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Enhanced Oil Recovery of the

Basal Tena Sand from the Well

Pad North of the Palo Azul field

Presented by:

Samuel Andrés Chiang Antón

Cristhel Briggette Eras Carrillo

Enhanced Oil Recovery of the Basal Tena Sand from the Well Pad North of the Palo
Enhanced Oil Recovery of the Basal Tena Sand from the Well Pad North of the Palo

INTRODUCTION

Currently, it is known that the production of hydrocarbons under natural mechanisms has become over the years a process of low efficiency that yields minimum results of recovery factors; recovering as much oil as possible optimally taking care of the economic investment, has become one of the constant challenges of the hydrocarbon industry where it has been working on the search and implementation of techniques that increase the energy of the deposits as response to drastic pressure drops through IOR or EOR stages.

The present project is based on the technical study of the implementation of secondary recovery to the producing wells of the Tena Basal Sand of the Well Pad Norte of the Palo Azul Field, which consists in the injection of water through injector wells to obtain greater recovery factors taking care of the economic investment.

INTRODUCTION Currently, it is known that the production of hydrocarbons under natural mechanisms has become over
INTRODUCTION Currently, it is known that the production of hydrocarbons under natural mechanisms has become over

Problem Description

Based on technical and statistical data, it is known that the current production of the Ecuadorian oil fields shows a significant decreasing tendency during the last years. Such is the case of the Palo Azul Field which is considered a

relatively old field with a current production of 7 MBPPD as a result of a drastic fall in production of the 30 optimum

MBPPD with which it was at the beginning of its production history.

Problem Description Based on technical and statistical data, it is known that the current production of
Problem Description Based on technical and statistical data, it is known that the current production of

Objectives

General objective

To develop a technical study of water injection as a method of recovering the Basal Tena sand from the Well

Pad Norte of the Palo Azul Field through analytical and computer calculations in order to obtain greater

recovery factors under optimal economic investment.

Specific objectives

Analyze the different historical and geological parameters of the deposit for the selection of the appropriate water injection model.

Carry out the water injection study in such a way that the reservoir is prevented from reaching the bubble pressure in order to disregard the operational problems caused by the presence of gas.

Carry out an economic study of the secondary recovery to be implemented to determine its economic profitability.

Objectives General objective • To develop a technical study of water injection as a method of
Objectives General objective • To develop a technical study of water injection as a method of

Palo Azul Field Description - Background

In 1999, the Palo Azul field was discovered in Block 18 through exploratory drilling of the Palo Azul-01 well, an operation that was carried out by Cayman International Exploration Company S.A. and Petromanabí S.A.

Subsequently, in the year 2000, the drilling of the Palo Azul-02 well began, which by October 2001 would become the first producing well in this field. (Petroamazonas EP, 2016)

Palo Azul Field Description - Background In 1999, the Palo Azul field was discovered in Block
Palo Azul Field Description - Background In 1999, the Palo Azul field was discovered in Block

Palo Azul field description Geographic location

The Palo Azul field belonging to Block 18 is located in the Francisco de Orellana province. To the northwest it is limited

by the Sacha field, to the East by the Coca River and to the northeast of Campo Pucuna; 180 km on the straight line east of Quito. (Petroamazonas EP, 2016)

Palo Azul field description – Geographic location The Palo Azul field belonging to Block 18 is
Palo Azul field description – Geographic location The Palo Azul field belonging to Block 18 is

Palo Azul field description Location map

Palo Azul field description – Location map Mapa de Ubicación del Bloque 18, campo Palo Azul
Palo Azul field description – Location map Mapa de Ubicación del Bloque 18, campo Palo Azul

Mapa de Ubicación del Bloque 18, campo Palo Azul

Palo Azul field description – Location map Mapa de Ubicación del Bloque 18, campo Palo Azul

Palo Azul field description Field Geology

The regional drainage mechanism is generated by an active bottom aquifer and is locally of lateral effect caused by the existing lutitic intercalations in the vicinity of the wells.

The Hollín Formation, the main reservoir in the area of the Palo Azul field, has been divided into four zones according to their lithological and environmental characteristics, which can be seen in the Figure.

The U and T sands of the Napo formation have an estuary type deposit dominated by tides with sandy bodies of tide and channel bars, which developed better in the eastern part of the basin and lose lateral continuity towards the west. It is located in the most distal part of the estuary.

Basal Tena sand represents an estuary-type deposit dominated by more proximal tides and higher energy, is

characterized by the presence of sands of medium to fine grain, quartz, occasionally argillic matrix, calcareous cement,

with traces of glauconite and small lutitic intercalations.

Palo Azul field description – Field Geology The regional drainage mechanism is generated by an active
Palo Azul field description – Field Geology The regional drainage mechanism is generated by an active

Palo Azul field description Field Geology

Palo Azul field description – Field Geology Deposit model for the Palo Azul Field

Deposit model for the Palo Azul Field

Palo Azul field description – Field Geology Deposit model for the Palo Azul Field
Palo Azul field description – Field Geology Deposit model for the Palo Azul Field

Palo Azul field description Wells current status

The following table shows the number and condition of each well in the Palo Azul field.

Estado de los Pozos

Número de Pozos

Producing

35

In reconditioning

2

Closed

12

Abandoned

3

Injector

5

Drilling

1

Total de pozos perforados

58

Palo Azul field description – Wells current status The following table shows the number and condition
Palo Azul field description – Wells current status The following table shows the number and condition
Palo Azul field description – Wells current status The following table shows the number and condition

Palo Azul field description Geographic location

Palo Azul field has an average oil production of 6723.77 BPPD, with a BSW of 90.0% and 26 degrees API.

FLUID (BFPD)

NET (BOPD)

WATER (BWPD)

FIELD BSW%

67.377,13

6.723,77

60.653,36

90

The volume of production and re-injection of water is shown in the following table:

PRODUCCIÓN (BWPD)

RE-INJECTION (BIPD)

CAPACITY (BIPD)

60.653,36

63.665,87

70.000,00

Palo Azul field description – Geographic location Palo Azul field has an average oil production of
Palo Azul field description – Geographic location Palo Azul field has an average oil production of

Bibliografía

Drake. (2003). Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering 8Th Ed. The Hague: Elsevier-Gulf Profesional Publishing.

Ferrer, M. P. (2009). Fundamentos de Ingeniería de Yacimientos. Maracaibo: Astro Data S.A.

Craft B.C. and Hawkins M.F. (1991). Applied petroleum reservoir engineering. 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall Inc.

Craig F. (1971). The Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding. SPE Monograph Series.

Ferrer, M. P. (2001). Inyección de agua y gas en yacimientos petrolíferos. Maracaibo: Astro Data S.A.

Bibliografía • Drake. (2003). Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering 8Th Ed. The Hague: Elsevier-Gulf Profesional Publishing. •
Bibliografía • Drake. (2003). Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering 8Th Ed. The Hague: Elsevier-Gulf Profesional Publishing. •

GRACIAS.

GRACIAS.
GRACIAS.