You are on page 1of 205

lntroduction

PREFACE

The aim of this Atlas is to illustrate the range of coating and surface defects
likely to be encountered,and give advice on probable causes,prevention and
repair, it is not intended as acomplete'Do it yourself manual' for failure analysis.
Use of this Manual will not make the user an "lnstant Expert" on coating
failures. Many coating failures need further evaluation and analyses to be
carried out in conjunction with aqualified Chemist or Coating Specialist,often
using specialised laboratory equipment.

With any coating failure, a process of elimination shou ld be considered


as the first course of action. This should take into account the type of
failure; the enviran mental conditions; any unusual or unexpected
variations from normal operating conditions; a check on application
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conditions to ensure these were within the accepted range for the coating
ü system applied; was the surface preparation suitab:le for the type of
coating system applied. The list of questions to be asked will depend on
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the coating system or much later in the life of the coating.
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111 The first section of this Atlas includes anumber of welding faults which may
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be encountered and which need to be addressed or corrected befare
application of any coating system.This is followed by asection on pre-surface
conditions. Section four and five deal with surface preparation, giving
guidance notes on dry abrasive blast cleaning and high pressure water jetting
respective! y.

Section six is the main pictorial reference of coating defects and includes a
description of each defect, its probable causes, prevention and repair.

Section seven illustrates various types of marine fouling and finally, an


appendix gives details of breakdown sea les which will be useful to users in
assessing the degree ofbreakdown and the potential areas in need of repair.
lt also includes aquick reference guide to the characteristics of certain types
of paint and paint compatibllity.

Each of these sections have been compiled by coating specialists who


understand paint coatings and their application and as such will provide a
1
lntroduction

useful pictorial reference to all who use and encounter paint coatings, their
defects and failures. We would welcome any other suggestions for future
modules and any constructive criticisms of the present volume.
All photographs and information contained w1thín this document are
intended for guidance.Where standards are referred to, these should be taken
as the authoritative documents on the relevant subject matter. No
responsibility can be taken for any problems which may arise as aresult of
theuse of any information contained within this document.

ISBN O9513940 2 9
.,
Compiled by: Bren dan F1tzsimons, Fitz-Coatíngs Limited ..

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www.fitz-coatings.com •
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Edited by: RogerWeatherhead and Peter Margan,


Lithgow &Associates
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Published by: MPI Group
Peel House, Upper South View, ,...
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Farnham, Surrey, GU9 7JN
Tel: +44 (0)1252 732220 Fax>44 (0)1252 732221
www.mpigroup.co.uk

Neither the publishers or the authors, edirors and contributors and their employinq
organisations, nor any persons aaing on behalfofrhem a) makes any warranty, express
or 1mplied, wíth respecr to the use of any informarían, apparatus, method or process
desaibed in this publication or that such use may not infringe private/y owned rights or
b) assume any fiabilíties wíth respect to the use o( or for damages resufting from the
use ofany mformation, apparatus method or process disclosed in rhis publication, and
the use ofany sueh materials, processes or methods is sale/y at the risk of the user.

Data contained within this pubficatión is protected by copyright. Al/ rights reserved No
part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means electronic, mechamea/, photocopying, recording ar otherwise
without the prior permission ofMPI Group.

11
lntroduction

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful to the following organisations and individuals that have


contributed material for use in this publication;

Akzo Nobel (lnternational Coatings Ltd)


British Steel
Chugoku BV
Clemco Industries Corp.
Hempel UK Ltd
Jotun-Henry Clark Ltd
Peter Margan
Roger Weatherhead
Trevor Parry, Scientific &Technical Services Ltd
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u Sigma Coatings
"O PPG Industries UK Ltd
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o W&J Leigh & Co. Ltd
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Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1NTRODUCTION ............•.....................•.•....••.................•... 1

CONTENTS •.•..••......•..•................•...•...••.•.•..•.......•..•...••. 1-0

WELDING FAULTS .....•................................................... 2-0

SURFACE CONDITIONS .................................................. 3-0

SURFACE PREPARATION ................................................ 4-0


Dry Abrasive Blasting

-"'' SURFACE PREPARATION ................................................ 5-0
... Water Jetting
-
~ COATI NG DEFECTS •....•..•.•.••.•••.•••.•.•....•...••.•••.•••...••..•.... 6-0
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¡¡ MARINE FOULING ...............•...............•........................• 7-0

APPEN DIX .....................................................•....••... App-0


Coating Breakdown scales
Paint Compatability chart
Paint Properties chart
Paint Arithmetic
Formulae for Surface Areas

1- 1
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Welding Faults

WELDS

Where aprotective coating system is to be applied over aweld, the application


of a well brushed-in stripe coat to the prepared surface is strongly
recommended to ensure adequate protect1on and to prevent bridging by the
coating system.ln addition,any welding faults of the types described below
should be appropriately rectified befare any coating is applied.

WELDING FAULTS

The following section describes various faults in fusion welds in construction


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steels. This is nota comprehensive compilation of alllikely welding faults,
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"O the faults are rectified prior to the appropriate surface preparation and
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All comments are for guidance only.
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Photographs within this section are courtesy ofThe Welding lnstitute~ 'Faults
in Fusion Welds' by Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge.
2-3
Welding Faults

CRACKS

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Descri ption: Crack visible at the surface.

Probable Causes: Excessively deep or wide be ad. High current and/or


welding speed. Large root gap.

Repair: Cut out defective weld length plus 5 mm beyond visible


end of crack and reweld.

Comment: Protective coatings can maskcracks but rarely successfully


bridge cracks. Unless rectified prior to the application of
the coating, su eh cracks can result in premature failure of
the coating system, irrespective of any danger that míght
be caused to the structure by their presence.
2-4
Welding Faults

CRATER PIPES

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Description: Crater resulting from shrinkage at the end of aweld run.

Probable Causes: lncorrect manipulative technique or current decay to allow


for era ter shrinkage.

Repair: All such porosities must be appropriately filled prior to


application of aprotect1ve coating system.

Comment: Coatings rarely bridge pares in a metal substrate and if


they do, this can lead to premature coating failure.
2-5
Welding Faults

EXCESS PENETRATION BEAD

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Description: Weld metal normally extends below the parent metal


surface but this is only a problem when excessive and
exceeds the specification.

Probable Causes: lncorrect edge preparation providing insufficient support


at the root, and/or incorrect welding parameters.

Repair: Where sharp changes in contour occur these need to be


smoothed to prevent bridging of the protective coating
system.

Comment: Thorough brushíng in of astripe coat can be effective but


so me form of filling may be necessary to prevent bridging
of the coating. Any undercuts must be appropriately
treated to prevent bridging by the coating system.
2-6
Welding Faults

EXCESS PENETRATION BEAD

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Description: Weld metal normally extends below the parent metal


surface but this is only a problem when excessive and
exceeds the specification.

Probable Causes: lncorrect edge preparation providing insufficient support


at the root, and/or incorrect welding parameters.

Repair: Where sharp changes in contour occur these need to be


smoothed to prevent bridging of the protective coating
system.

Comment: Thorough brushing in of astripe coat can be effective but


so me form of filling may be necessary to prevent bridging
of the coating. Any undercuts must be appropriately
treated to prevent bridging by the coating system.
2-7
Welding Faults

ROOT CONCAVITY

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Description: Shrinkage at the weld root resulting in a deep pita long


the weld.

Probable Causes: Shrinkage of molten pool at the weld root, resulting from
incorrect weld preparation or insufficient heat input. Also
from incorrect welding technique.

Repair: Ensure the edges are smooth with no sharp changes in


contour.

Comment: All sharp edges must be ground smooth in accordance


with the specification, prior to surface preparation and
application of the coating system.

2-8
Welding Faults

SPATTER

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Substrate
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Description: Globules of metal which adhere to the meta'l surface,often


so me distan ce from the weld.

Probable Causes: lncorrect welding conditions, such as too high awelding


current and/or contaminated consuma bies or preparations
giving rise to explosions within the are and weld pool.

Repair: Grind or needle gun off all globules to leave a smooth


surface, prior to full surface preparation.

Comment: Weld spatter can rarely be successfully coated and can


result in premature coating breakdown.

2-9
Welding Faults

STRAY ARCING

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Description: Small hard spots, craters or rough surface featu res.

Probable Causes: Accidental contact of electrode or welding torch with pi ate


surface remo te from the weld.

Repair: Grind smooth, blast clean or use other appropriate


treatment to ensure the surface is sufficiently prepared for
adequate adhesion of the protective coating.

Comment: The application of a protective coating to rough


insufficiently prepared areas can lead to premature coating
failure.
2 10
Welding Faults

SURFACE POROSITY

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Description: Pares visible at the surface of aweld.

Probable Causes: Excessive contamination from grease, dampness or


atmospheric entrainment. Occasionally caused by
excessive sulphur in consuma bies or parent metal.

Repair: All such porosities must be appropriately filled prior to


application of aprotective coating system.

Comment: Coatings rarely bridge pares in a metal substrate and if


they do, this can lead to premature coating failure.
2-11
Welding Faults

UNDERCUT

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Substrate

Description: Undercut cavity which results from washing away of the


edge preparation when molten.

Probable Causes: Poor welding technique and/or unbalanced welding


conditions.

Repair: All such undercuts must be appropriately prepared,


rewelded or filled prior to application of the coating
system.

Comment: Coatings rarely bridge undercuts in ametal substrate and


if they do, this can lead to premature coating failure.
2-12
Surface Conditions

INDEX OF SURFACE CONDITIONS

SURFACE PREPARATION ................................................ 3-2


CORROSION TRAP .••.•••••••••.•.••••..................................... 3-4
EDGES - Flame cut ....................................................... 3-5
EDGES - Sharp ......•.....•.•.....•.•....................................... 3-6
Mlll SCALE .................................................................. 3-7
MI LLSCALE -"A" quality steel ....................................... 3-8
MILLSCALE -"B" quality steel ..................................... 3-10
MI LLSCALE - "C" quality steel ..................................... 3-12
OIL CONTAMINATION .................................................. 3-14
SKIP WELD ......•.........•.•.....•.•••...•................................ 3-15
""' SLAG .•...•...•.•.•....................•................................•.•... 3-16
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3-1
Surface Conditions

SURFACE PREPARATION

This section includes pictorial examples ofsome typical conditions,from bare


steel through to failed coating system, likely to be encountered befareany
surface preparation 1s carried out. Al so illustrated are so me typical problem
areas which need to be appropriately treated prior to or during full surface
preparation.

Various photographs areincluded whichshow mili scale on unprepared steel


at various stages of degradation.

Whenever grinding is used forre moval of defects,professional advice should


be sought to ensure that the integrity of the structure or vessel is not
compromised.Strict limits are usually applied tothe thickness of metal wh1ch .,
canbe removed by grinding e.g. with high pressure pipework. ..-·
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Burrs o
Bolt hales and other cut areas should be thoroughly checked for burrs and o
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Contamination on surface ....


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Oil, grease and other foreign contamination must be removed by solvent


cleaning or the use of an alternative suitable biodegradable cleaner prior to
full surface preparation.

Edges
All edges should be radiused to provide asmooth round surface to which
the paint can adhere to provide good protection.

Feathering
Where repairs are carried out toan already painted surface, the edge of the
old paint should be feathered to a sound, well adhered thin edge using an
appropriate means of abrasion, prior to overcoating.

Laminations, Surface Shelling or Hackles


The steel surface should be checked for laminations both befare and after
surface preparation. Any laminations found must be removed by grinding
3-2
Surface Conditions

befare application of any coating system.The use of an Ultrasonic thickness


gauge may be necessary to determine the extent of delamination.

Minor laminations
sometimes known as
surta ce shelling
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Substrate

Mili Scale
All mili sea le should be removed by appropriate cleaning techniques, usually
abrasive blast cleaning, prior to application of acoating system.
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Surface Porosity
"O All surface porosities should be filled with an appropriate filler to provide a
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smooth surface.
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underlying weld may be inspected and suitably prepared. Coatings should
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Spatter
All weld spatter should be removed by mechanical means.

Undercuts
Undercuts should not be excessive or rough.

Welds
Welds should be continuous and free from sharp projections. See also the
section on Welding Defects.

3-3
Surface Conditions

CORROSION TRAP

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Description: Poor design resulting in awell where water can collect.

Comment: This problem should be eliminated wherever possible at


the design stage,by including appropriate drainage hales
or modifying the design to prevent areas where water or
corrosive ftuids can collect.
3-4
Surface Conditions

EDGES - FLAME CUT

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Description: Sharp rough edges resulting from flame cutting.

Comment: All such rough cut edges should be ground smooth and
any sharp edges radiused. Aradius of 2 mm is generally
recommended for good painting practice.
3-5
Surface Conditions

EDGES - SHARP

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Description: Sharp edge on cut or constructional steel. Note in the


second photograph how the coating becomes very thin
over an untreated sharpedge.

