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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

AL Methods Comparison Table

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump

Production Less than The full range of production The full range of production Rate is dependent on setting Rate is dependent on setting The full range of production
rate 1000 B/D rates can be handled. An AOF rates can be handled. When depth, the deeper the setting depth. Feasible for low rates rates can be handled. Less
production rate cannot be unconstrained an ESP can be depth the lesser rates. Generally (<100 B/D) and low GOR than 50 B/D up to 15000 B/D
achieved with gas lift because designed to produce the full PCP is suitable for low rate (<250). Typically are used with with adequate flowing bottom
as much drawdown as for an well potential to the surface wells. 1.5-in nominal tubing. hole pressure, tubular size,
ESP cannot be achieved. (AOF), thus achieving higher and horsepower. Guideline as
flow rates than with gas lift. below:
1000 to 10,000 B/D Up to 4000 b/d at 3000 feet Up to 2000 b/d at 4000 feet.
Restricted to shallow depths Piston Hydraulic lift:
using large plungers. In general, 50 to 4000 BFPD.
due to efficiency, rod pump is Jet Hydraulic lift: >15,000
not recommended as a lift BFPD of total fluid.
mechanism of choice on high AOF production rate cannot
producing wells. be achieved.
Greater than Not available. Not available.
10,000 B/D
Well depth Less than 2500 ft Not restricted by well depth. Not restricted by well depth. Pump must be landed below Pump must be landed below Not restricted by well depth.
The benefit of gas lift will be The benefit of ESP will be dynamic fluid level. Optimal to dynamic fluid level. Optimal to However, limited by power-
larger with greater depth, as larger with greater depth as have intake below perforations, have intake below perforations, fluid pressure or horsepower
there is more fluid to ‘lighten’ there is more fluid head to which will allow natural gas which will allow natural gas as depth increases. A
to enable increased well overcome to enable increased separation and vent to annulus. separation and vent to annulus. practical depth of 20,000 ft is
productivity. well productivity. Depth is tied to dynamic fluid Depth is tied to dynamic fluid possible. Guideline as below:
level. level.
2500 to 7500 ft Piston Hydraulic lift: up to
Greater than 7500 ft Maximum 8000 feet. Maximum 14,000 ft TVD. Due 17,000 ft TVD.
to excessive polished rod load,
depth is limited. Rods or Jet Hydraulic lift: up to
structure may limit rate at depth. 20,000 ft TVD.
H2 S limits depth at which a large
volume pump can be set.
Effectively, about 500 B/D at
7,500 ft TVD and 150 B/D at
14,000 ft TVD.
Casing size 4 ½ in. Production tubing restricted to ESP restricted to a maximum Most slim hole models with Problems only if high-rate wells Small casing size often limits
2-3/8” tubing when installing diameter of 3.75” with a OD= 3.75” can fit in this size. requiring large plunger pumps. producing rate owing to high
side pocket mandrels. Packoff maximum flow rate of 2000 Up to approx. 3000 b/d at 3000 Small casing sizes (4.5 in and friction losses. Coiled Tubing
mandrels internal to the tubing BPD (320 m3 /D). feet. 5.5 in) may limit free gas Jet can be run inside 1-1/4”
can allow larger tubing size. separation. There is a limitation Coiled Tubing and, therefore,
of downhole pump design in small casing size.

