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Testing & Commissioning

Report of
"66/33KV Olakha Sub-Station"
 

By:
Cheten Tshering
Olakha Sub-Station, SMD Semtokha.

Transmission Department
Bhutan Power Corporation Limited
Thimphu.
  BHUTAN POWER CORPORATION LIMITED
TRANSMISSION DEPARTMENT
SMD, SEMTOKHA
66/33 KV OLAKHA SUB-STATION
THIMPHU

Commencing of Construction : 13th June, 2008.


Testing : October 7-November 27, 2009.
Test Charge : November 29, 2009.
Commissioning of Sub Station : December 17, 2009.
Inauguration :
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express profound gratitude to the then Officiating General Manager Mr. Nima
Dorji for placing me at the up gradation works at 66/33 KV Olakha substation without which, I
wouldn’t have been able to come out with this report. This provided me an opportunity to learn
regarding the testing and commissioning of various switch gears, no sooner I graduated from the
college. The placement was very appropriate and at the right time.

I wish to extend sincere gratitude to Mr. Chandan Kamti Chatterjee, Testing Engineer, IPPL for
teaching me all the practical aspect of the 'Testing and Commissioning' works and also the
theoretical part of the same which are beyond the coverage in the books, which he explained
through his 22 years of field experience in 'Testing and Commissioning'. I am indebted for his
effort in revisiting my report and for making necessary correction and addition.

I would also like to offer sincere appreciation which is due to the staff members of SMD
Semtokha and Olakha Substation. Amongst the various persons who have helped me in this
endeavor, I would like to mention the following: Mr. Sonam Tobgay (Manager), Mr. Tandin
Gyeltshen, Mr. Sonam Norbu and Mr. LB Rai.

I gratefully acknowledge the extensive literature referred during the course of writing this report.
Last but not the least I would like to thank all those who have assisted me directly or indirectly in
coming out with this report.

Cheten Tshering


 
 

ABSTRACT
This primary goal of this report is to provide in a simple and more of conventional way of
conducting the testing of various switchgears and the system. This report 'Testing and
Commissioning Report of 66/33KV Olakha Sub Station' describes about the various testing that
are required to be done before commissioning of a substation. It contains in a lucid way, a
concise presentation of various technical data and parameters that were obtained while in field
testing. This report intends to serve as a history of Olakha substation in terms of its technical data
and could be used as future reference while testing however the data may vary with different
instruments used and the way it is conducted.

This report is also equipped with the practical and pictorial circuit diagram of the exact field
testing that was done while in the course of testing. Theories have been provided for every
experiment based on the practical hands on experience.

The materials presented in this report are intended to serve as a platform from where young and
enthusiastic technical people could enhance their learning and explore in the area of testing and
commissioning. However it could be used as reference by the one who already have the
experience.

I would like to solicit the readers' kind suggestions and feedback regarding the report so that I
could come up with better one in future.

ii 
 
List of Figures
Figure 1 Experimental set up for checking the winding resistance ................................................ 3
Figure 2 Experimental set up for CT Ratio check ........................................................................ 14
Figure 3 Experimental setup for ratio test of PT and CVT........................................................... 23
Figure 4 KPV Testing of Current Transformer ............................................................................ 29
Figure 5 Surge Monitor Testing ................................................................................................... 38
Figure 6 SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing SCOT M3K Timer ............................................................ 41
Figure 7 SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing with Circuit Breaker Operational Analyzer .................... 42
Figure 8 Measurement of Transformer's winding resistance ....................................................... 49
Figure 9 Various testing on Transformer ..................................................................................... 57
Figure 10 Conditioning of Transformer Oil ................................................................................. 67
Figure 11 Winding Resistance Check of 33kv CT & PT............................................................... 79
Figure 12 Ratio Check of 33kv CT ............................................................................................... 80
Figure 13 High POT Test (CABLE HV TEST) ............................................................................. 93
Figure 14 Inverse-Time, Very-Inverse Time and Extremely-Inverse Time characteristics. ....... 100
Figure 15 Testing of IDMT Relays ............................................................................................. 101
Figure 16 System Stability Testing ............................................................................................. 114

iii 
 
Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................... i

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... ii

List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ iii

Checking the Winding Resistance of CT, PT & CVT ................................................................ 1

CT Ratio Check ......................................................................................................................... 13

Ratio Test of CVT and PT......................................................................................................... 22

Knee Point Voltage Test (KPV Test) of Current Transformer ................................................. 27

Surge Monitor Testing .............................................................................................................. 38

SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing...................................................................................................... 40

Transformer Winding Resistance .............................................................................................. 48

Transformer Testing .................................................................................................................. 54

Transformer Oil Testing ............................................................................................................ 65

Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of 33kv CT & PT .......................................................... 78

High Pot Test (Cable HV Test) ................................................................................................. 92

Relay Testing (Over Current Protection) ................................................................................ 100

Stability Testing Report .......................................................................................................... 113

Reference .................................................................................................................................... 124

iv 
 
Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

Checking the Winding Resistance of CT, PT & CVT 
Bus PT#1 : PT on Tie Line Side
Bus PT#2 : PT on Jemina Line Side
CVT#1 : CVT on Tie Line Side
CVT#2 : CVT on Jemina Line Side
CT#1 : CT on Tie Line Side
CT#2 : CT on Transformer I Side
CT#3 : CT on Bus Coupler Side
CT#4 : CT on Jemina Line Side
CT#5 : CT on Transformer II Side

Aim :

1. To check the Secondary Winding Resistance.


2. Insulation Resistance (IR) checks of primary-earth and secondary-secondary
winding by using Megger (2.5KV-5KV).
3. Secondary insulation resistance value check of secondary-earth and secondary-
secondary terminals.

Objectives :
1. To check the resistance of secondary winding (CT, PT and CVT) and compare
with that of name plate rating.
2. To check if there is any short circuit or leakage to ground from primary winding.
To check if there is any short circuit between primary and secondary windings.
3. To check if there is any leakage or short circuit between the secondary winding
and the earth. To check if there is any short circuit between the secondary
windings.

Instruments used :

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


2.5KV-5KV, 0-10000Mohms, Waco,
1 Megger 1
Type 485/08-09, Sl. no. 933090
1KV, 0-200Mohms, Waco,
2 Megger 1
Sl. no. 91611
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
3 Multimeter 1
Motwane
4 Connecting wires --------------------------------------------- APR

NB: Megger uses Ohm's law V=IR. It gives DC voltage and the current which flows through the
winding resistance. The reading shown on the Megger is V/I.

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

Test applied to;


PT Core 1, Core 2 and Core 3 of PT

Yph  Bph
Rph 

Earth Link
Secondary Winding Terminals
A (Primary)
N

Circuit diagram 1a  1n 2a 2n 3a 3n

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

Experimental Set up :

Multimeter
Earth
(Ohm meter)

Pry-Earth Winding Resistance

Secondary Winding Resistance Check


IR Value check (Meggering)

Earth/Secondary or Secondary-Earth/ Secondary-secondary

Figure 1 Experimental set up for checking the winding resistance

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

Procedure :

1. Secondary Winding Resistance


a. Remove the earth terminal from three phases of PT from the lower side of the
box. Make sure there is no connection from the PT to earth.
b. Use the Multi meter as ohmmeter and measure the winding resistance of the
respective secondary windings and of respective phases.
c. Tabulate the reading and compare with the standard/manufacturer value.
2. Insulation resistances check (Meggering).
a. Connect the Megger terminal to primary winding and earth terminal. Apply 5KV
by Meggering and note down the readings as shown by Megger.

NB: Since primary winding is on HV (66KV) side we need to apply high voltage i.e. 5 KV.

b. Keeping one of the Megger terminals connected to the primary, connect the other
terminal to the various secondary winding one by one. Apply 5KV by Meggering
and note down the subsequent readings.
3. Secondary insulation resistances check (Meggering).
a. Use lower rating Megger (1KV) for testing. This is because output voltage from
the secondary windings is 110V, so we cannot apply very high voltage, otherwise
the windings will get burned.
b. Connect the Megger to secondary 1- earth terminal, followed by secondary 2-
earth and secondary 3-earth terminals respectively. Apply 1 KV by Meggering
and note down the subsequent readings.

Observations :

• If there is any short circuit between the windings or earth, then the Megger will show
zero value.
• Else Megger will show some deflections indicating the insulation resistance value.
• Megger gives DC output

   

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

Results :
Bus PT#1, Tie Line PT (Incomer #1)
Date:14 /10/09, Wednesday, 3:45pm, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/7/08, Y-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/3/08, B-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/4/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal R-Phase (Ohm) Y-Phase (Ohm) B-Phase (Ohm)
1a-1n (1&2) 0.9 0.9 0.9
2a-2n (3&4) 0.9 0.9 0.9
3a-3n (5&6) 0.9 0.8 0.9
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Pry-Earth 3000 3000 3000
Pry-Sec1(1a) 5000 3000 5000
Pry-Sec2(2a) 5000 5000 5000
Pry-Sec3(3a) 5000 5000 5000
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Sec1-Earth 200 200 200
Sec2-Earth 200 200 200
Sec3-Earth 200 200 200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a) 200 200 200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a) 200 200 200
Sec3-Sec1 (3a-1a) 200 200 200
Bus PT#2, Jemina Line Bus PT (Incomer#2)
Date:13 /10/09, Tuesday, 5:30pm, Sunset.
R-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/5/08, Y-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/6/08, B-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/8/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal R-Phase (Ohm) Y-Phase (Ohm) B-Phase (Ohm)
1a-1n (1&2) 0.9 0.8 0.8
2a-2n (3&4) 0.9 0.8 0.9
3a-3n (5&6) 0.9 0.8 0.9
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Pry-Earth 5000 2500 3000
Pry-Sec1(1a) 4000 5000 5000
Pry-Sec2(2a) 4000 5000 4500
Pry-Sec3(3a) 5000 5000 4500
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Sec1-Earth 200 200 200
Sec2-Earth 200 200 200
Sec3-Earth 200 200 200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a) 200 200 200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a) 200 200 200
Sec3-Sec1 (3a-1a) 200 200 200
 

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

CVT#1, Tie Line (Incomer #1)


Date:9/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no.30309003, Y-Sl.no.30209002, B-Sl.no.30209003
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal R-Phase (Ohm) Y-Phase (Ohm) B-Phase (Ohm)
1a-1n (1&2) 1.1 0.7 0.7
2a-2n (3&4) 0.8 0.8 0.7
3a-3n (5&6) 0.8 0.8 0.8
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Pry-Earth 2000 3000 3000
Pry-Sec1(1a) 5000 3000 5000
Pry-Sec2(2a) 5000 3000 3000
Pry-Sec3(3a) 5000 3000 5000
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Sec1-Earth 200 200 200
Sec2-Earth 200 200 200
Sec3-Earth 200 200 200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a) 200 200 200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a) 200 200 200
Sec3-Sec1 (3a-1a) 200 200 200
CVT#2, Jemina Line (Incomer#2)
Date:10 /10/09, Saturday.
R-Sl.no.30309001, Y-Sl.no.30309002, B-Sl.no.30309004
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal R-Phase (Ohm) Y-Phase (Ohm) B-Phase (Ohm)
1a-1n (1&2) 0.8 0.8 0.8
2a-2n (3&4) 0.8 0.8 0.8
3a-3n (5&6) 0.8 0.8 0.7
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Pry-Earth 4000 4000 4000
Pry-Sec1(1a) 10000 10000 10000
Pry-Sec2(2a) 10000 10000 10000
Pry-Sec3(3a) 10000 10000 10000
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Sec1-Earth 200 200 200
Sec2-Earth 200 200 200
Sec3-Earth 200 200 200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a) 200 200 200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a) 200 200 200
Sec3-Sec1 (3a-1a) 200 200 200

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

CT#1, Tie Line (Incomer #1)


Date:9/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/5/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/12/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/10/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal R-Phase (Ohm) Y-Phase (Ohm) B-Phase (Ohm)
1S1-1S2 3.6 3.6 3.6
1S1-1S3 7.0 6.8 6.8
2S1-2S2 3.1 3.0 3.1
2S1-2S3 5.8 5.6 5.6
3S1-3S2 2.2 2.3 2.1
3S1-3S3 6.1 4.9 6.2
4S1-4S2 2.4 2.2 2.2
4S1-4S3 6.0 5.2 6.2
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Pry-Earth 2000 1500 2000
Pry-Sec1 (1a) 2000 3000 5000
Pry-Sec2 (2a) 2000 3000 3000
Pry-Sec3 (3a) 2000 5000 5000
Pry-Sec4 (4a) 2000 5000 5000
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Sec1-Earth 50 200 200
Sec2-Earth 50 200 200
Sec3-Earth 50 200 200
Sec4-Earth 50 200 200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a) 50 200 200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a) 50 200 200
Sec3-Sec4 (3a-4a) 50 200 200
Sec4-Sec1 (4a-1a) 50 200 200

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

CT#2, Transformer#1 Side


Date:10/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/15/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/9/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/1/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal R-Phase (Ohm) Y-Phase (Ohm) B-Phase (Ohm)
1S1-1S2 3.6 3.6 3.6
1S1-1S3 7.1 7.1 7.0
2S1-2S2 3.1 3.1 3.1
2S1-2S3 5.8 5.9 5.8
3S1-3S2 2.3 2.2 2.3
3S1-3S3 5.2 5.1 5.1
4S1-4S2 2.3 2.3 2.4
4S1-4S3 5.3 5.2 5.3
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Pry-Earth 4000 4000 4000
Pry-Sec1 (1a) 4000 4000 4000
Pry-Sec2 (2a) 4000 4000 4000
Pry-Sec3 (3a) 4000 4000 4000
Pry-Sec4 (4a) 4000 4000 4000
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Sec1-Earth 200 200 200
Sec2-Earth 200 200 200
Sec3-Earth 200 200 200
Sec4-Earth 200 200 200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a) 200 200 200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a) 200 200 200
Sec3-Sec4 (3a-4a) 200 200 200
Sec4-Sec1 (4a-1a) 200 200 200

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

CT#3, Bus Coupler Side


Date:10/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/7/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/8/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/6/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal R-Phase (Ohm) Y-Phase (Ohm) B-Phase (Ohm)
1S1-1S2 3.6 3.5 3.4
1S1-1S3 6.5 6.3 5.9
2S1-2S2 3.2 3.2 3.2
2S1-2S3 5.9 6.1 6.1
3S1-3S2 2.4 2.4 2.4
3S1-3S3 6.2 6.0 6.0
4S1-4S2 2.3 2.4 2.4
4S1-4S3 6.0 6.1 6.1
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Pry-Earth 4000 3000 3000
Pry-Sec1 (1a) 3000 3000 3000
Pry-Sec2 (2a) 5000 3000 3000
Pry-Sec3 (3a) 5000 3000 3000
Pry-Sec4 (4a) 5000 3000 3000
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Sec1-Earth 200 200 200
Sec2-Earth 200 200 200
Sec3-Earth 200 200 200
Sec4-Earth 200 200 200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a) 200 200 200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a) 200 200 200
Sec3-Sec4 (3a-4a) 200 200 200
Sec4-Sec1 (4a-1a) 200 200 200

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

CT#4, Jemina Line Side


Date:10/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/14/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/2/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/16/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal R-Phase (Ohm) Y-Phase (Ohm) B-Phase (Ohm)
1S1-1S2 2.2 2.4 2.4
1S1-1S3 5.3 5.1 5.3
2S1-2S2 2.3 2.3 2.2
2S1-2S3 5.0 5.0 5.0
3S1-3S2 2.5 2.5 2.2
3S1-3S3 5.1 5.1 5.1
4S1-4S2 2.2 2.4 2.2
4S1-4S3 5.1 5.0 5.1
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Pry-Earth 4000 4000 4000
Pry-Sec1 (1a) 4000 4000 4000
Pry-Sec2 (2a) 4000 4000 4000
Pry-Sec3 (3a) 4000 4000 4000
Pry-Sec4 (4a) 4000 4000 4000
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Sec1-Earth 200 200 200
Sec2-Earth 200 200 200
Sec3-Earth 200 200 200
Sec4-Earth 200 200 200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a) 200 200 200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a) 200 200 200
Sec3-Sec4 (3a-4a) 200 200 200
Sec4-Sec1 (4a-1a) 200 200 200

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

CT#5, Transformer#2 Side


Date:10/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/3/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/18/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/4/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal R-Phase (Ohm) Y-Phase (Ohm) B-Phase (Ohm)
1S1-1S2 1.9 2.3 2.1
1S1-1S3 4.3 4.1 4.0
2S1-2S2 1.9 2.2 2.0
2S1-2S3 4.8 4.3 4.2
3S1-3S2 2.1 2.1 2.3
3S1-3S3 4.3 4.3 4.1
4S1-4S2 2.0 2.1 2.1
4S1-4S3 4.1 4.1 4.0
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Pry-Earth 5000 5000 5000
Pry-Sec1 (1a) 5000 5000 5000
Pry-Sec2 (2a) 5000 5000 5000
Pry-Sec3 (3a) 5000 5000 5000
Pry-Sec4 (4a) 5000 5000 5000
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal R-Phase (M-Ohm) Y-Phase (M-Ohm) B-Phase (M-Ohm)
Sec1-Earth 200 200 200
Sec2-Earth 200 200 200
Sec3-Earth 200 200 200
Sec4-Earth 200 200 200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a) 200 200 200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a) 200 200 200
Sec3-Sec4 (3a-4a) 200 200 200
Sec4-Sec1 (4a-1a) 200 200 200

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Winding Resistance Check of CT, PT & CVT 
 

Precaution :

• Safety of the experimenter, the first preference.


• Never start Meggering if both the terminals is being caught by performer
• Always discharge by connecting the terminal to earth so that the experimenter is free of
shock.

Conclusion :

From this test it is proved that there isn't any leakage or short circuit connection from primary to
earth through the casing. Neither is the secondary windings touching the casing or with each
other nor the primary winding is in contact with the secondary windings. The Potential
transformer is perfectly right.

   

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 12 


 
CT Ratio Check 

CT Ratio Check 
CT#1 : CT on Tie line Side
CT#2 : CT on Transformer I Side
CT#3 : CT on Bus Coupler Side
CT#4 : CT on Jemina Line Side
CT#5 : CT on Transformer II Side

Aim : Ratio Test on various Current Transformers.

Objective :

™ To check the ratio of primary to secondary current under loaded condition and compare
with the name plate rating.

Theory :

Current transformers (CTs) of all sizes and types find their way into substations to provide the
current replicas for metering, controls, and protective relaying. CT performance is characterized
by ratio correction factor (turns ratio error), saturation voltage, phase angle error, and rated
burden. Bushing CTs are installed in power equipment. They are toroidal, having a single
primary turn (the power conductor), which passes through their center. The current
transformation ratio results from the number of turns wound on the core to make up the
secondary. More than one ratio is often provided by tapping the secondary winding at multiple
turn's ratios. The core cross-sectional area, diameter, and magnetic properties determine the CT's
performance. Metering CTs are designed with core cross-sections chosen to minimize exciting
current effects and are allowed to saturate at fault currents. Larger cores are provided for
protection CTs where high current saturation must be avoided for the CT to faithfully reproduce
high currents for fault sensing. The exciting current of the larger core at low load is not
considered important for protection.

Core#1 : Metering.
Core#2 : Protection (Over Current,
Earth fault, Differential).
Core#3 : Bus bar Protection.
Core#4 : Bus Bar Protection Zone

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CT Ratio Check 

Instruments used:

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


1 Auto Transformer 0-260V, 50Hz 1
2 Loading Transformer 230V,50Hz-7.5KVA, 1V/T 1
3 Multimeter AC/DC, Analog, Multi-range 1
4 Clamp leaker DC-10A, Motwane 1
5 Clamp meter Kyoritsu, DCM, Model 2002 1
6 Connecting wires ----------------------------------------- APR
7 1-Ф Supply 230V, 50Hz 1

Circuit diagram:
Clamp meter

Current Transformer
Auto
Transformer
1-Ф Supply

Loading
Transformer

Junction Box

Figure 2 Experimental set up for CT Ratio check


Clamp Leaker
NB: Never open the secondary terminal of CT when primary is connected.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 14 


 
CT Ratio Check 

Procedure :

1. Set up the experiment as shown in the circuit diagram.


2. Make the connections in the junction box so as to get the CT ratio 300/1A. Connect the
first terminal and the middle one so that we get the ratio 300/1A i.e. 1S1-1S2, 2S1-2S2,
etc. Never leave any CT secondary open.
3. Load the primary with certain percentage of full load current. Increase the load current in
steps of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the rated primary current. Observe it on the clamp
meter held on the primary side.
4. With the help of clamp leaker measure the current on the secondary side, on each core
and note down the readings.
5. Put off the power supply and then make the connections in junction box so as to get
600/1A CT ratio. Connect first terminal and the last terminal i.e. 1S1-1S3, 2S1-2S3, etc.
6. Load the primary with 12.5%, 25%, 37.5% and 50% of the rated primary current and
check the values on the clamp meter.
7. With the help of clamp leaker, measure the current in each core i.e. secondary side. For
simplicity note down the readings for half core first and then go for full tap readings.
8. Repeat step 1-7 for other two phases also.

Precaution :

i. Safety the first priority.


ii. Never open the secondary terminal of the Current Transformer while it is on loaded
condition.
iii. Make the connections tight.
iv. To avoid over heating of the primary connections, give 100% primary input for the
lowest tap and 50% primary input for the full tap.

