very qualified.

upgrade
verb

to improve the quality, make better
I think it's time to upgrade my computer, so it works faster.

PARTICIPLES: PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES

USE:
Participial adjectives are used with verbs which describe the subject's state, such
as BE, GET, or BECOME. A Present Participle generally refers to the state or
condition of the noun it modifies.

EXAMPLES:
"That film was boring."
"The political situation in Japan is very interesting this year."
"Fred's work is very tiring."

Past Participles generally refer to a "passive" state sometimes caused by


something else. Frequently these participles are followed by words like BY, AT, OF,
WITH, etc., or by a phrase which shows the cause of the state.

EXAMPLES:
"John was tired of his mother's constant complaining."
"Felicity was excited when she heard about the party."

PARTICIPLES: PRESENT/PAST

USE:
The PRESENT PARTICIPLES of many verbs can be used as adjectives before nouns.
In this case they often replace a relative clause containing an active verb.

EXAMPLES:
"There was a sleeping dog on the floor."
(In other words, "...a dog which was sleeping...")
"He has a working model of the locomotive."
(In other words "...a model that works...")

The PAST PARTICIPLES of many verbs can be used in the same way, but in this
case they replace a relative clause containing a passive verb.

EXAMPLES:
"He gave me a broken pencil."
(In other words "...a pencil which was broken.")
"The floor was made of varnished wood."
(In other words "...wood which was varnished.")

PRESENT PARTICIPLES can also be used with certain verbs in clauses which
include nouns or pronouns. In this case the noun or pronoun acts as the object of
the first verb and as the subject of the participle.

EXAMPLE:
"I saw Fred walking along the road."

This sentence contains two ideas: "I saw Fred" and "Fred was walking along the
road". It is the same as a single sentence containing a main clause "I saw Fred..."
and the adverbial clause "...while he was walking along the road."

This structure is often used with other "verbs of perception," such as HEAR,
SMELL, FEEL, NOTICE, OBSERVE, FIND, and CATCH, etc.

EXAMPLES:
"She heard him singing in the shower."
"Mike noticed Pat looking at him."
"I found this cat sleeping on my chair."
"They caught the thief stealing a VCR."

Other verbs used in this structure include HAVE and GET. In this case the subject
of the first verb controls or causes the action described by the participle.

EXAMPLE:
"They had me working all night." (In other words, "They forced/persuaded me to
work all night.")

confide in
verb


tell secrets to and share private thoughts
You're the only person I feel comfortable confiding in, because you understand me.

drop a line
idiom

to call or write to say a quick hello


Why don't you drop me a line the next time you're in town?

face an issue
idiom

to confront a problem
We really have to face the issue of where to send our children to school.

fast becoming
expression

quickly turning into, quickly becoming


Are newspapers fast becoming a thing of the past?

feel free
expression

what you say when you want someone to know they can do something without worrying
Everyone can feel free to explore the house.

give advice
expression

help someone figure out what to do or how to behave in a certain situation


It's great to talk to you, because you give such good advice.

grateful
adjective

thankful, appreciative
I'm grateful for all the support you gave me and my family this year.

handle
verb

to take care of, to be in charge of


Don't worry; I'll handle this matter.

in response
expression

in answer, in reply
I'm writing in response to your ad for a graphic designer, and would like to apply for the
job.

no harm done
expression

nothing bad resulted even though one may have expected it to, don't worry because no
serious damage was caused
No harm done, the vase is still in one piece.

on the cover
expression

when your picture appears on the front of a magazine or book


Who's on the cover of this week's Celebrity Magazine?

put your feelings down on paper


idiom

write down what you are thinking and feeling


Before we speak about what's bothering you, I want you to put your feelings down on
paper.

selection
noun

collection, a group of something chosen from a bigger group


We will be reading from a selection of poems written by Kathy Goodrich.

signify
verb

to show, to mean something


If she smiled when I left the audition, does it signify that she thinks I did a good job?

variety of subjects
noun phrase

a range of topics
We have weekly speakers, who speak on a variety of subjects.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

USE:
The SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD is used for a number of purposes, including:

talking about wishes, hopes, doubts, desires or actions which we want to happen;

expressing preference or emphasizing the importance of something.