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump
5 ½ in. Production tubing restricted to ESP restricted to a maximum The majority of pumps will fit of downhole pump design in
2-7/8” tubing when installing diameter of 4.56” with a into this casing with OD=4.5”. small diameter casing.
side pocket mandrels. Packoff maximum flow rate of 5200 Up to 4000 b/d at 3000 feet.
mandrels internal to the tubing BPD (830 m3 /D).
can allow larger tubing size.
7 in. Production tubing restricted to ESP restricted to a maximum No detriment to performance
4” t ubing when installing side diameter of 5.40” with a with pump inside larger casing.
pocket mandrels. Packoff maximum flow rate of 12000 Some larger models available
mandrels internal to the tubing BPD (1900 m 3 /D). with OD=5 -3/8”. Up to 3200 b/d
can allow larger tubing size. at 5000 feet.
9 5/8 in. and larger Production tubing restricted to ESP restricted by horsepower All pumps will fit this casing.
5-1/2” tubing when installing to a maximum flow rate of
side pocket mandrels. 7” side 90,000 BPD (14,400 m 3 /D).
pocket mandrels are available
for large casing.
Well Vertical Well suited to vertical wells. Well suited to vertical wells. No constraint – typical Well suited to vertical wells. Well suited for vertical
inclination Retrieval of gas lift valves from installation with top drive and completions.
side pocket mandrels is rods.
straightforward.
Deviated Well suited to deviated wells. Well suited to deviated wells, Can deal with deviation however Not highly recommended. Well suited for deviated
Retrieval of gas lift valves from however size and running of rod wear is a reliability Slanted and crooked wells completions.
side pocket mandrels can be ESP limited by well trajectory. constraint. Rod guides are used present a friction problem.
difficult when the deviation A straight section of casing is to reduce friction on rods. There are increased load and
angle > 65 degrees. required at ESP depth. REDA PC has application where wear problems in high angle
the well is deviated and the deviated holes (>70 o).
reduced risk of failure due to
rods is required.
Horizontal Well suited to horizontal wells Well suited to horizontal wells, Pumps have been installed in Not recommended. Could suit for horizontal
unless the tubing is large however size and running of horizontal section but same completions. However, due
preventing produced fluid ESP limited by well trajectory. remarks for deviated well are to well trajectory, slickline
mixing with lift gas. Retrieval A straight section of casing is applicable. work to pull nozzle could be a
of gas lift valves from side required at ESP depth. problem.
pocket mandrels can be
difficult when the deviation
angle > 65 degrees.
Dogleg Less than 3° per 100’ Gas lift causes no constraint. ESP can be deployed without No constraint No constraint. No constraint.
severity problem.
3 to 10° per 100’ ESP system may be limited as Pump length dependent. Typical No big constraint. Centralizer No contraint.
ideal system cannot be readily pump length = 35 feet which is could be utilized.
deployed through this dogleg. relatively short and easy to
deploy through doglegs.

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump
o
Greater than 10° per Not recommended. Same as above Zero to 90 landed pump. Some Applicable for slanted and
100’ success is accomplished in crooked wells. Short jet
pumping 15 o /100 ft using rod pumps can pass through
guides. doglegs up to 24-deg/100 ft in
2 in. nominal tubing. Zero to
90 Degrees pump placement.
Guideline as below:
Piston Hydraulic lift:
<15o /100 ft build angle.
Jet Hydraulic lift: <24o /100 ft
build angle.
Temperature Less than 250°F Recommended for all Standard ESP design will Standard PCP design with Can lift high temperature and
temperatures handle this temperature. suitable elastomers will handle viscous oils.
this temperature.
250 to 350°F Medium range equipment Above current limit
required.
Greater than 350°F Higher temperatures require Above current limit Operating temperature range Temperature limitation is
specialised ESP designed from 0 to 550 o F. excellent. It is possible to
equipment, which have been operate from 0 to 500+o F.
shown to operate at 550 F.
Note that the motor
temperature is significantly
higher than the bottom hole
temperature. Extremely high
temperatures will cause a short
run life.
Safety Barriers 3 barriers can be achieved 3 barriers can be achieved Restricted by rod strings. Restricted by rod strings. 3 barriers can be achieved.
Surface wellhead valve – one Surface wellhead valve – one
barrier. Use of REDA PC would barrier.
allow deployment of SCSSV.
Hydrocarbon Gas lift entails a large inventory No hydrocarbon inventory and No hydrocarbon inventory and No hydrocarbon inventory and During operation, large
inventory of hydrocarbon gas in the the extra facility of shutting off the extra facility of shutting off the extra facility of shutting off amount of crude is being
annulus or tubing that upon produced fluid flow by produced fluid flow by stopping produced fluid flow by stopping stored in vessels and surface
catastrophic failure of wellhead stopping the pump. the pump. the pump. lines. If rupture takes place
will be vented to the and create a major
atmosphere. Solution can be to catastrophic at surface, the
install an annular SSV to limit well needs be shut-in to bleed
the inventory. off.

