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Next Generation

Carlos Pupiales Y.
• Introduction




• Legacy Transport



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• Today network carriers are facing serious challenges originated in traffic explosion
and data type shift in their transport networks, and are consequently forced to search
for new solutions.

• The desired solutions are expected to handle the increasing demand on IP data
transport as well as to reduce OpEx, in particular to eliminate unnecessary capital
expenditure or overlapping investment on the multiple service-specific transport

• NGNs meets the industry’s demands in the transport network segment as it’s a
unified and open network infrastructure able to provide higher network capacities.

• Industry believes that the future of transport networks is an All-optical Network.

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• Over the past decades, great progress has been achieved in terms of the applicability,
survivability and scalability of optical networks that’s why optical transport
technology is widely used in transport networks currently.

• An NGN transport network has to satisfy the common NGN requirements such as IP
based packet-switching, decoupling service from transport, open interface, and end-
to-end QoS guarantee.

• Over the last year, several WDM links as been widely deployed to satisfy capacity
demand and therefore, faster switching at the core is needed as well.

• MPLS is used to address the issues of faster switching, QoS support and traffic
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• Label switching simplifies the forwarding function, thereby making it possible to
operate at higher data rates.

• The evolution of optical technologies is making real the use of an all-optical

backbone network that can take full advantage of available bandwidth.

• This kind of networks consists of a number of optical cross-connects (OXC) which

main function is to provide interconnection to IP/MPLS sub networks.

• Each OXC can switch the optical signal coming in on a wavelength of an input fiber
link to the same wavelength in an output fiber link.

• An OXC can also switch the optical signal on an incoming wavelength of an input
fiber to some other wavelength on an output fiber link.
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• An Optical Add and Drop Multiplexer allows the insertion or extraction of one or
more wavelengths from a fiber at a network node.

• Most OADMs are built using WDM elements such as a series of dielectric thin-film
filters, an AWG, a set of liquid crystal devices, or a series of fiber Bragg gratings used
in conjunction with optical circulators.

• The OADM architecture depends on factors such as the number of wavelengths to be

dropped/added, the OADM modularity for upgrading flexibility, and what groupings
of wavelengths should be processed.

• Since the OADM is based on low-loss, low-cost passive devices, and doesn’t need
any power supply, a reliable, cost-effective and scalable network can be achieved.
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• A traditional OADM consists of three parts: an optical demultiplexer, an optical
multiplexer and between them a set of ports for adding and dropping signals and a
method of reconfiguring the paths between mux and demux.

• The reconfiguration can be achieved by a fiber patch panel or by optical switches

which direct the wavelengths to the optical multiplexer or to drop ports.

• The demultiplexer undoes what the multiplexer has done. It separates a multiplicity
of wavelengths in a fiber and directs them to many fibers.

• The OADM selectively removes a wavelength from a multiplicity of wavelengths in a

fiber, and thus from traffic on the particular channel. It then adds in the same
direction of data flow the same wavelength, but with different data content.
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Solution using Dielectric Thinfilm

Filter and Band-pass filter
filter. Only
desired signal is transmitted and
the others are reflected.

Solution using Fiber Bragg Grating and

circulators. One signal is reflected and
the others are transmitted.

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• Reconfigurable OADM has the ability to select the desired wavelengths to be
dropped and added on the fly, as opposed to having to plan ahead and deploy
appropriate equipment.

• This allows carriers to be flexible when planning their network and allows light paths
to be set up and taken down dynamically as needed in the network.

• ROADMs can be reconfigured by a network operator withinminutes from a remote

network-management console.

• ROADM architectures include wavelength blockers, arrays of small switches, and

wavelength-selective switches.

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• The features of a ROADM are:

• Wavelength dependence. When a ROADM is independent of wavelength, it is

colorless or has colorless ports.

• ROADM degree is the number of bidirectional multi-wavelength interfaces the

device supports.