AFTER VERBS

USE:
When the main verb in the sentence indicates the subject's opinion about, or wish
or intention for the action of a second subject, or of an event described in the
subordinate clause.

FORM:
The SUBJUNCTIVE usually accompanies a change in subject in the subordinate
clause. The verb in the subordinate clause is in the base form.
EXAMPLES:
"We insist that he stay for dinner."
"The doctor advised that she lose weight."

AFTER ADJECTIVES

USE:
When an adjective in the main clause indicates the speaker's (or another subject's)
reaction to the verb in the subordinate clause.

FORM:
The SUBJUNCTIVE is used following certain adjective phrases, when these phrases
are followed by a new sentence. The verb in the subordinate clause is in the base
form.

EXAMPLES:
"It is essential that she have the operation."
"It is important that we be there on time."

AFTER OTHER EXPRESSIONS

USE:
The SUBJUNCTIVE can be used after other expressions, such as IF, UNLESS, I'D
RATHER, IT'S TIME, I WISH, IF ONLY, to describe states or events which are
impossible or hypothetical, and therefore unreal.

FORM:
We use the normal SIMPLE PAST form, affirmative and negative (see Basic 2), to
form the Past Subjunctive. When the verb is BE, WAS is replaced by WERE,
especially in formal and written English.

EXAMPLES:
"I'd rather you didn't go out tonight."
"I wish she were here."
"It's time we went home."
"If she weren't so sensitive, I would tell her the truth."
"If only he were here with us now."

NOTE: The Subjunctive can also be formed with SHOULD + BASE FORM. This form
is less common and more formal, however.

EXAMPLES:
"He insists that we should leave immediately." (instead of "He insists that we
leave...")
"She recommended that I should take an extra blanket." (instead of "She
recommended that I take...")

absent-minded
adjective

forgetful, lost in thought and unaware of one's surroundings
I'm so absent-minded, I left the keys in the car.

barely
adverb

almost not; hardly
I'm so tired, I can barely keep my eyes open.

can't stand
idiom

really dislike, hate
I can't stand vacations where all you do is lie on the beach all day.

close relationship
expression

a strong connection and/or friendship with someone
David and I have such a close relationship, he's the first one I call when I have any
important news to share.

fortunately
adverb

luckily
I missed my flight, but fortunately, I was able to get on the next one.

giggle
verb

to laugh with repeated short high sounds: to laugh nervously, excitedly, or in a silly way
The funny movie made the children giggle.

had it with
expression

have had enough, have no more patience, not willing to continue to deal with a person or
situation
I've had it with this car; we need to buy a new one.

insist
verb

state strongly that something must be done, make a demand
I hope you won't insist that I come with you to the party tonight.

it's essential
expression

it's necessary
If you want to receive the gift, it's essential that you fill out this form.

it's high time


expression

it's about time, the appropriate time for something, or past the appropriate time
It's high time you two started dating.

leave the nest


idiom

when children grow up and leave their parents' home
Jason and I were very sad when our youngest child left the nest.

practical joke
noun

a trick played on people in order to fool them
As a kid, my brother was always playing practical jokes on me.

pull someone's leg


idiom

to fool someone
Are you really a rock star, or are you just pulling my leg?

riddle
noun

a puzzling question that has a funny or clever solution
If you solve the riddle, you'll figure out what your birthday present is.

trick
verb

to fool someone
My sister tricked me into thinking we were going out to eat, but we were really going to my
surprise party!

MORE COMMON ERRORS:


PREPOSITIONS FOLLOWING VERBS AND ADJECTIVES

Many verbs and adjectives are normally used with particular prepositions. A
common lexical error consists of using the wrong preposition.
PREPOSITIONS FOLLOWING VERBS

For a list of Phrasal Verbs (verbs which have a special meaning when used with
particular prepositions), see Intermediate 3. The following list includes some other
common verbs with their associated prepositions. Notice that some of the verbs
can take an object before the preposition.

