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Republic of the Philippines

Department of the Education


Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
1

Chapter I

Introduction to the Study

Chapter I cover seven parts: (1) Background of the Study, (2) Theoretical Framework,

(3) Statement of the Problem, (4) Research Hypothesis, (5) Significance of the Study, (6)

Definition of Terms, (7) Scope and Delimitations of the Study.

Part One, Background of the Study, presents the overview of the study.

Part Two, Theoretical Framework, showed figure that describes the paradigm of

our study.

Part Three, Statement of the Problem, presents the general and specific problems

of the study.

Part Four, Research Hypothesis, explains the researcher’s predictions and

expectations of the study.

Part Five, Significance of the Study, enumerates and explains the benefits that

maybe derived from the findings of the study.

Part Six, Definition of Terms, presents the conceptual and operational meanings

of important terms used in the study.

Part Seven, Scope and Delimitations of the Study, specifies the scope and

coverage of the study.


Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
2

Background of the Study

Time is an essential resource for everyone in order to achieve the individual goals

and objective. It is so delicate that it cannot be saved but can only be spent and once

misused it can never be regained. Each one of us is looking for ways to improve time

management. Whether it is the management of an organization looking for business

improvement or an individual looking for ways to better spend their time, time

management is important to both.

According to Campbell and Svenson (1992), time management refers to the way

students manage their time in order to have better academic performance which is

invaluable for academic success. Thus, it is important for students to know the first step

of time management i. e. giving priority to the important matters, and should remain

focused on issues essential for success. In line with these notions, Gloe (1999) argued

that the techniques of time management are the best ways to manage course materials

successfully. These includes group discussion, exchanging ideas and sharing views on key

points, which ultimately help students to perform better in the examination leads to

superior academic performance.

Grade point average (GPA) is a commonly used indicator of academic

performance. Academic competence is associated with student’s ability to manage their

study load and is used to assess if students are able to manage the study material in the

curriculum. It also provides an indication of whether the curriculum is interesting enough

for students to enjoy their classes. Academic competence has been shown to affect
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
3

students’ academic performance and a student with better academic competence would

probably have better academic performance.

As observed many students have a problem on how to manage their time properly

in the activities that they get involved. This problem motivates the researchers to conduct

this study regarding the time management of senior high school learners.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework of the Study

This study is connected on the pickle jar theory which is the latest theory of time

management. In which this theory was developed by Jeremy Wright after his series of

study (Olubor & Osunde, 2007). The theory states that activities and responsibilities of an

individual should be balance using effective time management system. This theory is

predicted on the fact that every person has many priorities in life such us studies,

workload, family responsibilities, leisure, sleep and rest. According to the theory, none of

this activity is bad; the important thing is that you can manage your time efficiently in

order to enhance your academic performance.

Pickle Theory as it relates to time management and academic performance of the

senior high school learners of Lambunao National High School emphasizes the needs to

identify one’s priorities during school days.


Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
4

The research paradigm showing the relationship between the variables is shown

below.

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Sex: Time Management Skills

 Female
 Male

Academic Strand:

 GAS
 HUMSS Academic Performance
 ABM

Fig. 1. This research paradigm shows the relationship between the Independent

Variable (Time Management) and Dependent Variable (Academic Performance).


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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
5

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the time management

and academic performance of senior high school learners.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the time management skills of senior high school learners as an entire

group and when classified according to sex and senior high school track?

2. What is the academic performance of senior high school learners as an entire

group and when classified according to sex and senior high school track?

3. Is there a significant difference in the time management of senior high school

learners when classified according to sex and Senior High School track?

4. Is there a significant difference in the academic performance of senior high school

learners when grouped accordingsex and Senior High School track

5. Is there a significant relationship between the time management and academic

performance of senior high school learners

Research Hypotheses

The followinghypotheses formulated to guide this study:

1. There is no significant difference in the time management skill of senior high

school learners when classified according to sex and Senior High School track.

2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of Senior High

School learners when grouped according sex and Senior High School track.
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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
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3. There is no significant relationship between the time management and the

academic performance of Senior High School learners.

Definition of Terms

For purpose of clarity and understanding, the following terms are given their

conceptual and operational definitions.

Academic Performance is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student,

teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals (Annie, Howard & Mildred,

1996).

As used in the study, Academic Performance refers as basis in order to identify the

result of the study.

Academic Track Learners are the learners which include Accountancy Business and

Management (ABM) Strand, Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Strand, and

General Academic Strand (GAS).

In this study, Academic Track Learners is used as the respondents of the study.

Time Management refers to the way students manage their time to have a better

academic performance which has a big help for academic success (Campbell & Svenson,

1992).

In this study, Time Management is used as independent variable of the study.


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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
7

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study would be beneficial to the following entities:

Students. This study would give the students the ideas on how to manage their time

effectively and efficiently.

Parents. This is also significant to the parents because it will inform them on how do

their children manage and what are the things that they are doing.

Teachers. This study will help the teachers know their students better so that they

may be able to provide guidance to their students.

Future Researchers. The findings of this study will serve as a basis for the future

researchers and will encourage them to conduct similar studies.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This descriptive study sought to determine the relationship of learner’s time

management and academic performance during school days.

The respondents of the study are the 241 Grade 12 Senior High School learners of

Lambunao National High School- Senior High School for the school year 2017-2018.

Data was obtained through the adopted- research survey questionnaire to determine

the time management skills of Senior High School learners. The Academic Performance

was measured through therespondents’ Final Grade Point Average (GPA) on the First

Semester.
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Department of the Education
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LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
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The statistical tool that was used is the mean and standard deviation for the

descriptive statistics while t-test for independent samples, and Pearson’s Product Moment

Correlation Coefficient for the inferential statistics.


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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
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Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

Chapter II is consist of four parts: (1) Time Management, (2) Foreign Studies on Time

Management, (3) Local Study on Time Management, (4) Academic Performance.

Part One, Time Management, explains and discuss what a time management is

and reasons why learners have a difficulty in managing their time.

Part Two, Foreign Studies on Time Management, presents the related studies and

concepts about Time Management and Academic Performance internationally and

globally.

Part Three,Local Study on Time Management, presents the related research

studies about time management within the country and locality.

Part Four, Academic Performance, explains the concepts of Academic

Performance.
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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
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Time Management

Time management is an art and a science. Everybody has to learn how to do it.

Some people have a good skill at it but not everybody. Time is a priceless source. Time is

the single resources that can’t be changed, can’t be taken back once it is used and is

used completely at the appreciation of the owner. No one can control the moving of time

but everyone is able to decide how to use it. Time management is self-management with

an explicitly focus on time in deciding what to do; on how much time to allocate to the

activities; on how activities can be done more efficiently and on when the time is right for

particular activities.

Time management is the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling and budgeting

one’s time for the purpose of generating more effectiveness work and productivity. It is a

priority-based structuring of time allocation and distribution among competing demands

since time cannot be stored, and its availability can neither be increased beyond nor

decrease from the 24 hours. Gerald (2002) defined time management as a set of

principles, practices, skills, tools and systems that work together to help you get more

value out of your time with the aim of improving the quality of your life. Argarwal (2008)

in his contribution asserts that time management is usually a personal problem and if one

instinctively knows what the right is, then there is no need to worry. Daily life is not

actually a gamble and allocating time to every activity will help. Unlike other things, time

lost never comes back.


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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
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Time management is focused on solving problems. Examples of common

problems are; being unable to deal with distractions, deadline pressure, and

procrastination, and self-discipline, ambiguity of personal goals, not being able to say

“no”, excessive social relations, indetermination, perfectionism and messy task.

Akomolafe (2005) stated that time really cannot be managed because it cannot be

slowed down, speed up or manufactured. But Quek (2001) believed that time can be

managed because when one wants to solve the problem of procrastination, one needs to

learn and develop time management skills. In the mind of the researchers, there is an

indication that Quek feels that procrastination may affect time management. Time is

natural; however, people live and work or exist within time. Therefore, time rolls along

with human existence.

Time management is a skill that every student should not only know, but also

apply. A lot of university students complain about running out of time when asked to do a

certain task, they get frustrated because they are not able to make it before the deadline.

Time management is extremely important, especially when it comes to university

students because it will boost their grades and enhance their productivity (Laurie &

Hellsten, 2002). However, most of the time students face problems like task aversion and

uncertainty, so they start to procrastinate because they lack organizational skills. As a

result, students will not be able to organize duties according to their priorities, so they

get distracted easily, ending up procrastinating. As we can see, time management is

quite essential to any university student, and it is one of the keys to higher academic

achievements (Kelly, 2004).


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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
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Time management failures

Eruteyan (2008), states that effective time management for high organization

performance in the Nigerian Institute of Management Journal has reactive mode of

working. Some managers are only concerned about what is happening at present in their

organization. They don’t take time to act to events that come their way rather they react

and keep complaining.

Failure to think correctly before acting is taking action without prior correct

thinking is a cost of time management failure. Some managers seem not to believe in or

find it difficult to put into practice, the 10/90 principle of effective time management

which states that 10% of time that it takes to plan your activities carefully in advance will

save you 90% of the effort involved in achieving your goals later.

Some managers are failure to acquire new skills, knowledge and abilities. They fail

to update themselves in terms of attending seminars and lectures that will increase their

horizons instead they feel they know all things and don’t need to be updated.

Some mangers adopt procrastination on hard challenging jobs. Instead of getting

started on them and allocating good time thereto, the adamantly refuse to work on this

task. The most injurious aspect of this approach is that such hard challenging jobs are

not in the bottom 80% but in the top 20% of jobs which add most value to the

managers’ work.
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Other reasons for time management failures by managers includes poor team

building, refusal to relax, poor creativity, poor self-confidence, inability to set a

conductive working environment.