Results :

The results are being tabulated for each current transformer. The actual ratio given on the
name plate is 300-600/1A. The ratio replicates the name plate rating when the applied
load current approaches the name plate rating. The errors are more when 12.5% and 25%
of the total load current is applied. However as we apply more and more towards the
actual load value, the ratio is almost near the actual ratio. The accuracy of CT is
expressed in terms of its ratio from its true ratio. This is called ratio error and is expressed
as;
%   100
Is=Secondary current, Ip=Primary current

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 15 


 
CT Ratio Check 

1. CT#1, Tie Line Side (Incomer #1)


CT# 1, 1S1-1S2, 300/1A
Date: 22/10/09, Thursday, 4:40pm, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/5/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/12/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/10/08
% of Rated Applied Secondary Current (A)
Primary Primary R-phase Y-phase B-phase
Current Current
(A) (A) (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.22 340.91 13.64%
50% 150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.48 312.50 4.17% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 1, 1S1-1S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.10 750.00 25.00%
25.0% 150 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.50 600.00 0.00% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 1, 2S1-2S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.48 312.50 4.17% 0.48 312.50 4.17%
75% 225 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.73 308.22 2.74% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 0.99 303.03 1.01% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 1, 2S1-2S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.10 750.00 25.00% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.10 750.00 25.00%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86 7.14% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00 4.17% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 1, 3S1-3S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.48 312.50 4.17%
75% 225 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.73 308.22 2.74% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 0.98 306.12 2.04% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 1, 3S1-3S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.10 750.00 25.00% 0.10 750.00 25.00% 0.10 750.00 25.00%
25.0% 150 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.35 642.86 7.14% 0.35 642.86 7.14% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00 4.17% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 1, 4S1-4S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.48 312.50 4.17% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.73 308.22 2.74% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 0.98 306.12 2.04% 0.99 303.03 1.01%
CT# 1, 4S1-4S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.10 750.00 25.00% 0.10 750.00 25.00%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86 7.14% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00 4.17% 0.48 625.00 4.17%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 16 


 
CT Ratio Check 

2. CT#2, Transformer#1 Side (Incomer #1)


CT# 2, 1S1-1S2, 300/1A
Date: 22/10/09, Thursday, 4:55pm, Sunset.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/15/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/9/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/1/08
% of Rated Applied Secondary Current (A)
Primary Primary R-phase Y-phase B-phase
Current Current
(A) (A) (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.25 300.00 0.00% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00%
75% 225 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 2, 1S1-1S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.50 600.00 0.00% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 2, 2S1-2S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.25 300.00 0.00% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00%
75% 225 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 2, 2S1-2S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.24 625.00 4.17%
37.5% 225 0.35 642.86 7.14% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.48 625.00 4.17% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 2, 3S1-3S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.25 300.00 0.00% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.51 294.12 -1.96%
75% 225 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.01 297.03 -0.99%
CT# 2, 3S1-3S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.24 625.00 4.17%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 2, 4S1-4S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00%
75% 225 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.01 297.03 -0.99%
CT# 2, 4S1-4S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.24 625.00 4.17%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 17 


 
CT Ratio Check 

3. CT#3, Bus Coupler Side


CT# 3, 1S1-1S2, 300/1A
Date: 23/10/09, Friday, 9:50am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/7/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/8/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/6/08
% of Rated Applied Secondary Current (A)
Primary Primary R-phase Y-phase B-phase
Current Current
(A) (A) (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error
25% 75 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00% 0.99 303.03 1.01%
CT# 3, 1S1-1S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.10 750.00 25.00%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86 7.14%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00 4.17%
CT# 3, 2S1-2S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.48 312.50 4.17% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 0.99 303.03 1.01% 1.00 300.00 0.00% 0.99 303.03 1.01%
CT# 3, 2S1-2S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.22 681.82 13.64% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86 7.14%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00 4.17%
CT# 3, 3S1-3S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 3, 3S1-3S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.10 750.00 25.00%
25.0% 150 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86 7.14%
50.0% 300 0.50 600.00 0.00% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00 4.17%
CT# 3, 4S1-4S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.73 308.22 2.74% 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 0.99 303.03 1.01% 1.00 300.00 0.00% 0.99 303.03 1.01%
CT# 3, 4S1-4S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.10 750.00 25.00%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.35 642.86 7.14% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86 7.14%
50.0% 300 0.48 625.00 4.17% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00 4.17%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 18 


 
CT Ratio Check 

4. CT#4, Jemina Line Side (Incomer#2)


CT# 4, 1S1-1S2, 300/1A
Date: 22/10/09, Thursday, 6:00pm, Dark.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/14/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/2/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/16/08
% of Rated Applied Secondary Current (A)
Primary Primary R-phase Y-phase B-phase
Current Current
(A) (A) (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.76 296.05 -1.32% 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 1.01 297.03 -0.99% 1.00 300.00 0.00% 0.99 303.03 1.01%
CT# 4, 1S1-1S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86 7.14% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.50 600.00 0.00% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 4, 2S1-2S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00%
75% 225 0.76 296.05 -1.32% 0.76 296.05 -1.32% 0.75 300.00 0.00%
100% 300 1.01 297.03 -0.99% 1.02 294.12 -1.96% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 4, 2S1-2S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.10 750.00 25.00% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.24 625.00 4.17%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.50 600.00 0.00% 0.50 600.00 0.00% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 4, 3S1-3S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00%
75% 225 0.76 296.05 -1.32% 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00%
100% 300 1.01 297.03 -0.99% 1.01 297.03 -0.99% 1.01 297.03 -0.99%
CT# 4, 3S1-3S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86 7.14%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.50 600.00 0.00% 0.50 600.00 0.00%
CT# 4, 4S1-4S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
50% 150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00%
75% 225 0.76 296.05 -1.32% 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00 0.00%
100% 300 1.01 297.03 -0.99% 1.01 297.03 -0.99% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 4, 4S1-4S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.25 600.00 0.00% 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.24 625.00 4.17%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86 7.14%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.50 600.00 0.00% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 19 


 
CT Ratio Check 

5. CT#5, Transformer#2 Side (Incomer#2)


CT# 5, 1S1-1S2, 300/1A
Date: 23/10/09, Friday, 10:20am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/3/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/18/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/4/08
% of Rated Applied Secondary Current (A)
Primary Primary R-phase Y-phase B-phase
Current Current
(A) (A) (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error
25% 75 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.75 300.00 0.00% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 1.00 300.00 0.00% 1.01 297.03 -0.99% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 5, 1S1-1S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.10 750.00 25.00%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86 7.14%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 5, 2S1-2S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.48 312.50 4.17% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 0.99 303.03 1.01% 0.99 303.03 1.01% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 5, 2S1-2S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.10 750.00 25.00% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.35 642.86 7.14% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00 4.17% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 5, 3S1-3S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.76 296.05 -1.32% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 0.99 303.03 1.01% 0.99 303.03 1.01% 0.99 303.03 1.01%
CT# 5, 3S1-3S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.10 750.00 25.00% 0.10 750.00 25.00% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.48 625.00 4.17% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24 2.04%
CT# 5, 4S1-4S2, 300/1A
25% 75 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
50% 150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
75% 225 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.74 304.05 1.35% 0.74 304.05 1.35%
100% 300 0.99 303.03 1.01% 0.98 306.12 2.04% 1.00 300.00 0.00%
CT# 5, 4S1-4S3, 600/1A
12.5% 75 0.10 750.00 25.00% 0.11 681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82 13.64%
25.0% 150 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17 8.70%
37.5% 225 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00 4.17%
50.0% 300 0.48 625.00 4.17% 0.49 612.24 2.04% 0.50 600.00 0.00%
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 20 


 
CT Ratio Check 

Conclusion :

From this experiment, it is proved that the name plate ratio replicates the field test report.
However the name plate ratio matches the field test ratio at 100% of the actual load current for
lowest tap. For the full tap 50% of the actual load current was provided. The ratio came close to
name plate rating at the 50% of the full load current. From this I conclude had we applied the full
load current we will be getting exact replicate of the name plate rating. We couldn't apply full
load current on 600/1A tap as the primary wire was getting heated up. More or less the obtained
results are correct.

The ratio error of a CT depends on its exciting current. When the primary current increases, the
CT tries to produce corresponding secondary current, and this needs a greater secondary emf,
core flux density and exciting current. A stage comes when any further increase in primary
current is almost wholly absorbed in an increased exciting current and thereby the secondary
current hardly increases at all. At this stage CT becomes saturated. Thus the ratio error depends
on saturation.

An accuracy of 2-3% of the CT is desirable for distance and differential relays, where as for
many other relays, a higher percentage can be tolerated. When the primary current increases, at a
certain value the core commences to saturate and the error increases. The value of current at
which the error reaches a specified error limit is known as its 'Accuracy Limit Primary Current'
or saturation current. The ratio of accuracy limit primary current and the rated primary current is
known as rated accuracy limit factor (ALF) or saturation factor, the standard value of which are
5,10,15,20 & 30.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 21 


 
Ratio Test of CVT & PT 
 

Ratio Test of CVT and PT 
CVT#1 : Capacitive Voltage Transformer (Tie Line side)
CVT#2 : Capacitive Voltage Transformer (Jemina side)
PT#1 : Potential Transformer of Bus (Transformer#1 side)
PT#2 : Potential Transformer of Bus (Transformer#2 side)

Aim :

¾ To find the ratio of primary voltage to the subsequent secondary voltage and then
compare with the given ratio in the name plate rating.

Objective :

ƒ To measure the voltage of three cores of each phase on the secondary winding and check
if the ratio is alright upon doubling the applied voltage on primary side.

Instrument used

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


1 Auto Transformer 0-260V, 50Hz 1
2 Transformer 230V-3000V, 50Hz 1
3 Multimeter AC/DC, Analog, Multi-range 1
4 Multimeter DM3540A (Motwane) 1
5 Connecting wires --------------------------------------------- APR
6 1-Ф Supply 230V, 50Hz 1

Theory : Potential transformers are used to reduce the system voltage level low enough to
suit the ratings of protective relays. The voltage rating of protective relay is usually 110V. The %
error is given by;

%   100

Where K= Nominal voltage ratio, Vs= Secondary voltage and Vp=Primary voltage.

The accuracy of PTs used for meters and instruments is only important at normal system voltage
where as PTs used for protection requires errors to be limited over a wide range of voltages
under faulty conditions. This may be about 5-150% of nominal voltage.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 22 


 
Ratio Test of CVT & PT 
 

Test applied to / experimental set up;

Circuit diagram

Capacitive Voltage Transformer Secondary Voltage Measurement


1‐Ф, 230V, 50Hz 

AVΩ Meter
Supply 

Variac 0-260V, 50Hz


Transformer
230-3000V, 50Hz

Figure 3 Experimental setup for ratio test of PT and CVT

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 23 


 
Ratio Test of CVT & PT 
 

Procedure:

1. Set up the connection as shown below.


2. Connect one wire from HV side of transformer to the top of CVT.
3. Connect the other to the earth.
4. Adjust the voltage from the auto transformer so that 1KV is available on the secondary
side of transformer which is shown on the voltmeter. (In fact we are applying 1KV to the
primary winding of CVT).
5. Connect a multimeter (Voltmeter) to the core 1, core 2 and core 3 of each phase of CVT
upon the application of 1KV to the primary and note down the reading.
6. Repeat the same for other two phases.
7. Repeat step 4 so that we get 2KV on the secondary side of the transformer and follow
step 5 and step 6.

Results:

CVT#1, Tie Line Side


Date:12/10/09, Monday, 11:00am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no.30309003, Y-Sl.no.30209002, B-Sl.no. 30209003
Secondary (V)
R-Phase Y-Phase B-Phase
Primary (V) Core1 Core2 Core3 Core1 Core2 Core 3 Core1 Core2 Core 3
1000V 1.640 1.648 1.648 1.680 1.640 1.648 1.680 1.650 1.640
Ratio 610 607 607 595 610 607 595 606 610
% Error 1.7% 1.17% 1.17% -0.83% 1.7% 1.17% -0.83% 1.0% 1.7%
2000V 3.27 3.30 3.40 3.27 3.13 3.30 3.27 3.13 3.13
Ratio 612 606 588 612 639 606 612 639 639
% Error 2.0% 1.0% -2.0% 2.0% 6.5% 1.0% 2.0% 6.5% 6.5%

CVT#2, Jemina Line


Date:13/10/09, Tuesday, 10:30am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no.30309001, Y-Sl.no.30309002, B-Sl.no. 30309004
Secondary (V)
R-Phase Y-Phase B-Phase
Primary (V) Core1 Core2 Core3 Core1 Core2 Core 3 Core1 Core2 Core 3
1000V 1.647 1.647 1.647 1.641 1.642 1.641 1.611 1.631 1.631
Ratio 607 607 607 609 609 609 620 613 613
% Error 1.17% 1.17% 1.17% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 3.33% 2.17% 2.17%
2000V 3.256 3.255 3.258 3.216 3.216 3.218 3.194 3.191 3.194
Ratio 614 614 613 622 622 622 626 626 626
% Error 2.33% 2.33% 2.17% 3.67% 3.67% 3.67% 4.33% 4.33% 4.33%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 24 


 
Ratio Test of CVT & PT 
 

Bus PT#1 (Transformer#1 side)


Date:19/10/09, Monday, 11:35am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/7/08, Y-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/3/08, B-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/4/08
Secondary (V)
R-Phase Y-Phase B-Phase
Primary (V) Core1 Core2 Core3 Core1 Core2 Core 3 Core1 Core2 Core 3
1000V 1.709 1.706 1.706 1.670 1.670 1.724 1.701 1.682 1.681
Ratio 585 586 586 599 599 580 588 595 595
% Error -2.5% -2.33% -2.33% -0.17% -0.17% -3.33% -2.0% -0.83% -0.83%
2000V 3.29 3.29 3.29 3.25 3.26 3.26 3.30 3.30 3.30
Ratio 608 608 609 615 614 614 606 606 606
% Error 1.3% 1.3% 1.5% 2.5% 2.33% 2.33% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0%

Bus PT#2 (Transformer#2 side)


Date:19/10/09, Monday, 11:35am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/5/08, Y-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/6/08, B-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/8/08
Secondary (V)
R-Phase Y-Phase B-Phase
Primary (V) Core1 Core2 Core3 Core1 Core2 Core 3 Core1 Core2 Core 3
1000V 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.78 1.78 1.78 1.70 1.74 1.74
Ratio 571 571 571 562 562 562 588 575 575
% Error -4.83% -4.83% -4.83% 6.3% 6.3% 6.3% 2.0% 4.17% 4.17%
2000V 3.30 3.31 3.31 3.37 3.37 3.37 3.38 3.38 3.38
Ratio 606 604 604 594 594 594 592 592 592
% Error 1.0% 0.67% 0.67% -1.0% -1.0% -1.0% -1.3% -1.3% -1.3%

Observation:

1. From the result obtained the ratio of primary to secondary voltage is within the range
607-626 where as the actual ratio are 600. The experimented ratio is slightly greater than
the actual value.
66000/√3
  600
110/√3
There is slight error which may be because of the inaccuracy of voltage applied from the
transformer. However the results are fairly correct.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 25 


 
Ratio Test of CVT & PT 
 

Precaution:

• Safety of the experimenter, the first preference.


• Always take the reading after it reaches a stable value.
• Always avoid parallax error while noting the reading.
• Always give proper connection to CVT and to earth.

Conclusion:

From this test it is seen that the ratio of primary to secondary voltage is fairly correct with
maximum of 6.5% error. For Lab test an error of ±5% is the accepted while for the field test an
error of ±15% is accepted. The error can be eliminated by using more accurate meter, and
applying the accurate voltage. Since the analog meter was used for noting the reading on the
primary side, may be exact voltage wasn’t applied, parallax error might have introduced in the
process. However the result doesn’t deviate much from the exact value thus the name plate rating
is ok.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 26 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

Knee Point Voltage Test (KPV Test) of Current Transformer 
CT #1 : Incoming line CT (Tie Line)
CT#2 : CT on Transformer I side
CT#3 : Bus Coupler CT
CT#4 : Incoming line #2 CT (Jemina Line)
CT#5 : CT on Transformer II Side

Aim : Knee Point Voltage Testing of Current Transformers.

Objective :

This test should confirm that at any case the saturation point shouldn’t lie before 100% of
KPV. It may occur at 110% or higher, doesn’t matter but saturation point shouldn't occur
before 100% of the KPV. If saturation point occurs before 100% of KPV then the relays
will operate before reaching its set value (100%) which is not desirable.
To find the saturation point of CT i.e. at what point of voltage it get saturated.
Compare the obtained saturation point with that of the name plate rating.

Theory :

Knee point voltage is the point on the graph obtained between voltage and current beyond which
the current rise is very sharp when voltage in increased slightly. When the applied voltage is
increased in steps the current also rises in certain step. When the knee point voltage is reached
then the current shoots up beyond its normal increasing step. Therefore in this test we see
whether the KPV given on the name plate is correct or not. If the saturation point is reached
before the actual KPV then the relays are going to trip before fault occurs. In fact the relays
should trip upon reaching KPV or later. Therefore for proper coordination and tripping or relays
KPV should be checked accurately. Since minimum KVP at lowest tap is provided for core 3 &4
of CT, so we test KPV for only these cores.

KPV 


66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 27 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

Instrument used:

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


1 Auto Transformer 0-260V, 50Hz 1
2 Transformer 230V-3000V, 50Hz 1
3 Multimeter AC/DC, Analog, Multi-range 1
4 Clamp leaker DC-10A, Motwane 1
5 Connecting wires --------------------------------------------- APR
6 1-Ф Supply 230V, 50Hz 1

Name plate rating

Procedure:

1. Set up the connection as shown below.


2. Apply certain percentage of Knee point Voltage to Core #3 and Core #4 and then note
down the readings as shown by clamp leaker.
3. Repeat the same step for other two phases.
4. Compare the readings.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 28 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

Test applied to/ experimental set up :

Current Transformer #1
Sl.No. 2373/1/5/08
Sl.No. 2373/1/12/08
Sl.No. 2373/1/10/08

Current Transformer #3
Sl.No. 2373/1/7/08
Sl.No. 2373/1/8/08
Sl.No. 2373/1/6/08

Clamp leaker

Junction box
1‐Ф, 230V, 50Hz 

AVΩ Meter
Supply 

Variac 0-260V, 50Hz Transformer


230-3000V, 50Hz

Figure 4 KPV Testing of Current Transformer

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 29 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

Technical terms:

Name plate rating : Minimum Knee Point Voltage at lowest Tap = 325V

There are two tapping in each core of CT. Therefore in this case lowest tap refers to the tapping
between one end and the middle point. So at full tapping the Knee Point Voltage will be the
double of the KPV of lowest tap.

P1 P2

Primary

1S1 1S2 1S3 2S1 2S2 2S3 3S1 3S2 3S3 4S1 4S2 4S3

Lowest Tap Full Tapping


(325V) (650V)

KPV for Core#3 and Core#4

Knee Point Voltage is available for only core #3 and core #4. This is because these cores are
specifically designed for protection class core. For protection class core, saturation of current is
very important and need to protect the equipment from over current. Whenever the current
reaches its saturation point, relay should trip off. Therefore these cores have Knee point Voltage,
before which saturation shouldn’t occur.

Accuracy rating for Core#1 and Core#2

However this is not the case with core#1 and core#2. These cores are specifically designed for
metering purposes, where accuracy is of much importance. If saturation point exists for these
cores then when the current increases beyond certain value, the meter will stop reading, in fact
the meter should record whatever the amount of current drawn. Therefore these cores are rated at
0.2 class of accuracy.

For half the winding of each core, the rated KPV is 325V therefore for full winding the rated
KPV is 650V. More the number of turns, greater will be the voltage and lesser will be the
current, thereby the ratings 325V, 60mA and 650V, 30mA.

If the saturation point is reached, CT will make humming sound and must be avoided.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 30 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

Results :

1. Incoming Tie line CT, CT#1

CT# 1, 3S1-3S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2


Date: 19/10/09, Monday, 3:30pm, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/5/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/12/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/10/08
% of KPV Applied Voltage (V) R-phase (mA) Y-phase (mA) B-phase (mA)
25% 81.25 7.31 8.22 7.79
50% 162.50 10.99 12.43 12.08
75% 243.75 16.31 20.34 19.45
100% 325.00 29.98 40.00 36.70
110% 357.50 45.90 71.00 67.80

CT# 1, 3S1-3S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2

25% 162.50 3.65 3.97 3.76


50% 325.00 5.55 6.31 5.91
75% 487.50 7.46 9.69 8.88
100% 650.00 11.93 18.55 15.39
110% 715.00 15.79 25.77 23.10

CT#1, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2

25% 81.25 7.54 8.25 8.34


50% 162.50 11.95 12.74 13.16
75% 243.75 17.14 19.55 20.42
100% 325.00 31.26 42.50 39.50
110% 357.50 53.90 70.30 72.60
For demonstration of saturation current, 400V was being applied to B-phase and the current
was observed to be 215mA. See the graph.