ACCUSE + (OBJECT +) OF
"He was accused of stealing the necklace." OR
"They accused him of stealing the necklace."

APOLOGIZE + FOR
"Andrew apologized for his bad behavior."

ASK + FOR
"We asked for another plate of french fries."

BELIEVE + IN
"Some people don't believe in democracy."

BLAME + (OBJECT +) FOR


"Tom was blamed for starting the fire."
"I blame the weather for my failure to win the race."

BORROW + (OBJECT +) FROM


"Jane wants to borrow fifty dollars from me."
"Please return the book you borrowed from Dan."

COMPARE +(OBJECT +) WITH/TO


"It isn't fair to compare him with a professional athlete."
"The prices here are low, compared to the first place we tried."

CONSIST + OF
"A rugby team consists of fifteen players."

DEPEND + ON
"His success in the exams will depend on how hard he works."

FEEL + LIKE
"His handshake feels like a dead fish."

HOPE + FOR
"She hopes for better luck next year."

INSIST + ON
"The angry customer insisted on a complete refund."

LIVE + ON
"He found it hard to live on his salary as a teacher."
LOOK + AT
"Look at me when I speak to you!"

OBJECT + TO
"I strongly object to being called a liar."

PAY + FOR
"George never offers to pay for the meal."

PREFER +(OBJECT +) TO
"John prefers to eat meat when he's in a restaurant."
"John prefers meat to fish."

PREPARE + FOR
"Susan needed more time to prepare for the party."

QUARREL + ABOUT
"We often quarrel about stupid little things."

REFER + TO
"His last letter referred to his promotion at work."

RELY + ON
"You shouldn't rely on him; he's always late."

REMIND + (OBJECT +) OF
"Mike was reminded of his mother when he saw the photo."
"The photo reminded Sam of his old girlfriend."

SUCCEED + IN
"He finally succeeded in persuading her to marry him."

SUSPECT + (OBJECT +) OF
"I was suspected of being a spy."
"The police suspected me of being a spy."

THINK + OF/ABOUT
"I suddenly thought of the answer."
"We thought about the problem for hours."

WAIT + FOR
"I've been waiting for Joe for twenty minutes."

WARN + (OBJECT +) ABOUT


"I was warned about the dog."
"They warned me about the dog next door."

WISH + FOR
"Most people wish for health and happiness."

PREPOSITIONS FOLLOWING ADJECTIVES

Some of the common adjective + preposition combinations in English are:

OF usually follows: afraid, ashamed, aware, certain, (un)conscious, jealous, proud,


and sure.

EXAMPLES:
"Michael is afraid of being alone."
"The teacher is aware of her students' individual needs."
"Susan is jealous of all the attention her new baby brother is getting from their
parents."

AT usually follows: clever, good, and talented.

EXAMPLE:
"Robert is very good at math."

OF or TO usually follow: kind, nice, (im)polite, and rude.

EXAMPLES:
"How kind of you to make me dinner!"
"Please be nice to Aunt Fanny. She's a very sick woman."

Other common adjective/preposition combinations include: anxious ABOUT,


different FROM, bored
BY/WITH, and interested IN.

EXAMPLES:
"I am very anxious about the exams. I'm worried I will fail everything."
"Gary is very different from his brother Frank."
"I'm interested in modern art. How about you?"

blind
adjective


unable to see

I am training my dog to be a guide dog for people who are blind.


Braille
noun


patterns of raised dots representing letters, which enable blind people to read and write

Not enough blind children are taught to read Braille.

deserve
verb


to be worthy of

For all your hard work, you deserve a medal.

disability
noun


physical or mental condition that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities
of an individual

Joline has a physical disability, but it doesn't stop her from playing basketball or tennis.

discrimination
noun


unfair treatment of someone due to race, religion, age, etc.