Eilam and Aharon (2003) suggested that time management can be viewed as a

way of monitoring and controlling time. McWhorter (1998) argued that the first two

crucial steps in taking control of time are establishing goals and following a schedule to

reach the goals. Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, and McKeachie (1993) describes effectively

scheduling, planning and managing one‘s study time as the time management

components, and for college students, time management refers to how effectively

students structure their time to successfully achieve certain goals. Students can use the

assignment deadlines and exam dates predetermined by their professors as goals for

each semester, but they must create a schedule that will enable them to reach those

goals successfully (McWhorter, 1988). The literature showed that time management

positively affects college grades and total study habits (Claessens, van Eerde, & Rutte,

2007). Researchers have argued that college students with strong time management

skills usually have higher GPAs (Britton & Tesser, 1991; Macan, Shahani, Dipboye, &

Phillips, 1990; Zimmerman, 1989). Brint and Cantwell (2010) found that study time is

strongly connected to both academic conscientiousness and higher GPAs. However, 67%

of undergraduate students identified time management as their most pressing problem

(Britton & Tesser, 1991). Related research has also demonstrated evidence that first-year

college students are spending less time with their studies and that students lack tools to

study more efficiently and optimize their time management skills in order to arrange
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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
14

more study time (Higher Education Research Institute, 2003). Using student organization

tools may improve student outcomes, such as homework completion and class

preparation (Lu, Gunawan, & Hisa, 2014).

There is a saying that, time is money. It is obvious for an individual to protect and

use his or her wealth rationally. Therefore, being a scarce and priceless resource, it is

important for the individuals to use time wisely.

Various literatures like Macan et al (1990), and Britton and Tesser (1991) claim

that, there is a positive relationship between time spent and performance particularly

academic performance; that, the more you engage in time management, the better

results you will achieve in terms of increased academic performance.

For the parents at home, experience shows that, they do not monitor and control

their children effectively as far as academic issues are concerned; some students go to

school without exercise books, without shoes and proper uniforms while their parents

have ability to provide those items to them. In this situation, students are not motivated

to go to school to study; as a result, some of them are seeing roaming in the streets

during school hours; but again due to poor supervision by parents, students have been

leaving their home places for school and coming back home without the knowledge of

the parents whether the students really went to school or not (Nyambo, 2013).

The problem of how to manage time was already being discussed in the 1950s

and 1960s, and several authors proposed methods on how to handle time issues on the

job. They suggested simple remedies such as writing work plans down on paper (so-
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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
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LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
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called to-do lists) in order to increase one’s job performance (Drucker 1967; Lakein,

1973; MacKenzie, 1954).

There is no agreement on the definition of time management in past studies.

Although many authors such as Lakein (1973) suggested that, time management

involved the process of determinant of needs, setting goals to achieve the needs,

prioritizing and planning the tasks required to achieve these goals. Also Estes (2012)

explains that, Time management is the art of arranging, organizing, scheduling, and

budgeting one’s time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity.

Gupta (2001) refers Time management to a process constituted a series of steps

which involves the analysis of our time habits, clarification of objectives, establishment of

priorities, planning for appropriate results, keeping records properly, taking positive 11

action against time wasters and avoiding procrastination. Time management is an issue

which is fundamental to job performance.

Time Wasters

Time wasters are interruption such as people, events actions and processes that

prevent us from making the most use of our time. Time wasters though a high level of

interaction between people at work can normally be considered as a healthy

phenomenon, there are never less potential disadvantages for one individual’s personal

effectiveness.

An example of these time wasters at workplace can be like, too much time in

socializing, misplacing information and forgetting information. This is to say that

socializing in a reasonable amount boots job satisfaction, morale and consequently


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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
16

productivity. Therefore, socializing in general is a tonic that enhances the quality of work

(Mancini, 2003).

At times, teaching can be overwhelming. You have stacks of papers to grade,

conferences to attend, grades to calculate, emails to respond to, and, if there is any time

left—teach. Organization is the cornerstone of time management. A big time waster,

according to many teachers, is "hunting and gathering." That is: looking for that missing

lesson plan, collecting tools and equipment from students after completion of a project,

searching out that Individualized Education Programme that was due yesterday,

procuring books for a unit. If the teacher is one of the chronically disorganized, the task

may seem discouraging. If so, he/she has to start with one area at a time and work

his/her way around his/her classroom. The teacher may want to start with his/her desk,

and then move on to his/her file cabinets (Wagner, 2004).

Chilongola (2013) reveals that, it has been discovered that, in Dar es Salaam

some students have been doing bad deeds like smoking and sexual deeds instead of

attending classes; those misbehaviors have been done without the knowledge of their

parents.

Therefore, according to Chilongola, students also, tend to misuse their time for

studies. Since there is no good communication between students and parents, parents

and teachers and parents and communities such a way that, a student can leave home

for school but he/she uses school hours going to somewhere else to smoke, internet

surfing and doing other misbehaviors without the knowledge of their parents, then, when

coming back home, the parents do not take their responsibility to ask or check student’s

progress at school as a result, many students end up with poor academic performance.
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LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
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Lambunao, Iloilo
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Environmental time wasters

These are the activities that occur at schools which are normally out of control for

teachers. The activities included are such as; interruptions from visitors- people drop at

school with no appointments; responding to incoming mails- reading and surfing on the

internet for non-official matters; meetings- can be waste of time if has no specific reason,

agenda and timeframe (Mackenzie, 1997).

Self-generated time wasters

Refers to the things that can be caused by a person himself and can be

controlled. Those things are such as; lack of planning – leads to drifting and working in a

scattered way; lack of delegation- doing too much and having insufficient time to focus;

inability to say “no”- allowing others to ask too much of you. Lack of organization and

untidiness- cluttered up the desk with less or no memories (Mackenzie, 1997)

Therefore, if the mentioned causatives of time wasters are not put into a big

consideration to take action for the changes, then it’s very obvious that teachers and

students will fail to manage their time effectively and hence fail to meet both work

deadlines and good expected results, which may lead to poor academic performance.

Procrastination

According to the Oxford Dictionaries (2013) Procrastination is defined as the

action of delaying or postponing something. People like teachers and students, have the

tendency to postpone their work. They have the required skills and talent to carry out the

task, but they are either too lazy to do it or due to multi-tasking, some activities are held

to be done ‘tomorrow’. This eventually piles up pending work assignments over a

considerable amount of time. When the teacher or a student knows that a certain
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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
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teaching or learning activity has to be done in a way he/she is aware of, he/she has to

start off immediately.

Managing procrastination is among the most important keys to time management

and career success. If one is stepping into the corporate world, he necessarily has to

learn about time management in the workplace. In a teaching environment, avoiding

procrastination certainly enables both the teacher and the student to perform the

assigned work in the time allocated, and also manage future assignments as required

(Rampur, 2011).

Motivation

Motivation is the combination of a person's desire and energy directed at

achieving a goal. It is the cause of action. Influencing people's motivation means getting

then to want to do what you know must be done (Military Leadership, 1993).

Newspaper articles and other media reports regularly highlight the plight of

teachers in Tanzania. Report on the Education Sector Towards 2000 notes that ‘since

1962 the different schemes of service for teachers have not reflected due recognition of

the heavy demands of society upon teachers nor the crucial contribution of the latter in

molding the future citizens of society. This attitude has greatly discouraged academically

able young men and women from enrolling in teacher training courses.

Many dedicated teachers have gone to more caring employers’. In a similar vein,

the World Bank report (1990) on teachers’ conditions of service concluded that ‘in the

absence of incentives to perform better, many teachers are currently providing much less

and lower quality education than they are capable of …the de-motivation of teachers is a
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Department of the Education
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Schools Division of Iloilo
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Senior High School
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major contributory factor to the horribly poor learning achievements of primary and

secondary students’ (World Bank, 1990).

Record Keeping

Keeping record is a very important reflexive tool for teachers in the educational

setting. It helps in avoiding repetitions in teaching hence saving time for other lessons.

Also through the use of attendance register, it helps in monitoring and controlling

teachers who are late comers or absentees hence teacher will have much time in

teaching which is likely for them to accomplish syllabus effectively and also accomplish

the deadline.

Teachers’ absence may negatively impact to students’ achievement, therefore

teachers who are good in record keeping, and also smart in attendance, are mostly good

in teaching performance (Miller, Murnane and Willet, 2007)

A certain study investigated the record keeping practices of primary school

teachers in selected local government areas in Nigeria. The findings showed that

although the teachers were familiar with some principles of record keeping they were not

proficient in most of the operational procedures and did not demonstrate the knowledge

of using record keeping to further the development of teaching and learning activities.

Equipment that could be used for safe keeping of records were not available.

Recognizing the importance of record keeping towards the successful

implementation of teaching, the researchers recommended that teachers should be given

regular in-service training in record keeping and retrieval. Development of record keeping

skills should also be included in teacher preparation programs (Adebowale and Osuji,

2008).
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This shows that record keeping as a tool in managing time, if well practiced,

contributes to the improvement of teaching performance.