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump
Intervention frequency For gas lift, intervention Full workovers could be Full workovers could be Workovers to change out rod As frequent as the nozzle gets
frequency is low, > 5 years, and required every two years required every 1 to 1-1/2 years string could be required every 1- plugged up with sand,
is principally slick line, hence (industry average) hence safety typically. Slickline deployed 1/2 year. If it is a highly asphaltene, etc… or simply
safety risk is low. risk is higher than gas lift. pump can reduce safety risk. deviated well, frequent just wear and tear of the
workovers could be required to nozzle. This is a big draw
fix broken rod string. As back since intervention
frequent as once every 6-8 frequency could be as regular
months. as once every month.
Process More risk of blow out and gas Electrical fire risk is increased. Electrical fire risk is increased. Low in electrical fire risk. More risk of injection and
fire with high-pressure gas lines Risk of gas fire if using a gas production lines rupture.
required. driven motor.
Completion Simple Recommended. Recommended Recommended Recommended. Recommended.
Dual or multiple zones Historically wells are Can be achieved with ESP Not recommended. Not recommended. Not recommended.
successfully completed as technology but a complicated
multi-string with gas lift. system is required.
Flowing Greater than 1000 psi The efficiency of the gas lift Achieving any FBHP is not a The pump depth and the The pump depth and the
bottom hole determines the achievable constraint with ESP. AOF can dynamic head restrict achieving dynamic head restrict achieving
pressure FBHP. A gas lifted well be achieved if the well and a low FBHP. a low FBHP.
normally works with a FBHP in reservoir properties do not
this range. constrain the ESP design.
100 to 1000 psi Gas lift can work in the upper Small dynamic head will allow Typical design target is a
end of this range for low low FBHP to be achieved. minimum of 100 psi per 1000
reservoir pressure and feet of lift.
productivity wells, however Intake pressure should be >
there needs to be enough 350 psig to 5,000 ft with low
reservoir energy to deliver the GLR. Typical design target is
produced fluids to the surface. 25% submergence.
Less than 100 psi Cannot deliver fluids to surface. The excellent result can obtain at Cannot deliver fluids to
intake pressure less than 25 psig surface.
providing adequate displacement
and gas venting, typically about
50 to 100 psig.
Drawdown Achievable drawdown is Any drawdown can be The pump depth and the The pump depth and the Good drawdown but cannot
limited by ability to lighten achieved with a given ESP dynamic head limit achievable dynamic head limit achievable completely deplete a well.
head of fluid above gas lift design, however well and drawdown. drawdown.
point. AOF can never be reservoir constraints limit final
achieved. drawdown.
Gas coning Gas lift can be effective in Not recommended. Can be used if free gas < 40% For gassy reservoir. Rod pump Not recommended. Cavitation
producing a well that cones gas. by volume. This limit is handling is fair to good. in jet pump likely.
imposed, as at least 60% liquid
is required for cooling of the
elastomer.
Water coning Gas lift can be effective in ESP can be effective in PCP can be effective in Rod pump can be effective in Jet pump can be effective in