CT#1, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2

25% 162.50 3.79 4.06 4.33


50% 325.00 5.40 6.27 6.45
75% 487.50 8.00 8.83 8.70
100% 650.00 13.13 15.67 17.12
110% 715.00 18.33 24.03 24.59

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 31 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

2. CT Transformer 1 side, CT #2

CT# 2, 3S1-3S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2


Date: 19/10/09, Monday, 4:20, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/15/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/9/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/1/08
% of KPV Applied Voltage (V) R-phase (mA) Y-phase (mA) B-phase (mA)
25% 81.25 7.26 7.60 8.29
50% 162.50 11.36 12.43 13.22
75% 243.75 18.38 18.04 19.90
100% 325.00 35.00 31.84 35.5
110% 357.50 49.90 46.80 50.80

CT# 2, 3S1-3S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2

25% 162.50 3.73 3.91 3.89


50% 325.00 6.42 5.72 6.85
75% 487.50 8.73 8.40 8.72
100% 650.00 15.05 14.47 15.68
110% 715.00 22.05 20.11 22.23

CT#2, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2

25% 81.25 7.43 7.38 8.41


50% 162.50 11.29 11.01 13.96
75% 243.75 17.65 16.43 21.43
100% 325.00 29.39 26.27 39.50
110% 357.50 55.8 49.40 63.30

CT#2, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2

25% 162.50 3.85 3.77 4.20


50% 325.00 5.72 6.54 6.67
75% 487.50 8.88 8.31 10.35
100% 650.00 14.20 13.14 17.72
110% 715.00 20.06 19.46 22.87

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 32 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

3. CT on Bus Coupler, CT #3

CT# 3, 3S1-3S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2


Date: 19/10/09, Monday, 4:45pm, Sunset.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/7/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/8/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/6/08
% of KPV Applied Voltage (V) R-phase (mA) Y-phase (mA) B-phase (mA)
25% 81.25 7.29 7.09 7.24
50% 162.50 11.83 11.66 11.26
75% 243.75 17.84 17.21 17.14
100% 325.00 32.8 32.9 37.30
110% 357.50 46.2 58.6 54.30

CT# 3, 3S1-3S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2

25% 162.50 3.38 3.29 3.47


50% 325.00 5.53 5.37 5.36
75% 487.50 7.80 7.85 8.03
100% 650.00 13.65 13.53 14.42
110% 715.00 19.66 22.66 20.47

CT#3, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2

25% 81.25 7.84 7.53 8.09


50% 162.50 12.66 11.82 13.23
75% 243.75 19.88 18.50 19.64
100% 325.00 37.50 40.4 36.80
110% 357.50 60.00 64.40 59.60

CT#3, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2

25% 162.50 3.66 3.32 3.79


50% 325.00 5.82 5.44 6.10
75% 487.50 8.86 8.43 8.66
100% 650.00 16.11 15.76 16.73
110% 715.00 23.83 23.75 24.76

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 33 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

4. CT on Jemina Line CT #4

CT# 4, 3S1-3S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2


Date: 22/10/09, Thursday, 10:20am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/14/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/2/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/16/08
% of KPV Applied Voltage (V) R-phase (mA) Y-phase (mA) B-phase (mA)
25% 81.25 7.53 7.61 7.66
50% 162.50 11.73 12.03 12.20
75% 243.75 17.89 17.89 18.57
100% 325.00 36.3 34.4 33.3
110% 357.50 69.2 55.1 52.0

CT# 4, 3S1-3S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2

25% 162.50 3.25 3.39 3.43


50% 325.00 5.38 5.50 5.51
75% 487.50 8.22 8.26 8.23
100% 650.00 15.33 14.27 14.64
110% 715.00 22.20 19.20 20.25

CT#4, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2

25% 81.25 7.38 7.65 7.30


50% 162.50 11.65 11.88 11.17
75% 243.75 17.18 17.80 15.24
100% 325.00 35.7 37.60 28.35
110% 357.50 55.4 51.30 47.6

CT#4, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2

25% 162.50 3.47 3.49 3.29


50% 325.00 5.33 5.48 5.18
75% 487.50 7.91 8.17 7.43
100% 650.00 14.23 14.81 12.34
110% 715.00 20.36 20.98 17.01

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 34 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

5. CT on Transformer#2 side, CT#5

CT# 5, 3S1-3S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2


Date: 22/10/09, Thursday, 10:50am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/3/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/18/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/4/08
% of KPV Applied Voltage (V) R-phase (mA) Y-phase (mA) B-phase (mA)
25% 81.25 6.90 7.76 7.84
50% 162.50 10.92 11.90 11.48
75% 243.75 16.12 18.35 15.54
100% 325.00 29.52 36.5 28.31
110% 357.50 45.2 67.6 40.6

CT# 5, 3S1-3S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2

25% 162.50 3.29 3.59 3.50


50% 325.00 5.36 5.78 5.24
75% 487.50 7.90 8.93 7.64
100% 650.00 13.66 16.17 12.44
110% 715.00 18.49 23.70 16.45

CT#5, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2

25% 81.25 6.82 6.59 7.90


50% 162.50 10.70 10.39 11.55
75% 243.75 15.96 14.82 16.91
100% 325.00 28.41 25.06 31.20
110% 357.50 45.7 38.3 53.4

CT#5, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2

25% 162.50 3.23 3.20 3.44


50% 325.00 5.12 5.06 5.43
75% 487.50 8.03 7.32 7.85
100% 650.00 13.36 11.55 13.62
110% 715.00 18.02 15.27 19.44

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 35 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

Graphical Analysis for CT#1, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA, B-phase

KPV Curve Characteristic


450

400 400

350 357.5
325
300
Voltage (V)

250 243.75
200
KPV Curve
162.5
150

100
81.25
50

0
0 50 100 150 200 250

Current (mA)

CT#4, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2, R-Phase

KPV Curve Characterstics


800

700 715
650
600
Voltage (V)

500 487.5
400
325 KPV Curve
300

200
162.5
100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25

Current (mA)

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 36 


 
KPV Test of Current Transformer 
 

Precaution :

• Safety of experimenter and the teams the first priority.


• Always take the readings after it has settled to a particular value.
• Make sure that no heavy equipment like welding machines, are operating from the same
source from which testing is being done.
• Always note the name plate reading and then perform the experiment.

Conclusion :

From this experiment it is proved that the saturation point of current doesn’t occur below 100%
of KPV. In fact it occurs beyond 110% of the rate KPV. Therefore this equipment is safe to use.
If the saturation point occurs before 100% of KPV then the relays connected to it will operate
under normal conditions also. When the saturation point occurs, the current rises to a very high
value, crossing the set point of relays which makes it to trip off, thus protecting the equipments.
This will allow only permissible amount of current to flow through the equipments.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 37 


 
Surge Monitor Testing 
 

Date : 13/10/09
Day : Tuesday
Time : 5:45pm
Weather : Sunset

Surge Monitor Testing 
Aim : To check the deflection in the surge monitor.

Objective : To find out whether the surge monitor is working or not.

Instrument Used :

Sl. no. Description Specification Quantity Remarks


1KV, 0-200Mohms, Waco,
1 Megger 1
Sl. no. 91611
2 Connecting Wires ---------------------------------- APR

Test applied to/ Test set up;

Model  : SM‐T2B‐3R 
Sl.No.   5300 

Lightening Arrester Surge Monitor

Megger 

Figure 5 Surge Monitor Testing

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 38 


 
Surge Monitor Testing 
 

Procedure:

1. Connect positive terminal of the Megger to the top portion of the surge monitor as shown
above.
2. Connect the other terminal to the earth terminal.
3. Start Meggering

Observation:

• When voltage (1KV) was applied to the surge monitor by Meggering, the pointer inside
the surge monitor started deflecting.
• In some case the pointer didn’t deflect indicating that the monitor is not working.

Precaution :

• Safety of the experimenter, the first priority.


• Never start Meggering if both the terminals is being caught by performer
• Always discharge by connecting the terminal to earth so that the experimenter is free of
shock.

Conclusion :

From this test we can know whether the surge monitor is working or not. If there is no deflection
then it is proved that the surge monitor is not working and need to be replaced. If the indicator
inside the surge monitor starts to deflect upon the application of voltage then it is proved that the
surge monitor is working.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 39 


 
SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing 
 

SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing 
CB#1 : Circuit Breaker on Incomer#1 (Tie Line)
CB#2 : Circuit Breaker on Transformer#1 side
CB#3 : Circuit Breaker on Bus Coupler Side
CB#4 : Circuit Breaker on Incomer#2 (Jemina Line)
CB#5 : Circuit Breaker on Transformer#2 side

Aim : Testing of SF6 Circuit Breaker.

Objective :

¾ To find out the Alarm 'Loss of SF6' at 20ºC.


¾ To find out the General Lock out SF6 at 20ºC.
¾ To find the closing and opening time of SF6 Circuit Breaker.

Theory :

The Nominal pressure of SF6 gas at 20ºC is 6.0 bars. When the loss of SF6 gas occurs below
certain set value it gives an alarm indicating less SF6 gas. So we need to attend to it by refilling.
If we fail to attend to the alarm, then when the pressure of SF6 gas falls further, then Lock out of
SF6 occurs. At this point the circuit breaker neither opens nor closes i.e. it remains in deadlock
position.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 40 


 
SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing 
 

Instruments used :

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


SCOT M3K Time Model no. 2100.02W.166, T&M Pvt.
1 1 Set
Interval Meter Ltd., Pune India.
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
2 Multimeter 1
Motwane
Refrigerant Leak Model CPS LS790B, Sl.No. 581964,
3 1
Detector USA Made

Circuit diagram :

To Circuit Breaker
Junction Box

Red : (3, 4, 5)
Yellow : 17
Green : 7 for trip 1 and
12 for trip 2

DC +ive, CB
Coil Source

C +ive, CB
Close Coil
terminal
T +ive, CB
Source
Trip Coil
terminal
Source

Master Earthing
(Double Earthing)

Figure 6 SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing SCOT M3K Timer

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 41 


 
SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing 
 

SF6 Breaker Testing with the Testing Equipment of BPC ( Circuit Breaker Operational
Analyzer Model 2406 HISAC, Sl. no. 3290-009).
R Y B
Master
Earthing
(Double
Earthing)

To Circuit
Breaker
Junction Box Power Supply

Figure 7 SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing with Circuit Breaker Operational Analyzer

NB: The terminals from the kit are to be connected as given in the earlier diagram and the
wires refer the same definition.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 42 


 
SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing 
 

Procedure :

PART-I

1. Connect the SF6 gas pipe to the breaker and start filling up the gas.
2. Fill up till the pressure reaches 1.0bar.
3. Check all the pipes and SF6 breaker for any leakage with the help of Refrigerant Leak
Detector. If leakage is there, then it makes continuous beeping sound. To find the exact
leak area, apply shampoo foam over the area. Wherever the pore is, the bubble becomes
big and burst out.
4. Leave the Breaker at 1.0bar for few hours. If leakage is there, the pressure falls down.
5. If there is no leakage then fill up the breaker with SF6 gas at 6.0bars.
6. At certain pressure (5.0 bars approx.) general lock out SF6 will occur. The multimeter
connected across alarm (X1-4, K11-A1) and trip contact (X1-4, K10-A1) will make
continuity sound.
7. Increase the pressure until it reaches certain point (5.3bars approx.) when the multimeter
connected across alarm and trip contact stops making continuity sound. This is the Alarm
Loss of gas pressure.
8. Still fill up the breaker with SF6 gas until the pressure reaches 6.0bars and disconnect it.

PART-II

1. Set up the experiment with SCOT M3K Time Interval Meter.


2. Connect the RYB terminals at the top and middle (make and break) points and plug it to
the SCOT M3K Time Interval Meter.
3. Connect two ground wires so as to have effective earthling. If one fails other will work.
4. Connect the control cable with the Circuit Breaker
a. Red one is DC +ive and it is the CB coil source. DC signals flows from Breaker
to the SCOT M3K Time Interval Meter. Connect it to X1-3, 4, and 5.
b. The command (Close command and Trip command) that we give flows to the CB
through the other two wires.
c. The yellow wire is C +ive and it is the close coil terminal. The close command
that we punch goes through this cable to operate the CB. Connect it to X1-17.
d. Green wire is T +ive and is the Trip coil terminal. The trip command that we
punch passes through this wire to trip the CB. Connect it to X-7.
5. Supply AC power to the motor so that it energizes the spring. When spring compresses to
its set position, the limit switch disconnects the AC supply and the motor stops, thus the
spring is charged.
6. Give the close, open-1 and close/open command consecutively with simultaneous
recording of the time (ms).
7. Change the green terminal to X1-12 and give open-2 command and note down the
readings.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 43 


 
SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing 
 
Results :

25/10/2009, Sunday, Sunny.


66KV Circuit Breaker SF6 gas filling Pressure Density Monitor Status.
Lockout gas Loss of SF6
Temperature Alarm
Sl. No. Trip Contact pressure Status found gas pressure Status found
(ºC) Contact
(bar) kg/cm2 (bar)
X1-4 5.1 Leakage X1-4 5.3 Leakage
2009/IND/03/6059 20
K10-A1 K11-A1
X1-4 5.2 OK X1-4 5.4 OK
2009/IND/03/6060 20
K10-A1 K11-A1
X1-4 5.0 OK X1-4 5.3 OK
2009/IND/03/6061 20
K10-A1 K11-A1
X1-4 5.2 OK X1-4 5.4 OK
2009/IND/03/6058 20
K10-A1 K11-A1
X1-4 5.0 OK X1-4 5.3 OK
2009/IND/03/6062 20
K10-A1 K11-A1

Sl. No. Motor Sl. No. Close Coil (Ω) Trip Coil 1(Ω) Trip Coil 2(Ω)
2009/IND/03/6059 - 50.0 50.0 50.0
2009/IND/03/6060 289-087 50.4 50.3 50.6
2009/IND/03/6061 289-349 48.5 50.1 50.6
2009/IND/03/6058 289-436 50.9 50.2 50.0
2009/IND/03/6062 289-543 49.7 49.7 50.1

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 44 


 
SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing 
 

Test Result of SF6 Circuit Breaker


Location : Bus Coupler Side. Type : 3AP1FG
Serial Number : 2009/IND/03/6061. Make : SEIMENS
Date of Testing : 26/10/2009, 9:45am, Sunny. STC : 40KA
Feeder Name : CB3
Rated Voltage : 145KV
Rated Current : 3150A
Closing/Opening Time
Phase
Close (ms) Open-1 (ms) Open-2(ms) C/O(ms)
R 59 33 30 29
Y 58 34 31 31
B 59 33 33 33
Coil Resistance
Coil Resistance (Ω)
Close coil 48.5
Trip Coil-1 50.1
Trip Coil-2 50.4

Test Result of SF6 Circuit Breaker


Location : Transformer#2 Side. Type : 3AP1FG
Serial Number : 2009/IND/03/6062. Make : SEIMENS
Date of Testing : 26/10/2009, 10:25am, Sunny. STC : 40KA
Feeder Name : CB5
Rated Voltage : 145KV
Rated Current : 3150A
Closing/Opening Time
Phase
Close (ms) Open-1 (ms) Open-2(ms) C/O(ms)
R 57 32 30 33
Y 57 32 30 33
B 57 32 30 33
Coil Resistance
Coil Resistance (Ω)
Close coil 49.7
Trip Coil-1 49.7
Trip Coil-2 50.1

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 45 


 
SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing 
 

Test Result of SF6 Circuit Breaker


Location : Transformer#1 Side. Type : 3AP1FG
Serial Number : 2009/IND/03/6058. Make : SEIMENS
Date of Testing : 26/10/2009, 11:00am, Sunny. STC : 40KA
Feeder Name : CB2
Rated Voltage : 145KV
Rated Current : 3150A
Closing/Opening Time
Phase
Close (ms) Open-1 (ms) Open-2(ms) C/O(ms)
R 60 33 33 31
Y 59 34 34 30
B 62 32 32 30
Coil Resistance
Coil Resistance (Ω)
Close coil 50.9
Trip Coil-1 50.2
Trip Coil-2 50.0

Test Result of SF6 Circuit Breaker


Location : Incomer#1 Tie Line Side. Type : 3AP1FG
Serial Number : 2009/IND/03/6060. Make : SEIMENS
Date of Testing : 26/10/2009, 11:20am, Sunny. STC : 40KA
Feeder Name : CB1
Rated Voltage : 145KV
Rated Current : 3150A
Closing/Opening Time
Phase
Close (ms) Open-1 (ms) Open-2(ms) C/O(ms)
R 57 33 34 34
Y 58 32 33 31
B 59 32 33 33
Coil Resistance
Coil Resistance (Ω)
Close coil 50.4
Trip Coil-1 50.3
Trip Coil-2 50.6

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 46 


 
SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing 
 

Test Result of SF6 Circuit Breaker


Location : Incomer#2 Jemina Line Side. Type : 3AP1FG
Serial Number : 2009/IND/03/6059. Make : SEIMENS
Date of Testing : 28/12/2009, 4:15pm, Sunny. STC : 40KA
Feeder Name : CB4
Rated Voltage : 145KV
Rated Current : 3150A
Closing/Opening Time
Phase
Close (ms) Open-1 (ms) Open-2(ms) C/O(ms)
R 59.0 28.8 60.4 29.8
Y 57.4 30.0 58.0 31.0
B 58.2 29.6 58.4 30.4
Coil Resistance
Coil Resistance (Ω)
Close coil 48.9
Trip Coil-1 49.0
Trip Coil-2 49.0

Result :

• The rated time for closing is 50±8 ms; therefore the value that we obtained is within the
range.
• The rated opening time is 30±4 ms; therefore the value we obtained is within the
permissible limit.
• The rated close-open time is 30±10 ms; therefore the value we obtained is within the
normal range.

Precaution :

• Safety the first priority.


• Always take the steady value.
• Connect the wires properly and tightly.
• Note down the readings properly.

Conclusion :

From this field test I came to learn that the results are correct and the SF6 circuit breaker is safe
to use. Of course one SF6 circuit breaker on Jemina side had leakage therefore it was replaced
and tested. Rests of the circuit breaker are working fine. Sometimes the tripping coil gets burned
often as in case of Jemina line circuit breaker, the reason being the flow of continuous current,
low resistance of the coil and appearance of high voltage across its terminal. For resistance
check, apply voltage across the terminals for 15s and then check the current obtained and cross
check with the actual value.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 47 


 
Transformer Winding Resistance  
 

Transformer Winding Resistance 
Aim : To find out the Winding Resistance of Transformer and of its respective CTs.

Objective :

• To check the winding resistance of Transformer in R, Y and B phase on HV side.


• To check the winding resistance on LV side at Tap # 9.
• To check the winding resistance of WTICT, NCT and LV phase CT.

Theory : There are three current transformers in 20MVA Transformer viz. winding
temperature indicator current transformer (WTICT), Neutral current transformer (NCT) and LV
phase current transformers. WTICT is connected to the bellow heater in the WTI. When
transformer is loaded the current flows through the CT and flows through the heater coil, thereby
the temperature indicated by WTI becomes the winding oil temperature and the winding
temperature. In no load condition the WTI temperature and the OTI temperature are same as
indicated in the dehydration curve. NCT is located below the neutral point in secondary winding
and for each LV phases there is CT. Tap # 9 is normal position with turn's ratio two, so whenever
we do normal test we take tap # 9. For this test we simply use Ohm's law.

Transformer 1 Sl. no. 21067/1

WTICT : 350/5A, CL-5, 20VA.

NCT : Core (i), 400/1A, 5P10, 10VA


Core (ii), 400/1A, 5P10, 10VA
Core (iii), 400/1A, CL-PS, Vk ≥ 800V.
Imag ≤ 100mA at Vk, RCT ≤ 1.5Ω
LV Phase CT Core (i), 400/1A, 5P10, 10VA.
Core (ii), 400/1A, 5P10, 10VA
Core (iii), 400/1A, CL-PS, Vk ≥ 800V.
Imag ≤ 100mA at Vk, RCT ≤ 1.5Ω

Connections: WTICT (15, 16). NCT (18, 19, 20). LV R-Ph CT (21, 22, 23), LV Y-Ph CT (24,
25, 26), LV B-Ph CT (27, 28, 29).

18-2S1, 2S2 24- 2VS1, 2VS2


15-2WS7, 19- 2S3, 2S4 25- 2VS3, 2VS4
16-2WS8 20- 2S5, 2S6 26- 2VS5, 2VS6
17-2WS9 21- 2US1, 2US2 27- 2WS1, 2WS2
22- 2US3, 2US4 28- 2WS3, 2WS4
23- 2US5, 2US6 29- 2WS5, 2WS6

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 48 


 
Transformer Winding Resistance  
 

Instruments used :

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


1 AVΩ Meter Motwane 1
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
2 Multimeter 1
Motwane
3 Connecting wires --------------------------------------------- APR

Circuit diagram :

N.B: Part I and II refers to connections of different experiment.

Figure 8 Measurement of Transformer winding resistance

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 49 


 
Transformer Winding Resistance  
 

Procedure :

1. Disconnect the earth terminal from the neutral point.


2. Position the tap at 01.
3. Connect a wire to the R-phase (incoming) whose end will be connected to +ive supply
and connect a wire from the other end and connect it to voltmeter.
4. Connect a wire to the Y-phase (incoming) whose end will be connected to -ive supply
and connect a wire from the other end and connect it to voltmeter.
5. Connect an ammeter to the negative wire.
6. Switch on the power supply and note down the readings on voltmeter and ammeter.
7. Calculate the resistance from the values observed.
8. Increase the tap to next level and repeat step 1 to7.
9. Repeat the above step for Y-B and B-R phases.
10. For LV side repeat the above step for R-N, Y-N, B-N and B-Y, however here we need
not change the tapings. Just position at the normal tap.
11. To find the winding resistance of CT connect ohmmeter across respective terminals i.e.
15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,24,25,26,27,28 and 29 in our case.
12. Record the reading.

