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INTRODUCTION

Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures. So, what does design means?


Design means to plan or to make drawings for appearance or to show the
structure which is not yet constructed. It is a preparatory design
course in civil engineering. And in design the NSCP, set forth
provisions for structural integrity reinforcement intended to enhance
continuity, improve the redundancy and ductility of structures. This
is achieved by providing, a minimum, some continuity reinforcement or
tie between horizontal framing members. The code provides provisions
for reinforcement detailing to prevent excessive crack width under
service conditions.

Basic elements governed by bending, shear, axial forces or combination


of them are identified and are considered as building blocks of the
whole structure. We have five components to be designed: the slab,
beam, column, ramp, and stairs.

Design and good structural analysis must be complemented with


appropriate reinforcement detailing to insure that the structure as a
whole behaves as it is modeled by the designer. On the other hand, a
poorly detailed structure may suffer from unsightly cracks, excessive
deflection, or even collapse. Good details and bar arrangements should
be practical, buildable, cost-effective, and suitable for their
intended use.

Reinforced concrete, Concrete in which steel is embedded in such a


manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces. The
reinforcing steel—rods, bars, or mesh—absorbs the tensile, shear, and
sometimes the compressive stresses in a concrete structure. The
invention of reinforced concrete in the 19th century revolutionized
the construction industry, and became one of the world’s most common
building materials.

Earthquake or seismic analysis is a subset of structural analysis


which involves the calculation of the reaction of a structure
subjected to earthquake movement. This is required for carrying out
the structural design, structural assessment and retrofitting of the
structures in the regions where earthquakes are prevalent. Various
seismic data are necessary to carry out the seismic analysis of the
structures.

The purpose of this is to establish a firm understanding of behavior


of reinforced concrete structures, then to develop method used in
current practice and to achieve familiarity with codes and
specifications governing practical design.

If we understand the basic concepts behind code provisions for design,


we will be able to: Approach the design in a more knowledgeable
fashion, not like following a black box; and understand and adapt the
changes in code provisions better and faster. The general goal is to
be able to design reinforced concrete structures that are: Safe,
Economical, and Efficient.

This book is to provide a step by step method in design and analysis


of a proposed school building. We also apply the code provisions of
our Code (NSCP2015). And we tried our best to come up with an accurate
and reliable design.