Comment: Remove all sharp edges prior to surface preparation. A


radius of 2 mm is generally recommended for good
painting practice. Apply a stripe coat over all edges to
ensure adequate coverage by the coating system.

3-6
Surface Conditions

MILL SCALE

Severa! photographs are included to show the effect of outdoor exposure on


untreated rolled steel stock. The extent of degradation of the surface will
depend on the type of exposure conditions, whether Rural Unpolluted,
Industrial Polluted, or Marine.The examples included are purely to illustrate
the various types of surface conditions which might be encountered.

The photographs on the following pages are from British Steel and show
"A': "B" and "C" quality steel surfaces and can be related to the appropriate
quality designations included in the blast cleaning standards.

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3-7
Surface Conditions

MILLSCALE -"A" QUALITY STEEL

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Description: An example of steel with an "A" quality surface, showing


fresh, tightly adherent mili sea le. Note the overall blue oxide
sea le.
3-8
Surface Conditions

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MILLSCALE - A" QUALITY STEEL

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Description: Acloser view of"N' quajity steel with virtually intact blue
mili sea le.
3-9
Surface Conditions

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MILLSCALE - 8" QUALITY STEEL

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Description: An exampleor steel with a"B" quality surface condition.


The steel sections have been exposed to a Rural
Unpolluted Externa! atmosphere for a period of 2-3
months. The corrosion process has caused sorne
degradation of the mili sea le anda light patina ofrust has
formed on the steel surfaces.
3-1 o
Surface Conditions

11
MILLSCALE - 8" QUALITY STEEL

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Description: Acloser view of/18" quality steel indicating delamination


and corrosion effects ofthe mili sea le.
3- 11
Surface Conditions

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MILLSCALE - C" QUALITY STEEL

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Description: An example of a1/C" quality surface condition. The steel


sections have been exposed toa Rural Unpolluted Externa!
atmosphere for a period of 4 - 6 months. The corrosion
process has ca used total degradation of the mili sea le and
an overall patina of rust has formed on the steel surfaces.
3-12
Surface Conditions

MILLSCALE - "C" QUALITY STE EL

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Description: A closer view of "C" quality steel where practically all


residues of mili sea le have disappeared. Any remaining
mili sea le is in afriable state.
3-13
Surface Conditions

OIL CONTAMINATION

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Description: Partial oil contamination of the surface with an oil film.

Comment: All oil and grease must be removed fromthesurface using


solvent or biodegradable detergent degreasing prior to full
surface preparation. Unless this is properly carried out, a
residual oil film will be transferred to the surface during
dry blast cleaning, which will prevent good adhesion of
the coating system.
3-14
Surface Conditions

SKIPWELD
al so intermittent weld

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Description: Non-continuous weld or skip weld.

Probable Causes: Used where afull weld is unnecessary for constructional


purposes.

Repair: ldeally acontinuous weld should be used. Where this is


impractical/ the gaps should be cleaned and filled with a
suitable mastic ro prevent bridging by the coating.

Comment: Unless the gaps are properly treated these areas will serve
as initiation pomts for corrosion.
3-15
Surface Conditions

SLAG

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Description: Weld slag which has not been removed from the surface.

Comment: All welding slag should be removed by mechanical means


so that the underlying weld may be inspected and suitably
prepared. Coatings should not be applied over welding
slag.
3-16
Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

INDEX OF DRY ABRASIVE BLAST CLEANING

SU RFACE PREPARATION ................................................ 4-3


DRY ABRASIVE BlAST ClEANING .........•......................... 4-5
RUST GRADES (A-O) .........••......•...••.............................. 4-8
UGHT BlAST ClEANING (SA 1) .................................... 4-1 0
THOROUGH BlAST ClEANING (SA 2) ............................ 4-12
1
VERYTHOROUGH BlAST ClEANING (SA 2 h) ................. 4-14
BlAST ClEANING TO VISUAllY ClEAN STEEl (SA 3) ....... 4-16
FEATHERI NG ..•.••••.•.•••...•.•.......•.....••••....•••••••.............. 4-18

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The images within this section are courtesy of Clemco Industries Corp. The
images are for il/ustrative purposes only and may not reflect actual surface
conditions or results.
4-1
Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

SURFACE PREPARATION

The performance of protective coatings applied to steel is significantly affected


by the state of the steel surface immediately prior to painting.The principal
factors that are known to infiuence this performance are:

· the presence of rust, millscale and previous coatings;


· the presence of surface contaminants, including salts,
dust, oils, acid and greases;
· the surface profile.

lnternational Standards ISO 8501 ,ISO 8502 and ISO 8503 provide methods
of assessing these factors, while ISO 4628-3 provides guidance on evaluating
the degradation of paint coatings by degree of rusting and ISO 4627 covers
....
11\

•?J
the evaluation of the compatibility of aproduct with asurface to be painted .
"O Other national standards and codes of practice contain recommendations for
O'
-.e... the various protective coating systems to be applied to the steel surface and

o
u these should be referred to for guidance on such items as:
.....o

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· suitability of the cleaning procedure and
c:t
,1/'l standard specified;
,.N,.
·-u.. · suitability of the coating system for the environmental
conditions to which the steel will be exposed;
· compatibility with any remaining paint coatings.

The lnternational Standards referred to abovedeal with the following aspects


of preparation of steel substrates:

ISO 8507 - Visual assessment of surface cleanliness.


ISO 8502- Tests for the assessment of surface cleanliness.
ISO 8503- Surface roughness characteristics of blast-cleaned
steel substrates.
ISO 4627- Paints and varnishes - Evaluation of the
compatibility of aproduct with asurface to be
painted - Methods of test.
ISO 4628-3- Evaluarían of degradation ofpaint coatings.

In the following sections include guidelines on the preparation of steel


4-3
Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

substrates befare the application of paints and related products and include
reproductions of visual assessment guides of surface finish and cleanliness
by water jetting.

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4-4
Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

DRY ABRASIVE BLAST CLEANING

These guidance notes are intended to be atool for the visual assessment of
preparation grades by means of dry abrasive blast cleaning.

The surface fimsh achieved by dry abrasive blast cleaning depends on the
original surface condition as well as the type of abrasive blasting equipment,
size, hardness, type and abrasive shape.

The original surface conditions of steel may be one of four of the following
rust grades:

A Steel surface largely covered with adhering mili


sea le but little, if any rust.
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B Steel surface which has begun to rust and from


0'1
e which the m1ll sea le has begun to fiake.
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e Steel surface on which the mili sea le has rusted
-c:t...
te away or from which it can be scraped, but with
slight pitting visible under normal vision.
..-
,111
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D Steel surface on which the mili sea le has rusted
away and on which general pitting is visible
under normal vision.

Preparation grades
Surface cleanllness is divided into four grades, designated by the letters 'Sa'.

Sa 1 Light blast cleaning or Brush-off.


Sa 2 Thorough blast cleaning or Commercial.
Sa 21/2 Very thorough blast cleaning or Near white
metal.
Sa 3 Blast cleaning to visually clean steel or White
metal.

4-5
Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

Other considerations
Apart from cleanliness of the steel, consideration needs to be given to the
etch or profile roughness created by the impact of the abrasive on the steel
surface.The substrate profile is regulated by:

· Shape, type and grading of the abrasive.


· Blasting method and velocity of abrasive
impaction.
· Steel condition prior to abrasive blast cleaning.

The etched profile of the surface enables adhesion of the protective paint
coatings. Of great importance is the level at which this is achieved as too
severe aprofile will cause awaste of paint and time in application, whilst too
light aprofile could result in lack of adhesion.
.,
Profile of the surface can be meas ured by various items of test equipment -·
¡:;r
but still the best method of obtaining a profile specification is by ensuring '"'-
,)>..
the correct blasting equipment/method coupled with type and size of -
cu
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abrasive to be used in the operation.
-
,....
Once abrasive blast cleaning needs have been decided, selection of method, -·
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type of equipment and training of personnel should follow. Equipment used ro
ib'
,...,
for surface preparation needs to be extremely reliable and simple to use. .....

Operation and training information should be up-to-date and accurate.

The various rust grades and cleaning standards are now illustrated.

4-6
Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

RUST GRADES
GRADE A

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111

Steel surface largely covered with adhering mili sea le but little,if any rust. ,..
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GRADEB
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Steel surface which has begun to rust and from which the mili scale has
begun to ftake.

4-8
Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

GRADEC

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'"O Steel surface on which the mili sea le has rusted away or from which it can be
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e scraped, but with slight pitting visible under normal vision.
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1.1. GRADE D

Steel surface on which the mili sea le has rusted away and on which general
pitting 1s visible under normal vis ion.
4-9
Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

LIGHT BLAST CLEANING OR


BRUSH-OFF BLAST CLEANING (SA 1)

Re moval of loose mili sea le, loose rust,and loo se pai nt, to the degree hereafter
specified, by the impact of abrasives propelled through nozzles or by
centrifuga! wheels.lt is not intended that the surface shall be free of all mili
sea le, rust,and paint.The remaining mili sea le, rust, and paint should be firmly
adhered and the surface should be sufficiently abraded to provide good
adhesion and bonding of paint.

Abrush-off blast cleaned surface finish is defined as one from which all oil,
grease, dirt, rust sea le, loose mili sea le, loose rust and loose paint or coatings
are removed completely but tight mili sea le and firmly adhered rust, paint
and coatings are permitted to remain provided that all mili scale and rust
have been exposed to the abrasive blast pattern sufficiently to expose .,
numerous fiecks of the underlying metal fairly uniformly distributed over -t:T
VI~

the entire surface. ...->


DI
VI

Sa 1 SIS 05 5900 Swedish Standards Organisation


Sa 1 ISO 8501-1
-....
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RUST GRADE B (SA 1) ....

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Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

THOROUGH BLAST CLEANING OR


COMMERCIAL BLAST CLEANING (SA 2)

Removal of partial mili sea le, rust, rust sea le, paint or foreign matter by the
use of abrasives propelled through nozzles or by centrifuga! wheels, to the
degree specified.

Acommercial blast cleaned surface finish is defined as one from which all
oil, grease, dirt, rust sea le and foreign matter have been completely removed
from the surface and all rust, mili sea le and old paint have been completely
removed except for slight shadows, streaks, or discoloration ca used by rust
stain, mili sea le oxides or slight, ftrm residues of paint or coating that may
rema in if the surface is pitted, slight residues of rust or paint may by fou nd in
the bottom of pits. At least two-thirds of each square inch of surface area
shall be free of all visible residues and the remainder shall be limited to the
light discoloration, slight stainmg or firm residues mentioned above. ...-·
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Sa 2 SIS OS 5900 Swedish Standards Organisation
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RUST GRADE B (SA 2) -
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Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

VERYTHOROUGH BLAST CLEANING OR


NEARWHITE METAL BLAST CLEANING {SA 21/ 2}

Re moval of nearly a11 mili sea le, rust, rust sea le, paint, or foreign matter by the
use of abrasives propelled throuqh nozzles or by centrifuga! wheels, to the
degree hereafter specified.

Anear-white metal blast cleaned surface finish is defined as one from which
all oil, grease, dirt, mili sea le, rust, corros ion products, oxides, paint or other
foreign matter have been completely removed from the surface except for
very light shadows, very slight streaks or slight discolouration caused by rust
stain, mili sea le oxides, or light, firm residues of paint or coating that may
remain.At least 95 percent of ea eh square in eh of surface areashall be free of
all visible residues, and the remainder shall be limited to the light discoloration
mentioned above. .,
...-·
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1
1
Sa 2 12
Sa 2 /2
SIS 05 5900 Swedish Standards Organisation
ISO 8501-1
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RUST GRADE 8 {SA 2 /2} n
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Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

BLAST CLEANING TO VISUALLY CLEAN STEEL


OR WHITE METAL BLAST CLEANING (SA 3)

Removal of all mili sea le, rust, rust sea le, paint or foreign matter by the use of
abrasives propelled through nozzles or by centrifuga! wheels.

A white metal blast cleaned surface finish is defined as a surface with a


grey-white, uniform metallic colour, slightly roughened to form a suitable
anchor pattern for coatings.The surface, when viewed without magnification,
shall be free of all oil, grease, dirt, visible mili scale, rust, corrosion products,
oxides, paint, or any other foreign matter.

Sa 3 SIS OS 5900 Swedish Standards Organisation


Sa 3 ISO 8501-1
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4-16
Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

RUST GRADE C (SA 3)

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·-u. RUST GRADE D (SA 3)

4-17
Dry Abrasive Blast Cleaning

FEATHERING

Before Feathering
Paintfilm

Substrate

After Feathering
Paint film
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Substrate • ...,-·
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Description: Where repairs are carried out toan already painted surface,
theedge of the old paint should be feathered toa sound,
well adhered thin edge using an appropriate means of
abrasion, prior to overcoating.

Caution: 1) Check compatability of new paint over old paint.