Result :

Transformer 1, Sl. No. 21067/1


Date: 3/11/09, 11:00am, Sunny.
R-Y Phase Y-B Phase
Tap Current Voltage Resistance Tap Current Voltage Resistance
Position (A) (V) (mΩ) Position (A) (V) (mΩ)
01 4.40 4.00 909.09 17 4.90 3.57 728.57
02 4.48 3.98 888.39 16 4.81 3.59 746.36
03 4.42 3.96 895.93 15 4.79 3.61 753.65
04 4.42 3.91 884.62 14 4.71 3.63 770.70
05 4.50 3.88 862.22 13 4.68 3.65 779.91
06 4.50 3.88 862.22 12 4.61 3.68 798.26
07 4.52 3.85 851.77 11 4.60 3.71 806.52
08 4.59 3.82 832.24 10 4.52 3.73 825.22
09b 4.60 3.79 823.91 09b 4.50 3.74 831.11
10 4.69 3.78 805.97 08 4.49 3.77 839.64
11 4.70 3.77 802.13 07 4.41 3.79 859.41
12 4.79 3.75 782.88 06 4.40 3.82 868.18
13 4.80 3.72 775.00 05 4.38 3.84 876.71
14 4.85 3.70 762.89 04 4.31 3.86 895.59
15 4.90 3.68 751.02 03 4.29 3.88 904.43
16 4.95 3.65 737.37 02 4.22 3.90 924.17
17 5.00 3.62 724.00 01 4.20 3.92 933.33
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 50 


 
Transformer Winding Resistance  
 

Transformer 1, Sl. No. 21067/1


Date: 3/11/09, 11:00am, Sunny.
B-R Phase LV Side Tap # 9
Tap Current Voltage Resistance Current Voltage Resistance
Phase
Position (A) (V) (mΩ) (A) (V) (mΩ)
01 4.42 3.80 859.73
R-N 3.59 0.2794 77.83
02 4.49 3.79 844.10
03 4.53 3.78 834.44
Y-N 7.30 0.5730 78.49
04 4.49 3.77 839.64
05 4.61 3.75 813.45
B-N 7.30 0.5730 78.49
06 4.69 3.73 795.31
07 4.71 3.71 787.69
B-Y 6.40 0.9960 155.63
08 4.78 3.69 771.97
09b 4.80 3.66 762.50
10 4.84 3.65 754.13
11 4.89 3.64 744.38
12 4.93 3.62 734.28
In LV side, the Line resistance is double to that of
13 4.99 3.60 721.44
Phase Resistance.
14 5.01 3.57 712.57
15 5.06 3.55 701.58
16 5.12 3.52 687.50
17 5.19 3.49 672.45
Transformer 1, Sl. No. 21067/1.
Neutral CT (NCT) WTICT
TB No. Wire Code Resistance (Ω) TB No. Wire Code Resistance (Ω)
18 2S1-2S2 15 2WS7
19 2S3-2S4 16 2WS8
20 2S5-2S6 16 2WS8
LV Phase CTs 17 2WS9
TB No. Wire Code Resistance (Ω) 15 2WS7
21 2US1-2US2 17 2WS9
22 2US3-2US4
23 2US5-2US6
24 2VS1-2VS2
25 2VS3-2VS4 For WTICT we have to do with pair of
26 2VS5-2VS6 wires alternatively.
27 2WS1-2WS2
28 2WS3-2WS4
29 2WS5-2WS6
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 51 


 
Transformer Winding Resistance  
 

Transformer 2, Sl. No. 21067/2


Date: 4/11/09, 12:40pm, Sunny.
R-Y Phase Y-B Phase
Tap Current Voltage Resistance Tap Current Voltage Resistance
Position (A) (V) (mΩ) Position (A) (V) (mΩ)
01 3.62 3.150 870.17 01 3.63 3.175 874.66
02 3.68 3.130 850.54 02 3.69 3.150 853.66
03 3.70 3.110 840.54 03 3.70 3.130 845.95
04 3.62 3.090 853.59 04 3.71 3.110 838.27
05 3.76 3.060 813.83 05 3.74 3.090 826.20
06 3.79 3.037 801.32 06 3.79 3.070 810.03
07 3.80 3.018 794.21 07 3.80 3.050 802.63
08 3.85 2.998 778.70 08 3.81 3.030 795.28
09b 3.90 2.977 763.33 09b 3.84 3.000 781.25
10 3.95 2.974 752.91 10 3.89 2.990 768.64
11 3.99 2.952 739.85 11 3.90 2.960 758.97
12 4.00 2.930 732.50 12 3.92 2.940 750.00
13 4.01 2.905 724.44 13 3.97 2.915 734.26
14 4.05 2.880 711.11 14 3.99 2.892 724.81
15 4.10 2.850 695.12 15 4.00 2.869 717.25
16 4.12 2.030 492.72 16 4.02 2.844 707.46
17 4.19 2.000 477.33 17 4.09 2.813 687.78
Transformer 2, Sl. No. 21067/2
Date: 4/11/09, 12:00am, Sunny.
B-R Phase LV Side Tap # 9
Tap Current Voltage Resistance Current Voltage Resistance
Phase
Position (A) (V) (mΩ) (A) (V) (mΩ)
01 3.58 3.190 891.06
R-N 4.32 0.352 81.48
02 3.60 3.170 880.56
03 3.62 3.140 867.40
Y-N 4.35 0.353 81.15
04 3.68 3.110 845.11
05 3.70 3.110 840.54
B-N 4.32 0.354 81.94
06 3.78 3.060 809.52
07 3.79 3.040 802.11
B-Y 4.00 0.644 161.00
08 3.81 3.008 789.50
09b 3.80 3.004 790.53
10 3.81 2.982 782.68
11 3.85 2.957 768.05
12 3.89 2.934 754.24
In LV side, the Line resistance is double to that of
13 3.90 2.905 744.87
Phase Resistance.
14 3.94 2.877 730.20
15 3.98 2.852 716.58
16 4.00 2.822 705.50
17 4.02 2.794 695.02

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 52 


 
Transformer Winding Resistance  
 

Transformer 2, Sl. No. 21067/2.


Neutral CT (NCT) WTICT
TB No. Wire Code Resistance (Ω) TB No. Wire Code Resistance (Ω)
18 2S1-2S2 2.6 15 2WS7
2.6
19 2S3-2S4 2.4 16 2WS8
20 2S5-2S6 2.6 16 2WS8
1.7
LV Phase CTs 17 2WS9
TB No. Wire Code Resistance (Ω) 15 2WS7
1.9
21 2US1-2US2 3.5 17 2WS9
22 2US3-2US4 2.3
23 2US5-2US6 2.6
24 2VS1-2VS2 2.4
25 2VS3-2VS4 2.5 For WTICT we have to do with pair of
26 2VS5-2VS6 2.8 wires alternatively.
27 2WS1-2WS2 1.2
28 2WS3-2WS4 2.4
29 2WS5-2WS6 2.4
 

Precautions :

• Safety of experimenter the first priority.


• Always adjust the DC voltage level as per the ranges of the meters used.
• Avoid parallax error.

Conclusion :

From this field test, the winding resistances of CTs are below 1.5Ω. As indicated on the name
plate rating. The winding resistance of NCT, LV Phase CTs and WTICT are permissibly correct.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 53 


 
Transformer Testing 
 

Transformer Testing 
(IR Check, Ratio Check, Magnetizing Balance Check, Magnetizing Current
Check, Vector Group Check)
Aim :

1. To check the 'Insulation Resistance' of the Transformer.


2. To check the 'Ratio of HV-LV winding'.
3. To check the 'Magnetizing Balance' or 'Core Balance'.
4. To check the 'Magnetizing Current'.
5. To check the 'Vector Group'.

Objectives :

¾ To find out the insulation resistance between HV-Earth, LV-Earth and HV-LV terminals
and to ensure there is no leakage to earth i.e. continuity check.
¾ To ensure that the turns ratio for each tapping is in accordance to the name plate rating.
¾ To ensure that the magnetic balance is not disturbed.
¾ To observe the no load magnetizing current.
¾ To ensure the vector group DYN 11.

Theory :

I. Insulation Resistance Test


Insulation resistance of a two-winding transformer insulation system, HV to ground, LV
to ground, and HV to LV is determined with a Megger type of instrument. Historically,
insulation resistance measurements are also made to assess the amount of moisture in
transformer insulation. However, the measurement of insulation dissipation factor has
shown to be a better indicator of the overall condition of insulation in a power
transformer.

II. Ratio Test


The purpose of this test is to ensure that all windings have the correct number of turns
according to the design. Since the transformer is equipped with a load tap changer (LTC),
ratio tests is also carried out at the various positions of the tap changer(s). The objective
of ratio tests at different tap positions is to ensure that all winding taps are made at the
correct turns and that the tap connections are properly made to the tap changing devices.
ANSI/IEEE general standard [1] requires that the measured voltage ratio between any
two windings be within ± 0.5% of the value indicated on the nameplate. To verify this
requirement, ratio tests are performed in which the actual voltage ratio is determined
through measurements. Ratio tests can be made by energizing the transformer with a low
AC test voltage and measuring the voltage induced in other windings at various tap
settings, etc. In each case the voltage ratio is calculated and compared to the voltage ratio

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 54 


 
Transformer Testing 
 

indicated on the transformer's nameplate. More commonly, Transformer Turns Ratio


(TTR) test sets are used for making the tests.

III. Magnetizing Balance Test


This test is performed to ensure that the HV and LV windings are not displaced from its
original 120º displacement from respective phases.

In this, two phase supply is applied to one of the winding and the induced voltages on the
other two windings are measured. The voltage applied on the windings should be the sum
of the voltage induced on other two windings. If the phase displacements are correct then
the flux distribution on each winding will also be proportionate i.e. upon repeating the
applied voltage to other phases too, the sum of induced voltages should be equal to the
applied voltage. In the readings one will see the maximum value being in the diagonal.
In case of LV side which is star connected, magnetic balance test ensures that the
windings are not displaced with respect to the neutral point. If windings are displaced
from each other then we say neutral is displaced, which means some currents are flowing
in the neutral point (Earth Fault). By KCL, current flowing in the neutral point should be
zero at balanced condition however practically it is not true. Therefore in order to satisfy
this condition neutral point is grounded so that any current flowing through neutral point
goes to earth. Here too the diagonal characteristic is observed.

IV. Magnetizing Current Check


This test ensures that the magnetizing current under no load condition doesn’t exceed 4%
of the rated current. When voltage is applied to the exciting or primary winding of the
transformer, a magnetizing current flows in the primary winding which produces the flux
in the core. The flow of flux in magnetic circuits is analogous to the flow of current in
electrical circuits. The magnetizing current is required to magnetize the winding and the
core.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 55 


 
Transformer Testing 
 

Magnetizing Current

V. Vector Group Check


This test is from the design point of consideration and is required to check the vector
group indicated on the name plate of the transformer. There are various vector groups and
in our case the transformer is Dy11. Some of the typical examples are as follows.

The vector diagram for Dy11 is shown below.

30° Lag or +30° 

Here, RYB forma an equilateral triangle.

R-b=R-y, Y-b=Y-y, R-Y=R-N+Y-N, B-y is the shoot point.


Dy11
This confirms the Dy11 vector group test.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 56 


 
Transformer Testing 
 

Instrument required :

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


5KV, 0-10000MΩ, Sl. no. 850302,
1 Motorized Megger 1
WACO
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
2 Multimeter 1
Motwane
3 Clamp Leaker DC-10A, Motwane 1
4 Testing Board MCB C16 attached, handmade 1 See picture
5 Connecting wires 2.5 sq.mm APR
6 Transformer Sl. no 21067/1, 20MVA 1
7 3-Ф Supply 415V, 50Hz 1
8 AVΩ Meter AC/DC Range 1
9 Screw Driver -type 1

Circuit diagram :

Figure 9 Various testing on Transformer

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 57 


 
Transformer Testing 
 

Procedure :

I. Insulation Resistance Check


a. Connect wires from HV, LV and Earth terminals.
b. Use 5KV Motorized Megger with external power supply.
c. Connect HV and Earth terminals to the Megger. Switch on the power supply and
note down the readings indicated on the Megger at 15th and 60th seconds.
d. Switch off the Megger and discharge the current in the lines used by shorting the
terminals to avoid risk of shock.
e. Connect LV and Earth terminals to the Megger. Switch on the power supply and
note down the readings indicated on the Megger at 15th and 60th seconds.
f. Repeat step d.
g. Connect HV and LV terminals to the Megger. Switch on the power supply and
note down the readings indicated on the Megger at 15th and 60th seconds.
h. Repeat step d.
i. Calculate R15/R60 and then tabulate the readings.

II. Ratio Test


a. Connect the circuit diagram as in the figure above.
b. Disconnect the neutral from Earth terminal.
c. Apply 3-Ф power from nearby BMK to the connection board.
d. Since the transformer has 17 taps, begin one by one.
e. Positioning the tap at 01, check the voltage at HV side, LV side (line as well as
phase voltage) and note down the readings.
f. Increase the tap to next level and then repeat step 'e'.
g. Repeat step 'f' till the highest tap.
h. Tabulate the readings for further analysis.

III. Magnetizing Balance Check (Core Balance), Tap # 9b.


a. The experiment continues from above tests.
b. Make sure that the table for recording data is made sequentially.
c. Switch on the power supply and always work offline.
d. Remove the HV B-phase out and then measure the voltage on HV lines and LV
side (Line as well as phase voltages).
e. Remove the HV R-phase out and then measure the voltage on HV lines and LV
side (Line as well as phase voltages).
f. Remove the HV Y-phase out and then measure the voltage on HV lines and LV
side (Line as well as phase voltages). Switch off the power supply.
g. Record the data sequentially and correctly.
h. Observe the characteristic of the readings on the table.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 58 


 
Transformer Testing 
 

IV. Magnetizing Current Check (No load current), Tap # 9b.


a. Reconnect every connection as shown in the circuit diagram.
b. Switch on the power supply but while changing the connections switch it off.
c. Disconnect the R-phase on HV side and then measure the current on R-phase
itself. Record the voltage on R-Y phase too. Use Clamp leaker.
d. Reconnect R-phase and disconnect the Y-phase on HV side. Measure the current
on Y-phase itself. Record the voltage on Y-B phase too. Use Clamp leaker.
e. Reconnect Y-phase and disconnect the B-phase on HV side. Measure the current
on B-phase itself. Record the voltage on Y-B phase too. Use Clamp leaker.
f. Disconnect HV side and give the supply to LV terminals.
g. Use clamp leaker to measure the current in the lines.
h. Disconnect the r-phase on LV side and then measure the current on r-phase itself.
Record the voltage on r-y phase too.
i. Reconnect r-phase and disconnect the y-phase on LV side. Measure the current on
y-phase itself. Record the voltage on y-b phase too.
j. Reconnect y-phase and disconnect the b-phase on LV side. Measure the current
on b-phase itself. Record the voltage on b-r phase too.
k. Observe the readings very carefully such that the magnetizing current is not less
than 4% of the actual rated current in both the cases.
V. Vector Group Check, Tap # 9b.
a. Reconnect every connection as shown in the circuit diagram.
b. Here we need to check the name plate rating. The vector Group is Dy11 so we
need to prove this. Refer the vector diagram given in theory.
c. Short the R-phase of HV and LV terminals.
d. Apply voltage on HV side.
e. Check the voltage R-Y, Y-B, B-R, R-n, Y-n, R-b, R-y, Y-b, Y-y, B-b and B-y
terminals.
f. Check if the results are matching with that given in theory.

Precautions :
1. Safety of experimenter the first priority.
2. While Meggering, always discharge the current to avoid shock.
3. Always switch off the power supply when connecting the circuit to avoid spark.

Insulation Resistance Values of Power Transformers (MΩ)


Class  Winding Temperatures °C
33-132KV 20°C 30°C 40°C 50°C 60°C 70°C
R15 450 300 200 140 60 40
R60 900 600 400 280 120 50
R60-Value of IR at 60sec & R15 at 15 sec. after the application of test voltage of Megger
Courtesy: Installation, commissioning and maintenance of electrical equipment, Tarlok Singh

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 59 


 
Transformer Testing 
 

Result : TRANSFORMER # 1, Sl. no 21067/1

Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/1


Date : 30/10/2009, 12:00pm, Sunny. 
Insulation Resistance (IR) Check by 5KV Motorized Megger (MΩ) 
Terminals IR-R60 IR-R15 R15/R60
HV-Earth 10000+∞ 10000 1
HV-LV 10000+∞ 5000 0.5
LV-Earth 10000+∞ 8000 0.8
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/1
Magnetizing Balance Check (Tap #9) or Core Balance 
Ф-out R-Y(V) Y-B(V) B-R(V) r-y(V) y-b(V) b-r(V) r-n(V) y-n(V) b-n(V)
B 416.0 318.0 98.3 213.5 65.4 148.1 120.0 93.1 28.5
R 216.7 417.0 201.6 184.5 180.1 10.19 62.5 121.3 59.9
Y 81.4 335.4 416.0 78.4 219.6 145.2 23.96 97.3 121.4
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/1
Magnetizing Current Check (Tap # 9) or No Load Current
HV Side LV Side
Applied Applied
Ф-out Current (mA) Ф-out Current (mA)
Voltage(V) Voltage (V)
R R-Y 417.0 R-ph 3.50 r r-y 417.0 r-ph 9.63
Y Y-B 415.0 Y-ph 2.46 y y-b 415.0 y-ph 6.30
B B-R 416.0 B-ph 2.49 b b-r 416.0 b-ph 9.82
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/1
Vector Group Check (Tap # 9), Dy11
Terminals Voltage(V)
R-Y 416.0
Y-B 417.0
B-R 417.0
R-N 121.8
Y-N 300.0
B-b 261.0 R-b=R-y,
B-y 475.0 Y-b=Y-y,
R-Y=R-N+Y-N,
R-b 208.2 B-y is the shoot point.
R-y 208.5 These conditions are found correct. Dy11
Y-b 259.4
Y-y 259.4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 60 


 
Ratio Test of Transformer  
 
Ratio Test of Transformer # 1, Sl. no 21067/1
HV (∆) Side LV (Star) Side Actual
Ratio % Error
Tap (Volts) (Volts) Ratio
VRY VYB VBR v ry v yb v br v rn v yn v bn HV/LV Rph Yph Bph Rph Yph Bph
01 415 415 415 189.6 191.9 189.3 109.4 110.1 110.3 2.20 2.19 2.16 2.19 -0.45% -1.82% -0.45%
02 413 416 416 190.8 193.3 191.2 110.6 111.2 111.4 2.18 2.16 2.15 2.18 -0.92% -1.38% 0.00%
03 415 415 416 193.3 194.6 193.6 111.9 112.6 112.8 2.15 2.15 2.13 2.15 0.00% -0.93% 0.00%
04 413 417 415 195.3 197.3 196.9 113.4 114.0 114.2 2.13 2.11 2.11 2.11 -0.94% -0.94% -0.94%
05 415 416 415 198.1 199.5 198.2 114.8 115.4 115.6 2.10 2.09 2.09 2.09 -0.48% -0.48% -0.48%
06 417 415 416 200.3 201.3 200.4 116.1 116.9 116.9 2.08 2.08 2.06 2.08 -0.00% -0.96% 0.00%
07 415 416 417 202.9 204.5 203.4 117.7 118.3 118.3 2.05 2.05 2.03 2.05 -0.00% -0.98% 0.00%
08 415 416 417 205.7 206.6 206.2 119.5 119.6 119.9 2.03 2.02 2.01 2.02 -0.49% -0.99% -0.49%
9b 414 415 416 208.0 209.2 208.5 120.6 121.2 121.3 2.00 1.99 1.98 2.00 -0.50% -1.00% 0.00%
10 417 417 418 210.0 212.3 211.5 122.0 122.5 122.3 1.98 1.99 1.96 1.98 +0.51% -1.01% 0.00%
11 418 416 417 213.2 215.0 214.3 123.6 124.4 124.5 1.95 1.96 1.93 1.95 +0.51% -1.03% 0.00%
12 414 416 418 215.7 217.3 216.8 125.3 125.5 126.2 1.93 1.92 1.91 1.93 -0.52% -1.04% 0.00%
13 414 415 416 218.9 220.3 219.7 126.9 127.4 127.7 1.90 1.89 1.88 1.89 -0.53% -1.05% -0.53%
14 417 417 416 221.9 223.3 222.7 129.0 129.2 129.5 1.88 1.88 1.87 1.87 0.00% -0.53% -0.53%
15 414 416 417 225.0 227.6 226.0 130.9 131.0 131.40 1.85 1.84 1.83 1.85 -0.54% -1.08% 0.00%
16 415 416 417 228.4 230.9 228.4 132.7 133.2 133.6 1.83 1.82 1.80 1.83 -0.55% -1.64% 0.00%
17 414 415 416 232.1 233.6 232.7 134.5 134.8 135.2 1.80 1.78 1.78 1.79 -1.11% -1.11% -0.56%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 61 


 
Transformer Testing  
 

TRANSFORMER # 2, SL. No. 21067/2

Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/2


Date : 4/11/2009, 10:00am, Sunny. 
Insulation Resistance (IR) Check by 5KV Motorized Megger (MΩ) 
Terminals IR-R60 IR-R15 R15/R60
HV-Earth 6000 10000 1.67
HV-LV 5000 10000 2.00
LV-Earth 9000 10000 1.11
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/2
Magnetizing Balance Check (Tap #9) or Core Balance 
Ф-out R-Y(V) Y-B(V) B-R(V) r-y(V) y-b(V) b-r(V) r-n(V) y-n(V) b-n(V)
B 421.0 349.0 72.60 223.3 81.6 142.0 121.7 101.7 21.03
R 209.0 422.0 213.1 182.5 183.4 477 60.0 121.8 61.40
Y 60.20 356.0 421 85.8 223.9 138.5 17.78 103.2 120.8
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/2
Magnetizing Current Check (Tap # 9) or No Load Current
HV Side LV Side
Applied Applied
Ф-out Current (mA) Ф-out Current (mA)
Voltage(V) Voltage(V)
R R-Y 422.0 R-ph 3.90 r r-y 422.0 r-ph 11.0
Y Y-B 423.0 Y-ph 2.00 y y-b 421.0 y-ph 6.50
B B-R 423.0 B-ph 2.20 b b-r 423.0 b-ph 11.0
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/1
Vector Group Check (Tap # 9), Dy11
Terminals Voltage(V)
R-Y 420.0
Y-B 421.0
B-R 423.0
R-N 122.10
Y-N 299.0
R-b=R-y,
B-y 475.0 Y-b=Y-y,
R-b 210.5 R-Y=R-N+Y-N,
R-y 211.4 B-y is the shoot point. Dy11
These conditions are found correct.
Y-b 261.6
Y-y 261.3