Dimensions of Time Management:

The effectual utilizing of time and managing time requires procedures and good

quality planning behaviors. One can make use of time effectively and competently by

keeping time logs, setting immediate and long- standing goals, prioritizing

responsibilities, constructing to-do lists and arrangement, and organize one’s workspace,

as studies of earlier period and plentiful how-to books proposed (Sabelis, 2001). Time

saving techniques and behaviors can be categorized into numerous groups and be liable

to contribute to a number of fundamental qualities in general. There are three surfaces of

time management behaviors: short-range planning, long- range planning and time

attitudes (Laurie & Hellsten, 2002). Short-range planning is the capability to set out and

systematize responsibilities in the short period of time. Long-range planning competence

is to handle everyday jobs over a longer time perspective by keeping follow of significant

dates and setting objectives by putting adjournment (Alay & Koçak, 2003).

Long Range Planning

Long-range planning means to have long-range objectives and having disciplined

routines. Various researchers named it as having perception of a preference for

organization and it is comparable to long range planning. To acquire a summary on the

everyday jobs that necessitate to be executed, time limits and priorities which increases

the perception of having control over time so, in the long run, planning enables one to

deal with all activities (Kelly, 2004). It directs to have less perception of control over time

because it may be tackling to be familiar with how much effort requires to be completed
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within hours, days or weeks; it may even be the immediately measurable effect of

planning. This gives the impression to indicate that time management

practicesaccomplish to have an influence on educational achievement, but that’s not all

they affect (Brigitte et al., 2005). It was also found that the students had advanced

overall academic achievements who accounted using goal oriented time management

practices.

Short Range Planning

Short-range planning was defined as time management activities surrounded by

daily or weekly time structure and cover the activities such as setting objectives at the

commencement of the day, planning and prioritizing daily behaviors and creation work

contents (Yilmaz et al., 2006). Numerous studies invented that short-range planning

behavior, forecasting of time in the short run, surrounded by the time enclose of a week

or less, established a constructive relationship to grade point average. Short range

planning in interface with accomplishment determined was optimistically associated to

dealing performance as well (Noftle et al., 2007). Likewise, most of the studies that

control for the student time do so by determining total time committed to the course, a

variable normally found to be unimportant. Academic achievement means the educational

objective that is accomplished by a student, teacher or institution realize over a definite

short period (Lisa & Robert, 2008). In a different research finding it has been

demonstrated that there exists a positive significant relation between students’ grade

point averages and the time attitudes and the short-range planning.

Time Attitude
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Time management demands a key shift in emphasis: concentrate on results, not

on being busy. There are a lot of cases with people who waste their lives in discolored

doings and attain very small since they are placing their labors into the incorrect

responsibilities or weakening to focus their activity successfully, established that two time

management workings directly affect the collective academic achievements (Mercanlioglu,

2010). The perception of how their time requires to be used up or planning including

utilizing short and long period goals and time attitudes or students accomplished that

both planning and encouraging time attitudes initiated that they had much more time to

finish their everyday jobs because they experience more in control of how their time was

exhausted therefore knowing when they had to state no to activities (Kaushar, 2013).

The literature revealed that time management practices that connected to the individual's

awareness and attitudes about time management and is comparable the perception of

having control over time. Therefore, time attitudes comprise the perception that the

individual is in control of time the perception that the person is efficiently managing his

time and the perception that the individual is making constructive utilization of time

(Karim et al., 2015).

Time Management and Academic Performance

Scholarly literatures have shown that time management is among the contributing

factors which impinge upon students’ academic performance and achievement. Balduf,

(2009) recognized that poor time management can contribute to academic

underachievement, and effective time management can contribute to higher levels of

college achievement (Britton & Tesser, 1991). Britton and Tesser (1991) found that 67%
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of undergraduate students identified time management as their most pressing problem.

Moreover, they found that self-reported time management predicted academic

achievement and, in particular, it was short-term planning that predicted grade point

average. Misra & McKean (2000) in a study showed that there is a relation between time

management, stress reduction and increased academic success. More specifically, time

management has been shown to be related to college grades (Britton & Tesser, 1991)

and academic performance (Burt & Kemp, 1994). Izawa (2002) reported that in learning

the text materials, the skill of time management is essential. Moreover, studies show that

the time organization and time management behaviors are significantly related to

academic performance (Frazier, Youngstrom & Glutting 2007). If the ability to effectively

manage one’s time was indeed positively related to academic performance, then,

presumably, interventions that improve time management would be of value to students

(Burrus, et al., 2013).

In the study conducted by Cyril V. (2001), the result revealed that there is

significant difference between male and female higher secondary students in their time

management. The findings shows that female students are better than the male students

in their time management. This may be due to the fact that most of the boys are

spending their time to play, watching T.V. and other activities. They cannot manage their

time properly. But, most of the girls are very sincere, responsible to their work. So, they

are using their time effectively. It revealed also that there is no significant difference

between male and female higher secondary students in their academic achievement. The

result discuss that the class XI students are better than the class XII students in their
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academic achievement. This may be due to the fact that specific subject has been chosen

by the students, and also they came from various classes and schools, and are getting

more opportunity to involve in the new situations in the school. In the new situation they

have adopted themselves and follow the time management in proper manner. So, the

students might have excel in their academic achievement.

Many studies which tested university students in time management have resulted

in significantly different scores across genders. The findings of Trueman and Hartley

(1996) revealed that female students reported considerably greater time management

skills than male students. In addition, the older mature-aged students (aged over 25

years) were found to report significantly better time-management skills than the younger

students, and those variables can predict the academic performance of the students

weakly. Findings by Misra and McKean (2000) indicated that females reported

significantly higher results in all factors of time management behaviors (perceived better

control of time, set and prioritized goals, planning and had an organized approach to

tasks and workspace). Furthermore, results from Covic et al. (2003) showed females

scored significantly higher only in one factor, this being the mechanics of time

management, such as making lists and keeping a diary.Macan et al. (1990) found

significant correlations between gender and time management, reporting that women
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engage in more mechanical time management behaviors than men, whereas men feel

more in charge of their time management behaviors.

Similarly, the impact of students’ time management skills on academic

achievement in the study by Demirtas and Ozer (2007), female students scored higher

than boys. However, in another study about time manage ment by Erdul (2005), the girl

students scored higher than men in time management skills.

The results of the study of Adigun et al., (2015) showed that even though the

male students had slightly better performance compared to the female students, it was

not significant. This better performance was found to be pronounced in the private school

which was shown to possess the best male brains found in the study area. Based on the

findings of this study, recommendations were made. Parents are encouraged to provide

the right education they can afford for their children irrespective of gender.

The higher deviation around the mean of the male students revealed that the

performances of the male students are not as uniform as the female students that is, the

entire female students have similar performances as opposed to the male students. This

explains the reason why the male students’ better performances are not significant

because the sets of male students with good performances and the sets with bad

performances did so most likely due to certain variables which are treatments the
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students are exposed to, which necessitated the reason this study measures the gender

performances in private and public schools. This result agrees with the findings of

(Jegede & lyang (1990), Mordi (1992), Chin- Tin (1993), Fabunmi (2004) and Dania

(2014)) that students’ performance is not determined by gender in terms of the

interaction of gender and treatment on students’ academic achievement.

A study on Spanish student indicates that some differences exist between males

and females on aspect of creativity related to academic achievement, although creativity

is shown to be related to academic performance for gender Xixia, (1999) also found that

the degree of creativity between male and female is similar but they also concluded that

the most famous creative person are usually male. Some researcher reported that one

gender is more creative than another gender.

Foreign Studies on Time Management

Prior studies on time management among students’ present varied perspectives

and findings (Repak, 2007; Cemaloglu & Sevil, 2010; Eliam & Aharon, 2003). In their

study, Claesson, Eerde, Rutte & Roe (2007), reviewed 32 empirical studies on time

management conducted between 1982 and 2004 in order to provide an overview of the

current state of the art in time management research. The review reveals that time

management behaviour relate positively to perceived control of time, job satisfaction and

health, while it is negative to stress. However, the relationship with work and academic

performance is not clear.


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Igdem (2010) investigated the relationship of time management to academic

performance of Master level students. Employing survey research design, his findings

show that there is a significant positive relationship between time management and

academic performance of Master’s level students. He concluded that the competitive

conditions in business life have forced people and business to do so many things

simultaneously.

In a related study, Davis (2000) examined the effect of time management on

work and academic settings. Using survey research design, his results suggest a positive

relationship between time management and work academic settings and increased

performance. A number of experts (Wright, 2002, Ancona, Goodman, Lawrence &

Tushtman, 2001, Gorge & Jonas, 2000), assessed the need to incorporate time in

theoretical models and research designs in organizations. Applying survey method, their

findings indicate that time management facilitates improvement in effort.

Cognizance of the non-acceptability of a universal definition of time management,

Shellenbarger (2009) views time management as behavioral change techniques that help

people get organized, clarify thinking and increase output. Eilam and Aharon (2003)

believe that time management is a way of monitoring and controlling time.

In a study by Macan (1994), efficient use of time was discovered to positively

influence students’ success in courses. Similarly, as a result of this study, a significant

relationship was identified between medical students’ time management scores and their

academic achievement, and students who use their time well were found to be more
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successful in their courses. This conclusion is consistent with the findings of research

conducted by Basak et al. (2008). They concluded that there is a significant relationship

between students’ time planning and their academic achievement, and that the students

who use time well are more successful in their courses.

In the study of Yilmaz, Yoncalik & Bektaş (2006), the result revealed that a

majority student possesses moderate level time management skills and only a

significantly small portion has high level time management skills. It also revealed in the

study of Lisa & Robert(2008)that the students’ time management skills affect their

academic achievement at a significant level and the skills are one of the predictors of

academic performance. They suggested that students should start to acquire time

management senses on their own in their primary school years by reading materials on

the issue or via the framework of psychological counseling and guidance studies applied

in schools and adopt effective time management attitudes and techniques to determine

how and where they spend their time. The various group of students who exploited time-

saving proficiencies notably had rich academic achievement. They accomplished those

students who do not use time saving techniques in their educational surrounding having

significantly lower academic as compared to results students who employ time-

management tactics have considerably higher achievement (Mercanlioglu, 2010).