2) Ensure new paint does not soften and lift old paint,
particularly at the feathered edges,
4-18
Water Jetting

INDEX OF WATER JETTING

SURFACE PREPARATION ................................................ 5-3


WATER JETTING ...••............•......•...•.....•........•............... 5-5
TERMS ANO DEFINITIONS ............................................. 5-6
INITIAl SURFACE CONDITIONS ....................................... 5-7
PREPARATI ON GRADES ................................................. 5-8
FlASH RUST GRADES .................................................... 5-9
PROCEDURE FOR THE VISUAl ASSESSMENT
OF STEEl SUBSTRATES ........................................... 5-1 O
PHOTOGRAPHS ......•....••............................................. 5-11
lnitial surface condition DC1, DC1 Wa 1................. 5-12
DC1 Wa 2, DC1 Wa 21h ...................................................................... 5-13
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lnitial surface condition DC2, DC2 Wa 1 .•................ 5-14


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DCl Wa2,DC2 Wa2 1h ...................................................................... 5-15
lnitial surface condition DC3, DC3 Wa 1.....•.•.......... 5-16
-<..
"'ftS DC3 Wa 2, DC3 Wa 21h ...................................................................... 5-17
lnitial surface condition DS1, DS1 Wa 1 •...•............. 5-18
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DS1 Wa 2, DS1 Wa 21h ...................................................................... 5-19


lnitial surface condition DS2, DS2 Wa 1•.....•.•......... 5-20
DS2 Wa 2, DS2 Wa 21h ...................................................................... 5-21
Degrees of flash rust ............................................. 5-22
FR1, FR2, FR3 ........................................................ 5-22

5-1
Water Jetting

SURFACE PREPARATION

The performance of protective coatings applied to steel is significantly affected


by the state of the steel surface immediately prior to painting.The principal
factors that are known to infiuence this performance are:

· the presence of rust, millscaleand previous coatings;


· the presence of surface contaminants, including salts,
dust, oils acid greases;
· the surface profile.

lnternational Standards ISO 8501, ISO 8502 and ISO 8503 provide methods
of assessing these factors, while ISO 4628-3 provides guidance on evaluating
the degradation of paint coatings by degree of rusting and ISO 4627 covers
....u
111

·ll'
the evaluation ofthe compatibility of aproduct with asurface to be painted .
QJ
Other national standards and codes of practice contain recommendations for
"'e
Ol
.-ro... the various protective coating systems to be applied to the steel surface and
ou
.._
these should be referred to for guidance on such items as:
o

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111
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· suitability of the cleaning procedure and
.,111 standard specified;
...·-u..
N
· suitability of the coating system for the environmental
conditions to which the steel will be exposed;
· compatibility with any remaining paint coatings.

The lnternational Standards referred to abovedeal with the following aspects


of preparation of steel substrates:

ISO 8501 - Visual assessment of surface deanliness.


ISO 8502- Tests for rhe assessment of surface deanliness.
ISO 8503- Surface roughness characteristics of blast-cleaned
steel substrates.
ISO 4627- Paints and varnishes - Evaluation of the
compatibility of aproduct with asurface to be
painted- Methods of test.
ISO 4628-3- Evaluation of degradation ofpaint coatings.

In the following sections include guidelines on the preparation of steel

5-3
Water Jetting

substrates befo re the application of paints and related products and melude
reproductions of visual assessment guides of surface finish and cleanliness
by high pressure water jetting.

...-·
"T1
N
vi
...-l>
"'
"'""

5-4
Water Jetting

WATER JETTING

These guidance notes are intended to be atool for the visual assessment of
preparation grades by means of high pressure water jetting (which may al so
include ultra high pressure jetting).They have been produced by the use of
water only, with no abrasive material included.They have been endorsed by
the paint manufacturers listed below for use with their various paint products.
However, specific recommendations with regard to the suitability of this
technique for use with any speciftc paint product and under any particular
environmental conditions should always be sought from the paint
manufacturer concerned.

Akzo Nobel (lnternational Coatings Ltd)


Chugoku BV
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Hempel UK Ltd
'"O Jotun-Henry Clark Ltd
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Sigma Coatings
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oV W&J Leigh &Co. Ltd
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As with dry blast cleaning, the roughness characteristics of the surface should
."' also be considered by reference to ISO 8503, although it should be noted
N
·-
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LL. that preparation by high pressure water jetting does not crea te aprofile nor
significantly change an existing profile.

The definitive document on high pressure water jetting, ISO standard ISO
8501 - Part 4, is in the course of preparation.

Caution
When water jetting at lower pressures is used on old coatings which
have not been completely removed, it is strongly recommended that
checks on adhesion and chemical compatibility between old and new
coatings are carried out, particularly for solvent softening and lifting
of the old coating. Frequently different generic types of coating are
used when overcoating.
5-5
Water Jetting

TERMS ANO DEFINITIONS

Water jetting - this method consists of directing ajet of pressurised water


onto the surface to be cleaned. The water pressure depends upon the
contaminants to be removed, such as water-soluble matter, rust and paint
coatings.When detergents have been used in the cleaning operation, rinsing
with clean fresh water is necessary.

A number of terms are used synonymously with 'water jetting' including


'hydrojetting:'aq uajetting:'hyd roblasti ng' and 'aqua bias ti ng~

Terms containing rhe words 'blasting' can be confusing as they may be


associated with the use of abrasives and hence 'high pressure water jetting'
(Wa) is the preferred description. .,
...-·
N

..-
111..
High pressure water jetting involves the use ofwater at pressures ofgreater )>

than 70 MPa (700 bar). Ql


111

Ultra high pressure water jetting mvolves the use of water at pressures ....
greater than 140 MPa (1400 bar) and may re move millscale from partially -·
::l
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a.
weathered steel, but does not imparta surface profile to the steel substrate.

5-6
Water Jetting

INITIAL SURFACE CONDITIONS

The initial surface condition applies to steelwork that has previously been
blast cleaned and painted with either shop primer alone or with afull coating
system.

Three degrees of damaged paint coatings by rusting, blistering, flaking are


specified, and two of damaged shop primer.

DC1 Asurface where the paint coating system has


degraded to a majar extent. This degradation
being similar to that illustrated in ISO 4628-3,
RiS or when completely degraded, as illustrated
... in ISO 8501-1, rust grades Cand D.
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DC2 Asurface where the paint coating system has
degraded toan extent similar to that illustrated
- o in ISO 4628-3, Ri4.
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0(3 A surface where the paint coating system has
...·-u..
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degraded toan extent similar to that illustrated
in ISO 4628-3, Ri3.

DS 1 An iron oxide epoxy prefabrication (shop) primer


surface that has been damaged by rusting,
welding, or burning.

DS2 A zinc silicate prefabrication (shop) primer


surface that has been damage by rusting,
welding, or burning.

5-7
Water Jetting

PREPARATION GRADES

Three preparation grades/ indicating the degree of cleaning/and three degrees


of ftash rusting are specified.The preparation grades are defined by written
descriptions of the surface appearance after the cleaning operation with
representative photographic examples.

The photographs are designated by the initial surface condition befare


cleaningfollowed by the designation of the preparation grade/e.g. DC3 Wa2.

Description of preparation grades


The letters Wa designare surface preparation by high pressure water jetting.
.,.,
Wa1 Light high pressure water jetting ...-·
N

When v1ewed w.thout magn1f1cat1on/ the surface shall be free from oitgrease/ "'
::-
loase rustand foreign matter.Any residual contamination shall be randomly Cl
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dispersed and firmly adherent.
o
Wa 2Thorough high pressure water jetting -
.....
:;:,

a.
When viewed without magmfication/ the surface shall be free from VISible 1'1)
(b'
oil/ grease and dirt and most of the rus eprevious paint coatings and foreign
matter. Any residual contamination shall be randomly dispersed and firmly
-
n

adherent.

Wa 2 Very thorough high pressure water jetting


When viewed w1thout magn1fication the surface shall be free from all-visible
rust/ oil/ grease/ dirt previous paint coatings/and foreign matter except slight
traces. So me discolora ti en of the surface may be present adjacent to pitted
areas but should show only as slight stains.

5-8
Water Jetting

FLASH RUST GRADES

Three degrees of flash rust are specified. They are defined by written
descriptions together with representative photographic examples.

FR 1 Heavy flash rust


Asurface when viewed without magnification exhibils a !ayer of yellow 1
blown rust that obscures the original steel surface and is loosely adherent.
The rust layer may be evenly distributed or present in patches and it will
readily mark acloth that is lightly wiped over the surface.

FR 2 Medium flash rust


Asurface when viewed without magnification exhibits a layer of yellow 1
brown rust that obscures the original steel surface. The rust layer may be
.....
-..-,
evenly distributed or in patches, but 1t will be reasonably well adherent and
willlightly mark acloth that is lightly wiped over the surface.
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o FR 3 Light flash rust
.....o
Asurface when viewed without magnification exhibits small quantities of a
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yellow-brown rust !ayer through which the steel substrate can be observed.
,\1\ The rust/discoloration may be evenly distributed or in patches, but wi ll be
...·-u.
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tightly adherent and not easily removed by light wiping with acloth .

5-9
Water Jetting

PROCEDURE FOR THE VISUAL


ASSESSMENT OF STEEL SUBSTRATES

Either in good daylight or in artificial illumination (agreed between the


parties) examine the steel surface and compare it with each of the
photographs using normal vision. Place the appropriate photograph clase to
and in the plan eof the steel surface to be assessed.

· For the initial condition record the assessment as the worst


degree that is evident.

· Assessment of the cleaning degree shall be made when


the surface isdry and befo re flash rusting occurs.

· Assessment of the flash rust degree (if any) shall be made .,.,
immediately prior to paint application. ,.,-·•
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5-10
Water Jetting

PHOTOGRAPHS

Five photographs show the condition of the damaged painted steel


designated DC1, DC2, DC31 and OS 1& 052.

Fifteenphotographsshow the three degrees of preparation (Wa 1, Wa 2and


Wa 21/2) for each of theoriginal conditions.

Three photographs show the flash rusting degrees FRl, FR2 and FR3.

DC 1 DC2 DC3
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.-.. Wal Wa2 Wa2Y2 Wa1 Wa2 Wa2% Wa1 Wa2 Wa2Y2

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Wa1 Wa2 Wa2Y2 Wal Wa2 Wa2Yz

5-11
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A lication & Coati"" Defects

CONTENTS

ADHESION FAILURE •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-3


ALLIGATORI NG ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-6
ALUMINIUM CORROSION .............................................. 6-7
8ITTI NESS ••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••..•••.••.••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••• 6-8
BLEACHING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-9
BLEEDING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-10
BLISTERING ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-11
BLOOM •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-14
BRIDGING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-15
BRUSH MARKS ••••.••••••••••••••••.••••••••.•••••.••••••••.•••••••.••••• 6-17
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,?J BUBBLES or BUBBLING ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-18


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CHALKING ••••••••••••..•••••.••..••.•.•..••••.•..•••••.•..••••••••••••.•••• 6-19
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I'G CHECKING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-21
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CHEESINESS ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-24
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10 CISSING ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-25
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COBWEBBING ............................................................ ti-~{;
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CRACKING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-27
CRATERING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-30
CROWSFOOTI NG ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-31
DELAMINATION •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-32
DRYSPRAY ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-34
EFFLORESCENCE ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-36
EROS ION .•••••••.••.•..•••.•••.•..•••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••• 6-38
FADING •••••••••••...••••••••••••.••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-40
Flll FORM••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••.••••••.•..•.•••••..••••••••.• 6-41
FLAKING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-42
FLOCCULATION •••..•••••••••.•••••.•.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••• 6-44
FLOODING ••••••.••••••••••••••••••••••.•.••••..•.••••••.••••••••••••••••••• 6-45
FLOTATION ••••••••••••••••••••••••••..•.•••••••••••••••.••••••••.••.••••.•• 6-46
GRINNING •••••.•••••••.•••.•••••••••••••••••••.••.•••••.••••••••••••••••••• 6-47
6-1
AppJicªtio~_ ~-C(!at~ng Defects

GRIT INCLUSIONS ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-48


GROWTH ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-49
INCORRECT COATING SYSTEM •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-50
IMPACT DAMAGE •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-52
LAMINATIONS or SHELLING ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-54
MISSES/SKIPS/HOLIDAYS •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-55
MISSING TOPCOAT •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-56
MUO CRACKING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-57
ORANGE PEEL •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-58
OVERSPRAY ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-60 .,
PEELING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-61 --·
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PINHOLES .................................................................. 6-63 )>


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RAIN DAMAGE -WATER SPOTTING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-65 "'


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RIPPLED COATING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-66 oCll
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RUNS or SAGS •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-68 ro
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RUST RASHING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-71 "'


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RUST SPOTTING ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-72


RUST STAINING •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-75
SAPO NI FICATION •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-76
SETTLEMENT .............................................................. 6-77
SOLVENT LIFTING ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-78
SOLVENT POPPING ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-80
TACKINESS ................................................................. 6-81
UNDERCUTTING ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-82
WATER SPOTTING ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-84
WRINKLING ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-85
ZINC CARBONATES ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6-88

6-2
Application & Coating Defects

ADHESION FAILURE
see also delamination and flaking

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Description: Paint fails to adhere to substrate or underlying coats of


paint.