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump

producing a well that cones producing a well that cones producing a well that cones producing a well that cones producing a well that cones
water. water. water. water. water.
Reservoir Gas lift results in simple Downhole ESP equipment No reservoir access. No reservoir access. Cannot run Good. If set in a sliding
access completions that allow ready restricts access. A logging any type of surveillance log. sleeve, the jet pump can be
access to the reservoir for bypass can be installed but this retrieved by wire line
surveillance and remedial work. complicates the equipment and allowing access to reservoir.
downsizes the ESP. Remedial
work requires a full workover.
Coil Tubing deployed ESP can
solve some reservoir access
problems, but pulling the ESP
would still be required.
Flow Stability Gas lift is able to handle all Not recommended for unstable Not recommended. Need Not recommended for unstable Continuous and smooth flow
types of flow regimes be they flow. continuous fluid through pump. flow. of produced fluids.
stable or unstable. Use of downhole monitoring to
control surface VFD could be
used.
Recovery Primary Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended
Secondary waterflood Recommended, however high Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended
water cut reduces the ability to
move large fluid volumes.
Tertiary Can be used with tertiary Can be used with tertiary Steam flood will cause a Can be used with tertiary
recovery methods. recovery methods. problem, as temperature will be recovery methods.
increased.
Pressure Yes Well suited, however Recommended as an ESP is Recommended Recommended Recommended, as jet pump
support increasing water cut reduces the able to move the same fluid system is independent of
ability to move large fluid volume no matter what water water cut percentage
volumes. cut. producing from a well.
No Recommended as the flexibility Not recommended when there Not recommended when there is If there is no pressure support Not recommended when there
of gas lift allows one is significant pressure drop – significant pressure drop – the from the reservoir, production is significant pressure drop in
installation to deal with falling the range of production rates range of production rates that a rate will decline and the well the reservoir – the range of
pressure and production rates. that a particular ESP design particular PCP design can handle will be “pumped-off”. production rates that a
can handle is limited. Hence is limited. Hence the reservoir particular jet pump design can
the reservoir condition rate of condition rate of change would handle is limited. A new jet
change would define the ESP define the PCP change out pump design needs to be in
change out frequency rather frequency rather than PCP placed to get optimum lift for
than ESP mechanical run life. mechanical run life. Variable the well.
Variable frequency drives frequency drives (VFD) allow
(VFD) allow some operational some operational flexibility on
flexibility on matching the matching the production rate to
production rate to the ESP the PCP design.
design.

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump
o o
Oil Gravity No limitations. Preferable > 15 No limitat ions. Preferable > 12 Not used for oil with gravity > 8 API. > 8 to 45 API.
o o
API. API. greater than 40 degrees API due
to high aromatic content (C6 to
C9 should be under 20%) that
will deteriorate elastomers.
Preferable < 30 o API.
Water Cut Low Recommended. Recommended for the full Recommended Recommended Recommended
range of water cut. The ESP is
largely insensitive to increasing
water cut.
Moderate Reduced efficiency due to Recommended Recommended Recommended
heavier column of fluid to
lighten.
High Reduced efficiency due to Recommended Recommended Recommended
heavier column of fluid to Up to 100%
lighten. May not be able to lift
well if reservoir pressure is
low.
Fluid viscosity Less than 100 cp gas Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended
free viscosity at
reservoir temperature
100 to 500 cp gas free Recommended Efficiency of ESP will be Recommended. Pump efficiency Good for < 200 cp fluids and Recommended
viscosity at reservoir reduced. will increase as viscosity low rate. Rod fall problem for
temperature increases. high rates. Higher rates may
require diluents to lower
viscosity.
Greater than 500 cp Has been used with success up Not recommended. Pump Recommended for all high Not recommended, as pump Mixture of power and
gas free viscosity at to 1000 cp but little case history efficiency is reduced, motors viscosity crude. Up to 80,000 efficiency will reduce. producing fluid is not a major
reservoir temperature for very high viscosity. cool poorly in the high viscous cp. issue in Jet pump. The
fluid, more power is required system is capable of handling
to pump high viscous fluid and high-viscosity fluid.
emulsions form. A mixture of Production with up to 800 cp
ESP and progressive cavity possible. Oil power fluid in
pump technology is a potential the range of >24 oAPI and <50
alternative. cp could be used. If
waterpower fluid is used, it
will reduce friction losses.
Corrosive Recommended. Compatibility Run life will be shortened in a Run life will be shortened in a Using corrosion-resistant Using special metallurgy
fluid of metallurgy and elastomers more aggressive environment. more aggressive environment. materials in the construction of and/or chemical treatment.
with the total completion is Special metallurgy and Design with rotor in stainless subsurface pumps. Chemicals in the power fluid
only required. elastomers will be required steel and matched elastomers. can treat the tubular for
leading to more costly Rod string and tubing is at risk corrosion.
equipment. as typically not special