• Example: A degree-2 ROADM has 2 bidirectional WDM interfaces and a degree-4

ROADM supports 4 bidirectional WDM interfaces.

• Express channels allow a selected set of wavelengths to pass through the node
without the need for OEO conversion.

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Optical Crossconnect OXC
• It is a network device used to switch high-speed optical signals in a fiber optic network,
such as an optical mesh network where wavelength cross-connect switching is needed.

• Generally, OXC is able to operate without having to convert to electrical and back again.

• Internally an OXC can use either a pure optical or an electric switch fabric in order to set
up lightpaths and taken down as needed, without having to be statically provisioned.

• It’s very important when the amount of traffic and number wavelengths is large.

• OXCs work alongside SONET/SDH network elements as well as IP routers, WDM terminals
and add/drop multiplexers.

• An OXC provides cost-effective passthrough for express traffic not terminating at the hub
as well as collects traffic from attached equipment into the network.
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OXC Features
• Service provisioning: Provision of lightpaths in large networks in an automated
manner to compensate traffic changes.

• Protection: Protecting lightpaths against fiber cuts and equipment failures due to
OXC can detect failures in the network and rapidly reroute lightpaths around the

• Bit Rate Transparency: The ability to switch signals with arbitrary bit rates and
frames formats.

• Performance monitoring, test access, and fault localization: OXCs provide

visibility to the performance parameters of a signal at intermediate nodes for
diagnostic purposes.
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OXC Features
• Wavelength Conversion: OXC might incorporate wavelength conversion in addition to
switching capabilities.

• Multiplexing and Grooming: To handle traffic both at high data rates and finer
granularities such as STS-1 (51 Mbps) . This division multiplexing is made in the electrical

• An OXC can be functionally divided into a switch core and a port complex. The switch
core houses is the switch that performs the actual crossconnect function. The port
complex houses are port cards that are used as interfaces to communicate with other

• The port interfaces may or may not include optical-to-electrical (O/E) or optical-to-
electrical-to-optical (O/E/O) converters.
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• SDH/SONET is an electronic protocol which was designed to carry real-time (voice) and it’s
connection oriented traffic.

• Signal path is provisioned before traffic commences

• Traffic is synchronously combined and separated (mux/demux)

• Provides significant advantages over older (PDH) approach for Network monitoring and
management rapid protection switching

• Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) extended the reach and capacity of

• Large capacity, long distance, point-to-point connections

• Extra capacity added by extra SDH/SONET circuits or WDM channels

• Human intervention required to re-configure connections
• Service activation can takes days to months
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IP over ATM over SDH over WDM
• IP transport over legacy networks is very inefficient due to use of multiple layers and the
need of different network elements to implement each layer.

• Overheads associated with intermediate layers

• SDH layer adds 3.7 % overhead

• ATM layer adds 20 % overhead for IP

• The inefficiencies of these overheads plus the costs of multiple types of equipment makes
IP/ATM/SDH/WDM very cost inefficient.

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Being more Efficient
• To be more efficient, we need to reduce the number of layers in the communication path.

• Therefore it’s necessary to:

• Reduce the amount of electronic overhead

• Function duplication

• Network costs

• At the same time the network should be more IP centric.

• New protocols are being developed to achieve this task:



• Next generation SDH

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Multi-Protocol Label Switching
• MPLS uses ATM label approach to create Label Switched Paths (LSPs) through a network

• Adopts ATM type labels create virtual connections

• LSPs are created before the traffic flow to set up virtual circuits through an IP

• Label mappings are distributed through the network

• Each IP packet carries an MPLS label during its journey from source to destination

• MPLS is a protocol which makes IP more like ATM

• Uses labels & “virtual circuits” within an IP network

• Implements Traffic Engineering

• Speeds up packet throughput by mapping IP headers to simple fixed length labels

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Multi-Protocol Label Switching
• MPLS take advantages of layer 2 capabilities to switch the packet instead of route it.