I think it's discrimination to build a building with no wheelchair, ramp or elevator.

handicap
noun

a disadvantage, outdated way of referring to a disability

Dan doesn't see his short height as a handicap on the basketball court, because he's fast
and can jump high.

hearing-impaired
adjective


completely or partially unable to hear

Zack is hearing-impaired, but is very good at reading lips.

ordeal
noun


difficult or harsh experience

The surgery was a real ordeal, but at least I'm feeling healthy again.

overcome
verb


succeed in dealing with a problem

After recovering from a stroke, Henry started speaking at hospitals to show stroke patients
that it's possible to overcome their disabilities.

paralysis
noun


complete or partial loss of ability to move one's body or certain parts of the body

Jenny suffered from paralysis of the face, but luckily, it was only temporary.

pessimistic
adjective


seeing the negative side of life; not hopeful, expecting the worst

Everyone was pessimistic about the pitcher's recovery after he injured his arm, but now
he's playing professionally again.

prejudice
noun


unreasonable bias against or in favor of a person or group of people

It's distressing to see how many people these days still have prejudices against people of
other religions and ethnicities.

restriction
noun


things that limit or control someone or something

I know there are restrictions on bringing dogs into the building, but this is a guide dog.

sign language
noun



a language using hand motions for people who are hearing-impaired

I am learning sign language so that I can communicate with my cousin, who is hearing-
impaired.

wheelchair
noun


chair with wheels used by people who are unable to walk or have difficulty walking

Jack joined a basketball league where all players play in wheelchairs.

MORE COMMON ERRORS: PARALLEL STRUCTURES

When several subordinate phrases or clauses in a sentence are governed by the


same verb they should all take the same form. Failure to observe this rule (e.g.,
by mixing up finite verbs, infinitives, and -ing forms) often leads to grammatical
error.

EXAMPLES:
"I like swimming, riding and studying languages." (NOT: I like swimming, riding,
and to study languages.)

"I want you to sweep the floor, wash the dishes, make the bed, and feed the
canary." (NOT: I want you to sweep the floor, wash the dishes, make the bed, and
feeding the canary.)

clear up
phrasal verb


when the weather improves because it stops raining or the clouds go away

Passengers, let's hope this weather clears up soon, so our flight won't be further delayed.
cultural mosaic
expression


mix of ethnic groups, cultures and languages

Canadian society has been called a cultural mosaic because of the mix of people from many
different countries and cultures.

dense forest
expression


crowded with trees and plants; thick with trees

We walked through the dense forest until we reached a stream.

diverse
adjective


different from one another

I love cities where the population is so diverse.

get back to nature


expression


leave one's busy life immersed in technology, and go somewhere in nature

It feels good to leave the noisy city and get back to nature.

have work cut out


idiom


have a lot of work ahead

I'm going to try to convince my husband to go camping next week, but I know I have my
work cut out for me!

nature lover
noun


someone who loves being in the outdoors and in nature

I am a nature lover, while my husband loves fancy hotels!

nothing compares
expression


nothing is as good as this

Nothing compares to a weekend on a quiet beach with clear blue skies and seagulls flying
overhead.

outdoor activity
expression


something you do outside for enjoyment or recreation

Take advantage of the many outdoor activities our resort has to offer.

park ranger
noun

one whose job it is to look after a park, forest, or nature area; one who performs a number
of important functions in the protection of wildlife areas

If you have any questions about the trails, animals, or plant life in our national park, feel
free to ask the park ranger.

plain
noun


a large stretch of land with no trees

The Pampas, in Argentina, is known for its vast plains covered with grasslands.

time zone
noun


one of 24 divisions of time across the world in which time is the same in all places within
one time zone, but different from the time in all other time zones

Every time I travel, I have a difficult time adjusting to the new time zone.

unwelcome
adjective


unwanted; not welcome

Always keep your food sealed so you won't attract unwelcome guests, such as grizzly
bears!

vast
adjective

very large; very great in size

The vast meadow was filled with flowers and wildlife.

winding trail
expression


path that twists and turns

At the end of the winding trail were pools of water and a waterfall.