Abulshawi & Abusultana (2003) conducted a study aiming at recognizing the

student of Yarmouk University ability to manage time from different faculties and

identifying its relation to academic achievement considering the variables; gender, the

university year and the faculty and how much these variables affect time management
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skills. . The study results showed that there is a medium degree of time management

skill among students at Yarmouk University, and the skill of time management and

academic achievement. And that there is a positive correlation and statistically important

between time management skill and the academic achievement according the faculty

variable goes to the advantage of economics, science students only.

To the researcher however, time management is as important as human and

material resources in any organization. From observation, poor time planners seem to be

faced with low productivity, inefficiency, ineffectiveness and low morale, stress and

frustration with themselves. Time is always available although it waits for no one, and is

no respecter of gender as reflected in the research conducted by Omolola (2010) that

both male and female undergraduate are affected by time management.

In relation to time management behaviour, some people studied it. Kaufman

(1991) states that time assessment behaviours were aimed at awareness of here and

now, or past, present and future self- awareness one’s time use and they cover or help to

accept task and responsibilities that fit within one’s capabilities. Macan (1996), states that

planning behaviour include goals, planning, task, prioritizing, making to-do list, grouping

task, aim at use effective time. Claesssen (2007) says monitoring behaviours focus on

observing one’s use of time while performing activities generating a feedback loop that

allows a limit to the influence of interruptions by others.

Tanriogen and Iscan (2009) determined the time management attitude and skill

levels of Pamukkale University students and the effects of these skills on their academic

achievement. The findings demonstrated that a majority of Pamukkale University


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students possess moderate level time management skills and only a significantly small

portion have high level time management skills. Also, according to the findings, the

prediction level of time management skills for academic performance is 7.9 percent.

Necati & Sevil (2010) carry out a study to determine the relationship between the time

management skills and academic achievement of students who are potential teachers

studying in faculties of education. The research was conducted among 849 graduate

students in the Faculty of Education at Gazi University. The result showed that there was

a meaningful and moderate relation between time management and academic

achievement. The relative importance order of the predictor variables on academic

achievement, according to the standardized regression coefficient, was time consumers,

time planning, and time attitude; each of the three variables had an important predictor

effect on the academic achievement of the students. In a research conducted by Sevari

and Kandy (2011), the impact of time management skills on self-efficacy and academic

performance was tested. The results from the study showed that the training of time

management skills to increase academic performance and self-efficacy is influential.

Swart et al. (2010) explored the relationship between time management skills and the

academic achievement of African engineering students. The results of this study were

applied to various tests, which indicated no statistically significant relationship between

time management skills and the academic achievement of African engineering students.

A study performed by Nonis et al. (1998) explores the Influence of perceived

control over time on college students' stress and stress-related outcomes. Data was

collected from 164 business students. The results showed that students who perceived
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themselves as having a high level of control over their time they experienced lower level

of stress, higher level of academic performance, problem-solving ability, and health than

those who believed themselves to be less in control over their time.

Kelly (2004) proposed that efficient use of time is directly associated with

increased academic performance and achievement. He investigated this possibility among

141college students. He used the Efficiency Scale (TUES), a social desirability scale, and

self-reported their overall GPA. The TUES is based on how well the participants claim to

use their time. The results support the positive correlation between time management,

academic performance, and GPA. In Turkey, Pehlivan (2013) performed a study to

determining the effect of the college students’ time management skills on their GPA and

course achievement. The results revealed that in all sub-dimensions that students from

Karadeniz Technical University hold “moderate level” time management scores. The

findings revealed that in all sub-dimensions of the questionnaire, female students

obtained higher average scores than male students. It has been demonstrated that there

is a positive significant relation between students’ grade point averages and the time

attitudes sub-dimension and between student grades and the long-range planning sub-

dimension. It has also been demonstrated that students’ time management skills affect

their GPA-course achievement and these skills are one of the predictors of grade point

averages. Talib (2012) studied factors such as academic competence, test competence,

time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety to determinants of academic

performance, i.e., Grade Point Average. A sample was 199 university students from

Rawalpindi and Islamabad Universities. The results indicated that academic competence,
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test competence, time management, and test anxiety were significantly related to

student's academic performance.

Lee (2008), says better time management can be achieved if goals have been set

and then all future work is prioritize based on how it moves the individual or organization

towards meeting the goals. The value of time management lies in the fact that people

have too many tasks they need to do but not enough time for the things that they want

to do. Time management helps identify needs and wants in terms of their respondents

and matches them with time and other resources. Time management brings about

orderliness and enables to be more productive and fulfill. According to Eruteyan (2008)

the performance of an organization is evaluated in terms of the degree of achievement of

the organizational goals and objectives of what monetary costs and efficiency. Effective

time management is a major challenge for students on how to manage regarding the

activities that they get involve in school and at home.

Mercanlioglu (2010) explains that, Time management is focused on solving

problems. Examples of common problems are; being unable to deal with distractions,

deadline pressure, procrastination, and lack of self-discipline, ambiguity of personal goals,

not being able to say “no”, excessive social relations, indetermination, perfectionism, and

messy desk.

Several Components to have an Effective Time Management According

to Mercanlioglu.
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List goals and set priorities

If we don’t know what we want to achieve in our lives, we can’t manage time and

someday, we can be disappointed of where we are.

So, make your list, determine what you are committed to doing, and put these items in

the appropriate place in your time management system. You can use A, B, C system. A=

Highest priority, B= Important to be completed, but not absolutely essential for today,

C= Nice if I can get to it. Therefore, it is important to do the highest priority items first

A’s, then B’s and then C’s.

Planning to achieve goals

Having just goals is not enough. We need to have a clean plan to achieve them.

“If you don’t know where to go, no road can bring you there”. If you want to learn

French, you either have to attend a language course, live in France for a while or read

books about the language. If you are not doing any of those suggestions, your wish

would certainly remain as a dream. Dreams that are not becoming true are meaning

failure, and failure is meaning unhappiness.

Using communication tools efficiently

Telephone and computer are considered as the traps of our era. When the

magical tools of communication are used consciously and under control, it is obvious that

the contributions are going to be very valuable.

Avoiding procrastination

Procrastination may be seen as a particular time management problem that

involves the delay of activities. Procrastinating steals your time and chases you from

achieving your goals. In order to achieve something, you need to start doing it and to
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finish it, you need to not procrastinate it. Thus, the reasons of procrastination should be

determined and the will of problem solving should be present.

Desk planning and building a good filing system

Even though “A messy desk means a messy mind” for some, “A messy desk is the

indicator of genius” for others. If moments where you lose an important file and end up

in difficult situation, you probably are the first type of person and a spring cleaning is

needed. A messy desk and the lack of a good filing system are important time traps. The

desk is not the right place to store documents; it’s the place where work is realized.

Thereby if only needed documents are on the desk performance would increase and time

wouldn’t be wasted.

Regulation of work time according to your body’s energy cycle

While some people’s energy is peeking early the morning, some are successful on

the afternoon and some at night. Knowing your best time and doing important and

urgent things during that time is a good planning approach.

Being able to say “No”

If it is not a requirement of your job and only by courtesy you are not able to say

“No”, you are facing the problem of being retained of doing your own job. If you don’t

learn to say “No”, your to-do list is going to get longer. You need to build your own

boundaries and learn how to refuse unnecessary work in a kind way.

Delegation of some of your responsibilities

This way, additional time to do other important things would remain to the

person.
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Local Study on Time Management

According to the study of Lebuna, Niembra, and Pullon (2016) the top five

common time management activities of College of Education students at West Visayas

State University- Lambunao Campus were: coming to school before time schedule;

reviewing notes before class; reading books and studying lessons after meal when there

time management activities of students in school were: reviewing notes before class,

coming to school before time schedule, talking with friends after lunch time reading

books and studying lessons after meal if there is time; going to the library when there is

time.

Academic Performance

Academic performance in this study was perceived as the degree of achievement

by students in their class assessment tests, beginning of term exams, mid-term exams,

terminal and national examinations. Derek (1981) argued that academic performance is

the measured ability and achievement level of a learner in a school, subject or particular

skills.

Also, Page, Thomas and Marshall (1999) described performance as action of a

person or a group when given a learning task. In education, performance is often

presented as synonymous with academic achievement or attainment, in carrying out of a

task, course or assignment.

Therefore, academic performance has to do with a learner’s scholastic ability and

attainment, as regards his or her work and this is often measured through tests, exams,

course works and assignments.


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The research reviews support the hypothesis that student performance depends

on different socio-economic, psychological, environmental factors. The findings of

research studies focused that student performance is affected by different factors such as

learning abilities because new paradigm about learning assumes that all students can and

should learn at higher levels but it should not be considered as constraint because there

are other factors like race, gender, sex that can affect student’s performance. (Hansen,

Joe B.2000).

Absenteeism

Muchinsky stated that the conflicting and contradictory findings reported in

studies on absenteeism are attributable to the ill-defined concept of absenteeism

(Muchinsky, 1977).

Defining absenteeism should be simple. A person either is or is not at work.

However, there is no universal agreement on it is meaning (Rhodes and Steers, 1990).

Brooke and Price (1989) defined absence as the non-attendance of employees for

scheduled work.