• At the entry, the packet is labeled and then it’s forwarding according this label, so it’s not
necessary to read IP address.

• This technique reduces processing time and increases the performance of the network.

• The benefits of MPLS are scalability, performance, better bandwidth utilization, reduced
network congestion and a better end-user experience.

• On the negative side, MPLS is a service that must be purchased from a carrier and is far
more expensive than sending traffic over the public Internet.

• MPLS was introduced to provide IP-based connection-oriented networks which allows

unification of circuit switched and packet switched networks over a common platform.
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Multi-Protocol Label Switching
• The desirable properties of the “ideal” network include:

• Transparent to bit rate, protocol, and format.

• Dynamically re-configurable

• Connections between end users can be short term

• Network resources can be re-allocated between services

• Scalable, can cope with growing traffic

• High Quality of Service and reliable

• Easy to manage and control

• Network can operate for a diversity of vendors and service providers

• Low cost

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IP over WDM
• With WDM, the connections through the network are provided by wavelength routed
paths between and through OXCs or ROADMs.

• IP routers are placed on top of the OXCs/ROADMs, between the Optical Network and the

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IP over WDM
• A closer integration of IP traffic control in WDM networks is desired

• Cost reduction

• Network simplification

• Improved scaling

• Improved traffic engineering

• Transporting IP over a WDM based reconfigurable network involves

• Transport Plane

• Management Plane

• Control Plane
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IP over Optical Networks Interaction Models
• How routing information is exchanged between the IP client and Optical Network?

• Overlay Model:

• IP acts as a client to the Optical Network

• Separate and independent routing protocols

• Optical Network provides point-to-point connection to IP domain

• Peer Model:

• OXC’s and IP Routers are peers, so OXC is seen as other IP router.

• Only one routing protocol is used in both Optical Network and IP domain

• Augmented Model:

• Separate routing protocols but information is exchanged between them

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Automatically Switched Optical Network
• ASON is an “intelligent” optical network that can automatically manage the signaling and
routing through the network and it lies over the Overlay Model.

• ASON is an optical transport network with dynamic connection capability, and this
capability is achieved by using a control plane that performs the call and connection
control functions.

• ASON uses the Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) signalling protocol to set up and monitor
edge-to-edge transport connections.

• Switching technologies used in ASON range from single fiber switching to wavelength
switching and to optical packet switching.

• The components required for the switching are OXCs, wavelength converters and OADMs
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Automatically Switched Optical Network
• When the increase of bandwidth is needed, the service provider must then manually plan and
configure the route in the network, which is proved to be time-consuming.

• This would waste a lot of bandwidth thus to cause inevitable problems to the whole network
since bandwidth is increasingly becoming a precious resource.

• ASON can provide the following features:

• Fast and automatic end-to-end provisioning

• Fast and efficient re-routing

• Support of different clients, but optimized for IP

• Dynamic set up of connections

• Support of Optical Virtual Private Networks (OVPNs)

• Support of different levels of QoS

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Drivers to ASON
• Current optical networks are quite inflexible comparing to their IP counterparts. Most of their
limitations are due to the fact that they are operated manually or via complex and slow network
management systems. Major drawbacks of such optical networks are:

• Manual error-prone provisioning

• Long provisioning times.

• Inefficient resource utilization

• Difficult interoperability between the packet client networks and the circuit-switched optical

• Complex network management

• Difficult interoperability between networks belonging to different operators

• Lack of protection in mesh-type optical network.

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ASON’s Architecture

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ASON’s Architecture
• The layered transport plane represents the functional resources of the network which
conveys user information between location.

• Transfer of information are either bi-directional or unidirectional. The transport plane can
also provide transfer of some control and network management information.

• Basically, the logical architecture of an ASON can be divided into 3 planes:

• Transport plane: It contains a number of either optical or electrical switches which are
responsible for transporting user data via connections. These switches are connected to
each other via physical interface (PI).