Probable Causes: Surface contamination or condensation.

Prevention: Ensure that the surface is clean, dry and free from any
contamination and that the surface has been suitably
prepared.Use the correct coating specification.

Repair: Depends upon the extent of adhesion failure. Removal of


detective areas will be necessary prior to adequate
preparation and application of correct coating system to
manufacturer's recommendations.
6-3
Fatz's Atlas of co tmg defects

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AppJication & Coating Defects

ALLIGATORING
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Description: Very large (macro) checking or cracking which resembles 1'0
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through to the undercoat down to the substrate.

Probable Causes: Interna! stresses in the coating where the surface shrinks
fas ter than the body of the paint film. Can be ca used by
excessive film thickness and limited paint ftexibility. Also
found on paint films having asoft undercoat with ahard
topcoat.

Prevention: Use correct coating specification and materials. Avoid


excessive thickness. Avoid application at high ambient
temperatures.

Repair: Repair will depend upon size and extent of alligatoring.


Abrade or remove all affected coats and apply suitable
undercoat and topcoat. Follow recommended application
procedures.
6-6

Application & Coating Defects

ALUMINIUM CORROSION

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Description: Blistering ofthe paínt coating dueto aluminium corrosion


product under the paint.

Probable Causes: Pinholes in the coating. Porosity of flame sprayed


aluminium. lnsufficient coating thickness.

Prevention: Use correctly formulated coating system applied in the


correct thickness.

Repair: Blast clean and recoat.


6-7
Application & Coating Defects

BITTINESS
(also known as Peppery, Seedy or Seediness)

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Description: Film contaminated by particles of paint skin, gel, rl
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fiocculated material orforeign matter, which project above


the surface of the paint film to give arough appearance.
The term Peppery is used when the bits are small and
uniformly distributed.

Probable Causes: The main cause is contamination within or on the surface


of the paint film. This can be paint skin, gelled particles,
airborne sand and grit or contamination from brushes,
rollers etc.

Prevention: Use clean application equipment and clean working


environment. Use new, uncontaminated paint.Follow good
painting practices.

Repair: Repair depends on size and extent of problem. Abra de or


completely remove the contaminated layer and recoat.
6-8
Application & Coating Defects

BLEACHING
see also Fading

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Description: Totalloss of colour of acoating.

Probable Causes: Bleachingdueto weathering or chemical attack.

Prevention: Use colour stable pigments ora system which will


withstand the chemical environment.

Repair: Remove bleached coating or abrade and recoat using a


more suitable coating system.
6-9
Application & Coatin9 Defects

BLEEDING
al so called 'Bieed Through'

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Description: Staining of apaint film by diffusion of asoluble colo ured ".......
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bitumen ortar based products are over-coated with alkyd
based or other conventional topcoats. Also occurs with
emulsion paints.

Probable Causes: 'Bieed Through'is generally afull or partial redissolving of


the previous coat. Bleeding can happen when strong
solvents are used in the topcoats.

Prevention: Use correct coating specification and materials. Use


compatiblematerials.Use appropriate sealer coat.

Repair: Remove stained or contaminated layer. Apply asuitable


sealer coat which will not dissolve soluble material e.g.an
aluminium pigmented coating.

6-10
Aoolication &Coatina Defects

BLISTERING

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Other examples are shown on the following page
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Descri pti on: Dome shaped projections or blisters in the dry paint film
through localloss of adhesion from the underlying surface.
Blisters may contain liquid, gas or crystals.

Probable Causes: Localised loss of adhesion caused by contamination with


grease, oil, salts, rust, trapped moisture, retained solvent,
hydrogen vapour pressure (on coatings used with cathodic
protection), soluble pigments etc. Osmotic blistering can
also occur in immersed conditions.

Prevention: Ensurecorrect surface preparation and application. Apply


asuitable coating system.

Repair: Depending upon size and type of blistering, remove


blistered are as or entire coating system and repair or fully
recoat.

6-11
Fitz's Atlas of coatmg defects

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al • • •

• 1

ApplicatiC!I'l_~ Jºª!illg Defects

BLOOM


• •

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Description: Ahazy deposit on the surface of the paintfilm resembling
the bloom on grape, resulting in a loss of gloss and a
dulling of colour.

Probable Causes: Paint film exposed to condensation or moisture during


curing (common phenomenon with amine cured
epoxies).lncorrect solvent blend can also contribute to
blooming.

Prevention: Apply and cu re coating systems under correct


environmental conditions and follow the manufacturer's
recommendations.

Repair: Remove bloom with clean cloth or suitable solvent


cleaners.lf necessary, apply undercoat/topcoat following
manufacturer's recommendations.
6-1 4
Application & Coating Defects

BRIDGING

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-(1)
(1)
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ra
ou
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LL.

Description: The covering over of unfilled gaps such as cracks or corners


with afilm of coating materiai.This causes aweakness in
the paint film which may crack, blister or flake off.

Probable Causes: Poor application. High viscosity paint system. Failure to


brush paint into cornersand over welds.

Prevention: Brush apply astripe coat into corners and welds, and fill
all cracks prior to application of the full coating system.

Repair: Re move allloose paint, abrade the surface, apply astripe


coat by brush and recoat.

6-15
Fitz's Atlas of coatlng def tts

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Application & Coating Defects

BRUSH MARKS
(al so Laddering, Ladders or Ropiness)

-~ .~-------------

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·-u.. Description: Undesirable ridges and furrows which remain in a dry
paint film after brush application, where the paint fi lm
has notfiowed out.May be found as across-hatch pattern
(Laddering) where alternate coats have been applied in
opposite directions. Pronounced brush marks are known
as Ropiness.

Probable Causes: Viscosity of material may be too high for brush application;
lncorrectthinners used in the paint; lnadequate mixing or
poor application technique. Two-pack paints may have
exceeded application pot-life.

Prevention: Use brushing grade of paint and apply adequate thickness.


Thin paint to brushing viscosity. Use within pot-life

Repair: Depending on extent of brush marks, thoroughly abrade


surface and recoat with asuitable viscosity paint.
6-17
Appli~ª~ion & Coating Defects

BUBBLES OR BUBBLING

.,
...-·
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Description: Bubbles within apaint film appear as small raised blisters. t'D
ro'
These may be intact or broken (to le ave acrater). Can be !:+
"'
found in excessively thick paint films, especially if spray
applied, and also with roller application. This should not
be confused with blistering.

Probable Causes: Trapped air/solvent within the coating which is not


released before the surface dries.Can be found with factory
applied coatings where application is by dipping,
electrodeposition or roller coating.

Prevention: Spray application - use airless spray equipment, adjust


viscosity with thinners or modify spray temperature. Use
correct mixing equipment to ensure air is not stirred in
during mixing. Add defoaming agent to emulsion paints.

Repair: Depending on extent and severity of bubbling, abrade or


remove the offending coat(s) and recoat.
6-18
Application & Coating Defects

CHALKING

• • \



• •


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LL.

Description: Afriable, powdery layer on the surface of a paint film. A


change of colour or fading is al so se en. Chalking rates vary
with pigment concentration and cho1ce ofbinder.Chalking
is aknown characteristic of certain paints e.g.epoxy paints.

Probable Causes: Disintegration of the paint binder on exposure to


weathering and/or UV light.

Prevention: Apply asuitable topcoat with high resistan ce to chalking,


and UV resistance.

Repair: Remove all powdery deposits by abrasion or light sweep


blast cleaning, wipe loose material off and apply achal k
resista nt topcoat.
6-19
Fitz's Atlas of o tmg defects

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Application & Coating Defects

CHECKING
(see al so cracking)

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ou '
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:LL.

Description: Fine cracks which do not penetrate the topcoat of apaint


system. Sorne checking can be so minute that it is
impossible to see without magnification.

Probable Causes: Typically aformulation and/or aspecification problem.As


with cracking/ stresses are developed which cause the
surface of the paint film to beco me brittle and crack.
Limited paint fiexibility.

Prevention: Use acorrectly formulated coating system.

Repair: Abrade ande lean surface then apply an undercoat/topcoat


to suit.

6-21
Fitz's Atlas of Odtmg def c.t

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Ap_plication &Coating Defects

CHEESINESS
(5oft Coating)


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Description: Coating remains soft, even after prolonged drying time.

Probable Causes: Wrong mixing ratio fortwo-pack paints.Too low adrying/


curing temperature. Excessive solvent retained within the
coating.

Prevention: Ensu re adequate mixing of two-packpaints. Onlyuse the


recommended amount of thinners. Apply and cure the
coating under controlled environmental conditions.

Repair: Remove all soft coatings and apply suitable coating system
or topcoat to coating manufacturer's recommendations.
6-24
Application & Coating Defects

CISSING
also referred toas Crawling and Fisheyes

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Description: Surface breaks in a wet paint film, where the paint has
receded to expose the underlying substrate. Sometí mes
known as crawling or fisheyes. The paint is unable to
wet-out the substrate. Can be very large.

Probable Causes: Surface contamination by either moisture or foreign matter


such as oil, grease, silicone etc. Also known to happen
when incorrect solvent blends ha ve been used.

Prevention: Ensure surface is clean and free from grease,oil and foreign
contaminates prior to application of coating.

Repair: Abrade and thoroughly clean the contaminated surface


or re move the coating to achieve aelean surface. Reapply
the coating system to the coating manufacturer's
recommendations.
6-25
Application & Coating Defects

COBWEBBING

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Description: The production of fine filaments instead of normal


atomised particles when so me solutions ofhigh molecular
weight polymers are sprayed.

Probable Causes: Too high aviscosity with so me types of polymer solutions.

Prevention: Reduce the spraying viscosity. Select a more suitable


solvent blend. Change the spraymg conditions.

Repair: Abrade to remove all affected material and recoat.


6·26
Application & Coating Defects

CRACKING
(see also Alligatoring and Checking)

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Description: Paint coatings with visible cracks which may penetrate
down to the substrate. Cracking comes in several forms,
from minute cracking to severe cracking.

Probable Causes: Cracking is gene rally a stress related failure and can be
attributed to surface movement, ageing, absorption and
desorption of moisture and generallack of fiexibility of
the coating. The thicker the paint film the greater the
possibility it will crack.

Prevention: Use correct coating systems, application techniques and


dry fi lm thicknesses. Alternatively, use a more flexible
coating system.

Repair: Abrade to re move all cracked paint. Correctly reapply the


coating system or use amore fiexible system and one less
prone to cracking.

6-27
Fitz's Atlas of coatmg defects


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CRATERING

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Description: The formation of small bowl shaped depressions in the


paint film. Not to be con fu sed with Cissing.

Probable Causes: Trapped air bubbles which have burst toleave small craters
as the coating dries. The coating has insufficient time to
flow into auniform film.

Prevention: lmprove spray technique to avoid air entrainment. Add


thinners as recommended by the paint supplier.

Repair: Abrade and clean the surface and recoat.


6-30
Application & Coating Defects

CROWSFOOTING
see also Wrinkling

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LL.

Description: The development of small wrinkles in the paint film which


occur in apattern resembling that of acrow'sfoot.

Probable Causes: Usually dueto the surface drying rapidly to form askin
which then wrinkles as solvent slowly evaporates from
the soft underlying paint.

Prevention: Apply athinner coat of paint,add slower drying thinners,


check application and drying conditions are correctfor the
paint system used.

Repair: Abra de the surface when fully dry and recoat.

6-31
Application & Coating Defects

DELAMINATION
see al soAdhesion Failure and Flaking

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Description: Loss of adhesion between coats of paint.

Probable Causes: Provided compatible paint materials ha ve been used,


delamination defects are generally related to poor surface
preparation and application defects,such as contamination
between coats;exceeding overcoat times;application toa
glossy surface.

Prevention: Ensure no contamination between paint coats, closely


follow intercoat times, lightly abrade and clean glossy
surfaces between coats.

Repair: Depending on extent, abrade and recoat or completely


remove the delaminated coating and reapply.
6-32
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Application & Coating Defects

DRVSPRAY
see also Overspray

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Description: Rough and uneven finish to the surface of the paint film
where the particles are insufficiently fiuid to fiow together
and are often poorly adhered.

Probable Causes: lncorrect spray application i.e.gun distance.Aiso associated


with fast drying products and too high an application
temperature.

Prevention: Use correct coatingapplication equipment and techniques.


Use a slower dryi ng solvent or solvent blend. Follow
recommended application procedures.