Hackett and Guion (1985) and Steers and Rhodes (1978) reveals that, some

studies organize absenteeism into two main types: voluntary and involuntary. While

voluntary absenteeism implies a conscious decision by the worker about whether to

attend work on any given day, involuntary absence implies that it is beyond the

immediate control of the worker, for example transportation problems, sickness or family

funeral (Blau,1985).
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Also, as far as academic performance is concerned, Sauers, McVay and Deppa

(2005) explain that, to encourage class attendance, they have always spent part of the

first class meeting telling the students that it is important for them to attend class, that

they will learn more if they attend class, and that students who attend class regularly

generally earn higher grades for the course and those who do not attend class regularly

earn low grades for the course.


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Chapter III

Research Design and Methodology

Chapter Three consist of five parts: 1) Research Design, 2) Respondents, 3)

Instrumentation, 4) Data Procedure, 5) Statistical Analysis.

Part One, Research Design, explains the descriptive research and correlational

that was used in the study.

Part Two, the Respondents, presents the learners’ who participated and was

chosen in the study.

Part Three, Instrumentation, describes the instruments used in data gathering of

this research study.

Part Four, Data Gathering Procedure, presents the procedure followed in

gathering and collecting the data.

Part Five, Statistical Analysis, presents the statistical tools used in data gathering

of this research study.


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Research Design

The research design for this study is the descriptive and correlational research

design. Descriptive Research describes what exists and may help to uncover new facts

and meaning. The purpose of descriptive research is to observe, describe and document

aspects of a situation as it naturally occurs. This involves the collection of data that will

provide an account or description of individuals, group or situations. Instrument will be

used to obtain data in descriptive studies include questionnaires, interviews (close

questions), observation (checklist, etc), (Polit & Hungler, 1999).

Correlational research is the systematic investigation of the nature of

relationships, or associations between and among variables without necessary

investigating into causal reasons underlying them. It is also concerned with the extent of

relationships that exist between or among variables (Barrot, 2017).

This study employed descriptive and correlational research method to find out the

relationship of time management and academic performance of the selected Grade 12

Academic Strand learners during the first semester of the S.Y. 2017-2018. Since this

study is concerned of the relationship of time management and academic performance of

the said respondents, the descriptive and correlational method was the appropriate

method to use.
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Methodology

Respondents

The study aims to determine the relationship between the time management and

academic performance of the Grade 12 Senior High School Learners. Through this study,

the researchers will able to know what would be the relationship of time management in

their academic performance.

In this study, the respondents were the 241 Grade 12 Senior High School

Learners of Lambunao National High School enrolled in the school year 2017-2018. The

researchers employed the formula used by Slovin in choosing the respondents. The

formula used by Slovin is quite popular for determining the sample size for a survey

research, especially in undergraduate thesis in education in social sciences, maybe

because it is easy to use and the computation is based almost solely on the population

size. However, its misuse is now also a popular subject of research here in the country

and students are usually discourage to use the formula even though the reason behind

are not clear enough to them. Perhaps it would be helpful if we could know who really is

the Slovin and what where the bases of his formula.

One classification of the learner respondents was their Senior High School Strand

whereas they were grouped asAcademic Track and Technical Vocational Livelihood (TVL)

Track.
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Table 1 shows the number of Grade 12 Academic strand learners as the

respondents of the study.

Table 1

Distribution of Respondents according to Senior High School Track S.Y. 2017-2018

Senior High School Track N n

Academic Track 231 121

Technical Vocational Livelihood (TVL) 390 120

TOTAL 621 241

Data – Gathering Instrument

Time Management (Mean)

This quantitative study used Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ) adopted

from Act Advanced Corporate Training in gathering and collecting data. These

instruments obtain statements that describe on how students manage their time. It is a

25-item rating scale used to measure the time management skills of student. This

instrument is validated by the three(3) English teacher of Lambunao National High School

– Senior High School. Few questions were revised for more clarity and certainty. After

which, the questionnaire was pilot tested in Grade 11 Academic Strand learners

specifically, the General Academics (GAS), Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS), and

Accountancy Business and Management (ABM), the learners of which possess the same

characteristics and nature of the respondents. The pilot test was to look into the
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consistency and reliability of every item in the test questionnaire.The reliability of this

instrument is determined by using the Cronbach’s Alpha through Statistical Package for

the Social Sciences (SPSS). This process is yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.816.

The rating scale with corresponding description was utilized:

Scale Description

56-75 high time management skills

36-55 moderate time management skills

25-35 low management skills

High Time Management Skills means learner manage their time effectively and

excellently that they can accomplished their daily task without procastinating.

Moderate Time Management Skills means learner manage their time moderately

and fairly well but sometimes feel stressful to the task that they involve.

Low Time Management Skills means learner need to work on the things to manage

their time more effectively.

Academic Performance (Mean)

To measure the Academic performance, the researcher used the final General

Point Average (GPA) in the first semester of the respondents. This was validated through

the records gathered from their respective advisers.


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The following scale was used to interpret the means obtained:

Grading scale Description

90-100 Outstanding

85-89 Very satisfactory

80-84 Satisfactory

75-79 Fairly Satisfactory

Below 75 Did Not Meet

Outstanding means learners perform excellently in school and have high academic

performance.

Very satisfactory means learners perform well in dealing with the activities in

schools.

Satisfactory means learners have moderate and satisfying performance and lacks

a mastery in some topics discussed.

Fairly Satisfactory means learners perform in school fairly but having some

difficulty to understand the discussion.

Did Not Meet means learners have a poor performance in dealing with the school

related activities.
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Data Gathering- Procedure

The researchers asked permission from the Assistant School Principal of

Lambunao National High School – Senior High School to conduct the instrument namely

the Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ). The researcher consults the Grade 12

Senior High School teachers for the schedule in conducting the instrument. Then,

researchers requested the selected respondents to answer the question in the given

instrument honestly. Instruments collected and checked by the researchers and

appropriate statistical tool was utilized to get the result of the study. The data procedure

shows the process that the researcher will undergo in conducting this research study.

Phase1: Phase 2:
Preparation of Research Ask permission from the Asst.
Instruments principal of Lambunao National
 Validation and pilot- testing High School- Senior High School to
give the instruments.

Phase 4: Phase 3:
Administration of the Timeof the Grade 12
Consultation
teachers(TMQ)
Management Questionnaire in administering the
instruments to the respondents.

Phase 5:

Data Analysis

Figure 2. Shows the phases and stages that the researcher will undergo before

and during conducting the research study.


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Statistical Analysis

The statistical tools were classified into descriptive and inferential statistics. For

descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation was utilized while t-test for

independent sample. For the inferential statistics, the researcher used Pearson’s Product

Moment Correlation Coefficient.

The researcher used the following descriptive statistical tools:

Mean. This descriptive statistic was used to examine the time management skill

and academic performance of learners. The time management skill of the respondents

are based on their scores in the Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ), classified as

Always=2, Rarely=1, and Never=1, as a whole and when grouped according to their

Academic Strand and Sex.

Standard Deviation. This descriptive statistics was used to identify the

homogeneity and heterogeneity of the scores in the Time Management Questionnaire

(TMQ) and as well as the Grade Point Average (GPA) of the respondents.

The researcher utilized the following statistical tool for independent sample:

t-test.This independent sample was used to modify and explain the time

management skill and academic performance of the respondents.

For inferential statistics the following tools were utilized:


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Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. This inferential statistics

was used to determine the relationship between time management and academic

performance of the respondents when classified according to Academic Strand and Sex.
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Chapter 4

Results and Discussions

This study investigated the relationship between the time management and

academic performance of senior high school learners.

Chapter Four presents the results of the investigation. The data were obtained

through the use of Adopted Research Questionnaire to measure the time management

skills and final General Point Average (GPA) on the first semester for academic

performance. The results of the data analyses are presented in two parts: (1) Descriptive

Data Analyses, and (2) Inferential data Analyses.

Part One, Descriptive Data Analyses, presents the scores of the respondents on

how they manage their time as an entire group and when classified according to sex and

Senior High School Track; and academic performance during the first semester of the

school year and their respective interpretations to the data.

Part Two, Inferential Data Analyses, presents the significance of the differences

on how the respondents manage their time as an entire group and when classified

according to sex and Senior High School Track; and academic performance during the

first semester of the school year and their respective interpretations and analysis.
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Descriptive Data Analysis

This part answers the question about the scores of the respondents on how they

manage their time as an entire group and when classified according to sex and Senior

High School Track; and academic performance during the first semester of the school

year. The researcher utilized the mean and standard deviation.

Time Management Skill. Table 2 shows the time management level of the

respondents taken as a whole and when classified according to sex and senior high

school track. The highest score obtained by the participants was 71. The level of the

scales was determined through the given guide result of the adopted questionnaire.

Table 2reflects a high time management skills when the respondents were taken

as an entire group (M=55.96,SD=7.046). This results shows that most of the Grade 12

Senior High School Learners of Lambunao National High School had a high time

management skills in dealing with their daily activities during school days. They could

manage their time effectively that they can make things done on time without

procrastinating.

This study differ to the findings of Tanriogen and Iscan (2009) who found out that

majority of Pamukkale University students possess moderate level time management

skills and only a significantly small portion have high level time management skills. Also,

according to the findings, the prediction level of time management skills for academic

performance is 7.9 percent.


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The result does not corresponds to the study of Pehlivan (in Turkey, 2013) which

revealed that students from Karadeniz Technical University hold “moderate level” time

management scores. The findings of the study does not coincide also on the study of

Abulshawi & Abusultana (2003) which showed that there is a medium degree of time

management skill among students at Yarmouk University, and the skill of time

management and academic achievement.