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 62 


 
Ratio Test of Transformer  
 
Ratio Test of Transformer # 2, Sl. no 21067/2
HV (∆) Side LV (Star) Side Actual
Ratio % Error
Tap (Volts) (Volts) Ratio
VRY VYB VBR v ry v yb v br v rn v yn v bn HV/LV Rph Yph Bph Rph Yph Bph
01 422 421 422 191.6 190.9 191.0 110.9 111.3 110.7 2.20 2.20 2.21 2.21 +0.11% +0.24% +0.43%
02 421 423 423 194.1 193.6 193.4 112.2 112.5 112.0 2.18 2.17 2.18 2.19 -0.51% +0.23% +0.33%
03 425 422 422 196.7 195.5 195.6 113.5 113.7 112.5 2.15 2.16 2.16 2.16 +0.50% +0.40% +0.35%
04 423 427 423 198.9 198.4 198.3 114.8 115.0 113.6 2.13 2.13 2.15 2.13 -0.16% +1.04% +0.15%
05 424 421 422 201.2 200.4 200.3 116.1 116.2 115.9 2.10 2.11 2.10 2.11 +0.35% +0.04% +0.33%
06 421 423 422 203.5 202.3 201.6 117.4 117.8 117.3 2.08 2.07 2.09 2.09 -0.54% +0.53% +0.64%
07 422 423 420 206.1 205.3 205.3 118.9 119.2 118.5 2.05 2.05 2.06 2.05 -0.12% +0.51% -0.21%
08 422 422 421 208.3 207.4 207.3 120.1 120.4 119.9 2.03 2.03 2.03 2.03 -0.20% +0.23% +0.04%
9b 422 422 421 210.6 210.1 209.9 121.6 121.8 121.4 2.00 2.00 2.01 2.01 +0.19% +0.43% +0.29%
10 423 421 422 213.2 212.6 212.8 123.3 123.4 123.1 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.98 +0.20% +0.01% +0.16%
11 421 422 422 216.2 215.3 215.6 124.9 125.0 124.7 1.95 1.95 1.96 1.96 -0.14% +0.52% +0.38%
12 422 422 421 219.1 218.2 218.4 126.6 126.7 126.2 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93 -0.20% +0.21% -0.12%
13 422 422 422 222.2 220.6 220.3 128.3 128.4 128.0 1.90 1.90 1.91 1.92 -0.04% +0.68% +0.82%
14 421 423 422 225.0 224.1 223.4 130.0 130.1 129.7 1.88 1.87 1.89 1.89 -0.47% +0.40% +0.48%
15 422 422 421 228.4 227.1 227.5 131.9 132.0 131.5 1.85 1.85 1.86 1.85 -0.13% +0.44% +0.03%
16 422 422 419 231.7 230.5 230.4 133.6 133.7 133.3 1.83 1.82 1.83 1.82 -0.47% +0.04% -0.62%
17 423 422 422 219.1 233.7 234.1 135.5 135.6 135.0 1.80 1.93 1.81 1.80 +7.26% +0.32% +0.15%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 63 


 
Transformer Testing  
 

Result:

• The field testing of the ratio of HV/LV at various tapings is found correct with slight
errors.
• The phase voltage of secondary is also found to be 1/√3 times that of line voltage.
• The actual ratio at normal tap is 2 i.e. 66/33KV.
• It is observed in the magnetizing balance check that the maximum voltage exists across
the diagonal element for HV and LV phase voltage.
NB: If the diagonal characteristics holds true for the phase voltages at LV side then it
is true for HV side. Further Vector Group check will also hold true.
• The vector group check for Dy11 also proved the equations or the vector characteristic
given.

Conclusion:

From the above field test it is proved that the results obtained are tallying with the name plate
ratings. Ratios at various taps are correct with some errors. The windings at the core are also
balanced at 120° from each other. The magnetizing current as observed during the field test is far
below 4% of the actual rated current. No load current should not exceed above 4% of the actual
rated current. It is observed that in the Y phase the current is comparatively less. The reason
being, the Y phase winding lies at the middle so the flux gets distributed equally to other
windings too thereby resulting in low currents. Whereas in other case very less flux gets to the
third winding (see the fig. below). The vector group is found to be Dy11. There are a total of
about 63 vector group, some of which are given at the theory portion.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 64 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Transformer Oil Testing 
Aim : Dehydration & filtration of Transformer oil in the Transformer.

Objective :

1. To remove the moisture present in the core, windings, tank, radiator and the conservator
tank.
2. To check the insulation resistance (IR Value) of the Transformer using Megger and
observe the reading.
3. Check the Breakdown Voltage value (BDV) of the dehydrated oil.

Theory : After the erection of Transformer at site, dehydration and filtration of oil is very
important. Here 'Transformer Oil Conditioning Machine' is used. There are two outlets in this
machine; one is used as incoming oil source and the other acts as outgoing source. After
connecting one pipe to the transformer tank and the other to the oil barrel start the machine and
fill the transformer with oil. Don’t fill it fully; as transformer oil gets heated its volume expands.
Now connect both pipes to transformer where one draws oil from the transformer and the other
pumps in the dehydrated oil coming from the Transformer oil conditioning machine. There are
moistures present in core and windings. When the oil is heated, by virtue of core and windings
being immersed in the oil, it gets heated. As a result of this the moisture present, in the core and
windings vaporize out and gets mixed with the oil. This oil is then passed into the oil
conditioning machine. The oil passes through 'degassing chamber' in two stages where the oil is
set to flow in the form of fountain. When this process happens the moisture is sent out from the
oil which is then sucked by the vacuum pump. The oil further passes through heater and filter
vessel where the oil gets heated and gets filtered of carbon deposits, dirt, sludge, etc. particles.
The oil is again pumped in the transformer. It heats the core and the process continues. During
the process of Transformer Oil Conditioning, check the IR value of the transformer every after
one hour. Theoretically the Megger value should come down and then rise up until it attains a
stable value. When it attains stable value for multiple Meggering then it shows that the oil is
dehydrated. Then collect sample oil for BDV test. The BDV value shouldn’t come below 60KV.

While Meggering we go with checking the insulation resistance value of primary-earth,


secondary-earth and primary-secondary winding (see fig. 1). The theory behind is as follows;

Primary-Earth : Basically we are observing the change in the characteristics of the


insulation resistance between primary winding and the earth. The IR value of primary to earth
will be high before conditioning. When the conditioning of the oil is started the moisture gets
removed and the value comes down. Upon further conditioning the IR value will go up
indicating that there is no conduction path from primary to earth.

Secondary-Earth : Here we are checking the insulation resistance between secondary


winding and the earth terminal. The same characteristic should be observed as described above.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 65 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Primary-Secondary : The insulation resistance of primary-secondary is observed. Upon


heating, dehydrating and filtering, the IR value should come down and the rise up until it attains
a stable value. Thus moisture is indicated, vaporized and removed out.

IR Value Pry-Earth

IR Value Pry-Sec

IR Value Sec-Earth

Fig. 1

Sample Graph
IR Value

0 Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 66 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Instruments used:

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


Transformer oil Sl. no. 1043421, Supply 415V,
1 1 Set
conditioning machine 165.2KW, 238Amperes.
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
2 Multimeter 1
Motwane
5KV, 0-10000MΩ, Sl. no. 850302,
3 Motorized Megger 1
WACO
4 Connecting wires 2.5 sq.mm APR

Circuit diagram

Transformer Oil Conditioning Machine

HV LV
Earth

Motorized Megger Internal diagram

Figure 10 Conditioning of Transformer Oil

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 67 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Procedure :

PART I

1. Connect the pipes at respective inlet and outlet of the Transformer oil conditioning
machine.
2. Connect the other end to the oil drum and the inlet to the 'Top Oil Filter Valve' of the
transformer tank.
3. Start the machine and fill up the transformer to certain level but not fully so that when at
peak temperature of the oil the volume expanded will not overflow the oil from the
transformer.
4. When heating the oil, please observe the source load and the load that the one heater
absorbs. (In our case the source load was 130A whereas each heater consumes 80A.
There are three heaters, so we were bound to switch on only one heater.)
5. Now for dehydration and filtration, connect the pipe connecting the oil drum to the
'Bottom Oil Filter Valve' of the transformer tank.
6. Start the machine with one heater being switched on.
7. Disconnect the earth terminal from the neutral point. Start Meggering with HV-Earth,
LV-Earth and HV-LV and record the reading every one hour until the readings comes
down and rise up to attain a stable value. N.B The process may go on for two to three
days. Then put off the heater and cool the oil with machine under running condition.
8. Take the oil sample (two bottles) for Breakdown Voltage test. The average of six
readings obtained should be above 60KV. This ends the dehydration and filtration test.

PART II (BDV Test)

1. Arrange the BDV testing kit (Automatic Oil Test Set OTS100AF/Megger)
2. Wash the oil container thoroughly with oil form one bottle.
3. Pour the oil sample from other bottle and place it in the testing kit.
4. Adjust the space between the electrodes to 2.5mm.
5. Keep it idle for 15minutes so that the oil sample settles down.
6. Set the standard to IEC 156 1995 and then press the button to apply voltage.

Precaution :

¾ Safety of the experimenter the first priority.


¾ Make sure not to fill the transformer tank fully so that the oil will not overflow when
heated at peak temperature.
¾ Drying of a transformer must be done under continuous and competent supervision.
¾ Careful observation of temperature is essential during drying as high temperature can
result in damage to the insulation.
¾ No sparks or smoking should be allowed in the vicinity of a transformer being dried.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 68 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Results :

Dehydration and Filtration of Transformer Oil


Transformer #1, 20MVA, 66/33KV, Sl. no. 21067/1.
IR by 5KV Motorized Motor
Date/Time Temperature (ºC)
(MΩ)
Date Time HV-Earth LV-Earth HV-LV Machine oil OTI WTI Remarks
11:56am 10000  10000  8000 35 34 31
1:25pm 10000  10000  10000  38 38 38
2:30pm 10000  10000  10000  42 39 40
26/10/2009

3:30pm 10000  10000  10000  51 46 45

With the help of thermostat the maximum temperature was fixed at 60˚C.
5:18pm 10000  10000  10000  52 48 47
6:20pm 10000  10000  10000  56 51 50
7:25pm 10000 10000 10000  60 54 52
10:30pm 8000 8000 8000 60 56 54

4:20pm, interruption, oil overflow from breather.


5:12pm, Machine started after draining the oil.
12:30am 8000 8000 8000 60  57 55
2:35am 7000 7000 7000 60  57 55
4:30am 7000 7000 7000 60  57 55
6:30am 7000 7000 7000 60  57 55
8:30am 7000 7000 7000 60  57 55
9:30am 7000 8000 9000 60  58 58
10:30am 8000 10000 10000  60  59 59
11:30am 9000 10000 10000  60  59 59
12:30am 7000 9000 10000  60  59 59
27/10/2009

1:30pm 7000 9000 10000  60  60 60 


2:30pm 7000 9000 10000  60  60 60 
3:30pm 8000 10000 10000  60  60 60 
4:30pm 8000 10000 10000  60  60 60 
5:30pm 8000 10000 10000  60  59 60 
6:30pm 8000 10000 10000  60  59 60 
7:30pm 8000 10000 10000  60  59 60 
8:30pm 8000 10000 10000  60  59 60 
9:30pm 8000 10000 10000  60  59 60 
10:30pm 8000 10000 10000 60  59 60 
11:30pm 8000 10000 10000 60  59 60 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 69 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Dehydration and Filtration of Transformer Oil


Transformer #1, 20MVA, 66/33KV, Sl. no. 21067/1.
IR by 5KV Motorized Motor
Date/Time Temperature (ºC)
(MΩ)
Date Time HV-Earth LV-Earth HV-LV Machine oil OTI WTI Remarks
12:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 60
1:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 60
2:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 60
3:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 60

1:30pm, interruption, Supply went off.


4:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 60
5:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 60

2:10pm, Machine started.


6:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 60
7:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 60
28/10/2009

8:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 60


9:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 60
10:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 59
11:30am 8000 10000 10000 60 59 59
12:30pm 8000 10000 10000 60 59 59
2:30pm 10000 10000 10000 60 56 56
3:30pm 10000 10000 10000 60 55 56
4:30pm 10000 10000 10000 60 54 56
5:30pm 10000 10000 10000 60 54 55
6:30pm 10000 10000 10000 60 52 54
 

Radiators
Radiator Open (Time) Close (Time) Remarks
1 10:15am 10:50am
2 11:00am 11:40am
3 12:30pm 1:30pm All radiators opened on 28/10/2009 at
6:30pm. Heater switched off and cooling
4 1:30pm 2:40pm of the oil started with machine under
5 2:40pm 3:10pm running condition. Machine stopped at
6 3:10pm 3:40pm 29/10/2009 at 9:45am. Oil sample taken
7 3:40pm 4:10pm for BDV Test at SMD, Semtokha.
OLTC Filtration started at 4:00pm till
8 4:10pm 4:40pm 6:00pm on 29/10/2009.
9 5:10pm 5:40pm
10 6:10pm 6:30pm

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 70 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Breakdown Voltage Test of the Sample Oil Taken from Transformer#1.


Date: 29/10/2009, 10:55am at Semtokha.
Experimenter: Pema Jampel. Equipment : Automatic Oil Test Set (OTS100AF/Megger)
Readings Time (Minutes) BDV(KV)
1st Reading 5 84.8
2nd Reading 2 77.4
3rd Reading 2 69.8
4th Reading 2 58.1
5th reading 2 76.7
6th Reading 2 84.4
Average = 75.2KV

Graphical Analysis :

Transformer Oil Characteristic Curve


HV-Earth
12000

10000

8000
IR Value

6000

Transformer Oil Characteristic 
4000 Curve

2000

0
11:56am
3:30pm
7:25pm
2:35am
8:30am
11:30am
2:30pm
5:30pm
8:30pm
11:30pm
2:30am
5:30am
8:30am
11:30am
3:30pm
6:30pm

Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 71 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Transformer Oil Characteristic Curve LV‐Earth
12000

10000

8000
IR Value

6000

4000 Transformer Oil Characteristic 
Curve LV‐Earth
2000

0
11:56am

11:30am

11:30pm

11:30am
3:30pm
7:25pm
2:35am
8:30am

2:30pm
5:30pm
8:30pm

2:30am
5:30am
8:30am

3:30pm
6:30pm
Time

Transformer Oil Characteristic curve


HV-LV
12000

10000

8000
IR Value

6000

4000 TransformerOil
Characteristic curve HV-LV
2000

0
11:56am
3:30pm
7:25pm
2:35am
8:30am
11:30am
2:30pm
5:30pm
8:30pm
11:30pm
2:30am
5:30am
8:30am
11:30am
3:30pm
6:30pm

Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 72 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Dehydration and Filtration of Transformer Oil


Transformer #2, 20MVA, 66/33KV, Sl. no. 21067/2.
IR by 5KV Motorized Motor
Date/Time Temperature (ºC)
(MΩ)
Date Time HV-Earth LV-Earth HV-LV Machine oil OTI WTI Remarks
1:00pm 10000  10000  10000 - 38 38
2:00pm 10000  10000  10000  42 40 42
3:00pm 10000  10000  10000  43 40 42
4:00pm 10000  10000  10000  44 43 44
30/10/2009

5:00pm 10000  10000  10000  50 48 49


6:00pm 10000  10000  10000  55 53 54
7:00pm 8000 8000 8000  57 54 55
8:00pm 8000 7000 8000  60 55 56

1:00pm, Filtration started with all radiators open.


9:00pm 8000 7000  8000  60 56 57

All radiators closed at 3:00pm on 31/10/09.


10:00pm 8000 7000  8000  60 56 57
11:00pm 8000 7000  8000  60 56 57
12:00am 7000 7000  7000 60 56 57
1:00am 7000  7000  7000  60  57 58
2:00am 7000  7000  7000  60  57 58
3:00am 7000  7000  7000  60  57 58
4:00am 7000  7000  7000  60  58 58
31/10/2009

5:00am 7000  7000  7000  60  59 59


6:00am 7000  7000  7000  60  60 60
7:00am 6000 7000  7000  60  61 61
8:00am 6000  7000  7000  60  62 62
9:00am 6000  7000  7000  60  62 62
10:00am 6000  7000  7000  60  62 62
11:00am 6000  7000  7000  60  62 62
12:00pm 7000 8000 8000 60  63 63
1:00pm 7000 8000 8000 60  63 63
1/11/2009

2:00pm 7000 8000 8000 60  63 63


3:00pm 7000 8000 8000 60  63 63
4:00pm 8000 9000 9000 60  63 63
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 73 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Dehydration and Filtration of Transformer Oil


Transformer #2, 20MVA, 66/33KV, Sl. no. 21067/2.
IR by 5KV Motorized Motor
Date/Time Temperature (ºC)
(MΩ)
Date Time HV-Earth LV-Earth HV-LV Machine oil OTI WTI Remarks
5:00pm 8000 9000 9000 60 63 63
6:00pm 8000  9000  9000  60 62 62

One pair of Radiators opened and closed after every one hour subsequently.

All Radiator s opened at 4:30pm, 2/11/09 for cooling. Machine stopped at 4:00pm, 3/11/09
7:00pm 8000  9000  9000  60 62  62 
1/11/2009

8:00pm 8000  9000  9000  60 62  62 


9:00pm 8000  9000  9000  60 62  62 
10:00pm 8000  9000  9000  60 62  62 
11:00pm 8000  9000  9000  60 62  62 
12:00am 8000  9000  9000  60 62  62 
1:00am 9000 10000 10000  60 62  62 

Started at 11:00am till 4:30pm.


2:00am 9000  10000  10000  60 62  62 
3:00am 9000  10000  10000  60 62  62 
4:00am 9000  10000  10000  60 62  62 
2/11/2009

5:00am 9000  10000  10000  60 62  62 


6:00am 9000  10000  10000  60 62  62 
7:00am 9000  10000  10000  60 62  62 
8:00am 9000  10000  10000  60 62  62 
9:00am 9000  10000  10000  60 62  62 
10:00am 9000 10000  10000  60 62  62 
11:00am 10000 10000  10000  60  62  62 
12:00pm 10000  10000  10000  60  62 62
1:00pm 10000  10000  10000  60  61 61
3/11/2009

2:00pm 10000  10000  10000  60  61 61


3:00pm 10000  10000  10000  60  61 61
4:00pm 10000  10000  10000  60  60 60
5:00pm 10000  10000  10000  60  60 60
6:00pm 10000  10000  10000  60  55 55

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 74 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Breakdown Voltage Test of the Sample Oil Taken from Transformer#2.


Date: 3/11/2009, 10:45am at Semtokha.
Experimenter: Pema Jampel. Equipment : Automatic Oil Test Set (OTS100AF/Megger)
Readings Time (Minutes) BDV(KV)
1st Reading 5 67.9
2nd Reading 2 71.9
3rd Reading 2 79.8
4th Reading 2 87.9
5th reading 2 72.8
6th Reading 2 84.7
Average = 77.50KV

Transformer Oil Curve HV‐Earth
12000

10000
IR Value (MΩs)

8000

6000

4000 Transformer Oil Curve HV‐Earth

2000

0
1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm
10:00pm
1:00am
4:00am
7:00am
10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm
10:00pm
1:00am
4:00am
7:00am
10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm

Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 75 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Transformer Oil Characteristic Curve LV‐Earth
12000

10000
IR Value (MΩs)

8000

6000

4000 Transformer Oil Characteristic 
Curve LV‐Earth

2000

0
10:00pm

10:00am

10:00pm

10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm

1:00am
4:00am
7:00am

1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm

1:00am
4:00am
7:00am

1:00pm
4:00pm

Time

Transformer Oil Characteristic Curve HV‐LV
12000

10000
IR Value (MΩs)

8000

6000

4000 Transformer Oil Characteristic 
Curve HV‐LV
2000

0
1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm
10:00pm
1:00am
4:00am
7:00am
10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm
10:00pm
1:00am
4:00am
7:00am
10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm

Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 76 


 
Dehydration, Filtration and Testing of Transformer Oil  
 

Breakdown values of Transformer Oil with 4mm gap between 13mm diameter spheres.

Oil Temp. °C 30 40 50 60 70
BDV KV 35 38 40 45 50
Courtesy: Installation, commissioning and maintenance of electrical equipment, Tarlok Singh.

Conclusion :

From the graphical analysis it shows that the IR value decreases, and rise to a stable value thus
indicating that the moisture from the core and the oil is removed. Further the BDV test clearly
shows that the breakdown voltage is very good. Therefore dehydration and filtration of
transformer oil is completed.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 77 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of 33kv CT & PT 
Panel 1 CT (Outgoing Feeder) : 300-150/1-1-1A
Panel 2 CT (Outgoing Feeder) : 300-150/1-1-1A
Panel 3 CT & PT (Outgoing Feeder) : 300-150/1-1-1A, 33kV/√3/110/√3.
Panel 4 CT (Incomer 2) : P1:-400-200/1-1A & P2:-400-200/1-1A,
33kV/√3/110/√3
Panel 5 CT (Bus Coupler) : 400-200/1-1A
Panel 6 : Adapter Feeder has no CT
Panel 7 CT (Incomer 1) : P1:-400-200/1-1A & P2:-400-200/1-1A,
33kV/√3/110/√3
Panel 8 CT (Outgoing Feeder) : 300-150/1-1-1A, 33kV/√3/110/√3
Panel 9 CT (Outgoing Feeder) : 300-150/1-1-1A
Panel 10 CT (Outgoing Feeder) : 300-150/1-1-1A

Aim : Testing of Current and Potential Transformer of 33KV side Panel.