• Control plane: It’s responsible for the actual resource and connection management
within the network. It consists of a series of OCC interconnected via NNIs.
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ASON’s Architecture
• In a control plain Optical Connection Controllers have the following functions:

• Network topology discovery (resource discovery)

• Signaling, routing, address assignment

• Connection set-up/tear-down

• Connection protection/restoration

• Traffic engineering

• Wavelength assignment

• Management plane: It’s responsible for managing the control plane. Its responsibilities
includes configuration management of the control plane resources, routing areas, transport
resource in control plane and policy.

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ASON’s Architecture
• The management plane also provides fault management, performance management,
accounting and security management functions.

• The management plane contains the network management entity which is connected to an
OCC in control plane via the network management interface for ASON control plane (NMI-A)
and to one of the switched via network management interface for the transport network

• ASON can help to meet user requirements on a more realistic economical basis without
resource consuming over-provisioning. Moreover, it also contributes to offering a good
platform to realize a more cost-effective networking environment.

• Major features of ASON are defined in ITU-G.8080.

• Architecture and requirements for routing are defined in ITU G.7715/1706

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ASON Routing
• ASON supports hierarchical, source-based and step-by-step routing.

• In the first case, connection controllers are related to one another in a hierarchical manner.
Each sub network knows only its own topology but has no knowledge of the topology of
other sub networks at any hierarchical level.

• Path selection starts at the top of the hierarchy and define a sequence of sub networks in
a lower level through which a path can be found between a given source and destination
node. The process continues the same way at all levels.

• Source routing is based on a federation of distributed connection and routing controllers.

• The path is selected by the first connection controller in the routing area. This component
is supported by a routing controller that provides routes within the domain of its
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ASON Routing
• Step -by-step routing requires less routing information in the nodes than the previous

• Path selection is invoked at each node to obtain the next link on a path to a destination.

• Automatic discovery and routing, supported by signaling schemes, are sometimes referred to
as self-management since they relieve the management system from time - consuming tasks
concerned with manual updates of topology changes and path selection

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• Generalized - MPLS is an extension of MPLS protocol which support packet switching, time-
division multiplexing, wavelength switching, and fiber switching.

• A GMPLS LSR may support the following five interfaces: packet switch interfaces, layer-2
switch interfaces, time-division multiplex interfaces, lambda switch interfaces, and fiber switch

• A packet switch interface recognizes packet boundaries and it can forward packets based on
the content of the IP header or the content of the shim header.

• A layer-2 switch interface recognizes frame/cell boundaries and can forward data based on
the content of the frame/cell header.

• A time-division multiplex interface forwards data based on the data’s time slot in a repeating
cycle (frame).

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• A lamda-switch interface forwards the optical signal from an incoming wavelength to an
outgoing wavelength

• Finally, a fiber switch interface forwards the signals from one (or more) incoming fibers to one
(or more) outgoing fibers.

• The Generalized Label can also carry a label that represents a generic MPLS label, a Frame
Relay label, or an ATM label.

• The most common schemes used to achieve this are:

• Using the timeslot to identify the LSP, on a Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) link

• Using the wavelength to identify the LSP, on a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) link

• Using the fiber or port on which a packet is received.

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• The main aims of GMPLS are to:

• Provide a framework for real time provisioning of optical channels

• Adopt optical technology and encompass the development and deployment of a new class of
programmable OXCs

• Allow the use of uniform semantics for network control in hybrid networks that consist of both
OXCs and label switching routers.

• GMPLS technology aims to apply:

• Automate and simplified network management: Intelligent network, less network overlays

• Distributed processing: Geographically distributed Control Plane and Control Elements

• Interoperability: Different vendor equipment, different provider networks

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• GMPLS makes it possible for routers to “see” optical wavelengths and wavebands as
manageable resources.

• One single forwarding decision may be taken for a whole wavelength or a whole set of
wavelengths that correspond to a large volume of packets.