Furthermore, it is also revealed in table 2 that when respondents where classified

as female (M=56.88, SD= 6.245) and male (M= 55.05, SD=7.678), the results shows

that female Grade 12 Senior High School Learner’s had a high time management skills

while Grade 12 male learners had a moderate time management skills. This simply shows

female is more likely used their time effectively than to the male.

The result conforms to the findings of Trueman and Hartley (1996) which

revealed that female students reported considerably greater time management skills than

male students.Findings by Misra and McKean (2000) also parallel to this result indicated

that females reported significantly higher results in all factors of time management

behaviors (perceived better control of time, set and prioritized goals, planning and had an

organized approach to tasks and workspace) also agrees to the findings of the study.

The findings from Covic et al. (2003) showed females scored significantly higher

only in one factor, this being the mechanics of time management, such as making lists

and keeping a diary.Macan et al. (1990) found significant correlations between gender

and time management, reporting that women engage in more mechanical time
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management behaviors than men, whereas men feel more in charge of their time

management behaviors.Similarly, the impact of students’ time management skills on

academic achievement in the study by Demirtas and Ozer (2007), female students scored

higher than boys. However, in another study about time management by Erdul (2005),

the girl students scored higher than men in time management skills.

The data in table 2also reflect the time management skills of the respondents

when they were classified to senior high school track. It is revealed that 121 learners of

the Academic Track (M= 56.84, SD= 6.661) had a high time management skills while 120

TVL learners (M= 55.07, SD= 7.334) had moderate time management skills. It only

reveals that respondents have different time management skills in coping up with their

daily activities in school.


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Table 2

Time Management Skill of the Respondents taken as a Whole Group, and when classified
according to Sex and Senior High School Track

Categories N M SD D

As a Whole 241 55.96 7.05 H

Sex

Male 121 55.05 7.68 A

Female 12o 56.88 6.25 H

Senior High School Track

Academic Track 121 56.84 6.66 H

Technical Vocational Livelihood Track 120 55.07 7.334 A

Legend: H = High Time Management Skill , A = Average Time Management Skill, L = Low Time Management Skill
Note: Interpretation is based on the following scale : H= 56-75; A=36-55; L=25-35

The result conforms to the idea of Quek (2001) who believed that time can be

managed because when one wants to solve the problem of procrastination, one needs to

learn and develop time management skills. In the mind of the researchers, there is an

indication that Quek feels that procrastination may affect time management. Time is

natural; however, people live and work or exist within time. Therefore, time rolls along

with human existence.

The result subscribes to the contribution of Argarwal (2008) who asserts that time

management is usually a personal problem and if one instinctively knows what the right
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is, then there is no need to worry. Daily life is not actually a gamble and allocating time

to every activity will help. Unlike other things, time lost never comes back.

Academic Performance. Table 3presents the participants’ academic

performance during the first semester of the school year 2017-2018 taken as an entire

group and when classified according to sex and Senior High School Track.

This table presents an outstanding academic performance of repondents when

taken as a whole(M=89.96, SD=3.912). The results implies that majority of the grade 12

learners have an outstanding performance based on their final grade in the first

semester.

Moreover, when the respondents were classified according to sex, the data in

table 3 reflect that female(M=90.11,SD=3.538) have an outstanding academic

performance while male(M=89.21,SD=4.217) have a very satisfactory academic

performance. Even though the mean of the female is little bit higher compared to the

mean of the male, both of them have high academic performance which fell on

outstanding and very satisfactory performance in academic.

This result agrees with the findings of Jegede & lyang (1990), Mordi (1992), Chin-

Tin (1993), Fabunmi (2004) and Dania (2014)) that students’ performance is not

determined by gender in terms of the interaction of gender and treatment on students’

academic achievement.

However, a study on Spanish student indicates that some differences exist

between males and females on aspect of creativity related to academic achievement,


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although creativity is shown to be related to academic performance for gender Xixia,

(1999) also found that the degree of creativity between male and female is similar but

they also concluded that the most famous creative person are usually male. Some

researcher reported that one gender is more creative than another gender.

Table 3 also reveals that the 121 Academic Track respondents

(M=90.93,SD=3.538) obtained outstanding level of academic performance while on the

other hand, Technical Vocational Livelihood(TVL) respondents have a very satisfactory

level of academic performance. This implies that the two Senior High School Track had

different level of academic performance during the first semester of the current school

year.
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Table 3

Academic Performance of the Respondents taken as a Whole Group and Classified to Sex
and Senior High School Track
Categories N M SD D

As a Whole 241 89.66 3.912 O

Sex

Male 120 89.21 4.217 VS

Female 121 90.11 3.538 O

Senior High School Track

Academic Track 121 90.93 3.745 O

Technical Vocational Livelihood Track 120 88.35 3.643 VS

Legend: O= Outstanding, VS= Very Satisfactory, S= Satisfactory, FS= Fairly Satisfactory, DNM= Did Not Meet
Note: Interpretation is based on the following scale: O=90-100; VS= 85-89; S=80-84; FS=75-79; DNM=Below 75

The result agrees to the idea of Hansen, J. B (2000) that student performance is

affected by different factors such as learning abilities because new paradigm about

learning assumes that all students can and should learn at higher levels but it should not

be considered as constraint because there are other factors like race, gender, sex that

can affect student’s performance.


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Inferential Statistics

This portion answers the hypotheses of whether there is a significant difference in

the time management skills of the respondents when they were classified according to

sex and senior high school track. Moreover, this portion gives clarification to the

assumptions of whether there is significant difference in the academic performance of the

respondents when they are classified according to sex and senior high school track.

Lastly, it discusses as to whether there is a significant relationship between the

respondents’ academic performance to its time management skills.

The significance of the differences were likewise determined. The results and

discussions are presented in the following test: To determine the significant differences

existed between the two groups, the researcher used the t-test for independent samples

and to find out the significant differences when classified according sex and senior high

school track. All statistical computations were set at .05 level of significance for the

rejection of the null hypothesis.

Differences in Time Management Skill. The t- test for independent samples is

reflected in Table 4 and Table 5 to determine the significant differences in the time

management skill when they were classified according to sex and senior high school track

respectively.

As displayed in Table 4, there is significant differences in the time management

skills of the respondents when classified according to sex, (t (239) = 2.024, p = .044)
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implying that the respondents have different time management skill in dealing with the

day-to-day activities in school.

Table 4

t-test result on the difference in time management when the respondents are classified to
sex
Categories N Mean Mean diff. Df t p

Sex

Male 121 55.06 -1.825 239 2.204 .044

Female 120 56.88

Note:*p<0.05

The result of this study is parallel to the findings of the study of Vences Cyril

(2001) that there is significant difference between male and female higher secondary

students in their time management. The result reveals that female students are better

than the male students in their time management. This is due to the fact that most of the

boys are spending their time to play, watching T.V. and other activities. They cannot

manage their time properly. But, most of the girls are very sincere, responsible to their

work. So, they are using their time effectively.

Moreover, Table 5 reflects the differences of time management skills to senior

high school track. The result shows that there is a significant difference in the time

management skills of the respondents when they are classified according to senior high
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school track, (t(239)= 1.968, p=.05). It simply shows that respondents have different

ways to manage their time. And it means that the way they manage their time is

affected by their senior high school track.

Table 5

t-test result on the difference in time management when the respondents are classified to
senior high school track
Categories N Mean Mean diff. Df t P

Senior High School Track

Academic Track 121 56.84 1.78 239 1.96 .05

TVL Track 120 55.07

Note:*p<0.05

Differences in Academic Performance. The t- test for independent samples is

reflected in Table 6 and Table 7 to determine the significant differences in the academic

performance when they were classified according to sex and senior high school track

respectively.

This table 6 presents that there is no significant difference in the academic

performance of the respondents based on their sex t(239)=1.781,p=.076. This implies

that both male and female had somewhat identical in the academic performance given

that there were no significant differences in their academic performance when

participants were classified according to sex.


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Table 6

t-test result on the difference in academic performance when the respondents are
classified to sex

Categories N Mean Mean diff. Df t p

Sex

Male 121 89.21 -.893 239 -1.781 .076

Female 120 90.11

Note:*p<0.05

Similarly, in the study of Vences Cyril (2001), there is no significant difference

between male and female higher secondary students in their academic achievement. The

result reveals that the class XI students are better than the class XII students in their

academic achievement. This is due to the fact that specific subject has been chosen by

the students, and also they came from various classes and schools, and are getting more

opportunity to involve in the new situations in the school. In the new situation they have

adopted themselves and follow the time management in proper manner. So, the students

might have excel in their academic achievement.

The results is also parallel to the study of Adigun et al. (2015)which showed that

even though the male students had slightly better performance compared to the female

students, it was not significant. This better performance was found to be pronounced in

the private school which was shown to possess the best male brains found in the study

area.
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On the other hand, Table 7 shows the differences of time management skills to

senior high school track. The result shows that there is a significant difference in the

academic performance of the respondents when they are classified according to senior

high school track, (t(239)= 5.481, p=.000). It simply shows that respondents have

different ways to manage their time. And it means that the way they manage their time

is affected by their senior high school track.

Table 6

t-test result on the difference in time management when the respondents are classified to
senior high school track

Categories N Mean Mean Df t P


diff.

Senior High School Track

Academic Track 121 90.93 2.61 239 5.48 .000

Technical Vocational 120 88.35


Livelihood Track

Note:*p<0.05
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Correlation of Time Management and Academic Performance

Table 8displays the correlation between the respondents’ Time Management Skills

and Academic Performance taken as a whole and when classified according to sex and

senior high school track.