Repair: Abrade and remove any loase dryspray and re-apply


coating or topcoat.
6-34
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Applica!ion & Coating Defects

EFFLORESCENCE

.' 1_.;a;:~_,~;:..!"' ..
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Description: White (powdery) substance on the substrate of concrete,
brick, masonry and plaster.The efflorescence, which comes
from the migration of salts, l1fts the paint from the
substrate.

Probable Causes: Soluble salts within the substrate.Moisture brings the salts
to the surface of the substrate resulting in coating adhesion
failure.

Prevention: Ensure surface is moisture free, elean and suitable for


application of the coating system. Remove or eliminate
the so urce of moisture.

Repair: Remove all powdery substances and thoroughly clean the


surface. Apply a suitable sealer and coating system
formulated for concrete, masonry etc.
6-36
,......
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Application &Co~!~!l_g Defects

EROS ION

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Oescription: Selective removal of paint films from areas or high spots.

Probable Causes: The wearing away of the paint film by various elements
such as rain, snow, wind, sand etc. Found to be more
prominent on brush applied coatings beca use of the
uneven fin ish.

Prevention: Use asuitablecoating system with resistance to surface


eros ion/abrasion.

Repair: Clean surface free from contamination and apply acoating


system formulated and tested for the specific environment.
6·38
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Application & Coating Defects

FADING
see al so Bleaching

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Description: Discoloration or gradual decrease in colour of apaint when


exposed to sunlight/weather.May be accompanied by loss
of gloss.ln sorne situations it may resemble chalking but
without the powdery surface. Fading tends to accelerate
in the presence moisture.

Probable Causes: lncorrect pigmentation; use of organic pigments;


atmospheric conta mination; porous substrate.

Prevention: Use correct coating systems which resists UV light and


fading. Use acoating withlight stablepigments.

Repair: Abrade and clean the surface and apply a light stable
coating system.
6-40
Application & Coating Defects

FILIFORM
(Corrosion)

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Description: Random threads of corros ion that develop beneath thin
lacquers and other coating films from agrowing head or
poi nt. Often seen on old 'ti n' food ca ns, with th in electro
plating but also seen on painted aluminium and other
surfaces.

Probable Causes: Contamination on the metallic substrate or damage to the


coating which allows acorrosion cell to develop at the tip
and advance under the coating.

Prevention: Ensure no contamination exists on the substrate prior to


coating application.

Repair: Re move all traces of corros ion products and non adhering
coatings. Abrade, clean and coat to manufacturer's
recom mendations.

6-41
lication &Coatina Defects

FLAKING
see al so Delamination and Adhesion Failure

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Description: Aform of adhesion failure where paint literally fiakes from 1"'1
.....
VI

the substrate. Afamiliar sight on wood substrates and on


galvanising.

Probable Causes: lncorrect paint system used. Either non eor incorrect pre-
treatment used for certain substrate i.e. non-ferrous or
galvanised.Aiso poor application techniques. May also be
attributed to differential expansion and contraction of paint
and substrate e.g. wood. Can be the result of ageing of the
paint system.

Prevention: Use correct coating system and pre-treatment.

Repair: Remove all flaking coating until a firm edge can be


achieved.Abrade,sweep blast and clean overall and apply
suitable coating system to coating manufacturer's
recommendations.
6-42
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Application &Coating Defects

FLOCCULATION

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Description: The development of loosely coherent pigment


agglomerates in acoating material.

Probable Causes: Non-uniform pigment dispersion which results in the


pigments forming agglomerations.Unsuitable thinners or
inadequate mixing.

Prevention: Ensureonly properly formulated and mixed products are


use d. Use recommended thinners.

Repair: Remove coating where ftocculation is visible.Abrade and


clean the surface and apply a properly formulated and
mixed coating system.
6-44
Application &Coating Defects

FLOODING
see al so Flotation

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Description: A defect which appears soon after application due to


pigmentseparation.The visual appearance is adeepening
of the colour. The affected area dries to a deeper shade
than the remainder of the surface.

Probable Causes: Pigment separation and settlement.

Prevention: Use correctly formulated products.

Repair: Lightly abra de and clean and then recoat with asuitably
formulated material.

6-45
A~~i~~~i()~ &Coating Defects

FLOTATION
see also Flooding

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't

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Description: Occurs in coloured materials containing mixtures of


different pigments.lt closely resembles fiooding,although
amonled or streaky effect is produced when the different
pigments separate.

Probable Causes: The mottled effect, which is visible to the eye, is caused
by separation of the different coloured pigments.lt may
also result from the addition of excessive thinners.

Prevention: Use correctly formulated products. Do not over thin with


solvent.

Repair: Abrade and clean overall and apply a suitable sealer or


topcoat.
6-46
Application &Coating Defects

GRINNING
o(Grinning Through'

....
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Description: The underlying surface is visible through the paint film


dueto inadequate hiding power of the coating material.
This is sometimes called 'Grinning-Through~ Often seen
where dark colours are overcoated with lighter colours.

Probable Causes: Low film thickness of penultimate coa t. Poor opacity and
covering power of topcoat coat. Strong colour of primer/
undercoats.

Prevention: Apply adequate dry film thickness between individual


coats.Use opaque coatings with good covering properties.

Repair: Apply addítional compatible coats to clean surface.


6-47
Application & Coating Defects

GRIT INCLUSIONS

• •

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Description: Particles of grit and dust embedded within the coating


system.

Probable Causes: Failure to re move used grit from the surface prior to
application ofthe paint. Contamination ofthe wet primer
or undercoat with grit from other blast cleaning operations.
Wind blown grit particles adhering to the topcoat.

Prevention: Ensure all used grit is removed befo re application of fresh


paint. Do not carry our blast cleaning whilst there is wet
paint on nearby surfaces. Ensure than all cans of paint
and brushes etc. are protected during blast cleaning
operations.

Repair: Abrade or blast clean the surface to remove all grit


contamination, thoroughly elean the surface and recoat.
6-48
Application & Coating Defects

GROWTH
(on the surface of paint film)
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Description: Growth and attachments of natural and organisms to


surface of finished products. These vary in formf size and
lifespanf e.g. algaefmosses etc.

Probable Causes: Generallyf natural organisms within moistf wet or


immersed conditions. Growth may continue after
attachment.

Prevention: Use correct coating specification and products suitable for


the environment. Where practica I/ clean regularly to
prevent build-up of moss and alga e.

Repair: Clean and remove all growthfabrade the surface and apply
asuitable coating system.
6-49
Aoolication & Coatina Defects

INCORRECT COATING SVSTEM

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Description: An unsuitable or incompatible coating system has been


used which results in rapid failure.

Probable Causes: Use of incompatibleor unsuitable coating materials.

Prevention: Use correct coatíng specification and materials. Ensure that


different coatsare compatible with each other.

Repair: Remove all defective coating and apply correct coating


system to manufacturer's recommendations.
6-50
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Application & Coating Defects

IMPACT DAMAGE
(Star cracking)

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Description: Cracks which radia te from apoínt of impact.

Probable Causes: lmpact damage toa relativelybrittle coating. Often see on


glass fibrereínforced plastícs.

Prevention: Prevent impact damage.

Repair: Abrade all damaged areas and recoat.


6-52
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Application & Coating Defects

LAMINATIONS OR SHELLING
(of cast iron)

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Description: The photograph shows fiaking or shelling of sections of


cast iron from the surface which have been overpainted
and which have led to subsequent rust staining.

Probable Causes: Failure to re move or treat delaminated sections prior to


application of the coating system.

Prevention: Ensure proper surface preparation is carried out.

Repair: Grind all laminations to remove them, blast clean the


surface and recoat.
6-54
Application & Coating Defects

MISSES/SKIPS/HOLIDAYS

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Description: Exposed areas ofsubstrate when the intention was to coat


the entire area. Could be confined to a single coat in a
multi-coat paint system.

Probable Causes: Poor application techniques. La ekof quality control.

Prevention: Use correct application techniques. Apply good painting


practices. Use qualified inspectors.

Repair: Applycoatings to suitable prepared and cleaned substrates


to original specification and manufacturer's repair
procedures.

6-55
Application & Coating Defects

MISSING TOPCOAT

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Description: Failure to apply the topcoat leaving the undercoat exposed.

Probable Causes: Poor coating application and quality control.lnadequate


dry film thickness.

Prevention: Thoroughly inspect all surfaces to ensure each coat has


been correctlyapplied.

Repair: Abrade the surface and either apply the topcoat, or an


additional undercoat and topcoat, in accordance with the
paint suppliers recommendations.
6-56
Application &Coating Defects

MUO CRACKING

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Description: The dried paint film has the appearance of a dried-out


mud bath. Cracks vary in size and amount but form a
network of cracks.

Probable Causes: Generally over application of heavily pigmented primers


such as inorganic zinc silicates or water based coatings,
although can occur with other over thick systems.

Prevention: Only apply the recommended coating thickness. Use


recommended application techniques with suitably
formu lated products.

Repair: Remove all cracked and fiaking paint back toa sound base.
Abrade and clean surface. Re-apply coating to
manufacturer's recommendations.
6-57
Application & Coating Defects

ORANGE PEEL
also known as Pock-marking


• •

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Description: The uniform pock-marked appearance, in particular of a


sprayed paint film in which the surface of the paint film
resembles the skin of an orange.

Probable Causes: Failure ofthe paintfilm to fiow out. Usually caused by poor
application techniques or by incorrect solvent blend.

Prevention: Use correct app lication techniques with suitably


formu lated products.

Repair: Where aesthetics are ofconcern,abrade overall,clean and


recoat.
6-58
ORANGE PEEL
also known as Pock-marking

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6-59
Application & Coating Defects

OVERSPRAY
see also Dryspray

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Description: Small particles of paint adhering to the surface of the


previous dry coat, generally adjacent to the area being
sprayed. Often appears as apebbly surface. Similar to dry
spray.

Probable Causes: Particles of wet paint falling outside the spray pattern.
Solvent evaporates too rapidly. Spray application under
windy conditions.

Prevention: Spray paint under suitable environmental conditions.


Adjust spray pattern to minimise overspray onto drypaint.

Repair: Befare cure or drying: remove by dry brushing followed


by solvent wipe. After cure: abrade and apply another
coat.
6-60
Application & Coating Defects

PEELING
see also Flaking

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Another example is shown on the following page
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Description: Similar to flaking, although peeling tends to produce soft


and pliable coatings which can be pulled away from or
spontaneously ftake away from the substrate or from
between coats, dueto loss of adhesion.

Probable Causes: Peeling is the reduction in bond strength of the paint film
dueto contamination or incompatibility of coats.

Prevention: Use correct coating system and specification applied to


clean and uncontaminated surfaces.

Repair: Re move all soft and pliable coating back toa firm edge or
total removal. Abrade, clean and apply su1table coating
system to coating manufacturer's recommendations.
6-61
Fitz's Atlas of coatmg defects

0'1

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Application & Coating Defects

PINHOLES

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Another example is shown on the following page
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Description: The farmation of minutehales inthewet paint film during
!f
·-u. applicatian and drying, due ta air or gas bubbles which
burst, giving rise ta small craters ar hales which fail ta
caalesce befare the film dries.

Probable Causes: Salvent ara ir entrapment within apaint film. Acomman


problem when coating parous substrate such as zinc filled
primers, zinc silicates and metal sprayed caatings etc.
Pinhales can alsa be ca used by incarrect spray applicatian
ar incarrect salvent blend.

Prevention: Use carrect applicatian techniques wi th suitably


farmu lated praducts. Carrect salvent blends and
enviran mental canditians. Check spray equipment and
distan ce af spray gun from the surface.

Repair: Abra de, elean averall and apply suitable tiecaat/undercaat


and tapcoat as necessary.
6-63
Fitz's Atlas of coatang defects


Application & Coating Defects

RAIN DAMAGE -WATER SPOTTING

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Description: Craters and water marks on the surface of the paint film
caused by rain or heavy condensation.

Probable Causes: Rain falling on afreshly painted surface causes craters to


form on thesurface befo reit has hardened sufficiently.

Prevention: Allow coating (where practicable) to surface harden prior


to exposure to rain or heavy condensation.

Repair: Abra de/ clean all surface damage areas and apply overall
undercoat/topcoat.
6-65
Application & Coating Defects

RIPPLED COATING

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Description: Arippled effect on the surface ofthe paint.

Probable Causes: Strong wind blowing across the surface ofwet paint causes
it to ripple.Where this is on the underside,the ripples can
hang down ín the form of small stalactites. Can also be
caused by poor applicatíon techníques.

Prevention: Do not apply paint under unfavourable conditions. Use


correct application equipment and workmanship.

Repair: When mild ripples are seen,abrade the surface and recoat.
Where this is a majar effect, remove the coatings and
re coa t.
6 -66
Application & Coating Defects

ROT
(wood)

1f ,
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·~

LL.