Objectives :
• To check the secondary winding resistance of CT and PT
• To check the ratio of primary to secondary current of various cores under loaded
condition and compare with the name plate rating.
• To check the Insulation Resistance value of Potential Transformer.
Theory : Current transformer and Potential Transformer are used for metering and
protection. The Current Transformer used here have two ratio i.e. 150/1A and 200/1A. Both the
incomers have used the ratio of 200/1A while the outgoing feeders have used 150/1A. The
reason being, since the LV current of each Transformer is 349.91A each phase will be carrying
116.366A therefore keeping the ratio at 400/1A will mar the accuracy that is why 200/1A have
been selected as the CT ratio. There are three outgoing feeder for each Transformer which will
be carrying the total current from the Transformer. Here too, at the maximum, each feeder will
be able to carry a load of 116.366A therefore we set the CT ratio to 150/1A instead of 300/1A.
However there is every possibility that one feeder may be lightly loaded and the other heavily
loaded where by the loading may cross over 150A. For this reason the CT ratio 300/1A should
also be checked so that it can be put to use in the above mentioned case.
The CT of outgoing feeders has three cores of which core 3 is spare core and has been shorted.
CT secondary should never be left open. For the same power when current is stepped down from
300 to 1A, the voltage will rise by that many times. Core 1 has been used for metering while core
2 is used for protection. The incomers have four cores. Core 1 is used for metering, Core 2 for
protection, Core 3(PS) is used for Restricted Earth Fault Protection and Core 4 is used for
differential protection. Incomers have two CT connected in series, each CT containing two cores
thereby four cores in total.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 78 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

Instruments Used :

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


1 Auto Transformer 0-260V, 50Hz 1
2 Loading Transformer 230V,50Hz-7.5KVA, 1V/T 1
3 Multimeter AVΩ meter 1
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
4 Multimeter 1
Motwane
5 Clamp leaker DC-10A, Motwane 1
6 Clamp meter Kyoritsu, DCM, Model 2002 1
7 Connecting wires ----------------------------------------- APR
8 1-Ф Supply 230V, 50Hz 1

Circuit diagram P1 P2

1S1 1S3 2S1 2S3 3S1 3S3

Ωm 

DMM

Pictorial View

PT
DMM

Figure 11 Winding Resistance Check of 33kv CT & PT

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 79 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

CT Ratio Check

R Y B

After giving the supply,


measure the current in the
ammeter wire and the over
current protection panel wire
with the help of Clamp
Leaker.

1-Ф Supply

Figure 12 Ratio Check of 33kv CT

Procedure :

PART I (Winding Resistance Test)

1. Remove the earth terminal from three phase of PT from the lower side of the box. Make
sure there is no connection from the PT to earth.
2. Using the Multi meter as ohmmeter and measure the winding resistance of the respective
secondary windings and of respective phases
3. For measuring the winding resistance of CT, connect the multimeter (as ohm meter)
terminal to the respective secondary terminals of the Current Transformer.
4. Tabulate the reading and compare with the standard/manufacturer value.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 80 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

PART II (Ratio Test)

1. Collect the required instrument for performing the test.


2. Connect the secondary end of the loading transformer to the CT terminals.
3. Connect an Auto transformer (Variac) to provide supply to the loading transformer with
varying loading.
4. Connect the Auto Transformer to a single phase supply.
5. Put a Clamp Meter to the wire connecting the CT terminals form the loading
transformer.
6. Increase the current in steps of 25%, 50% and 100% of the actual rated current and
check the value on the secondary terminals respectively.
7. Repeat step 6, for other ratio too.
8. Repeat step 2-7 for other phases also.

Precaution :

• Safety the first priority.


• Never leave the secondary terminal of CT open. Always short it if not in use.
• Make the connections tight.
• Always remember the approximate value that should come on secondary. If the value
doesn’t tally then check the connections.
• Take the readings properly and do not manipulate the reading.

Results :

The results are being tabulated for each current transformer and potential transformer. The actual
ratio given on the name plate are 300-150/1-1-1A and 400-200/1-1A. The error limits doesn’t
cross over 15%. Therefore the results are correct.

   

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 81 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

PT WINDING RESISTANCE
Date:15/10/09, Sunday, Sunny.
Panel 3, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal R: 09/34228 (Ω) Y: 09/34224 (Ω) B: 09/34218 (Ω)
1a-1n 0.9 0.9 0.9
2a-2n 0.9 0.8 0.9
Panel 8, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal R: 09/34220 (Ω) Y: 09/34227 (Ω) B: 09/34229 (Ω)
1a-1n 0.8 0.9 0.8
2a-2n 0.8 0.8 0.9
Panel 7, Incomer 1, Type: IC002 (W003), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal R: 09/34221 (Ω) Y: 09/34223 (Ω) B: 09/34225 (Ω)
1a-1n 0.9 0.8 0.8
2a-2n 0.8 0.9 0.9
Panel 4, Incomer 2, Type: IC001 (W008), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal R: 09/34226 (Ω) Y: 09/34219 (Ω) B: 09/34222 (Ω)
1a-1n 0.8 0.7 0.7
2a-2n 0.8 0.8 0.8
 

CT WINDING RESISTANCE (400-200/1-1A)


Panel 4, Incomer 2, Type: IC001 (W008), Breaker rating 1250A, 17/11/09.
P2 Terminal R: 09/24606 (Ω) Y: 09/24607 (Ω) B: 09/24609 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.6 3.5 3.5
1S1-1S3 6.8 6.6 6.7
2S1-2S2 3.6 3.6 3.7
2S1-2S3 6.7 6.8 6.7
P1 Terminal R: 09/24602 (Ω) Y: 09/24603 (Ω) B: 09/24601 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.8 3.8 3.8
1S1-1S3 7.2 7.2 7.2
2S1-2S2 8.3 8.5 8.5
2S1-2S3 16.2 16.8 16.3
Panel 7, Incomer 1, Type: IC002 (W003), Breaker rating 1250A.
P2 Terminal R: 09/24611(Ω) Y: 09/24608 (Ω) B: 09/24610 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.5 3.5 3.5
1S1-1S3 6.6 6.6 6.5
2S1-2S2 3.6 3.5 3.5
2S1-2S3 6.7 6.7 6.6
P1 Terminal R: 09/24604(Ω) Y: 09/24605 (Ω) B: 09/24597 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.8 3.8 3.8
1S1-1S3 7.2 7.2 7.2
2S1-2S2 8.3 8.4 8.5
2S1-2S3 15.8 16.4 16.4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 82 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

CT WINDING RESISTANCE (300-150/1-1-1A)


Date: 17/11/2009, Tuesday, Sunny.
Panel 1, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG002 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal R: 09/24596(Ω) Y: 09/24580 (Ω) B: 09/24590 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.4 3.4 3.3
1S1-1S3 6.4 6.2 6.1
2S1-2S2 6.1 6.1 6.2
2S1-2S3 11.7 11.6 11.5
3S1-3S2 3.3 3.2 3.5
3S1-1S3 6.2 6.0 6.4
Panel 2, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG002 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal R: 09/24583 (Ω) Y: 09/24579 (Ω) B: 09/24585 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.3 3.4 3.4
1S1-1S3 6.2 6.2 6.3
2S1-2S2 5.9 6.1 6.0
2S1-2S3 11.3 11.7 11.6
3S1-3S2 3.3 3.4 3.3
3S1-1S3 6.2 6.2 6.1
Panel 3, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal R: 09/24582 (Ω) Y: 09/24593 (Ω) B: 09/24594 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.3 3.3 3.4
1S1-1S3 6.1 6.1 6.3
2S1-2S2 6.2 6.1 6.1
2S1-2S3 11.7 11.7 11.6
3S1-3S2 3.3 3.3 3.3
3S1-1S3 6.3 6.2 6.1
Panel 5, Bus Coupler, Type: BC001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal R: 09/24600 (Ω) Y: 09/24599 (Ω) B: 09/24598 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.8 3.7 8.1
1S1-1S3 7.2 7.1 15.7
2S1-2S2 8.2 8.1 3.7
2S1-2S3 15.9 15.6 7.1
Panel 8, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.17/11/09.
Terminal R: 09/24592 (Ω) Y: 09/24591 (Ω) B: 09/24586 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.2 3.4 3.2
1S1-1S3 6.1 6.2 6.1
2S1-2S2 6.0 6.2 6.1
2S1-2S3 11.7 11.7 11.7
3S1-3S2 3.4 3.3 3.2
3S1-1S3 6.3 6.2 6.1

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 83 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

Panel 9, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG002 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.17/11/09.


Terminal R: 09/24581 (Ω) Y: 09/24587 (Ω) B: 09/24595 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.4 3.3 3.4
1S1-1S3 6.3 6.2 6.3
2S1-2S2 6.2 6.1 6.1
2S1-2S3 11.7 11.6 11.7
3S1-3S2 3.3 3.4 3.2
3S1-1S3 6.1 6.2 6.2
Panel 10, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG002 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.17/11/09.
Terminal R: 09/24589 (Ω) Y: 09/24584 (Ω) B: 09/24588 (Ω)
1S1-1S2 3.2 3.2 3.3
1S1-1S3 6.1 6.2 6.2
2S1-2S2 6.1 6.1 6.1
2S1-2S3 11.6 11.5 11.7
3S1-3S2 3.3 3.3 3.3
3S1-1S3 6.2 6.2 6.0

PT RATIO CHECK (33kV/√3/110/√3)


Date:15/10/09, Sunday, Sunny.
Panel 4, Incomer 2, Type: IC001, Breaker rating 1250A.
Sl. No. R: 09/34228, Y: 09/34224, B: 09/34218
Secondary (V)
Primary (V) R-Phase Y-Phase B-Phase
Core1 Core2 Core1 Core2 Core1 Core2
222.50 0.741 0.797 0.741 0.734 0.741 0.744
Ratio 300.27 279.17 300.27 303.13 300.27 299.06
% Error 0.09 -6.94 0.09 1.04 0.09 -0.31
Panel 3, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Sl. No. R: 09/24582, Y: 09/24593, B: 09/24594
Secondary (V)
Primary (V) R-Phase Y-Phase B-Phase
Core1 Core2 Core1 Core2 Core1 Core2
219.40 0.734 0.734 0.737 0.737 0.737 0.737
Ratio 298.91 298.91 297.96 297.96 297.96 297.96
% Error -0.36 -0.36 -0.68 -0.68 -0.68 -0.68
Panel 7, Incomer 1, Type: IC002, Breaker rating 1250A.
Sl. No. R: 09/24611, Y: 09/24608, B: 09/24610
Secondary (V)
Primary (V) R-Phase Y-Phase B-Phase
Core1 Core2 Core1 Core2 Core1 Core2
219.60 0.737 0.737 0.736 0.737 0.739 0.739
Ratio 297.96 297.96 298.37 297.96 297.16 297.16
% Error -0.68 -0.68 -0.54 -0.68 -0.95 -0.95
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 84 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

Panel 8, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001, Breaker rating 1250A.


Sl. No. R: 09/24592, Y: 09/24591, B: 09/24586
Secondary (V)
Primary (V) R-Phase Y-Phase B-Phase
Core1 Core2 Core1 Core2 Core1 Core2
218.90 0.731 0.733 0.734 0.733 0.733 0.733
Ratio 299.45 298.64 298.23 298.64 298.64 298.64
% Error -0.18 -0.45 -0.59 -0.45 -0.45 -0.45
 

CT RATIO CHECK
Panel 1 CT Station Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.
Date: 24/11/2009, Tuesday, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. 09/24596, Y-Sl.no. 09/24580, B-Sl.no. 09/24590
Secondary Current (A)
Applied Primary
Current (A) R-phase Y-phase B-phase
(A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error (A) Ratio % error
50 0.32 156.25 4.17% 0.36 138.89 -7.41% 0.34 147.06 -1.96%
75 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.49 153.06 2.04% 0.52 144.23 -3.85%
150 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.03 145.63 -2.91% 1.00 150.00 0.00%
Panel 1 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.
50 0.32 156.25 4.17% 0.34 147.06 -1.96% 0.36 138.89 -7.41%
75 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.51 147.06 -1.96%
150 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.00 150.00 0.00%
Panel 2 CT Outgoing Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.
R-Sl.no. 09/24583, Y-Sl.no. 09/24579, B-Sl.no. 09/24585
50 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.34 147.06 -1.96% 0.33 151.52 1.01%
75 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.49 153.06 2.04% 0.50 150.00 0.00%
150 1.02 147.06 -1.96% 1.02 147.06 -1.96% 1.02 147.06 -1.96%
Panel 2 CT, 1S1-1S3, 300/1A: Not Used.
50 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11%
75 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.48 312.50 4.17% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
Panel 2 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.
50 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.32 156.25 4.17% 0.33 151.52 1.01%
75 0.51 147.06 -1.96% 0.49 153.06 2.04% 0.50 150.00 0.00%
150 0.99 151.52 1.01% 1.02 147.06 -1.96% 1.02 147.06 -1.96%
Panel 2 CT, 2S1-2S3, 300/1A: Not Used.
50 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11%
75 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
Panel 3 CT Outgoing Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.
R-Sl.no. 09/24583, Y-Sl.no. 09/24579, B-Sl.no. 09/24585
50 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.33 151.52 1.01%
75 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.51 147.06 -1.96%
150 1.14 131.58 -12.28% 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.00 150.00 0.00%
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 85 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

Panel 3 CT, 1S1-1S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


50 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.16 312.50 4.17% 0.14 357.14 19.05%
75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00%
Panel 3 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.
50 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.33 151.52 1.01%
75 0.51 147.06 -1.96% 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.50 150.00 0.00%
150 1.03 145.63 -2.91% 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.00 150.00 0.00%
Panel 3 CT, 2S1-2S3, 300/1A: Not Used.
50 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.16 312.50 4.17% 0.15 333.33 11.11%
75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
Panel 4 CT Incomer 2, 1S1-1S2, 200/1A: Metering.
P1 R-Sl.no. 09/24602, Y-Sl.no. 09/24603, B-Sl.no. 09/24601
P2 R-Sl.no. 09/24606, Y-Sl.no. 09/24607, B-Sl.no. 09/24609
100 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.50 200.00 0.00% 0.50 200.00 0.00%
200 1.01 198.02 -0.99% 1.02 196.08 -1.96% 1.01 198.02 -0.99%
300 - - - - - - - - -
Panel 4 CT, 1S1-1S3, 400/1A: Not Used.
100 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17%
200 0.50 400.00 0.00% 0.50 400.00 0.00% 0.50 400.00 0.00%
300 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.75 400.00 0.00%
Panel 4 CT, 2S1-1S2, 200/1A: Protection.
100 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.50 200.00 0.00%
200 1.01 198.02 -0.99% 1.01 198.02 -0.99% 1.01 198.02 -0.99%
300 - - - - - - - - -
Panel 4 CT, 2S1-2S3, 400/1A: Not Used.
100 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17%
200 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04%
300 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.75 400.00 0.00%
Panel 4 CT, 3S1-3S2, 200/1A: REF.
100 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.49 204.08 2.04%
200 1.01 198.02 -0.99% 1.01 198.02 -0.99% 1.01 198.02 -0.99%
300 - - - - - - - - -
Panel 4 CT, 3S1-3S3, 400/1A: Not Used.
100 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.23 434.78 8.70% 0.23 434.78 8.70%
200 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04%
300 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.74 405.41 1.35% 0.74 405.41 1.35%
Panel 4 CT, 4S1-4S2, 200/1A: Differential Protection.
100 0.48 208.33 4.17% 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.50 200.00 0.00%
200 1.01 198.02 -0.99% 1.01 198.02 -0.99% 1.00 200.00 0.00%
300 - - - - - - - - -
Panel 4 CT, 4S1-4S3, 400/1A: Not Used.
100 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17%
200 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.50 400.00 0.00% 0.50 400.00 0.00%
300 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.74 405.41 1.35% 0.74 405.41 1.35%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 86 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

Panel 5 CT Bus Coupler, 1S1-1S2, 200/1A: Metering.


R-Sl.no. 09/24600, Y-Sl.no. 09/24599, B-Sl.no. 09/24598
100 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.49 204.08 2.04%
200 1.00 200.00 0.00% 1.00 200.00 0.00% 1.00 200.00 0.00%
300 - - - - - - - - -
Panel 5 CT, 1S1-1S3, 400/1A: Not Used.
100 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17%
200 0.50 400.00 0.00% 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.50 400.00 0.00%
300 0.74 405.41 1.35% 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.74 405.41 1.35%
Panel 5 CT, 2S1-1S2, 200/1A: Protection.
100 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.49 204.08 2.04%
200 1.00 200.00 0.00% 1.00 200.00 0.00% 1.00 200.00 0.00%
300 - - - - - - - - -
Panel 5 CT, 2S1-2S3, 400/1A: Not Used.
100 0.23 434.78 8.70% 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17%
200 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04%
300 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.74 405.41 1.35%
Panel 7 CT Incomer 1, 1S1-1S2, 200/1A: Metering.
P1 R-Sl.no. 09/24604, Y-Sl.no. 09/24605, B-Sl.no. 09/24597
P2 R-Sl.no. 09/24611, Y-Sl.no. 09/24608, B-Sl.no. 09/24610
100 0.50 200.00 0.00% 0.50 200.00 0.00% 0.50 200.00 0.00%
200 1.00 200.00 0.00% 1.00 200.00 0.00% 1.03 194.17 -2.91%
300 - - - - - - - - -
Panel 7 CT, 1S1-1S3, 400/1A: Not Used.
100 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17%
200 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04%
300 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.75 400.00 0.00%
Panel 7 CT, 2S1-1S2, 200/1A: Protection.
100 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.51 196.08 -1.96% 0.51 196.08 -1.96%
200 1.00 200.00 0.00% 1.02 196.08 -1.96% 1.02 196.08 -1.96%
300 - - - - - - - - -
Panel 7 CT, 2S1-2S3, 400/1A: Not Used.
100 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17%
200 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04%
300 0.75 400.00 0.00% 0.74 405.41 1.35% 0.75 400.00 0.00%
Panel 7 CT, 3S1-3S2, 200/1A: REF.
100 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.50 200.00 0.00% 0.51 196.08 -1.96%
200 1.00 200.00 0.00% 1.01 198.02 -0.99% 1.02 196.08 -1.96%
300 - - - - - - - - -
Panel 7 CT, 3S1-3S3, 400/1A: Not Used.
100 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.23 434.78 8.70% 0.23 434.78 8.70%
200 0.48 416.67 4.17% 0.47 425.53 6.38% 0.48 416.67 4.17%
300 0.74 405.41 1.35% 0.73 410.96 2.74% 0.74 405.41 1.35%
Panel 7 CT, 4S1-4S2, 200/1A: Differential Protection.
100 0.49 204.08 2.04% 0.50 200.00 0.00% 0.50 200.00 0.00%
200 1.00 200.00 0.00% 1.01 198.02 -0.99% 1.01 198.02 -0.99%
300 - - - - - - - - -

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 87 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

Panel 7 CT, 4S1-4S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


100 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17% 0.24 416.67 4.17%
200 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04% 0.49 408.16 2.04%
-
300 0.79 0.75 0.75
379.75 5.06% 400.00 0.00% 400.00 0.00%
Panel 8 CT Outgoing Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.
R-Sl.no. 09/24592, Y-Sl.no. 09/24591, B-Sl.no. 09/24586
50 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.33 151.52 1.01%
75 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.49 153.06 2.04%
150 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.00 150.00 0.00% 1.01 148.51 -0.99%
Panel 8 CT, 1S1-1S3, 300/1A: Not Used.
50 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.14 357.14 19.05%
75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.48 312.50 4.17%
Panel 8 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.
50 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.33 151.52 1.01%
75 0.49 153.06 2.04% 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.49 153.06 2.04%
150 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 0.99 151.52 1.01% 1.00 150.00 0.00%
Panel 8 CT, 2S1-2S3, 300/1A: Not Used.
50 0.16 312.50 4.17% 0.16 312.50 4.17% 0.14 357.14 19.05%
75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.48 312.50 4.17%
Panel 9 CT Outgoing Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.
R-Sl.no. 09/24581, Y-Sl.no. 09/24587, B-Sl.no. 09/24595
50 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.32 156.25 4.17% 0.34 147.06 -1.96%
75 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.49 153.06 2.04%
150 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.01 148.51 -0.99%
Panel 9 CT, 1S1-1S3, 300/1A: Not Used.
50 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11%
75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.48 312.50 4.17% 0.50 300.00 0.00%
Panel 9 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.
50 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.32 156.25 4.17% 0.34 147.06 -1.96%
75 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.49 153.06 2.04%
150 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.01 148.51 -0.99%
Panel 9 CT, 2S1-2S3, 300/1A: Not Used.
50 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11%
75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 88 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

Panel 10 CT Outgoing Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.