Table 8

Correlation between Respondents’ Time Management and Academic Performance

Academic performance

n Pearson Correlation p

Time management skills 241 .280 .000

Note:*p<0.01

The data shows that there was a significant correlation between the respondents’

academic performance and their time management skills, r=.280, p=.000. It implies that

the way the learners manage their time have a great impact on the result of their

academic performance.

This result support the findings of Lisa & Robert (2008) which showed that the

students’ time management skills affect their academic achievement at a significant level

and the skills are one of the predictors of academic performance. It suggested that

students should start to acquire time management senses on their own in their primary

school years by reading materials on the issue or via the framework of psychological
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counseling and guidance studies applied in schools and adopt effective time management

attitudes and techniques to determine how and where they spend their time.

Similar findings were discovered in a study of Macan (1994) by which efficient use

of time was positively influence students’ success in courses. As a result of this study, a

significant relationship was identified between medical students’ time management scores

and their academic achievement, and students who use their time well were found to be

more successful in their courses. This conclusion is consistent with the findings of

research conducted by Basak et al. (2008). They concluded that there is a significant

relationship between students’ time planning and their academic achievement, and that

the students who use time well are more successful in their courses.

Balduf (2009) recognized that poor time management can contribute to academic

underachievement, and effective time management can contribute to higher levels of

college achievement. Misra & McKean (2000) in a study showed that there is a relation

between time management, stress reduction and increased academic success. More

specifically, time management has been shown to be related to college grades (Britton &

Tesser, 1991) and academic performance (Burt & Kemp, 1994). Moreover, studies of

Frazier, Youngstrom & Glutting (2007) show that the time organization and time

management behaviors are significantly related to academic performance. Meanwhile,

Burrus et al., (2013) states that if the ability to effectively manage one’s time was indeed

positively related to academic performance, then, presumably, interventions that improve

time management would be of value to students.


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The result also parallel to the study of Necati & Sevil (2010) which showed that

there was a meaningful and moderate relation between time management and academic

achievement. The relative importance order of the predictor variables on academic

achievement, according to the standardized regression coefficient, was time consumers,

time planning, and time attitude; each of the three variables had an important predictor

effect on the academic achievement of the students.

Conversely, the study of Swart et al. (2010) found out that there is no statistically

significant relationship between time management skills and the academic achievement

of African engineering students.


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Chapter 5

Summary, Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations

Chapter 5 combines the highlights of the significant findings of the study,

conclusions, and recommendations. This was undertaken to determine the relationship

between the time management and academic performance of senior high school learners.

This chapter contains five parts: (1) Summary, (2) Conclusions, (3) Implications for

Theory and Practice, and (4) Recommendations.

Part One, Summary, briefly outlines the purpose of this research, its methodology,

and findings.

Part Two, Conclusions, ties together the data analysis of Chapter IV and cites

some decisions drawn from the evaluation results.

Part Three, Implications, discusses the results of the study in relation to previous

theories or researches and the theoretical background of the study.

Part Four, Recommendations, urges the further study of the relationship between

the time management and academic performance with specific suggestions for research,

and may be of help for future researchers, students, and teachers. It also deals with the

significance of the study to learners, parents, teachers, and future researchers.


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Summary of the Problem, Method, and Findings

This descriptive study aimed to determine the relationship of time management

and academic performance of grade 12 Senior High School of Lambunao National High

School during the first semester of the school year 2017 – 2018.

Specifically, this study sought answers to the following questions:

1. What is the time management skills of senior high school learners as an entire

group and when classified according to sex and senior high school track?

2. What is the academic performance of senior high school learners as an entire

group and when classified according to sex and senior high school track?

3. Is there a significant difference in the time management of senior high school

learners when classified according to sex and Senior High School track?

4. Is there a significant difference in the academic performance of senior high school

learners when grouped accordingsex and Senior High School track

5. Is there a significant relationship between the time management and academic

performance of senior high school learners?

In view of the foregoing problems, the researcher advanced the following

hypotheses:

1. There is no significant difference in the time management skill of senior high

school learners when classified according to sex and Senior High School track.

2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of Senior High

School learners when grouped according sex and Senior High School track.
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3. There is no significant relationship between the time management and the

academic performance of Senior High School learners.

To find answers to these research questions and assumptions, the study

employed descriptive correlational method in assessing the relationship of Time

Management and Academic Performance. The Slovin’s used formula was used to include

in the study, 121 learners from the Academic Track and the 120 learners from the TVL

Track of Lambunao National High School during the first semester of the school year

2017-2018 specifically from June to October 2017.

The data were gathered using a questionnaire namely: Time Management

Questionnaire (TMQ)that was adapted by the researcher from Act Advance Corporate

Training, has undergone face and content validity, was pilot-tested and had a Cronbrach

alpha of 0.816 and a reliability index of 0.822. This was given to the respondents last

December 7, 2017. This Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ) is a 25-item rating scale

used to measure the time management skills of the learners.

The date were subjected to statistical treatment. The Slovin’s used formula was

specially used to determine the number of respondents for the study. The mean was

used to determine the Time Management Skill and Academic Performance of the

respondents. The t-test was used to ascertain the significant difference between the Time

Management and Academic Performance when classified as to sex and to Senior High

School Track. On to other hand, Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to
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establish the relationship between Time Management Skill and Academic Performance of

the respondents. The 0.05 level of significance was used in all inferential tests.

The following are the significant findings of the study:

1. Majority of the respondents of Lambunao National High School Senior High School

had high time management skills. When they were classified according to sex,

female respondents had higher time management skills than to male respondents.

On the other hand, when the respondents were classified according to Senior

High School Track, Academic Track Learners had higher time management skills

compared to the Technical Vocational Livelihood (TVL) Learners.

In general, the result only implies that both sex and Senior High School

Track had an impact to the way the learners manage their time in dealing with

the daily activities in school.

2. Learners as an entire grouped achieved an outstanding academic performance.

When classified according to sex, male and female have different academic

performance. Female respondents belong to outstanding performance in

academic while male respondents belong to very satisfactory performance in

academics. In terms of Senior High School Track, Academic Track Learners had

outstanding academic performance and Technical Vocational Livelihood (TVL)

Learners had a very satisfactory performance in academic. This implies that sex

and senior high school track had an effect to the performance of the respondents.

3. There were significant differences in the time management skills of the

respondents when classified according to sex and when senior high school track
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were taken into account. This results indicates that both sex and senior high

school track influence the time management skills since they have different

capability of using their time effectively in dealing with task.

4. Academic performance was not influence by sex even though female learnershave

higher of academic performance compared to male learners. On the other hand,

academic performance significantly differ on the bases of the learners’ chosen

track. The results shows that learners have their own ways on how they will

perform in the field of academics.

5. As a whole, academic performance and time management skills were significantly

related. A person who effectively uses time had less difficulty in dealing everyday

task to move forward in life.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn:

Senior high school learners have high time management skills and seems to

manage their time well in dealing with the different activities and task that was given to

them. However, when grouped according to sex, female have higher time management

skill compared to male who have moderate time management skills. In terms of senior

high school track, Academic Track learners are more likely good time managers rather

than to the Technical Vocational Livelihood (TVL) Track Learners. Along with this, senior

high school learners are encourage to manage their time well in order for them to cope

with the demand of their chosen track.


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Furthermore, the results indicate that the level of the academic performance of

the grade 12 senior high school learners is outstanding when taken as a whole. This

implies that learners can able to master and understand the competencies of the subject

that they discussing with. While regardless of their sex, both male and female shows a

high academic performance even though female are having a better academic

performance than to the male learners. Academic track learners however, are doing an

outstanding academic performance than to Technical Vocational Livelihood (TVL) Track

learners. This result implies that high time management skills could lead to a higher

academic performance of the learners. Meanwhile, having a low time management skills

could greatly affect the academic performance to become lower due to some

circumstances that a learner could not deal and accomplished with. Therefore, the result

shows that time management skills is significantly related to the academic performance

of the learners. Along this line, learners are encouraged to strive more, to study more,

and develop a desirable time management. Learners should inculcate in them the value

of managing time well because these variables can influence academic achievement.

Implications

The findings and conclusions of the study have led to the following implications

for theory.

Implications for Theory. Time is finite. We have so many hours available in a

day to live our lives, accomplish the tasks that we need to accomplish and enjoy our

lives. Every minute we waste in frustration over a task that seems overwhelming is a
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Lambunao, Iloilo
69

minute subtracted from the time we’ve allotted to enjoy life. Even our jobs should

provide us with pleasurer - a sense of accomplishment, gratification of recognition for job

well done, and financial rewards, too that enable us to enjoy our personal lives even

more. I can be done. Less stress, more confidence, reduced frustration, greater

fulfillment- there are all benefits that flow from leading a time managed life. Our hope is

the time management will help you achieve all these things and more.

The findings of this study revealed that time management and academic

performance are related to each other. Grade 12 senior high school learners as an entire

group had a strong time management skills and have an outstanding academic

performance base on their final grade in the first semester. When classified according to

sex, female had a strong managements skills and have an outstanding academic

performance than male. It simply shows that female is more likely used their time

effectively and they can balance their curricular activities and academics.

According to Jeremy Wright, Pickle Jar Theory states that the activities and

responsibilities of an individual should be balance using effective time management

system. (Olubor and Osunde, 2007). More over when classified to senior high school

track, it is revealed that academic track had a strong time management and obtained

outstanding level of academic performance than TVL track learner. This implies that two

senior high school track had different time management’s skills and level of academic

performance. Since it had a different treats in each track the important thing is that each

of them can manage their time effectively. Male learners need to improve/enhance their

time management skills in order to get a high level of academic performance. Students
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
70

needs to practice on how to manage their time and also through the guidance of their

parents and teachers. None of this activity is bad, the important thing that you can

manage your time efficiently in order to enhance your academic performance (Pickle Jar

Theory, Jeremy Wright).