Description: Damp and rotten wood exposing friable substance,


splitting, ftaking and cracking of paint.

Probable Causes: Generally poor maintenance or application over soft and


rotten wood. Occasionally, use of incorrect paint system.

Prevention: Correct and ongoing maintenance to the wood and


coating. Ensure all wooden surfaces are sound and free
from rot befo re application of paint.

Repair: Replace rotten wood, preferably with treated wood.Apply


asuitable coating system formulated for wood surfaces.
6-67
Application & Coating Defects

RUNS OR SAGS
also described as curtains or wrinkles

• • ' •
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VI

Description: Downward movement and tears of paínt whích appear


soon after applícatíon to vertical surfaces dueto excessíve
paint application.ln severe situations it may be descríbed
as curtaíns.

Probable Causes: Over applícation of paínt, excessive thinners, wrong (lack)


of curing agent or just poor workmanshíp. Could, in
extreme circumstances, be aformulatíon problem.

Prevention: Use correct appl ícation tech niq ues with suitab ly
formulated products.

Repair: While the paint is still wet brush out runs and sags.When
the paínt has dríed, abrade and clean defective areas and
apply overall coat or spot repair, as necessary.
6-68
Application & Coating Defects

RUNS OR SAGS
also described as curtains or wrinkles

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Other examples are shown on the following page


6-69
Fitz's Atlas of o tmg defettc;

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Application & Coating Defects

RUST RASHING
to Thermal Spray Coating

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L&. Description: Spots of ferrous oxide develop within the pares of a
sprayed metal coating. Similar to rust spotting of apaint
film.

Probable Causes: Aphenomenon which can develop on aluminium thermal


sprayed coatings soon after application. Moisture is
absorbed into the metal coating and reacts with the ferrous
substrate. Early sealing with an appropriate coating
prevents such events.

Prevention: Apply thermal spray coating in acontrolled environment.


Seal metal sprayed surface immediately after application.

Repair: Clean rust rashing locations, wire brush, fresh water clean.
Providing dry film thickness of the thermal spray is
adequate, apply sealer coat to coating manufacturer's
recommendations.

6-71
Application & Coating Defects

RUST SPOTTING
also referred toas rash rusting

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Description: Fine spots of rust which appear on apaint film, usually a
thin primercoat.This frequently starts as localised spotting
-
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( '\
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but rapidly spreads over the surface.

Probable Causes: Low film thickness, voids and holidays,also defects in the
steel i.e.laminations.Too high asurface profile may cause
penetration of peaks through apaint film and cause rust
spotting. May also occur from metallic contamination of
acoated surface by grinding dust etc.

Prevention: Apply an adequate primer coat. Ensure coating system


adequatelycoversthesurface profile. Use athicker coating
system or a lower blast profile. Protect coating from
contamination withgrinding dust etc.

Repair: Depending on type and extent, abrade or blast clean


surface and recoat. Re move all foreign debris and abrade,
elean damaged areas. Apply spot repair or recoat overall.
6-72
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Fitz's Atlas of oating detecte;

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Aoolication & Coatina Defects

RUST STAINING

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LL.

Description: Alight staining on the surface of the paint ca used by the


precipitation of ferrous oxide.

Probable Causes: Water run-offfrom arusty surface above asoundly coated


surface. Rust staining occurs when the rust is wetted-out
and contaminated water runs over and discolours other
items or locations. Usually more of an eye-sore than a
defect.The coating itself may not be detective, onlystained.

Prevention: Adequate design and suitable maintenance.

Repair: Remove staining and apply a cosmetic coating, as


necessary.
6-75
Application & Coating Defects

SAPONIFICATION

...""-·
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Description: The coating appears to be soft and sticky.Can be sporadic


isolated spots oran overall effect.

Probable Causes: Asoap formation reaction between esters,alkali and water.


Often found in alkyd and oil coatings. Notably found on
concrete coated structures and coating used in conjunction
with cathodic protection.

Prevention: Use correct coating specifications and materials.

Repair: Remove all soft coatings where saponification has


occurred, abrade, clean and re-apply undercoat/topcoat
(non-saponifiable).
6-76
Application & Coating Defects

SETTLEMENT

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u.
Description: Aterm used to describe the settled pigment/solids in a
liquid prior to application. Found during paint storage.
Settlement which occurs after mixing and during
application can result in different colours in different areas.

Probable Causes: OId stock, heavily pigmented paint,wrong formulation or


contamination of product. Can be aproblem with zinc rich

pnmers.

Prevention: Use products within shelf life. Use adequate mixing


procedures. Keep paint mixed or recirculated during spray
application.

Repair: As Prevention:Where the results is apatchy finish, re move


the affected coating and recoat taking precautions against
settlement.
6-77

1
Application & Coating Defects

SOLVENT LIFTING
see al soWrinkling

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111

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Description: Eruption of the surface of the paint film. Wrinkling and


blistering which leads to a weak surface and ultimate
coating breakdown.

Probable Causes: Incompatible paint systems used.Topcoats with astrong


solvent blend can attack previous and weaker solvent
blended coatings. Overcoating befo re the previous coat has
adequately hardened.

Prevention: Use correct coating specification, overcoating times and


materials. Conduct compatibility trials with undercoat/
topcoats.

Repair: Remove all defective coatings. Abrade, clean and recoat


with correct coating system, following the recommended
overcoati ng ti mes.
6-78
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Application &Coating Defects

SOLVENT POPPING

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Description: Solvent (clear) bubbles on the surface of the paint film


soon after application.

Probable Causes: lncorrect solvent blends, porous surfaces and wrong


enviran mental conditions.

Prevention: Use correct coating specifications and materials. Correct


application techniques and enviran mental conditions.

Repair: Lightly abrade and clean the surface and apply undercoat/
topcoat.
6-80
Application &Coating Defects

TACKINESS

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ct
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...·-u. Description: Soft film of applied coatings. Although beyond the wet
and liquid stage, the paint film remains as atacky and
soft surface. Sometimes only apparent on touching the
substrate.

Probable Causes: There are various reasons why apaint will rema in tacky:
Over thickness;
Excessive thinners;
Wrong (lack of) curing agent;
Low drying/curing temperature;
Use of coating beyond pot life or shelf life.

Prevention: Use correct coating specifications and materials. Ensure


two-pack materials are correctly mixed. Follow paint
suppliers recommendations.

Repair: Re move defective coating. Abrade, elean and recoat.

6-81
Application & Coating Defects

UNDERCUTTING

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Description: Visual corrosion beneath a paint film. Corrosion travels
beneath the paint film and lifts the paint from the
-"
substrate. Severe cases can show as blistering, flaking,
cracks and exposed rust.

Probable Causes: Application of paint to corroded substrate. Rust creep from


areas of mechanical damage and missing primer coat. Can
be found in areas of poor design or access where
inadequate preparation and coating thickness was applied.
Could also be dueto lack of maintenance.

Prevention: Use adequate coating specifications and maintenance


procedures. Apply asuitably formulated primer.

Repair: Spot repair localised areas.Ciean areas back to sound base,


apply suitable repair coating to manufacturer's
recommendations.
6-82
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Application &Coating Defects

WATER SPOTTING
see al so Rain spotting

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Description: The spotty appearance of the paint film caused by drops


of water on the surface and which remains afterthe water
has evaporated.The effect mayor may not be permanent.

Probable Causes: Rain drops falling on the wet paint film. These lea ve
permanent marks. Rain drops falling on afreshly dried but
hard surface. When the water evaporated, marks may be
seen which can be rubbed off.

Prevention: Do not apply paint when rain is threatened.

Repair: Where the marks are just on the surface these may be
washed off but where there is cratering or permanent
damage to the paint film, abrade the surface and recoat.
6-84
Application & Coating Defects

WRINKLING
al so Rivelling (see al so Crow'sfooting)

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Description: The development of wrinkles in the paint film during


drying, wrinkling,swelling and blistering of the coating.

Probable Causes: Usually dueto the initial formation of asurface skin with
solvent based paints. Also swelling of the coating from
solvent anack. Can arise from overcoating befare the
previous coat has adequately hardened.

Prevention: Use correct coating specification and materials.Adequate


mixing, application and curing of materials. Follow the
paint suppliers recommended overcoating times.

Repair: Re move detective coatings. Abrade, elean and recoat.

6-85
Fitz's Atlas of codtmq defects

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Application & Coating Defects

ZINC CARBONATES

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Description: Loss of adhesion to galvanised surfaces.Biistering of paint


on agalvanised surface.

Probable Causes: White rust or carbonates on the surface of galvan1sing prior


to application ofthe paint coating.Corrosion ofzinc under
the paint surface. Can be similar to rash rusting but white
in colour.

Prevention: Seal zinc coating from the environment and application


of an appropriateprotective coating system.

Repair: Water wash the surface to remove all traces of zinc


corrosion products.Sweep blast or abrade,clean and apply
asuitable coating system.
6-88
Marine Fouling

INDEX OF MARINE FOULING

MARINE FOULING ...........•.••.......................................•.. 7-3


ClASSIFICATION OF FOUUNG ........................................ 7-3
ANIMAL FOULING .•....•..............•................................... 7-5
FIGURES: Animal Fouling ............................................ 7-7
Barnacles .......................•............................. 7-8
Barnacles - acorn ....................................... 7-1 O
Barnacles - gooseneck ..•............................. 7-12
Hydroid - tubularia .••................................. 7-14
Molluscs .........................:........................... 7-15
Po lyzoa ...................................................... 7-16
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Tubeworms ......•••..•....•...•........................... 7-17
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0\ Tunicate - sea squirt ....••...•......................... 7-18
- e:
-
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PlANT- WEED OR AlGAE FOUUNG ...........•.................. 7-19
- u
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111
FIGURES: Ectocarpus (brown algae- grass) ...............• 7-20
-c:t...
10 Ectocarpus and enteromorpha ........•..••..••.. 7-22
'
111 Enteromorpha (green grass) ..••..•......•••..•.•.. 7-24
-
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LL.
Rhodophycea (red algae) ••••....•.....•..••.•.....• 7-26

7-1
Marine Fouling

MARINE FOULING

Fouling is anatural phenomenon which occurs continuously in the marine


environment. On sea-going vessels this leads toa significant in crease in fuel
consumption. The term 'fouling' describes the growth of marine plants and
animals on structures in the sea.The fouling organisms of concern are those
we enea unter on ship's hulls.lt is estimated that the number offouling species
involved in fouling is in the region of 4500-5500 although only a small
number of these species are of great concern toship Owners and Operators.
Classification of fouling can be demonstrated by the two main groups;
Macrofouling and Microfouling with further sub classification between
animals, plants and slimes.

MACROFOULING • MICROFOULING
Animal Plant Slimes
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Barnacles Brown Algae Marine Bacteria
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..... Hydroids (Ectocarpus) Diatoms (Piants)
o Molluscs Green Algae
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Polyzoa (Enteromorpha)
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Tu be Worms Red Algae
,111 Tunicates (Rhodophycea)
N
.....
·-u.

CLASSIFICATION OF FOULING

As can be seen above, plant fouling is an assemblage of different types of


seaweed, mainly green and brown varieties/ while animal fouling comprises
principally barnacles (acorn and gooseneckL tu be worms, polyzoa (hydroids
and bryozoa) and mussels. The slime consists of microscopic forms of both
1

plants and (diatoms) and bacteria.