NEGATION

USE:
English, unlike many other languages, normally allows only one negative
expression in a negative sentence. A sentence with two negative expressions has a
positive meaning, because one negative cancels out the other. Thus the sentence
"Nobody does not like John." means "Everybody likes John."

NEGATION OF NOUNS

Both the subject and the object of sentences can be preceded by the negative
quantifiers NO (the negative equivalent of A or SOME) or NEITHER (when there are
only two).

EXAMPLES:
"No dogs are allowed in the house."
"Neither of the twins likes vegetables."
"Neither half of the audience could see the other."
"We've found no signs of life on Mars."
The subject can be preceded by the negative quantifiers NOT MANY or NOT MUCH.

EXAMPLES:
"Not many children learn Latin these days."
"Not much snow fell yesterday."

If the noun is preceded by the article THE or by a possessive (MY, YOUR, HIS, etc.
or JOHN's, PETER's, etc.) we use the negative quantifiers NONE OF or NEITHER
OF.

EXAMPLES:
"None of my friends eats garlic."
"Until they got married, she had met none of his brothers or sisters."
"Neither of my parents can speak English."
"Since the accident, she can use neither of her hands."
NEGATIVE PRONOUNS

USE:
The negative pronouns NOBODY, NO ONE, and NOTHING can act as the subject or
object of a sentence.

EXAMPLES:
"Nobody liked my new dress."
"No one wanted to be the first to leave the party."
"Nothing is impossible."
"I saw nobody, I heard no one, and I felt nothing."
NEGATION OF VERBS

FORM:
Negative verbs are usually formed by adding the adverbial NOT (often abbreviated
to N'T) to the end of BE, HAVE, and all Modals.

EXAMPLES:
"We are not (aren't) afraid."
"Fred is not (isn't) sleeping."
"James has not (hasn't) got any money."
"I have not (haven't) seen that film."
"You cannot (can't) come in here."
"You must not (mustn't) believe her."
"Louis should not (shouldn't) be late."
"Jack will not (won't) help us."

The auxiliary DO + NOT (DOES + NOT for 3rd Person Singular) is used to negate
Simple Present Tense verbs.

EXAMPLES:
"I do not (don't) believe you."
"Pat does not (doesn't) live here."

The auxiliary DID + NOT is used to negate Simple Past verbs.

EXAMPLES:
"Geoff did not (didn't) enjoy the play."
"Peter did not (didn't) drive home."
Verbs can also be negated by using the adverbs EVER, HARDLY EVER ( = ALMOST
NEVER), and NEITHER... NOR. These adverbs are normally placed immediately
before the main verb.
EXAMPLES:
"I never drink alcohol."
"John has never seen that picture."
"Mary has hardly ever scolded the child."
"Fred hardly ever smokes cigars."
"I neither like nor understand his jokes."
"Tom neither drives a car nor rides a bicycle."

Notice that when we use NEITHER...NOR we do not have to repeat the subject
before the second verb.
When the verb has three or more elements (e.g., SHOULD HAVE BEEN DONE or
MAY HAVE BEEN DOING), the negative adverb is placed between the two first
elements.

EXAMPLES:
"They should never have released that film."
"He may not have been working for long."

In most cases we can emphasize the negation of a verb by adding AT ALL to the
end of the sentence.

EXAMPLES:
"I don't like fish at all."
"We couldn't understand him at all."
In very formal English, NEVER and HARDLY EVER can be placed at the beginning of
the sentence for extra emphasis. In this case the verb takes the interrogative form
(including inversion).

EXAMPLES:
"Never will I enter this house again!"
"Never have I seen such an extraordinary painting!"
OBJECTS OF NEGATIVE VERBS

USE:
Since two negative expressions in the same sentence give that sentence a positive
meaning, we do not normally use a negative quantifier (NO, NONE OF, etc.) with
the object of a negative verb (I DON'T LIKE, etc.), or with the object of a verb with
a negative subject (NOBODY LIKES, etc.). In this case we normally use ANY.