• The whole forwarding process can be carried out much more efficiently and the throughput
of the IP network dramatically improved.

• It also makes sense to perform protection and restoration processes directly at optical level,
either in a separate control plane or directly by IP/GMPLS routers in a peer-to-peer

• A GMPLS switch can switch at each layer, so It doesn´t need to switch at all levels.

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GMPLS Switching Stack

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GMPLS Protocols
• Key GMPLS protocols are:

• Routing

• Open Shortest Path First, OSPF–TE

• Intermediate System to Intermediate System, IS-IS-TE

• Signaling

• Resource Reservation Protocol, RSVP-TE

• Constraint based Routing Label Distribution Protocol, CR-LDP

• Link Management

• Link Management Protocol, LMP

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GMPLS Control Plane
• GMPLS focuses mainly on the control plane services that perform connection management for the
data plane (the actual forwarding logic) for both packet-switched interfaces and non-packet-
switched interfaces.

• The GMPLS control plane essentially facilitates four basic functions:

• Routing control: Provides the routing capability, traffic engineering, and topology discovery

• Resource discovery: A mechanism to keep track of the system resource availability such as
bandwidth, multiplexing capability, and ports

• Connection management: Provides end-to-end service provisioning for different services,

including connection creation, modification, status query, and deletion

• Connection restoration: Implements an additional level of protection to the networks by

establishing for each connection one or more presignaled backup paths and enabling very fast
switching in case of failure between them.
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GMPLS Control Plane
• The fundamental service offered by the GMPLS control plane is dynamic end-to-end
connection provisioning.

• The operators need only to specify the connection parameters and send them to the
ingress node.

• The network control plane then determines the optical paths across the network
according to the parameters that the user provides and signals the corresponding
nodes to establish the connection within seconds.

• The other important service is bandwidth on demand, which extends the ease of
provisioning even further by allowing the client devices that connect to the optical
network to request the connection setup in real time as needed

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GMPLS and The Peer Model
• Unified Control Plane & protocols

• All NE Control Entities see the entire network

• Sharing of network information

• Single set of protocols for all NEs

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GMPLS and Overlay Model
• GMPLS model can be applied to Overlay Model,

• GMPLS protocols separately applied to the IP and Optical Control Plane domains

• Client/Server relationship

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GMPLS Network

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• The Optical Transport Network (OTN), was designed to transport data packet traffic such as IP
and Ethernet over fiber optics, as well as legacy traffic and in particular SONET/SDH.

• It is called the digital wrapper technology because it wraps any client signal in overhead
information for operations, administration, and management.

• OTN can be applied in both the optical and electrical domain with 3 bit rates 2.5, 10, and 40

• It’s standardized in ITU G.709 which provides an industry-wide frame structure and overhead
definition for the photonic layer; G.709 is sometimes referred to as the “digital wrapper.”

• OTN wraps each client payload transparently into a container for transport across optical
networks, preserving the client’s native structure, timing information, and management
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• The G.709 OTN standards define:

• An optical transport hierarchy among optical network elements

• A frame structure for mapping client signals

• A definition of the overhead bytes for optical layer performance management and FEC

• The optical network hierarchy is divided into Optical Path, Optical Transport, and Optical
Multiplex layers.

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OTN Features
• Forward Error Correction (FEC): It’s used to achieve low BER while network sends high data
rates over very long distances, and noisy enviroments.

• OTN carries FEC overhead and employs stronger FEC using the (255,239) Reed-Solomon

• Management: OTN provides structure for monitoring a connection end-to-end and over
various segments. These segments may overlap with up to six such monitoring segments at
any given point.

• Protocol Transparency: OTN provides a constant bit rate service which has operations,
administration, and management of its connections that are transparent to its clients. It can
carry all types of data packet traffic including IP and 10Gigabit Ethernet, as well as
SONET/SDH frames.
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OTN Features
• Asynchronous Timing: OTN has an asynchronous mapping of client signals into OTN frames
where the clock that generates the frames can be a simple free running oscillator.