Contrary toso me belief, the adult forms of fouling su eh as mussels and
barnacles are not floating around in the water ready to be attached to
structures, it is the larva eor sea spores which float around in the top 100 feet
or so of the waters. The moment a larva e settles on a structure the
metamorphosis begins.The length oftime alarvae remains freely swimming
is variable and may range from about six weeks, in the case ofbarnacle larva e,
7-3
Marine Fouling

toa matter of hours in the case of larva eof so me tu be worms and hydroids.
Such an existence is hazardous and to ensure survival the animals produce
large numbers of larvae. Anative barnacle, for example, will produce 10,000
in a season. Reproductive potential is only one of severa! attributes that
characterise the marine fouling forms found on ships. As aconsequence of
the intertidal character of their natural environment they have the ability to
withstand extremes of temperature and salinity, also the ability to attach
quickly and firmly to surfaces; thecapacity for rapid growth highlightsthe
severe problem of marine fou ling to ships. Although it has been shown that
seaweed spores andcertain gooseneck barnacles are capable of attaching in
water flows up to 1Oknots and other barnaclelarva eat water fiow of up to 5
knots, it is still assumed that the bulk of settlementto ship's hu lis occur while
the vessel is stationary. Algae spores attach themselves within minutes of
contact with a surface, whereas animallarvae require considerably longer
periods for firm attachment. On ship's hu lis the settlement of plant fouling
occurs where there is available sunlight i.e. around the waterline anda few ""-·
roto
N

meters below. Light is necessary for them to survive, light energy being "'.
...-
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converted to chemical energy (food) by photosynthesis. Animal organisms, ~

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however, do not require light and can therefore be found on any underwater ....o
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7-4
Marine Fouling

ANIMAL FOULING

Prior to the mid sixties,commercial vessels tended to be comparatively small


and lack of port facilities determined that lengthy stationary periods were
encountered in most types of vessel operation.This predisposed shipping to
fouling by marine animals, especially barnacle fouling, and up to the mid-
sixties biologists working on fouling problems worked on barnacle fouling.
The introduction of large ships and improved port facilities resulted in
considerably decreased stationary time during vessel operation and the
fouling emphasis in shipping changed from an animal dominated problem
toan alga edominated problem. However, if aship does encounter alengthy
stationary period it beco mes vulnerable to animal fouling. Animal fouling
problems are caused by the larvae stages, the larvae being comparatively
large (1 mm), and as with all animal fouling problems a period of time of
.,.. around 2- 3days is required for the establishment of the problem to allow
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the larval stage of metamorphosis to become the miniature adult. Where
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light is the food for plants the microscopic 'drifting life: consisting of micro
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Barnacles - Acorn The most commonly encountered fouling animals
.VI and in consequence much is known about their biology. These animalslive
..-
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·-u.. within hard calcareous shells and again have a net of tentacles to trap
planktonic food. Barnacle larva eare selective in choosing their settlement
sites and can actually recognise the presence of other barnacles.This results
in barnacles attaching clase to other members of their own species which
ensures clase enough proximity to allow cross fertilisation. Removal of
accumulations of barnacle fouling by underwater scrubbing results in a
roughening of the surface and also in aspreading around of a biologically
attractive'flavou(Rapid recolonisation by yet more barnacles is the inevitable
result! When the animals die, the shell remains on the ship's hull.

Barna des - Gooseneck Specifically adapted for planktonic life attached


to floating objects,gooseneck barnacles are the exception to the rulethat the
shoreline plant and animal communities are the so urce of all macroscopic
fou ling problems. They differ from acorn barnacles in having long feathery
stalks. When adult they are around 1Ocm in length. The 'lepas' barnacle is
commonly found attached to fioating objects, but amore severe problem is
caused by'conchoderma' agooseneck typically found attached to whales.

7-5
Marine Fouling

Hydroids (typically tubularia ) Although plant-like in appearance,


hydroid are typical animal fouling forms. The so called 'ftower heads' are
actually batteries of stinging cells which are used to paralyse and capture
planktonic food. Hydroids are colonial forms. Ea eh animal is placed in alittle
cup, the body has asingle opening which serves both as mouth and anus.
They are often found on the fiats of vessels and are often misrepresented as
algae forms.ln general there is insufficient light to allow algae fouling to
grow on the fiats oflarge vessels;filamentitious growths found on these areas
are generally types of hydroid.

Molluscs Molluscs are paired shells and are similarto musselsand oysters.
Although molluscs have a hard shell the attachment threads are relatively
weak which limits its abilityto attach to moving structures;growth is normally
found on stationary objects.
,,..
Polyzoa As the na me suggests, these animals are composed of many cells. -·
N
111..
They have a hard calcareous skeleton. Sorne forms are ftat and encrusting ...-
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while others have an erect growth ha bit. In each case clase observation reveals 01
111

their lace-like appearance. They use a net of tentacles with which to catch o.....
,..,
their planktonic food. olll
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Tu be Worms Easily recognised by their hard white calcareous tu bes, these ro
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tube-dwelling animals are again plankton feeders and entrap theirfood using ,...
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VI

anet of adapted tentacles.Again, the larva ecan exercise adegree ofselection


over their attachment site and are capable of recognising the presence of
their own species often resulting in the build up of large complex colonies.

Tunicates Tunicates are sessile marine animals, sorne of which are


important fouling organisms.Tunicates live in awide range of habitats, from
the lower part of the seas down to waters of great depth. So me species are
attached to sol id surfaces, such as ships, while others are attached to loase
substrata of sand and mud. Most species feed mainly on minute plant ce lis
of the plankton, which they filter from astream of water down through the
oral opening into the perforated pharynx and expel through theatrial opening.
This current brings required oxygen and carries away waste products.

7-6
Marine Fouling

ANIMAL FOULING

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Severe animal fouling to the underwater location of aship. Fouling can add
.....o considerableweight toa ship and in crease fu el consumption dramatically.

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Removal of the fouling by high pressure water washing. Note damage to


existing pa intwork.

7-7
Marine Fouling

BARNACLES

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Ascattering of tiny barnacles with sporadic mussels attached to the si de of a


ship.

7-8
Marine Fouling

BARNACLES

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Aclose-up shot ofbarnacles. Note the various sizes along with paint damage
to the surrounding areas.
7-9
Marine Fouling

BARNACLES - ACORN

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Acolony of acorn barnacles.The barnacle larvae can recognise the presence


of other barnacles which result in el ose contact and cross fertilisation.
7-10
Marine Fouling

BARNACLES - ACORN

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Small acorn barnacles and mussel fouling on the underside of the bilge keel
turn of bilge. The shell of the barnacles remains attached to the substrate
even when the life ofthe animal has ended.

7-11
Marine Fouling

BARNACLES - GOOSENECK

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Gooseneck Barnacles - specially adapted for planktonic life. The fouling


goosenecks are all oceanic and prefer to settle on a substrate which is in
motion i.e.ship's hu lis. So me gooseneck barnacles even settle when the ship
runs ata speed of 1Oknots.
7-12
en M
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1.....9
Marine Fouling

HYDROID - TUBULARIA

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Tubularia- atypical Hydroid.Aithough plant-like in appearance, hydroids are


typica l animal fou ling. Hyd roids are, in fact, one of the most important animal
fouling.They can be distinguished from alga eand so me bryozoa, which they
superficially resemble, by the polyp which appears as enlargements to the
ends of the bra nches.
7-14
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Marine Fouling

POLVZOA

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Polyzoa -colonial animals with agreat variety of forms, which may at first
result in confusion with organisms such as hydroids, compound tunicates
and even tufted seaweed. Divided into 2groups; encrusting and erect.
7-16
Marine Fouling

TUBEWORMS

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Tubeworms- Also called Serpulids.Settlement is heavier in warmer waters.


Feeding is conducted on the planktonic microscopic organisms carried past
them in the water currents.
7-17
f1tz s Atlas of o tmg def

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Marine Fouling

PLANT- WEED OR ALGAE FOULING

Regularly encountered are the finely branched brown alga e'Ectocarpus' and
the green algae' Enteromorpha: commonly known as 'grass'fouling beca use
of the similarity in appearance. There the resemblance ends. Algae are very
simple plants, deriving their nutrient requirements by uptakes directly into
their body ce lis from the surrounding seawater, the root structures being non
absorptive with use for anchorage only. When divers ha veto re move algae
growth by scrubbing, they leave the root structures embedded on the surface.
Beca use of the simplicity of the plant, rapid growth occurs and further
cleaning becomes necessary. lndeed the more a surface is scrubbed the
rougher and more attractive it beco mesto further alga ecolonisation. Alga e
fouling is caused by spores which are too small to be seen by the unaided
eye andona roughened surface those spores are capable of attaching within
seconds and becoming established in afew hours.
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Fouling by the brown algae 'Ectocarpus' is similar to that already
QJ
described for 'Enteromorpha:The green alga etend to domínate in positions
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of higher light intensity while 'Ectocarpus' domínate in conditions of lower
.-I1J...
o light intensity.Since all algae require light for growth they are not generally
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111
found on the fiat bottoms of commercial ships.With few exceptions all green
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alga eare green grass colour owing to the predominance of chlorophyll. Red
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algae is basically filamentitious, but compaction of cells may conceal this
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feature. The life cycle is peculiar and complicated, and the reproductive
products are dispersed passively by the water currents.

7-19
Marine Fouling

ECTOCARPUS (BROWN ALGAE - GRASS)

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Ectocarpus (brown alga e - grass) - underwater exposure. The colour is


attributed to the pigment fucoxanthin.The spores ofthe Ectocarpus are very
small and can be planktonic for one day before they settle. Ectocarpus
dominates in conditions of lower light intensity.
7-20
Marine Fouling

ECTOCARPUS ANO ENTEROMORPHA

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Ectocarpus and Enteromorpha. Most common forms of green and brown grass.
7-22

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:e o e
Cl.J

:E <l.J
en
oc:x: ~
o
V"l

w E
....._
....z ,p
e
o
w E
E
e ol....)
ze( ........
V"l
o
~•
ro
"'o..::l ..e
a..
....._
o
E
c:x: p
Cl.J
e( .........
e
u u..J

o.... -o
e
ro
V"l

u :::>
a..
....._
w ro
l....)
o
........
l....)
u..J
Marine Fouling

ENTEROMORPHA (GREEN GRASS)

.,
.:-·

"'...
>
Enteromorpha (green grass). Thicker and more continuous around the
-
Al
"'
waterline where the algae can obtain more sunlight and energy through
photosynthesis.
o.
ltl
n:·
~

Re moval of green alga e, exposing sound anti-fouling paint.

7-24
Marine Fouling

ENTEROMORPHA (GREEN GRASS)

..... ...
-~·- "--=~
u
..,.;.
- .
""'e:
0'1

-
ro
o
Severe forms of green grass. All green alga eare of green grass colour, owing
-u
o
to the predominance of chlorophyll.
"'ro
-
....
<
..-
~"'
N

u..

Severe forms of green grass. All green alga eare of green grass colour, owing
to the predominance of chlorophyll.

7-25
Marine Fouling

RHODOPHYCEA (RED ALGAE)

,
..-·
N

"')lo
Rhodophycea - severe forms of red algae.
--

.....
..0
a.

....t"'

7-26
Appendix

CONTENTS OF APPENDIX

COATING BREAKDOWN SCALES ................................ App-3


BREAKDOWN SCALES (Scattered) ......•..................... App-4
BREAKDOWN SCALES (Localised) ...•••.•••••...•.•••.•.•.•.•• App-6
PAINT COMPATIBILITY CHART ••••••.••••....•.••••.•..••.•...•. App-8
PAINT PROPERTIES CHART ..................................... App-10
PAINT ARITHMETIC ............................................... App-12
FORMULAE FOR SURFACE AREAS ..•.•.......•.•••.•••...... App-15

V\
~
u
...~
"'O
0'1
-e
4 -J

oV
-o

-"'
1'0
.<t...
..·-
,VI
N

u.

App-1
Appendix

COATING BREAKDOWN SCALES

The Extent of Coating Breakdown Sea les on the following pages should be
used in conjunction with the following Standards;

European Sea le of Corrosion


ISO 4628
ASTM 610

The above Standards illustrate the type of coating failure observed on asmall
are aof agiven substrate.

The sea les are used to represent the failure rñode expanded over a much
larger surface area su eh as tan ksurfaces ora large pipe surface.
~
-V

CIJ
"U lt can be seen that in most cases where 'scattered' failure has taken place it
0'1
-
e:
.ro.... would be uneconomical to attempt a patch repair. Total removal and
oV replacement ofthe coating system is warranted. However, where the coating
-o
111
has failed in a'localised' mode, a patch repair can often be economically
-<
~
1'0
justified.
..·-
,111
N

LL. Wherever possible the assessor or surveyor should view and categorise coating
failure modes on aglobal scale rather than isolated or localised are a.

Coating Breakdown Sea/es courtesy ofTC/

App-3
Appendix

COATING BREAKDOWN (SCATTERED)

0.1 °/o Coating Breakdown

1°/o Scattered

.,
..-·
N
vi'
3°/o Scattered ...-
):a

Cl
111

o
.....
oCl
-
l"'t
:J
1.0
c.
ro
ro'
n,...
111

So/o Scattered

10°/o Scattered

App-4
Appendix

COATING BREAKDOWN {SCATTERED)

15°/o Scattered

25°/o Coating Breakdown

.....
\11
u
~

!e
50°/o Coating Breakdown
·-
.....
ltl
o
-u
o
111

-<..-
IV

~"'
N
·-
~

LL.

90°/o Coating Breakdown

App-5
Fitz s Atlas of coating defec.ts

# ;

ew
-
V\
....J
e:(
u
o....J
... ,
z
==
o e
~
e o
~ "'C
e:( ~
w ra
a: (])
"""
~ al
"'C
~ O" "'C "'C "'C (])
z e
- ·-ra (])

·-
(]) (])
·-
-"'ra
-"'ra -·-"'ra ·-
-"'ra
+J

·-
)(
~ u
o u u u o
u
-,::s
e o
u
o o o _J

o~ ....J _J ....J
Ql
c. o~
Q.
M
• o~ o~ o~ o 6_
< o t"""- M Lll ~
a.
<(
Appendix

COATING BREAKDOWN (LOCALISED)

15°/o Localised

33°/o Coating Breakdown

...u
VI

,.;;.