R-Sl.no. 09/24589, Y-Sl.no. 09/24584, B-Sl.no. 09/24588
50 0.34 147.06 -1.96% 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.33 151.52 1.01%
75 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.50 150.00 0.00%
150 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.00 150.00 0.00% 1.00 150.00 0.00%
Panel 10 CT, 1S1-1S3, 300/1A: Not Used.
50 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11%
75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09 8.70%
150 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00 0.00%
Panel 10 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.
50 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.33 151.52 1.01% 0.32 156.25 4.17%
75 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.50 150.00 0.00% 0.50 150.00 0.00%
150 1.01 148.51 -0.99% 1.00 150.00 0.00% 1.01 148.51 -0.99%
Panel 10 CT, 2S1-2S3, 300/1A: Not Used.
50 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11% 0.15 333.33 11.11%
75 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50 4.17%
150 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12 2.04%

INSULATION RESISTANCE CHECK OF PT


IR Check of Incomer 2 PT, Panel 4 (1kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Pry-Earth Pry-Sec1 Pry-Sec2 Sec1-Sec2 Sec1-Earth Sec2-Earth
R 200 200 200 200 200 200
Y 200 200 200 200 200 200
B 200 200 200 200 200 200
IR Check of Incomer 1 PT, Panel 7 (1kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Pry-Earth Pry-Sec1 Pry-Sec2 Sec1-Sec2 Sec1-Earth Sec2-Earth
R 200 200 200 200 200 200
Y 200 200 200 200 200 200
B 200 200 200 200 200 200
IR Check of Outgoing Feeder, Panel 8 (1kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Pry-Earth Pry-Sec1 Pry-Sec2 Sec1-Sec2 Sec1-Earth Sec2-Earth
R 200 200 200 200 200 200
Y 200 200 200 200 200 200
B 200 200 200 200 200 200
IR Check of Outgoing Feeder, Panel 3 (1kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Pry-Earth Pry-Sec1 Pry-Sec2 Sec1-Sec2 Sec1-Earth Sec2-Earth
R 200 200 200 200 200 200
Y 200 200 200 200 200 200
B 200 200 200 200 200 200

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 89 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 1 (Motorized 5kV Megger), MΩ


Phase Upper arm - Earth Lower arm - Earth Upper arm - Lower arm
R 10000 10000 3000
Y 10000 10000 5000
B 10000 10000 5000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 2 (Motorized 5kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Upper arm - Earth Lower arm - Earth Upper arm - Lower arm
R 10000 10000 10000
Y 10000 10000 10000
B 10000 10000 10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 3 (Motorized 5kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Upper arm - Earth Lower arm - Earth Upper arm - Lower arm
R 10000 10000 10000
Y 10000 10000 10000
B 10000 10000 10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 4 (Motorized 5kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Upper arm - Earth Lower arm - Earth Upper arm - Lower arm
R 10000 10000 10000
Y 10000 10000 10000
B 10000 10000 10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 5 (Motorized 5kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Upper arm - Earth Lower arm - Earth Upper arm - Lower arm
R 10000 10000 10000
Y 10000 10000 10000
B 10000 10000 10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 7 (Motorized 5kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Upper arm - Earth Lower arm - Earth Upper arm - Lower arm
R 10000 10000 10000
Y 10000 10000 10000
B 10000 10000 10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 8 (Motorized 5kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Upper arm - Earth Lower arm - Earth Upper arm - Lower arm
R 10000 10000 10000
Y 10000 10000 10000
B 10000 10000 10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 9 (Motorized 5kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Upper arm - Earth Lower arm - Earth Upper arm - Lower arm
R 10000 10000 10000
Y 10000 10000 10000
B 10000 10000 10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 2 (Motorized 5kV Megger), MΩ
Phase Upper arm - Earth Lower arm - Earth Upper arm - Lower arm
R 10000 10000 10000
Y 10000 10000 10000
B 10000 10000 10000

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 90 


 
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of CT & PT 
 

Conclusion : From this field test, it confirms that the secondary winding resistances are
within its permissible value. The CT and PT Ratio also match with the name plate rating. The
Insulation Resistance value also shows good insulation. The CT ratios have been checked for
every core and for both the ratio. Thus we hereby conclude that the equipment has no defect and
can be put to use.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 91 


 
Testing of XLPE Cables (High POT Test) 
 

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST) 
Aim : Testing of XLPE Cables.

Objective :

• To check the Insulation Resistance Value of the cables.


• To check the withstand voltage of the cable.
• To check the value of leakage current flowing out from the cable to ground.

Theory : High POT Test or Cable HV Test or High Pressurized Test, anyone one
may say but all these are same. Such tests are performed to know the IR value of the insulation
and the leakage current flowing into the ground. This test can be done with AC as well as DC. In
fact this test should be done with AC but wherever possibility doesn’t exist we go for DC supply.
This test will also confirm whether the cable will be able to withstand the desired voltage. Cables
have a capacitive effect so when we apply AC voltage, it will allow the current the pass through
without any hindrance but blocks the DC therefore the current will be quite high (in terms of
amperes), so such current will trip. But the testing kit is meant to measure current in terms of
miliamperes. If we go for DC then the current required for charging the capacitor will be very
less which tallies with our testing kit. Therefore we convert the AC supply to DC supply with the
help of Rectifier and the current limiting resistor and supply the voltage. DC voltage is root 2
times the AC voltage. Since the capacitor remains charged once the voltage is applied it is
necessary to discharge the capacitor after finishing the experiment in order to avoid shock.
Discharge it to ground with discharge rod. While doing for Bus Section we use AC voltage since
here we do not have capacitive effect. The conductors are rectangular copper plates. If dust and
moisture is present then the spark will occur before actual withstand voltage is applied. In such
case we will have to clean and heat the surrounding of the conductor and then do the test. While
doing the experiment one may notice that the pointer of the AVΩ meter keeps on fluctuating
indicating the presence of dust. As we increase the voltage beyond 30KV, hissing sound occurs
indicating the inception of Corona. While increasing the voltage the air around the conductor
also gets ionized and if moisture is present around then the voltage gets discharged through the
conducting medium (moisture) to the ground.

While discharging the cable after the test, if the discharge is high then it indicates the capacitive
effect is more indicating longer cables thereby more leakage and weaker insulation. Better the
insulation and shorter the length of the cable, lesser will be the discharge (spark). The leakage
current should be within 10-15mA.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 92 


 
Testing of XLPE Cables (High POT Test) 
 

Instruments Used :

Sl. No. Description Specification Remarks


I/p: 0-250V, O/p: 0-36KV, Prayog Electricals
1 HV Testing Transformer
1-Ф, 50Hz, Sl. no. H-2640. Pvt. Ltd. Bombay
2 Rectifier Sl. no. H-2638.
3 Current limiting Resistor
I/p: 220/250V, O/p: 0-36KV, Prayog Electricals
4 High Voltage Tester
1-Ф, 50Hz, Sl. no. H-2640. Pvt. Ltd. Bombay
5 Motorized Megger 5kV, AC input.
6 AVΩ Meter µA and mA range

Experimental diagram :
Current Limiting Resistor
B Y R
Rectifier

High Voltage Transformer

1‐Ф Supply 

1‐Ф Supply AVΩ
Meter
High Voltage Tester

Figure 13 High POT Test (CABLE HV TEST)

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 93 


 
Testing of XLPE Cables (High POT Test) 
 

Procedure :
PART I (Before HV Test)

1. Collect the required testing instrument as per the requisition table.


2. Clean thoroughly the dust and dirt from the conductors to be tested and heat the area so
that the place is moisture free.
3. Connect Megger to R-earth phase and supply the power. Note the value of resistance
after reaching a steady value.
4. Repeat step 2 for Y phase and B phase.
5. Check the Megger value for phase to phase.

PART II

1. Short any two phases (say Y & B) with earth terminal. Leave the other phase (say R)
unconnected.
2. Connect the terminal from the HV Transformer to R phase.
3. Switch on the power supply.
4. Gradually increase the voltage up to 40kV DC and keep it for 5 minutes.
5. Check the leakage current in the ammeter connected to the HV Transformer.
6. Note down the reading.
7. Repeat step 1-6 Y and B phase too.
8. For Bus section where bare conductors is there, use AC voltage for 1 minute.

PART III
1. After completing Part I & II, then Connect Megger to R-earth phase and supply the
power.
2. Observe the IR value after the meter pointer attains a steady value.
3. Connect Megger to Y-Earth and supply the power.
4. Repeat step 3 for B-Earth terminals.
5. Check the Megger value for phase to phase i.e. R-Y, Y-B & B-R.
6. Note down the readings carefully.

Precautions :
1. Safety the first priority.
2. When high voltage is being injected don’t allow anyone to stand nearby the testing kit.
3. Make sure no one is there on the equipment on which test is being carried out.
4. Forget not, to keep one person guarding the other end of cable so that no one comes
nearby the cable under test.
5. Always increase the voltage gradually. If sparking occurs, it is due to moisture and dust,
so make the area clean and dry.
6. After completing the test always discharge the charge from the cable with the help of
discharge rod before touching it with bare hand.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 94 


 
Testing of XLPE Cables (High POT Test) 
 

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Cable between Transformer 1 and 33kV Panel 7.
Date: 26/11/2009, 10:40am, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 12°C
IR Check of Cable ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals Before HV Test (MΩ) After HV Test (MΩ)
R-Earth 10000 10000 
Y-Earth 10000  10000 
B-Earth 10000  10000 
R-Y Phase 10000  10000 
Y-B Phase 10000  10000 
B-R Phase 10000  10000 
40 KV DC applied to the Cable under Test for 5 minutes
Terminals Leakage Current (µA)
R- Y+B+Earth 10
Y- R+B+Earth 10
B- Y+R+Earth 10
 

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Cable between Transformer 2 and 33kV Panel 4.
Date: 26/11/2009, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 12°C
IR Check of Cable ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals Before HV Test (MΩ) After HV Test (MΩ)
R-Earth 10000 10000 
Y-Earth 10000  10000 
B-Earth 10000  10000 
R-Y Phase 10000  4500 
Y-B Phase 10000  5000 
B-R Phase 10000  4000 
40 KV DC applied to the Cable under Test for 5 minutes
Terminals Leakage Current (µA)
R- Y+B+Earth 10
Y- R+B+Earth 7
B- Y+R+Earth 37
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 95 


 
Testing of XLPE Cables (High POT Test) 
 

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Outgoing Cable from Panel 1.


Date: 26/11/2009, 11:30am, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 13°C
IR Check of Cable ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals Before HV Test (MΩ) After HV Test (MΩ)
R-Earth 10000 10000 
Y-Earth 10000  10000 
B-Earth 10000  10000 
R-Y Phase 10000  10000 
Y-B Phase 10000  10000 
B-R Phase 10000  10000 
40 KV DC applied to the Cable under Test for 5 minutes
Terminals Leakage Current (µA)
R- Y+B+Earth 10
Y- R+B+Earth 10
B- Y+R+Earth 10
 

BUS TEST (100X10 SQ.MM) SECTION 2


Date: 26/11/2009, Location: Inside the room.
IR Check of Bus, Section 2 ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals Before HV Test (MΩ) After HV Test (MΩ)
R-Earth 10000 10000 
Y-Earth 10000  10000 
B-Earth 10000  10000 
R-Y Phase 10000  10000 
Y-B Phase 10000  10000 
B-R Phase 10000  10000 
40 KV AC applied to the Bus under Test for 1 minute.
Terminals Leakage Current (mA)
R- Y+B+Earth 2
Y- R+B+Earth 2
B- Y+R+Earth 2
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 96 


 
Testing of XLPE Cables (High POT Test) 
 

BUS TEST (100X10 SQ.MM) SECTION 1


Date: 26/11/2009, Location: Inside the room.
IR Check of Bus, Section 1 ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals Before HV Test (MΩ) After HV Test (MΩ)
R-Earth 10000 10000 
Y-Earth 10000  10000 
B-Earth 10000  10000 
R-Y Phase 10000  10000 
Y-B Phase 10000  10000 
B-R Phase 10000  10000 
40 KV AC applied to the Bus under Test for 1 minute.
Terminals Leakage Current (mA)
R- Y+B+Earth 3
Y- R+B+Earth 5
B- Y+R+Earth 4 (Trip at 30kV)
 

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Outgoing Cable from Panel 9.


Date: 16/12/2009, 4:45pm, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 13°C
IR Check of Cable, 3x150sq.mm. ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals Before HV Test (MΩ) After HV Test (MΩ)
R-Earth 10000 10000 
Y-Earth 10000  10000 
B-Earth 10000  10000 
R-Y Phase 10000  10000 
Y-B Phase 10000  10000 
B-R Phase 10000  10000 
40 KV DC applied to the Cable under Test for 5 minutes
Terminals Leakage Current (µA)
R- Y+B+Earth 8
Y- R+B+Earth 8
B- Y+R+Earth 6
 

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 97 


 
Testing of XLPE Cables (High POT Test) 
 

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Outgoing Cable from Panel 8.


Date: 16/12/2009, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 13°C
IR Check of Cable, 3x150sq.mm. ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals Before HV Test (MΩ) After HV Test (MΩ)
R-Earth 10000 10000 
Y-Earth 10000  10000 
B-Earth 10000  10000 
R-Y Phase 10000  10000 
Y-B Phase 10000  10000 
B-R Phase 10000  10000 
40 KV DC applied to the Bus under Test for 5 minutes.
Terminals Leakage Current (µA)
R- Y+B+Earth 4
Y- R+B+Earth 15
B- Y+R+Earth 15
 

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Outgoing Cable from Panel 2.


Date: 16/12/2009, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 13°C
IR Check of Cable, 3x150sq.mm. ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals Before HV Test (MΩ) After HV Test (MΩ)
R-Earth 10000 10000 
Y-Earth 10000  10000 
B-Earth 10000  10000 
R-Y Phase 10000  10000 
Y-B Phase 10000  10000 
B-R Phase 10000  10000 
40 KV DC applied to the Bus under Test for 1 minute.
Terminals Leakage Current (µA)
R- Y+B+Earth 6
Y- R+B+Earth 8
B- Y+R+Earth 10

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 98 


 
Testing of XLPE Cables (High POT Test) 
 

Observation :

While the experiment is under test, one will observe the inception of corona above 30kV/cm2.
Hissing sound will be noticed indicating the inception of corona. Some sparking sound may be
heard indicating the presence of dust particles. If moisture is present then the voltage trips off
through spark before reaching the set voltage as it happened for B-phase of Bus Section 1. So we
heated the area with halogen lamp, cleaned the conductor thoroughly and performed the test
which gave better result.

While Meggering, initially the pointer moves towards zero indicating the capacitance of the
cable being charged i.e. the current is drawn to charge the capacitance of the cable so no current
flows through the cable. However after the capacitive effect of the cable, the current passes
through cable thus indicating the IR value. For Long cables the pointer may stick at zero for
longer time indicating greater capacitance however the pointer will rise slowly.

Conclusion :

The result shows very good IR value of the cable and bus section. The leakage current found is
very less ranging in micro amperes while the normal leakage current comes in 10-15mA. For
better result the conductors should be free from dust particles and moisture free. However our
results have good IR values and lesser leakage current indicating the stability of cable under the
desired voltage. Therefore the cables are good and healthy.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 99 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Relay Testing (Over Current Protection) 
Aim : Testing of Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) and Earth Fault Relay of
33KV Vacuum Circuit Breaker.

Objective :

¾ Find out the trip time of IDMT Relay under Normal condition.
¾ Find out the trip time of IDMT Relay under High Set condition.
¾ Find out the trip time of Earth Fault IDMT under Normal Condition.
¾ Find out the trip time of Earth Fault IDMT under High Set Condition.

Theory : An over current protection device protects the circuit by opening the
device when the current reaches a value that will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature
rise in conductors. The time it takes for an over current protection device (OCPD) to open is
inversely proportional to the magnitude of the fault current. Thus, the higher the ground-fault
current, the less time it takes for the OCPD to open and clear the fault.

Inverse Definite Minimum Time Over current (IDMT) relay gives inverse-time current
characteristics at lower values of the fault current and definite-time characteristics at higher
values of the fault current (Used in distribution line).

Here we set the current and Trip time at a particular value and then injects higher current and
note the Trip time obtained. The field test should
confirm that the trip time obtained should not be
greater than the set time. According to British
standards, the following are the important
characteristics of over current relays.

Figure 14 Inverse-Time, Very-Inverse Time and Extremely-Inverse Time characteristics.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 100 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Instruments Used :

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


230V, 50Hz, 0-1-5-10-25-100A, Shruti Electronics
1 Relay Test Set 1
0-99.99S,0-9.999S Kolkata
2 Clamp Leaker DC-10A, Motwane 1
3 Connecting Wires APR
4 Power Supply 230V, 50Hz 1

Circuit Diagram:

Back View of the Relay.


X1 TB Connected in order to
R=15, Y=19, check the time from the
B=23, N=27 relay test set as well as

Power
Supply

Figure 15 Testing of IDMT Relays

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 101 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Procedure :

1. Set up the experiment as given above with the relay test set.
2. Set the 'Time Setting' of the relay as per the desired value and find out the calculated trip
time.
3. Set the 'Current Setting' of the relay as per the desired value.
4. Connect the wires from the relay test set to the 'Terminal Box' so as to obtain R-Y or Y-B
or B-R respectively.
5. To compare the time noted by the relay and the relay test set, connect the terminals from
the relay test set to the relay as shown in the figure above.
6. Now inject a bit higher current through the relay test set so as to provide fault and see the
trip time obtained.
7. After the fault has been injected note the tripping time and the LED indication.
8. Follow this procedure for O/C IDMT, O/C High Set, Earth Fault IDMT and Earth Fault
High Set conditions.
9. Repeat the same for other relays too.

Results :

The result shows that the 'Trip Time Obtained' is always lesser than the 'Calculated Trip Time'
indicating that the relays will operate faster. At the most the tripping time of the relay should not
be greater than that of the calculated trip time. In case of high set conditions the relay should trip
instantaneously, therefore we set the time to zero. The term 'High Set' is used for very fast relays
with operating time less than 0.1s. IDMT Over current relays gives inverse-time current
characteristics at lower values of fault current and definite time characteristics at higher values of
fault current. Generally, an inverse-time characteristic is obtained if the value of PSM is below
10. For the value of PSM between 10 and 20, the characteristics tend to become a straight line
i.e. towards a definite time characteristics.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 102 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: Station Feeder (Panel 1).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106790. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 1 2 0.15 1500 1300 1,2


Y-B 1 2 0.15 1500 1300 1,2
B-R 1 2 0.15 1500 1310 1,2
2. Over current High Set (I >>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 4 4 0 0 30 1
Y-B 4 4 0 0 30 1
B-R 4 4 0 0 30 1
3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1190 1,3


Y-B 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1190 1,3
B-R 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1000 1,3
4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 2 2 0 0 60 1,4
Y-B 2 2 0 0 50 1,4
B-R 2 2 0 0 60 1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 103 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: OG002 (Panel 2).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106791. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 1 2 0.15 1500 1260 1,2


Y-B 1 2 0.15 1500 1360 1,2
B-R 1 2 0.15 1500 1200 1,2
2. Over current High Set (I >>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 4 4 0 0 20 1
Y-B 4 4 0 0 30 1
B-R 4 4 0 0 30 1
3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1200 1,3


Y-B 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1200 1,3
B-R 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1200 1,3
4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 2 2 0 0 20 1,4
Y-B 2 2 0 0 20 1,4
B-R 2 2 0 0 20 1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 104 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: OG001 (Panel 3).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106785. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 1 2 0.15 1500 1270 1,2


Y-B 1 2 0.15 1500 1300 1,2
B-R 1 2 0.15 1500 1250 1,2
2. Over current High Set (I >>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 4 4 0 0 30 1
Y-B 4 4 0 0 50 1
B-R 4 4 0 0 50 1
3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1230 1,3


Y-B 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1220 1,3
B-R 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1230 1,3
4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 2 2 0 0 60 1,4
Y-B 2 2 0 0 60 1,4
B-R 2 2 0 0 60 1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 105 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: IC001 (Panel 4).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106789. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 1 2 0.2 2000 1830 1,2


Y-B 1 2 0.2  2000 1850 1,2
B-R 1 2 0.2  2000 1910 1,2
2. Over current High Set (I >>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 4 4 0.03 300 60 1,4


Y-B 4 4 0.03 300 50 1,4
B-R 4 4 0.03 300 60 1,4
3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 0.2 0.4 0.2 2000 1680 1,3


Y-B 0.2 0.4 0.2  2000 1700 1,3
B-R 0.2 0.4 0.2  2000 1780 1,3
4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 2 2 0.03 300 70 1,4


Y-B 2 2 0.03 300 60 1,4
B-R 2 2 0.03 300 30 1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 106 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: BC001 (Panel 5).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106792. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 1 2 0.2 2000 1880 1,2


Y-B 1 2 0.2  2000 1900 1,2
B-R 1 2 0.2  2000 1980 1,2
2. Over current High Set (I >>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 4 4 0 0 60 1,4
Y-B 4 4 0 0 50 1,4
B-R 4 4 0 0 60 1,4
3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 0.2 0.4 0.2 2000 1700 1,3


Y-B 0.2 0.4 0.2  2000 1700 1,3
B-R 0.2 0.4 0.2  2000 1700 1,3
4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 2 2 0 0 60 1,4
Y-B 2 2 0 0 50 1,4
B-R 2 2 0 0 60 1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 107 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: IC002 (Panel 7).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106787. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 1 2 0.2 2000 1790 1,2


Y-B 1 2 0.2  2000 1840 1,2
B-R 1 2 0.2  2000 1830 1,2
2. Over current High Set (I >>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 4 4 0.03 300 60 1,4


Y-B 4 4 0.03 300 50 1,4
B-R 4 4 0.03 300 50 1,4
3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 0.2 0.4 0.2 2000 1900 1,3


Y-B 0.2 0.4 0.2  2000 1940 1,3
B-R 0.2 0.4 0.2  2000 1920 1,3
4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 2 2 0.03 300 60 1,4


Y-B 2 2 0.03 300 50 1,4
B-R 2 2 0.03 300 60 1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 108 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: OG001 (Panel 8).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106788. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 1 2 0.15 1500 1490 1,2


Y-B 1 2 0.15 1500 1400 1,2
B-R 1 2 0.15 1500 1450 1,2
2. Over current High Set (I >>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 4 4 0 0 20 1,4
Y-B 4 4 0 0 30 1,4
B-R 4 4 0 0 20 1,4
3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1320 1,3


Y-B 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1300 1,3
B-R 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1300 1,3
4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 2 2 0 0 60 1,4
Y-B 2 2 0 0 60 1,4
B-R 2 2 0 0 60 1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 109 


 
Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: OG002 (Panel 9).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106793. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 1 2 0.15 1500 1380 1,2


Y-B 1 2 0.15 1500 1470 1,2
B-R 1 2 0.15 1500 1440 1,2
2. Over current High Set (I >>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 4 4 0 0 30 1,4
Y-B 4 4 0 0 30 1,4
B-R 4 4 0 0 20 1,4
3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1260 1,3


Y-B 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1300 1,3
B-R 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1320 1,3
4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 2 2 0 0 30 1,4
Y-B 2 2 0 0 30 1,4
B-R 2 2 0 0 20 1,4

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Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: OG002 (Panel 10).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106786. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 1 2 0.15 1500 1300 1,2


Y-B 1 2 0.15 1500 1340 1,2
B-R 1 2 0.15 1500 1370 1,2
2. Over current High Set (I >>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 4 4 0 0 20 1,4
Y-B 4 4 0 0 30 1,4
B-R 4 4 0 0 30 1,4
3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1300 1,3


Y-B 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1320 1,3
B-R 0.2 0.4 0.15 1500 1300 1,3
4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)

Current Injected Time Calculated Trip Time LED


Phase
Setting(A) Current(A) Setting(s) Trip Time(ms) Obtained(ms) Indication

R-Y 2 2 0 0 20 1,4
Y-B 2 2 0 0 30 1,4
B-R 2 2 0 0 20 1,4

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Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Relay Test 
 

Precautions :

I. Safety, the first priority.


II. Refer the drawings correctly.
III. Avoid loose connections.

Conclusion : From this test it is proved that the operating time of the relay is within its range.
The operating time doesn’t exceed the set time. For the entire outgoing feeder, the high set
condition the time set is zero so that the relay acts as instantaneous relay and trips off as soon as
the fault occurs. While in case of incomers, the time has been set to 0.03 so that this relays acts
only after the relays of the outgoing feeder trips off. In any case the trip time obtained is lesser
than the time set, thus indicating that the relays will clear the fault within the set time.