• Using simple free-running oscillators can simplify implementation and reduce costs.

• OTN also has a synchronous mapping where the clock to generate the OTN frames is
derived from the client signal.

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OTN Hierarchy

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OTN Hierarchy
• The OTN optical layers are:

• Optical Channel (OCh)

• It’s a single channel optical signal between optical regenerators

• Adds OCh overhead which is overhead is on a separate wavelength

• OCh overhead is optional and provides for maintenance and fault management

• Optical Multiplex Section (OMS)

• Transport of Optical Channels between optical multiplexer & demultiplexers

• OMS applies to WDM groupings of Optical Channels

• Adds OMS overhead

• OMS provides maintenance and fault management

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OTN Hierarchy
• The OTS layer manages fiber link segments between optical components such as between
optical amplifiers, or optical amplifiers and WDM multiplexers.

• The OMS layer manages fiber links between optical multiplexers and switches

• The OCh layer manages optical connections between 3R regenerators (e.g., lightpaths).

• The optical channel transport unit (OTU) and optical channel data unit (ODU) have similar
functions as the section, line, path layers of SONET/SDH.

• The OUT is similar to the section layer of SONET/SDH, where now the OTN OCh layer
provides optical connections between 3R regenerators.

• Provides identification of the optical connection, monitor BER performance, carry alarm
indicators to signal failures, and provides a communication channel between the end
points of the optical connection.
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OTN Hierarchy
• The optical channel data unit (ODU) has similar functions as the line and path layers of

• It supports up to 6 tandem connection monitoring.

• Each monitoring provides identification, monitors BER performance, carries alarm

indicators, and provides communication channels to the end points.

• The ODU layer has the optical channel payload unit (OPU) sublayer that adapts client
signals to the OTN frames.

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OTN Clients
• OTN was designed to provide “client transparency”

• The OTN frame can carry all well known protocols

• SDH, SONET, Ethernet, ATM, IP, ESCON, Ficon, etc

• Mapping a client signal into the OPU is often called “adaptation”

• SDH client signals can be mapped directly into the OPU

• Other client signals are mapped using the “Generic Framing

• Procedure”

• See ITU-T G.7041 “Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)”

• GFP provides a standardised adaptation procedure which can map a wide range of data
signals into SDH and OTN frames
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OTN and OTN and OTN
• OTN was designed to deal with very high capacity WDM

• based networks

• Provide high capacity transport

• Unify TDM and WDM into single standard

• Provide multi-protocol transport

• Provide network monitoring & management through WDM networks

• Extension of SDH network monitoring & management

• Now seeing initial deployment of OTN enabled Network Elements in commercial


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OTN vs …

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OTN and its standards

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OTN Advantages
• Reduction in transport costs: With multiple clients transported on a single wavelength,
OTN provides an economical mechanism to fill optical network wavelengths.

• Efficient use of optical spectrum: OTN facilitates efficient use of DWDM capacity by
ensuring consistent fill rates across a network using OTN switches at fiber junctions.

• Determinism: OTN dedicates specific and configurable bandwidth to each service, group
of services, or network partition, guaranteeing network capacity and managed
performance for each client and no contention between concurrent services or users.

• Virtualized network operations: New virtualization techniques such as Optical Virtual

Private Networks (O-VPNs) provide a dedicated set of network resources to a client,
independent of the rest of the network.

• Flexibility:
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2018 networks enable operators to employ the technologies they need now
OTN Advantages
• Flexibility: OTN networks enable operators to employ the technologies they need now
while enabling the adoption of new technologies as business requirements dictate.

• Secure by design: OTN networks ensure a high level of privacy and security through
hard partitioning of traffic onto dedicated circuits.

• Robust yet simple operations: OTN network management data is carried on a separate
channel, completely isolated from user application data, so settings are much more
difficult to access and modify through a client interface port.

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Next class: It continues

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