"'e
Cl
75°/o Coating Breakdown
-
~
tU
o
-v
o

-ca:...
111
1'0

,111
...·-u.
'N

100°/o Coating Breakdown

App-7
Appendix

PAINT COMPATIBILITY CHART

Acrylated Amine Chlor. Coal Tar Epoxy


Alkyd Bitumen
Rubber Epoxy Rubber Epoxy Es ter

Acrylated
Rubber 1 E 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 X

Alkyd 1 F [1,4] 1 E[2] 1 X 1 F[4] 1 P 1 X 1 G[2]

Amine
Epoxy 1 F [1 ,4] 1 X 1 E [2,3] 1 F [1] 1 F [3] 1 G [3] 1 X

Bitumen 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 E 1 X 1 X 1 X

Ch lor.
Rubber X X X IF[1,4]1 E X X
1 1 1 1 1

Coal Tar -·"'"


....
N
F [3,4] X G [3,4] F [3,4] F [3,4] E [3] X vi'
Epoxy
,~..
Epoxy 1
-
DI

"'o
Ester

Ethyl Zinc
F [1 ,4] E [2] X F [4] 1 p X E [2] 1
-
n
on.>
....
Silicate F [1 ,4] X G [4] F [1 ,4] G [4] F [1 ,4] X -
:3
~
0..
fT)
M.C. tt
,...
Urethane F [1 ,4] F [1 ,4] F [2,3] 1 F [1 ,4] F [4] F [3,4] F [1 ,4] ....
Polyamide
Epoxy 1 F [1 ,4] p F [2,3] 1 F [1,4] 1 F [4] 1 G [3] p

Silicone
Alkyd 1 F [1 ,4] 1 E [2] X F [4] p X G [2]

Urethane
(2 pack) 1 F [1 ,4] 1 F [1 ,4] 1 F [2,3] 1 F [3,4] 1 F [1 ,4] 1 F [3,4] 1 F [1 ,4]

Urethane
Acrylic 1 F [1 ,4] 1 F [1 ,4] F F [1,4] 1 F [1] 1 F [4] 1 F [1,4]

Vinyl X X F [4] 1 F [ 1,4] 1 F [ 1] X X

E == Excellent [1] == Guide only- conduct test patch


G== Good [2] == Apply primer or undercoat first- same
F == Fair generic type as new topcoat
P == Poor [3] == Flash blast- abrade overall
X == Not recommended [4] == Apply tie/sealer coat
App-8
Appendix

PAINT PROPERTIES CHART

Coal Tar
Product Alkyd Bitumen Chlor. Epoxy
Epoxy
Rubber Ester
(2 pack)

Resistance to UV light Good Chalks Chalks Chalks Chalks


badly

Resistance to Poor Fair in Excellent Excellent Fa ir


Water lmmersion fresh water

'

Resistance to Faírly good Fa ir Fa ir Good Good


:

Mechanical damage '

Not .,
Resistan ce to oils and Fa ir Not resista nt
Good Excellent -·
~

Cutting oilsUl resistant permanently


softened
N
VI -
...->
01
VI
Usually
polyamide o_,
Curíng Agent Oxygen N/A N/ A isocyanate Oxygen f'l
o

ora mme ...,.
adduct -::J
..0
o.
Drying Mechanism SE&OX SE SE sE &ce SE&OX 1'!1
rt
.....
lntercoat Adhesion Good with Excellent Excellent Good with
Poor
• (coat on coat) • aged right tie coat (~tweld) (solvent weld) right ne coat
Temperature Resistance Dry
Continuous (cured film) m 90'{ 70')( 70 '( 90"( lOO' e

Chemical Resistance (2l Poor Poor Excellent Good Good


Good Pitch
bleed
Solvent Resistance (aged) Fa ir Poor Poor Good
through can
occur
Resistance to Vapour Permeation Fairly high High Very high Very high High
Minimun Application Temperature 40( 0°( 0°( 10°( ,3: 4D(

Usual! y Usually Blk,


Colour Availabilíty Full range Black & Full range darkbrown, Full range
dark brown dark grey

Drying Mechanism: Notes:


SE == Solvent Evaporation [1] == Reaction with moisture necessary
CC == Chemical Cure [2] == Check with specific manufacturers
OX == Oxidation [3] == lsocyanate cure types down to oac

App-10
Appendix

PAINT PROPERTIES CHART

Pure Pure
Ethyl Grease Silicone Solution Urethane Urethane
Epoxy Urethane (2 pack)
Silicate Coatings Alkyd Vinyl Acrylic
(2 pack) (1 pack)
Very high
Good but Exceptional Very high
low chalking
N/A very high Chalks very low Chalks low Good
- aliphatic
dirt pickup chalking chalklng
grade

Excellent
when Very good Very good Very good Fa ir Very good Very good Very good
sealed

Very good Very poor Excellent Very good Fairly good Very good Out Very good
standing

....u
VI Excellent
but may be Non Excellent Excellent Excellent Good Excellent Excellent
absorbed resistant
.,QJ

"'een Topcoats=
·-.... Usually Moisture
~
o aliphatic
Zinc dust isocyanate from atmo- Aliphatic or
-u
o
and
moisture
N/A polymide

ora mme
sphere or
substrate
Oxygen N/A aromatic
isocyanate
isocyanate
Primer=
aromatic
""... adduct (min 35%)
-e::
10 isocyanate

....."" sE & ce (1) SE sE & ce SE 111 SE &OX SE SE&CC sE & ce


N

·-u. Poor
Good with Good with
Excellent right tie coat right tie coat Good
Good (not Good (ind.
Excellent gloss on gloss) gloss on gloss)

120°( (non- 120°( (non


450°( 50°( 110°( thermo plastic)
120°( 80°( thtrmo pla\IIC)
120°(

Poor Good Excellent Very good Good Very good Very good Good

Excellent Good Excellent Very good Good Fa ir Very good Good

Low Very high Very high Fa ir High High low Low

5°( 40( Min 5°C m <00( 40( 0°( <00( <00(

Grey only 1

Full range Full range Full range Full range Full range Full range Full range
primer
- - . - - - . ---- ---······----------···-··--- --- ----------------

Note: The above chart provides a rough indication of paint


properties. Paint formulations vary widely between
different manufacturers.lt is recommended that yo ucheck
these properties with the manufacturer concerned.
App-11
Appendix

PAINT ARITHMETIC

When assessing the cost of painting an estimator needs to take into account
various factors befare arriving at the true cost.

To calculare the total cost or cost per square meter of different paints with
differing vol ume solids for achieving a D.F. T. of 375 microns over an area of
15,000 sq.m.

Paint AEpoxy,vol ume solids 62%- cost per litre f 1.35

Paint BEpoxy,vol ume solids 55%- cost per litre f1.22

Paint e Epoxy,vol ume solids 50%- cost per litre f 1.19 .,


...-·
N
1.1'1-
ealculations for Total eosts ...-cu
)::o

VI

Paint A
Vol ume = 15000 x 375 = 9073 litres x Cost @ f1.35 = f12248.55 o
....-·
10 X 62 lC
a.
{f)

Paint B ....
Vol ume = 15000 x 375 = 10227 litres x Cost @ f1.22 = f 12476.94
10 X 55

Paint e
Volume = 15000x375 = 112501itres x Cost@ f1.19 = fl3387.50
10 X 50

lt can be clearly seen that the vol ume solids affect the material calculation
and the costs. Although initially Paint Cappears cost effective only after
calculation does it beco mes clear that Paint A is the more economic paint
beca use ofits higherV.S.%.

Peripheral factors such as poor quality control, delayed deliveries, poor


technical support and service are subjective, however, they affect choice of
supplier and materials to be used.

App-12
Appendix

Once the estimator has calculated his initial total costthe"Loss Factors"need
to be considered.

Depth of Profile
As ageneral rule optimum surface amplitude is specified at 50 - 75 microns.
Howeve~ higher build materials, i.e. glassflake materials, require amplitude
of 75 to 100 microns. Therefore, more material will be required to fill the
troughs and cover the peaks, since dry film thickness measurements are
usually taken over the peaks.

lrregularity of Sha pe
Jt is difficult to achieve uniform paint application on complex shapes and
fabricated structures and, therefore,losses dueto over-spray or excess paint
build up in corners will inevitably need to be taken into consideration. This
V\
can usually increase the paint consumption rate to plus 30% or more,
~
u
.~
depending on substrate configuration.
<11
"O
en

--reo
ou
Overspray
Even on relatively uncomplicated substrates, this can amount to 5%, even
-o
~
with efficient airless spraying.
-...
«1

ct
,VI Wind loss
....N
·-u. When applying paint in the open in high wind conditions, losses of 20 -
50% can be experienced.

General losses
Exceeding potlife, pilferage, spillage etc, need to be considered in any paint
consumption calculation.

Absorbent Surfaces
Wood surfaces, if not properly sealed, would tend to absorb paint into the
substrate anda factor of 2%-5% should be considered for such surfaces.

General
Even with well trained operatives, "on the job" inspection, good QA/QC
procedures, the paint estimator should add a baseline factor of 25% to his
original paint consumption calculation. All other factors listed above will
then need to be taken into consideration.

App-13
Appendix

When comparing solventless/solvent free, coatings, with normal solvent


bound types, one will invariably find that the former is mueh more expensive
than the latter. However, one must consider that for agiven

dry film thickness,
the coverage rate will be mueh higher with the solventless/solvent free type.
The following example illustrates this point.

Paint 1: Solventless materials V. S.= 97.5% @ f4.80 per litre


Paint 2: Solvent free materials V. S.== 100% @ f 4.90 per litre
Paint 3: Solvent bound types V. S.= 50% @ f2.70 per litre

To obtain the coverage for 250 ~ D.F. T. use D.F.T. = V.S.%


W.F.T.

The W.F.T. required for Paint 1 = 250 X 100 == 256.41 J1T1


97.5 .,
-·v.-
~
N

The W.F.T. required for Paint 2 = 250 X 100 = 250 J1l1 ...-
~

100 Ql

"'
The W.F.T. required for Paint 3 = 250 X 100 = 500 J1T1
-
,....
50 -·
::¡

o.
'tl
;;'
Therefore the vol ume required to cover 1m2

with Paint 1 == 256.41 x 100 x 100 ces/mis == 256.41mls


10,000

with Paint 2 == 250 x 100 x 100 ces/mis == 250 mis


10,000

with Paint 3 = 500 x 100 x 100 ces/mis = 500 mis


10,000

Therefore the cost per m1 using; Paint 1 = f4.80 x .25641 = f 1.23


Paint 2 = f4.90 x .250 = f1.22
Paint 3 = f2.70 x .500 = f1.35
In this hypothetical case, the use of solvent free materials (Paint 2),although
more expensive in cost per litre, actually works out cheaper.

App-1 4
Appendix

FORMULAE FOR SURFACE AREAS

Abbreviations
Length == L Width == W Height == H Radius == R
Diameter == D Area == A :re == 3.142 approx.

Con e
(Siant si de== S, Base diameter == D)
Are aof the curved surface of acon e is: H S

A== :rc xDxS


2
D

01\
Cube (Side == L)
+-'
u
.~
Acube has six identical square faces.Total
QJ
"U surface area is six multiplied by the 1 L
~

-....
e
-ro
o
u
square of the length of one side.

o
V\
A== 6 X L2 ' L

-c:c...
tO

Cylindrical Tank
..·-
,V\
N

u.. The surface areaconsists ofthe cylindrical


shell (2 x :re x Rx H) plus the two flat 1 1 1H
ends 2 x (:re R' ). .-
-........;.
R
A== (2 X:re X RX H) + 2( :re X R:)

Domed end of Tan k


(Height of dome== H)
R
A==2x :rc xRx H

Ellipse (Majar axis== O, Minar axis==d) 1


1
d ¡ t- --- -'1 -- ---
A == :rt xDxd 1
1

4
( D )

App-15
Appendix

1Beam
(Piate thickness = C) e
H
A== 2X(2W + H- C) XL

( w )
Pipe ( L )
The surface area of a pipe is calculated 1 '
1 \
by multiplying the diameter by Jt and 1 • l 1 \ D
1 ,1

then multiplying by thepipe length.

A== n xDxL

Ring .,
(Outer radius == R,lnner radius == r) -·
N
~

..->
.,.~

A== n x R2 - n x r2 Cl
"'
o
_,
n
oDJ
Sphere -
......
:::1
.;0
1 '
1 \ o.
The surface area of asphere is calculated ,-- _, .....
., ...... f '
tt>
rd'
by multiplying the square of radius (R)
by n by 4.
-- .- -- . J -- . . -
n
VI

'\ R1 1'
'
A=4x n xR

Trapezium < e>


(Parallel sides length=B&C)
H
A= (8 + C) x H
2 ( B )

Triangle
(Base length=B)
H
A==BxH
2
( B )

App-16