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System Stability Testing 
 

Stability Testing Report 
Aim : To confirm the stability of the total system.

Objective :

• To check if the ratio of CT on primary and secondary are correct.


• To check if there is any connections left out.
• To check if the connections are done correctly.
• To check if the line is continuous.
• To check if the relay scheme is functioning or not.

Theory : This test is the last test done before charging the transformer. This test ensures
that every work done till now is stable. By applying certain amount of current on the primary of
the CT we check the current on the secondary side. By knowing the ratio of CT, we can find out
the secondary currents, which have to be traced till the relay panel and control panel. If the same
current exists then the system is stable. However sometimes we don’t get it. We may get
different secondary current, and then the connections have to be checked as the wire may be
connected mistakenly to other device. If there is any open circuit then we won't get current at the
end of the circuit. While performing this test one has to be thorough with the CT ratio of various
equipments so that when we get different values we will be able to know by calculation whose
secondary current is flowing. And also before checking one should know by calculation what
value of current should we get at that point. In fact this is the final test, here we know every
result but we are assuring that result by practically performing the test. Often there will be wrong
connections and open circuit.

For this we apply known value of current in the primary side of CT. We trace the secondary
current through CT junction box, Control panel (Metering circuit) and relay panel (distance
protection and bus bar protection). We also check the secondary CT current at Transformer
Junction box and follow up till its control panel where we check currents in MW, MVAR, MWT,
MVART, ATY, TVM, ASS, IC TB (Incoming TB) and O/C and E/F relay. We also trace it in
Relay panel where differential and bus bar protection are done.

After the system is found good then for the functioning of the relay we knowingly apply some
fault to the system such as changing the polarity of the connections and restricted earth fault.
Then we observe whether the relay are working and check the currents in the relay panel. The
panel should show abnormal current in the line of fault.

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System Stability Testing 
 

Instruments used :

Sl. no Description Specification Quantity Remarks


1 Clamp Meter Kyoritsu, DCM, Model 2002 1
2 Clamp Leaker DC-10A, Motwane 1
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
3 Multimeter 1
Motwane
4 3-Ф D Supply 415V, 50 Hz 1
5 Connecting wires --------------------------------------------- APR

Circuit diagram :

Figure 16 System Stability Testing

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System Stability Testing 
 

Procedure :

PART I- System Check

1. Set up connection as given in the diagram above.


2. Short the LV winding of the transformer.
3. Close all the isolator. All the line should be connected so that loading can be done.
4. Supply 3-Ф currents to the current transformer as given in the figure.
5. With the help of clamp meter check the current in the primary side of CT.
6. With the help of clamp leaker observe the current on the secondary terminal at the
transformer. Check whether the current observed is as per the ratio or not. If the current
doesn’t match then find out by calculation whose secondary current it is and accordingly
change the connection.
7. Then follow the line terminals at Control panel and check the current at metering core
(MW, MVAR, MWT, MVART, TVM, and ASS). Check the value for correctness at the
spot.
8. Follow the line at relay panel for O/C, E/F and differential protection.
9. If everything is ok then apply earth fault at R-phase, Y-phase and B-phase and observe
the readings at the panel. The current will abnormal wherever the fault is.
10. Check all the panel readings by applying fault at each phase. Compare the result obtained
with the CT ratio.

PART II - NCT Test by applying Restricted Earth Fault.

1. Open circuit the LV winding and remove the earth connection from the neutral point.
2. Don’t load the CT.
3. Short any two HV phases say R-Y.
4. Connect a wire to r-phase at LV side and bring out the terminal.
5. Connect an auto transformer to r-n at LV side and further connect the auto transformer to
1-Ф source.
6. Clutch the neutral wire with clamp meter and supply 10A current from the auto
transformer.
7. With the help of Clamp leaker check the current on Transformer Junction box (NCT). It
should reflect almost 25mA.
8. Trace this current till control and relay panel.

NB: - Shorting means we are applying fault current purposefully so that neutral gets
displaced. Actually neutral should have zero current but here we are supplying current in
neutral so that restricted earth fault occurs. We trace this fault current at transformer junction
box till the relay panel.

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System Stability Testing 
 
Results :

System Stability Check, Incomer 1, Tie Line side (Tie Line-Transformer 1-RP & CP)
Date: 1/11/2009, Sunday, Sunny.
Primary Current: R=14.37A, Y=14.65A, B=14.71A.
CT Secondary Current Check. CT Ratio 600/1A.
Core 1(mA) Core 2(mA) Core 3(mA) Core 4(mA) Actual current
CTJB CTJB CTJB CTJB
600/1A 600/1A 600/1A 600/1A (mA)
X1-1 R= 24.21 X2-1 R= 24.21 X3-7 R= 24.21 X4-7 R= 24.29 23.95
X1-2 Y= 24.12 X2-2 Y= 24.21 X3-8 Y= 24.43 X4-8 Y= 24.29 24.42
X1-3 B= 24.25 X2-3 B= 24.21 X3-9 B= 24.41 X4-9 B= 24.29 24.52
X1-7,8,9 N=0.00 X2-7,8,9 N=0.00 X3-1,2,3 N=0.00 X4-1,2,3 N=0.00 0.00
 

Control Panel 1 (CP1), Metering, Core # 1


MW(mA) MVAR(mA) MWT(mA) MVART(mA) ATY(mA) Ammeter
INC TB TVM(mA) ASS(mA)
(600-300)/1A (600-300)/1A (300)/1A (300)/1A (300)/1A (mA)
X1-5-D11= 24.34 D13=24.36 D15=24.36 D17=24.39 D19=24.33 - D21=24.31 D23=24.15 24.49
X1-6-D31=24.38 D33=24.43 D35=24.47 D37=24.36 D37A=24.36 D39=24.33 D41=24.36 D43=24.17 24.41
X1-7-D51=24.33 D53=24.47 D55=24.51 D57=24.19 D57=24.30 - D61=24.36 D63=24.19 24.52
X1-8-D71=00.00 D71=00.00 D71=00.00 D71=00.00 D71=00.00 - D71=00.00 D71=00.00 00.00
 

Relay Panel 1 (RP1). Distance (Core # 4), O/C & E/F Protection (Core # 2).
INC TB (mA) 21 Distance Relay(mA) INC CT TB(mA) 67 Relay(mA) HV Side
X1-5=A111=24.41 A112=Q1=24.41 X1-9=A211=24.41 A213(R)=24.45
X1-6=A131=24.49 A132=Q3=24.49 X1-10=A231=24.49 A283(Y)=24.45
X1-7=A151=24.48 A152=Q5=24.48 X1-11=A251=24.48 A253(B)=24.47
X1-8=A171=00.00 A172=Q7=00.00 X1-12=A271=00.00 A273(N)=00.00

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System Stability Testing 
 
Relay Panel 3 (RP3), Bus Bar Protection, Core # 3
I/C TB (Incoming Terminal Box) (mA) Bus Bar Summation CT 1T1 (mA)
X1-1-2=1B111=24.39 1B113=24.39
X1-1-3=1B131=24.54 1B133=24.54
X1-1-4=1B151=24.51 1B153=24.31
X1-1-1=1B171=00.00 1B173=00.00
 

System Stability Check, Transformer 1 side


Date: 1/11/2009, Sunday, Sunny.
Primary Current: R=14.37A, Y=14.65A, B=14.71A.
CT Secondary Current Check.
Core 1(mA) Core 2(mA) Core 3(mA) Core 4(mA) Actual current
CTJB CTJB CTJB CTJB
300/1A 300/1A 600/1A 300/1A (mA) (300/1A)
X1-1 R= 48.38 X2-1 R= 48.33 X3-7 R= 24.22 X4-1 R= 48.35 47.90
X1-2 Y= 48.35 X2-2 Y= 48.36 X3-8 Y= 24.21 X4-2 Y= 48.33 48.33
X1-3 B= 48.41 X2-3 B= 48.36 X3-9 B= 24.25 X4-3 B= 48.34 49.03
X1-4,5,6 N=0.00 X2-4,5,6 N=0.00 X3-1,2,3 N=0.00 X4-4,5,6 N=0.00 0.00
 

Control Panel 2 (CP2), Metering, Core # 1


MW(mA) MVAR(mA) MWT(mA) MVART(mA) ATY(mA)
INC TB TVM(mA) ASS(mA)
(600-300)/1A (600-300)/1A (300)/1A (300)/1A (300)/1A
X1-5-D11= 48.37 D13= 48.37 D15= 48.70 D17= 48.33 D19= 48.51 - D21= 48.56 D23= 48.90
X1-6-D31= 48.87 D33= 48.60 D35= 48.70 D37= 48.70 D37= 48.33 D39 = 48.30 D41= 48.55 D43= 48.80
X1-7-D51= 48.61 D53= 48.80 D55= 48.70 D57= 48.73 D57= 48.33 - D61= 48.55 D63= 48.00
X1-8-D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 - D71= 00.00 D71=00.00

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System Stability Testing 
 

Relay Panel 2 (RP2). Differential Protection (Core # 4), 300/1A.


INC TB (mA) Differential Relay 87(mA) HV Side
X1-1=A311= 48.43 A312= 47.90
X1-2=A331= 48.44 A332= 47.80
X1-3=A351= 48.44 A352= 47.70
X1-4=A371= 00.00 A372= 00.00

Relay Panel 3 (RP3), Bus Bar Protection, Core # 3


I/C TB (Incoming Terminal Box) (mA) Bus Bar Summation CT 2T1 (mA)
X1-2-2=2B111=24.31 2B111=24.45
X1-2-3=2B131=24.96 2B133=24.40
X1-2-4=2B151=24.36 2B153=24.42
X1-2-1=2B171=00.00 2B173= 00.00

TVM : Tri Vector Meter

ASS : Ampere Selector Switch

MW : Megawatt

MVAR: Megavars

ATY : Refers to Transducer in Ammeter

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System Stability Testing 
 
System Stability Check, Transformer 2 side ( Tie Line- Bus coupler- Transformer 2-RP & CP)
Date: 6/11/2009, Friday, Sunny.
Primary Current: R=13.33A, Y=13.33A, B=13.28A. Sec. current : r=26.55mA, y= 26.44mA, b=26.44mA
CT Secondary Current Check (Transformer 2 Side). CT Ratio 600-300/1-1A.
Actual current
Core 1(mA) Core 2(mA) Core 3(mA) Core 4(mA)
CTJB CTJB CTJB CTJB (mA)
300/1A 300/1A 600/1A 300/1A
600/1A 300/1A
X1-1 1S1R= 44.41 X2-1 2S1R= 44.40 X3-7 3S3R= 22.20 X4-1 4S1R= 44.41 22.22 44.43
X1-2 1S1Y= 44.42 X2-2 2S1Y= 44.31 X3-8 3S3Y= 22.22 X4-2 4S1Y= 44.43 22.22 44.43
X1-3 1S1B= 44.42 X2-3 2S1B= 44.33 X3-9 3S3B= 22.19 X4-3 4S1B= 44.31 22.13 44.27
X1-4,5,6 1S2N= 00.00 X2-4,5,6 2S1N= 00.00 X3-1,2,3 3S1N= 00.00 X4-4,5,6 4S2N= 00.00 0.00 0.00
 

Control Panel 5 (CP5), Metering, Core # 1 (300/1A)


MW(mA) MVAR(mA) MWT(mA) MVART(mA) Ammeter
INC TB TVM(mA) ASS(mA)
(600-300)/1A (600-300)/1A (300)/1A (300)/1A (mA)
X1-5 D11= 43.71 D13= 43.31 D15= 44.41 D17= 44.13 D19= 44.1 D21= 44.33 D23= 44.40 Ammeter check found
X1-6 D31= 43.41 D33= 44.33 D35= 43.23 D37= 44.26 D37= 44.31 D41= 44.31 D43= 44.36 ok.
X1-7 D51= 44.11 D53= 44.26 D55= 44.31 D57= 44.29 D57= 44.33 D61= 44.36 D63= 44.32 Selector switches
X1-8 D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 operating properly.
 

Relay Panel 5 (RP5). Differential Protection (Core # 4), O/C & E/F Protection (Core # 2).
O/C & E/F Protection Differential Protection
INC TB (mA) HV Terminal, Relay 87(mA) INC CT TB(mA) HV Terminal, Relay67(mA)
X1-1=A311= 44.31 A312= 24.41 X1-9=A313= 44.30 A315(R)= 44.30
X1-2=A331= 44.31 A332= 24.49 X1-10=A333= 44.40 A335(Y)= 44.40
X1-3=A351= 44.31 A352= 24.48 X1-11=A353= 44.30 A355(B)= 44.30
X1-4=A371= 00.00 A372= 00.00 X1-12=A373= 00.00 A375(N)= 00.00

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System Stability Testing 
 
Relay Panel 3 (RP3). Bus Bar Differential Protection (Core # 3), 600/1A.
INC TB (mA) Bus Bar Summation CT 5T1 (mA)
X1-5-2=5B111= 22.33 5B113= 47.90
X1-5-3=5B131= 22.26 5B133= 47.80
X1-5-4=5B151= 22.36 5B153= 47.70
X1-5-1=5B71= 00.00 5B73= 00.00
Relay Display check ok. BB differential ICT o/p check by polarity reverse of anyone CT found ok.

System Stability Check, Bus Coupler side ( Tie Line- Bus coupler-RP & CP)
Date: 6/11/2009, Friday, Sunny.
Primary Current: R=13.33A, Y=13.33A, B=13.28A. Sec. current : r=26.55mA, y= 26.44mA, b=26.44mA
CT Secondary Current Check (Bus Coupler). CT Ratio 600-300/1-1A.
Core 1(mA) Core 2(mA) Core 3(mA) Core 4(mA) Actual current
CTJB CTJB CTJB CTJB (mA)
600/1A 600/1A 600/1A 600/1A
X1-1 1S1R= 22.21 X2-1 2S1R= 22.13 X3-7 3S3R= 22.33 X4-7 4S3R= 22.21 22.22
X1-2 1S1Y= 22.00 X2-2 2S1Y= 22.16 X3-8 3S3Y= 22.26 X4-8 4S3Y= 22.30 22.22
X1-3 1S1B= 22.31 X2-3 2S1B= 22.19 X3-9 3S3B= 22.21 X4-9 4S3B= 22.26 22.13
X1-4,5,6 1S3N= 00.00 X2-4,5,6 2S3N= 00.00 X3-1,2,3 3S1N= 00.00 X4-1,2,3 4S1N= 00.00 0.00
 

Relay Panel 3 (RP3). Bus Bar Protection, 600/1A


Bus Bar Protection Zone A, Core 3, 600/1A Bus Bar Protection Zone B, Core 4, 600/1A
INC TB (mA) Bus Bar Summation CT 3T1 (mA) INC CT TB(mA) Bus Bar Summation CT 1T2 (mA)
X1-3-2=3B111B= 22.26 3B113= 22.21 X1-3-6=3B111A= 22.31 3B113A= 22.26
X1-3-3=3B131B = 22.21 3B133= 22.22 X1-3-7=3B131A = 22.83 3B133A= 22.25
X1-3-4=3B151B = 22.27 3B153= 22.21 X1-3-8=3B151A = 22.30 3B153A= 22.26
X1-3-1=3B71B = 00.00 3B73= 00.00 X1-3-5=3B71A = 00.00 3B73A= 00.00
Core 1 is spare, shorted secondary cores at CTJB.

Primary current check as relay displayed found ok. O/p current from ICT found developed when CT polarity was reversed=ok.

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System Stability Testing 
 

Relay Panel 3 (RP3). O/C & E/F Protection, 600/1A.


INC TB (mA) Relay 50/51 (mA)
X11-1=A111= 22.33 A113= 22.19
X11-2=A131= 22.31 A133= 22.23
X11-3=A151= 22.36 A153= 22.24
X11-4=A171= 00.00 A173= 00.00

• All inbuilt CT secondary output check of Transformer 1 & 2 found ok.


• Neutral CT secondary output check up to panel REF Relay end found ok.
• WTICT secondary output check found ok.

Stability Testing, 27/11/09, Differential Relay 87. Transformer 1, RP2.


NORMAL CONDITION
Primary Current: R=10.30A, Y=10.30A, B=10.30A
HV Side Relay 87(mA)  LV Side Relay 87(mA) 
A312(R)=36.90 A212(R)=59.60
A332(Y)=37.00 A232(Y)=60.20
A352(B)=37.20 A252(B)=59.80
A372(N)=00.00 A283(N)=00.07

Connect Phase-Earth fault to any of the HV line, so that fault gets injected and check the
differential current.

Differential Relay 87. FAULT CONDITION (B-phase on HV side shorted to earth) 


HV Side Relay 87(mA)  LV Side Relay 87(mA) 
A312(R)=36.60 A212(R)= 59.40
A332(Y)=37.10 A232(Y)= 59.80
A352(B)=37.10 A252(B)= 59.20
A372(N)= 39.80 A283(N)= 00.05
Differential Relay 87. FAULT CONDITION (Y-phase on LV side shorted to earth) 
HV Side Relay 87(mA)  LV Side Relay 87(mA) 
A312(R)= 36.80 A212(R)= 59.40
A332(Y)= 37.00 A232(Y)= 59.90
A352(B)= 37.10 A252(B)= 59.60
A372(N)= 00.02 A283(N)= 00.15

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System Stability Testing 
 

Stability Testing, 27/11/09, Differential Relay 87. Transformer 2, RP5.


NORMAL CONDITION
Primary Current: R=10.50A, Y=7.30A, B=8.20A
HV Side Relay 87(mA)  LV Side Relay 87(mA) 
A312(R)= 36.40 A212(R)= 58.80
A332(Y)= 36.40 A232(Y)= 59.10
A352(B)= 36.70 A252(B)= 59.20
A372(N)= 00.02 A283(N)= 00.07

Connect Phase-Earth fault to any of the HV line, so that fault gets injected and check the
differential current.

Differential Relay 87. FAULT CONDITION (B-phase on HV side shorted to earth) 


HV Side Relay 87(mA)  LV Side Relay 87(mA) 
A312(R)= 36.40 A212(R)= 58.80
A332(Y)= 36.50 A232(Y)= 59.00
A352(B)= 54.90 A252(B)= 59.00
A372(N)= 39.70 A283(N)= 00.07
Differential Relay 87. FAULT CONDITION (Y-phase on LV side shorted to earth) 
HV Side Relay 87(mA)  LV Side Relay 87(mA) 
A312(R)= 36.50 A212(R)= 58.80
A332(Y)= 36.40 A232(Y)= 59.10
A352(B)= 36.80 A252(B)= 59.20
A372(N)= 00.02 A283(N)= 00.11

Restricted Earth Fault (REF) Test


NCT Ratio 400/1A, Transformer 1 NCT Ratio 400/1A, Transformer 2
Applied current in primary :- 10A Applied current in primary :- 9.91A
I/C 1 33KV Side (Neutral Current) :- 24.83mA I/C 2 33KV Side (Neutral Current) :- 21.70mA
HV side RP2 (Neutral Current) :- 20.84mA HV side RP5 (Neutral Current) :- 29.70mA
HV Terminal NCT :- 25.56mA
LV Terminal NCT :- 25.69mA

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System Stability Testing 
 

Precaution :

1. Safety, the first priority.


2. While taking reading, make sure the reading is the correct one.
3. If the reading doesn’t tally the CT ratio then check the connections.
4. Always note the steady value of the meter.

Conclusion :

From the result obtained above it is confirmed that the pre commissioning test for the
substation is completed and the substation is ready for Test Charge. The result tallies with the
CT ratio and the connections have been checked. This is the last Pre-Commissioning Check
done on the system. The System Stability has been found healthy and wherever necessary the
connections have been checked.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com  Page 123 


 
 

Reference
Ram, Badri & Vishwakarma, D.N. (2008). Power System Protection and Switchgear. New Delhi
: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.

Singh, Tarlok (2007). Installation, Commissioning and Maintenance of Electrical equipment.

Myers S.D, Kelly J.J & Parrish R.H (1981).A Guide to Transformer Maintenance. Akron, Ohio.
Transformer Maintenance Institute.

Dorf, Richard C (2000). The Electrical Engineering Handbook. Boca Raton. CRC Press LLC.

Laughton M.A & Warne D.J (2003).Electrical Engineer's Reference Book. Jordan Hill, Oxford,
Burlington. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Limited.

Grigsby L.L (2001). The Electrical Power Engineering Handbook. Boca Raton, Washington.
CRC Press LLC.

Whitaker, Jerry C (1999). AC Power System Handbook. Boca Raton, Washington. CRC Press
LLC.

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