Recommendation

In view of the data and findings generated and the conclusions drawn from analysis

and interpretation of data, the following recommendations are offered:

1. There is a need to maintain and balance the time spent of the students in their

daily works as it affects their academic performances since the study reveals that

there is such relationship between time management and academic performance

of the learners. Learners should be able to know and find ways on how to cope

up with this kind of situation.

2. Parents may help their children in enhancing their capability in managing their

time by providing work that will develop and improve their skills in handling such

hectic schedules that will help them achieve their goals successfully.

3. Teachers may be aware to the importance of time management and academic

performance of every learner so that they can help, provide guidance and train

the students in managing their time efficiently and effectively.

4. The recent study may be reviewed, will serve as the basis by the other

researchers and will encourage them to conduct similar studies. The methods and

techniques used may provide opportunity for the comparison of results. Future
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
71

researcher may be also consider the effect of economic status to the time

management and academic performance. Future researcher may also explore

more studies concerning time management and academic performance since it

will help big enough in their studies as well as in their daily living. This will help

them gain relevant information on the topic.


Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
72

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Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
73

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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
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Lambunao, Iloilo
76

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Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
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83

APPENDICES
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
84

APPENDIX A

LETTERS
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
85

December 07, 2017

Madam:

Greetings!

We are currently conducting our Research study entitled “Time Management and
Academic Performance of Senior High School” in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for our Inquiry subject, as one of the prerequisite offered by the K-12
curriculum.

In this connection, we are respectfully asking your permission to let us administer our
final instrument for the FINAL CONDUCT of our research study, to all our classified
respondents in the academic strands.

I am looking forward that my request would merit your positive response.

Thank you and more power.

Respectfully Yours,

SHAIRA V. ENCAJONADO

Researcher

Noted by:

MS. LOWELYN COLMO

Inquiry Teacher

Approved By:

FEMIE M. LOPE

Asst. Principal II
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
86

I, ___________________,of _______ agree to participate in a research study entitled


“Time Management and Academic Performance of Senior High School”. I also
allow the researchers to get my first semester grades in order to complete their data.

I am taking part in this research because I am presently a student of Lambunao National


High School (Senior High School) which is the site of the study.

I understand that my participation is voluntary. Even if I refuse to participate in the


study, I will not be disadvantaged in anyway.

As a participant, I shall answers the researchers’ questionnaire without hesitations. And


rest assured that the information obtained will only be used for research purposes only.

Signature:

________________________
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
87

November ____, 2017

To:

Dear Ma’am/ Sir;

Greetings!

The undersigned is a Grade 12 Academic Track Learner of Lambunao National


High School undertaking a research entitled Time Management and
Academic Performance of Senior High School Learners.

With your expertise, I am humbly asking your permission to validate the


attached adopted- research survey questionnaire in order for us to start
conducting the study.

I am looking forward that my request would merit your positive response.

Thank you and more power.

Respectfully Yours,

SHAIRA V. ENCAJONADO

Researcher

Noted by:

MS. LOWELYN COLMO

Inquiry Teacher
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
88

APPENDIX B

INSTRUMENTS
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
89

Dear Respondents,

This survey questionnaire is intended to gather data for the quantitative


research entitled “Time Management and Academic Performance of
Senior High School Learners.” Please answer as truthfully and as sincerely
as you can.

Be assured that the information you will provide will be treated


confidentially and will be used only for research purposes.

Thank you very much.

Respectfully Yours,

The Researchers

Part 1. PERSONAL INFORMATION

Instruction: Please fill out the needed information on the blanks provided.

A. STUDENT’S PROFILE

Name: _______________________________________

Sex: __________________

Strand: _________________

General Average (1stsem): ____________

Part II. QUESTIONNAIRE PROPER


Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
90

DIRECTION: Below is a 25-item questionnaire on how students manage their


time. Please check ( ✔ )them honestly to the best of your knowledge on the
space provided for each statement respectively. Indicate your answer as 3 for
always, 2 for rarely and 1 for never that would best represent your answer in
every item. Don’t leave it blank.

Guide for Rating:

(3) Always- means you always practice the given statement.

(2) Rarely- means you seldom practice the given statement.

(1) Never- means you never practice the given statement.

TIME MANAGEMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (TMQ)

Never Rarely Always

1 2 3

Setting priority

1. I do things according to priority.

2. I prioritize my list based on its importance, not


urgency.
3. I prevent interruptions from distracting me from
high priority tasks.
4. I spend enough time on work-related activities.

5. I try to do the most important tasks during my


energetic periods of the day.
6. I discontinue any wasteful or unprofitable
activities or routines.
Academic

1. I finish my assignments on time.

2. I meet deadlines without rushing at the last


minute.
3. I keep an up-to-date task on my reading and
research assignments.
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
91

4. I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish


on the forthcoming quarter.
Time attitude

1. I accomplish what needs to be done during the


day.
2. I use my time effectively.

3. I perform difficult or unpleasant tasks without


procrastinating.
4. I am satisfied with the way I use my time.

5. I judge myself by task accomplished rather than


by amount of activity.
6. My actions are determined primarily by me, not
by the circumstances or by other peoples’
priority.
Planning

1. I motivate myself to make time for planning.

2. I spend enough time in planning.

3. I prepare a daily or weekly “to do” list.

4. I avoid spending too much time on trivial


matters.
5. I plan my time to relax and be with my friends in
my weekly schedule.
6. I have weekly schedule from which I recorded a
fixed commitments such as work hours.
7. I make constructive use of my commuting time.

8. I periodically re-assess my activities in relation to


my goals.
9. I screen and manage my telephone calls to
control over telephone interruptions.
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
92

APPENDEX C

RELIABILITY TEST STATISTICS


Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
93

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's
Alpha Based on
Cronbach's Standardized
Alpha Items N of Items

.816 .822 25

Item Statistics

Mean Std. Deviation N

1 2.6000 .49403 60

2 2.4667 .50310 60
3 2.3500 .48099 60
4 2.5500 .50169 60

5 2.6000 .52722 60
6 2.2833 .55515 60
7 2.3333 .50979 60

8 2.3000 .46212 60
9 2.3500 .51503 60
10 2.3500 .48099 60

11 2.5167 .50394 60
12 2.4500 .50169 60
13 2.0500 .34074 60

14 2.5167 .50394 60
15 2.1333 .53573 60
16 2.4167 .53016 60

17 2.5833 .53016 60
18 2.3667 .51967 60
19 2.0167 .53652 60

20 2.2333 .49972 60
21 2.2500 .62775 60
22 2.1000 .47657 60
23 2.1667 .52615 60
24 2.2333 .46456 60
25 2.3333 .47538 60
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
94

APPENDIX D

T-TEST RESULT
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
95

Group Statistics

Sex N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

Time Management Skills Male 121 55.05 7.678 .698

Female 120 56.88 6.245 .570

Group Statistics

Track N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

Time Management Skills Academic Track 121 56.84 6.661 .606

TVL 120 55.07 7.334 .670

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for

Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means

Std. 95% Confidence

Mean Error Interval of the

Sig. (2- Differen Differen Difference

F Sig. t df tailed) ce ce Lower Upper

Time Management Skills Equal variances assumed 4.240 .041 -2.024 239 .044 -1.825 .902 -3.602 -.049

Equal variances not


-2.026 230.203 .044 -1.825 .901 -3.601 -.050
assumed
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
96

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test
for Equality of
Variances t-test for Equality of Means

95%

Std. Confidence
Sig. Mean Error Interval of the

(2- Differ Differ Difference

F Sig. t df tailed) ence ence Lower Upper

Time Management Equal variances


1.069 .302 1.968 239 .050 1.776 .902 -.001 3.554
Skills assumed

Equal variances not 236.4


1.968 .050 1.776 .903 -.002 3.555
assumed 26

Independent Samples Test


Group Statistics
Levene's Test for
Track N
Equality of Variances Mean Std.
t-testDeviation Std. Error Mean
for Equality of Means

Academic Performance Academic Track 121 90.96 3.745 .340


95% Confidence
Std.

TVL 120 88.35 3.643


Mean Error Interval
.333of the

Sig. (2- Differen Differen Difference

F Sig. t df tailed) ce ce Lower Upper

Academic Performance Equal variances assumed .914 .340 5.481 239 .000 2.609 .476 1.671 3.546

Equal variances not assumed 238.91


5.481 .000 2.609 .476 1.671 3.546
2
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Education
Region VI- Western Visayas
Schools Division of Iloilo
LAMBUNAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Senior High School
Lambunao, Iloilo
97

Group Statistics

Sex N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

Academic Performance Male 121 89.21 4.217 .383

Female 120 90.11 3.538 .323

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for

Equality of

Variances t-test for Equality of Means

95% Confidence
Std.

Mean Error Interval of the

Sig. (2- Differen Differen Difference

F Sig. t df tailed) ce ce Lower Upper

Academic Performance Equal variances assumed 2.673 .103 -1.781 239 .076 -.893 .502 -1.882 .095

Equal variances not assumed


-1.782 232.616 .076 -.893 .501 -1.881 .094

Correlations

Time
Academic Management
Performance Skills

Academic Performance Pearson Correlation 1 .280**

Sig. (2-tailed) .000

N 241 241
Time Management Skills Pearson Correlation .280** 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .000

N 241 241

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).