EXAMPLES:
"We didn't buy any bread."
"Janet couldn't see any clouds."
"Nobody gave me any money."
We use the pronouns ANYBODY, ANYONE, and ANYTHING in the same way.

EXAMPLES:
"Paula won't speak to anybody."
"He didn't like anyone in the school."
"Nobody sent Fred anything."
charge
noun


an official claim brought, stating that someone has committed a crime (also a verb)

They say that if he pays for the damage he caused, they will not bring charges against him.

desperate situation
expression


a situation which is almost beyond hope

I know you're in a desperate situation, but shoplifting is not the answer.

detain
verb


keep someone waiting; delay someone

The police detained the youth for driving without a driver's license.

escape
verb


to break free, to get away from a place where you are a prisoner

The guards caught the prisoner before he could escape from prison.

in disguise
expression


dressed in a way that prevents you from being recognized

The thief was very hard to catch, because he was always in disguise.

involved in
adjective


took part in

Do you think she was involved in the museum robbery?

lawsuit
noun


case brought before a court of law, disagreement between two parties which is brought
before a court of law

A lawsuit was brought against the company, because an inventor claimed that the company
stole his invention.

live up to expectations
expression


do as well as people expect you to do

I'm sorry if I haven't been living up to your expectations, but I'm doing the best I can.

lose someone's trail


idiom

no longer know where someone is, and be unable to find him or her

The police were chasing the criminal but lost his trail when he turned into an alleyway.

on someone's trail
idiom


following someone, chasing someone

Don't worry - I'm on his trail!

prisoner
noun


someone who has been captured or is in prison

The prisoner was released early from prison because of good behavior.

protection
noun


act of protecting, or keeping someone safe

Because the journalist kept receiving death threats, the police provided her with 24-hour
protection.

rather see someone dead


expression



prefer to see someone die than allow something to happen

I'd rather see him dead than have him marry that woman.

sneak up on
verb


to approach someone quietly, so he or she doesn't notice

Don't ever sneak up on me like that - I thought you were going to mug me!

take my word for it


expression


believe me, trust me

analyze
verb


to study something in detail

I wish you wouldn't analyze everything I say!

anticipate
verb



expect, to eagerly wait for something

I never would have anticipated that I could be so happy.

charades
noun


game in which people have to guess a word or phrase based on actions of a player who
may not speak

I used to like to play charades, but now I think it's childish.

conscience
noun


knowledge of right and wrong, feeling that lets you know if what you're doing is right or
wrong

I was tempted to cheat on the test, but my conscience told me not to.

fulfill your potential


expression


accomplish all that you can

Going to college will help you be able to fulfill your potential.

gullible
adjective


when someone believes everything that he or she hears, and is therefore, easily fooled
You have to stop being so gullible, or people will take advantage of you.

instinct
noun


a strong feeling you have that something is true although you can't explain why, natural
ability to know something

My instinct tells me that we shouldn't trust this guy.

intuition
noun


power of knowing or understanding something quickly through feelings, rather than


conscious reasoning

My intuition tells me that he's the man who stole my wallet.

outrageous
adjective


crazy

You're going to think this is outrageous, but I'm going to quit my job and join a band.

procrastinate
verb


postpone, put off doing something until a later date, delay doing something until a later
time often in attempt to avoid doing it
If you procrastinate, you'll never finish your album.

pursue
verb


go after, try to obtain or accomplish

If you've always wanted to be a photographer, you should pursue your dream.

reflect on
phrasal verb


think about, consider

I think we should reflect on all the great times we had together.

role of
expression


function of, influence of

The role of the counselor is to set a good example for the children.

setback
noun


an issue that slows down or stops progress or makes things worse

Don't let this setback discourage you.


stubborn
adjective


not willing to change one's mind or way of thinking

You're too stubborn to listen to anything anyone else has to say.