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump

metallurgy. Up to 6% H2S can


be handled by elastomer design
but H2S causes hardening.
Similarly the constraint is 30%
CO2 content.
Gas/oil ratio Less than 500 scf/STB Recommended Recommended. Problems with Recommended. Feasible for low rate and low Recommended.
gas breakout in the pump will GOR
be minimised.
500 to 2000 scf/STB Recommended The achievable pump rate will The achievable pump rate will Gassy wells usually have lower Target design is less than
be limited by the amount of gas be limited by the amount of gas volumetric efficiency. Gas 1000 GLR.
breaking out of solution in the breaking out of solution in the handling ability is rather poor if
area of the pump. An ESP can area of the pump. A maximum one has to pump > 50% free gas.
be designed to a free gas 40% free gas by volume limit is If the gas anchor or natural
volume handling criteria. imposed to allow cooling of separation is used and free gas is
Downhole gas handling elastomers with liquid flow. venting, the volumetric
equipment may be incorporated efficiency can be significantly
into the completion improved.
Greater than 2000 Recommended. Gas lift would FBHP will need to stay above Not recommended. Not recommended Not recommended. Gas above
scf/STB be only expected to be of the bubble point pressure to 2000 SCF/STB substantially
benefit at higher GOR. avoid gas cavitation in the reduces efficiency but helps
pump. Downhole gas handling lift. Vent free gas if possible.
equipment may be incorporated The producing of free gas
into the completion. through the pump causes
reduction in ability to handle
liquids.
Bubble point High Recommended for all bubble Not recommended, as the high Not recommended, as the high Not highly recommended. Not recommended.
points. Gas lift is not dependent bubble point will limit the bubble point will limit the
on the bubble point pressure maximum drawdown in the maximum drawdown in the well
hence is suitable for any range. well due to the detrimental due to the detrimental effects of
effects of free gas in the pump. free gas in the pump.
Low Recommended. The bubble Recommended. The bubble Recommended. Recommended.
point pressure is low hence the point pressure is low hence the
FBHP can be low allowing FBHP can be low allowing more
more production without the production without the affects of
affects of free gas in the pump free gas in the pump region.
region.
Sand & Less than 10 ppm Recommended for all wells Sand at this concentration is Recommended. PCP handles High solids and sand production Solids/sand handling ability is
abrasives producing sand. Sand has little normal wear and tear for an solids easily. is troublesome for low oil fair to poor. Jet pumps are
effect on ability to a gas lift ESP. viscosity (<10 cp). Improved operating with 3% sand in
well. performance can obtain for high - produced fluid. Power fluid
viscosity (>200 cp) cases. May to jet pump can tolerate 200
be able to handle up to 0.1% ppm of 25µ particle size.
sand with special pumps. Fresh water treatment for salt

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump
10 to 100 ppm ESP may be operated under Recommended. build-up possible.
these conditions but harder
surface coatings are required.
Greater than 100 ppm Not recommended due to Recommended. Typically can
friction and wear on ESP handle up to 7-8% by volume.
equipment. Design of elastomers for
abrasion is required.
Contaminants Scale Scale can form close to the If the well is prone to scale, Typically not a constraint but Scale could build up at intake
operating gas lift valve due to paraffin or asphaltenes deposit may need to be reviewed if well and nozzle over time but can
the pressure drop at that then it is likely to occur in the has a high scaling tendency. be treated.
location. This may lead to pump area (large pressure
blockage of the gas lift valves drop). This will lead to pump
and an inability to be able to inefficiency, increased wear &
retrieve them. tear and eventually failure.
Chemical treatment is required
to prevent formation of these
contaminants.
Paraffin Paraffin may deposit near an Not a problem due to the nature Susceptible to paraffin problems. Can be treated. Paraffin -
operating gas lift valve due to of PCP however efficiency will Hot water/oil treating and/or handling capability is
temperature and pressure drop. be reduced. uses of scrapers possible, but good/excellent. Circulate heat
This may lead to blockage of they increase operating problems to downhole pump to
the gas lift valves and an and costs. minimize build up.
inability to be able to retrieve Mechanical cutting and
them inhibition possible.
Asphaltene Introduction of lift gas into the Does not increase deposition and Can be treated. Difficult to control.
produced fluid stream may will produce asphaltene to
increase the risk of asphaltene surface as a solid.
deposits. Production chemistry
analysis for individual fields
will determine whether this is
likely to occur.
Treatment Scale inhibitor Recommended when any Materials design will need to Elastomer compatibility is a Corrosion and scale treatments Corrosion/scale ability is
treatment is required. These be modified to ensure constraint so needs to be easy to perform. Good batch good and sometimes
treatments have little to no continued service of the ESP reviewed in detail for design. treating inhibitor down annulus excellent. Inhibitor with
effect on a gas lifted system. after treatment. used frequently for both power fluid mixes with
corrosion and scale control. produced fluid at entry of jet
pump throat. Batch treat
down annulus feasible.
Corrosion inhibitor Corrosion handling good to Corrosion handling good to
excellent. excellent. Can be surfaced at
a predetermined schedule.
Solvent

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump
Acid Ensure cleanout of well prior to
re-installation.
Location Onshore Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended. Onshore applications are
common.
Offshore platform Excellent and recommended. Excellent and recommended. Good and recommended. Safety Poor and not recommended. Good to excellent. Offshore
barriers may be a const raint. Must design for unit size, applications are common.
weight, and pulling unit space. Produced water or seawater
may be used as power fluid
with well site type system or
power fluid separation before
production treating system.
Subsea Delivery of fluids under a gas Recommended. The ESP can Not recommended except as Not Recommended. Not recommended due to
lift scenario through a long sub be designed to overcome the REDA PC. Rate will not achieve intervention requirments and
sea delivery system will be head produced by the subsea benefits. power fluid pump to remote
significantly reduced. The delivery system. As step out location.
gravity and friction of lengthy from the tie in delivery point
pipelines cannot be fully increases, ESP efficiency
overcome by a gas lifted decreases, however an ESP is
system. As the step out from able to handle larger step outs
the tie in delivery point is than gas lift before zero flow
increased the efficiency of gas occurs.
lift decreases.
Sensitive environment Running a gas lift system will Recommended. The ESP when Recommended. Leakage from Stuffing box leakage may be Power water (fresh, produced,
include a flaring system, hence running has little potential stuffing box for rod only messy and a potential hazard. or sea water) is acceptable.
affecting the environment when impact on the environment. constraint – polished rod (Anti-pollution stuffing boxes However, there is concern in
the compressor is ‘blown through wellhead. are available.) sensitive areas if oil is used as
down’. power fluid , because of the
Fair in term of noise level. high-pressure injection lines.
Moderately high for urban areas.
Low in noise level. Well-site
power-fluid units can be
sound proofed. Due to
surface size, operations are
drawbacks in populated areas.
Number of Single Typically cost of providing Recommended. ESP can be Recommended. Recommended. Single wells are the most
Wells compression for a single well installed for a single well with common.
gas lift development is too high standalone power generation
to be able to justify. and control.
1 to 20 As the number of wells Recommended. Costs of power Recommended. Recommended. Multiple wells operating from
increases the cost of the equipment will be reduced and one single surface hydraulic
compression facilities becomes rationalised as the number of package greatly reduces lift
more economic on a well-by- wells completed increases. cost.
well basis.

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump
Greater than 20 Recommended. Cost benefit for Recommended. Recommended. Recommended.
this number of wells justifies
high costs for installation of
compression.
Electrical Not required. A source of electric power is Gas motor can be used. Less Can use electricity as power Prime mover can be an
Power needed. This can be a tie in to voltage required than ESP hence source. Prime mover flexibility electric motor. A diesel or
an existing facility, a tie in to a lower operating cost. is good: either engines or motors gas engine can be used where
power grid or independent can be used easily (motors more electricity is not available.
power generation. reliable and flexible).
Gas source Yes Recommended. If a gas source Does not impact ESP solution. Does not impact PCP solution. Gas engines could be used in Produced gas from the well
is readily available either from locations with no electricity. can be used to power a gas
produced gas, import gas or a engine prime mover.
gas well then gas lift is a viable
artificial lift method.
No Not recommended, as the cost Does not impact ESP solution. Does not impact PCP solution. Does not impact RP solution. Does not impact JP solution.
of obtaining a gas source will
be large.
Facilities Large amount of space is Facilities often have power Small footprint. Facilities often Small footprint on surface. Large amount of surface
footprint required to install a generation already installed have power generation already Facilities often have power spacing is required. Surface
compression system. For areas hence the addition of power for installed hence the addition of generation already installed; unit can be mounted on one
where space is at a premium ESP does not have as large an power for PCP does not have as hence the addition of power for a skid or two skids for a dual-
this can be a costly issue. impact as for gas compression. large an impact as for gas rod pump unit does not have as vessel power fluid cleaning
compression. large an impact as for gas unit. Two skids for a 200 HP
compression. unit with engine prime mover
may have a footprint of
approximately 8 feet by 18
feet each.
Start up Gas lift is not recommended if Once power is available to the Once power is available to the Once power is available to the Requires some fluid (water or
after a shut down gas is not facility ESP systems will be facility PCP systems will be able facility, rod pump systems will oil) to fill the vessels as
easily available. Gas can be able to be run. to be run. be able to be run. power fluid prior to start up.
sourced from:
• Produced gas from
naturally flowing well or
artificially lifted by non
gas lift method
• A flowing gas well
• Importing gas from an
external source e.g.
Pipeline
Well For gas lift valve changeouts Run life of ESP determines Run life of PCP determines Workover or pulling rig. Run Hydraulically removed or
intervention slick line intervention > 5 intervention frequency. Change intervention frequency. Change time efficiency is greater than wirelined. A “free” jet pump
years. For subsea wells may not out of total completion out of total completion required 90% if good operating practices can be circulated to the
be required for life of well. For required for ESP failure. for ESP failure. Average run life are followed and if corrosion, surface without pulling the

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS COMPARISON TABLE

Characteristic Specific Gas Lift ESP PCP Rod Pump Jet Pump

remedial well work as required Average run life approximately approximately one to one and a wax, asphaltenes, solids, etc… tubing or it can be retrieved
with the ability to perform two years. Remedial work will half years. Remedial work will are controlled. by wire line. Must avoid
through tubing workovers. require completion to be require completion to be operating in cavitation range
removed removed. Total change out can of jet pumps throat; related to
be avoided by using wireline pump intake pressure.
retrievable with REDA PC or
put rotor and stator on rod string
so doesn’t have to pull tubing.
CAPEX High for compression and gas High for power generation and Moderate cost for facilities and Capital costs are low to Capital costs are competitive
distribution system cabling down hole equipment. moderate. Cost increase with with sucker-rod pumps. Cost
depth and larger surface units. increases with higher
horsepower. Wellhead
equipment has low profile.
Requires surface treating and
high pressure pumping
equipment.
OPEX Low. Gas lift systems have a Moderate to high. Costly Moderate cost for equipment but Operating costs are very low for High power cost owing to
very low OPEX due to the interventions are required to high intervention frequency. shallow to medium depth (< horsepower requirement to
downhole reliability. change out conventional ESP 7500 ft) and low production (< pump power fluid. Typical jet
completions, but productivity 400 BFPD). Units easily pump efficiency is 30% thus
and improved run life can changed to other wells (i.e. re- power fluid at 2-3 times the
offset these costs. use) with minimum cost. produced fluid rate is
required. No moving parts in
pump; simple repair
procedures. Low pump
maintenance cost typical with
properly sized throat and
nozzle.

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