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Web demo 27.09.

2018 – Plastic gear calculation


1. Plastic material data in KISSsoft

2. Calculation methods for plastic gears
3. Example 1: Spur gear pair calculation
4. Example 2: Crossed helical worm calculation
5. Plastics Manager

Presenter: Aljaž Pogačnik, development

Questions Chat: Ilja Tsikur, technical support

Overview of the current materials in the KISSsoft database

OPEN SOURCE: 24 general materials (PA6, POM, PA46, ...)

▪ from standards and industry measurements
▪ from plastics manufacturers (Kuraray, DuPont, ...)

ON REQUEST: 32 specific materials

▪ 22 from Sabic Innovative Plastic
▪ 5 from Alcom (no fatigue data available)
▪ 3 from DSM Performance Material
▪ 1 from Victrex

Open source: 24 materials
On request: 32 materials
Total: 56 materials

Root fatigue: 36 materials

Flank fatigue: 10 materials
Wear data: 44 materials

Material data – General

Guidelines and data for the design of plastic gears in KISSsoft:

1981 - 1996 VDI 2545 (PA12, PA66, POM)
1996 - 2008 Nothing valid …
2008 Material data measured e.g. by Victrex, Sabic, DSM
2013 VDI 2736

Required data for the calcualtion

• Static strength calculation: Yield and ultimate strength (tensile, ...)

• Wear calculation: Wear factor (material combination, lubrication, ...)

• Lifetime calculation: S-N curves for root and flank (as a function of temperature), E-
modulus, Poisson ratio

• ...

Material data – S-N curves (Wöhler line)

▪ S-N curves strongly depend on the actual root/flank temperatures

▪ S-N curves required as a function of temperature
▪ Measuring the S-N curves is very time consuming and expensive

Gear 1 material: PA 66
Gear 2 material: POM

Material data – S-N curves in KISSsoft

▪ S-N curves implemented in KISSsoft through editable text files

▪ 2 dimensional table with sigFlim dependent on temperatures (columns) and
load cycles (rows)

▪ Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, E-modulus, coefficient of friction, wear
coefficient, root and flank fatigue data, ...

Structure of the DAT files in KISSsoft

Permissible tooth root/flank stresses calculated according to different calculation methods.

Additional options for temperature calculation

Properties, which depend on material combination

Coefficient of friction
▪ File CoefficientOfFriction.DAT in DAT folder

Additional options for temperature calculation

Properties, which depend on material combination

Heat transfer coefficient (VDI 2736)

▪ File HeatTransferCoefficient.DAT in DAT folder

Wear calculation methods in KISSsoft – Additional options

Properties, which depend on material combination

Wear coefficient
▪ File WearFactors.DAT in DAT folder

Wear calculation methods in KISSsoft – Additional options

Calculation of safety against shearing for plastic

SOURCE: Fürstenberger M.: Betriebsverhalten verlustoptimierter Kunststoffzahnräder, Lehrstuhl für Maschinenelemente, München, 2013

Graphical method

According to Obsieger, there is a more precise approach in which the product of the tooth
form factor YF and the stress correction factor YS is calculated and the maximum value is
determined. This method is based on the manufacturing process used for a specific tooth
form and is applied to all points in the whole root area. This maximum value is then used
in calculating the strength. Factors YF and Y S are calculated in accordance with the
formulae in ISO 6336 or DIN 3990.

This is the recommended method, particularly for unusual tooth forms and internal teeth.
If required, this calculation procedure can also be applied in strength calculations as
defined in ISO 6336 and DIN 3990, as well as in fine sizing.

Contact pattern – Worm gear vs. Crossed helical gear

Globoid worm wheel

Contact lines

Cylindrical worm gear

Crossed helical
Cylindrical worm wheel

Contact points

Cylindrical worm gear

Contact pattern – Crossed helical gear

As the load increases, the contact point extends to a contact ellipse.

Running in wear also helps to increase the contact surface.

Low load High load

Difference in load carying capacity: Steel/bronze Steel/plastic

1:4 1.0 : 1.2*

*Due to running in, flank pressure lowers and conditions become similar to globoidal worm gears

SOURCE: *Barton, P.: Tragfähigkeit von Schraubrad- und Schneckengetrieben der Werkstoffpaarung Stahl/Kunststoff, Ruhr Universität Bochum, Deutschland, 2000.

VDI 2736-3 – General

Limitations for the geometry:

▪ Material combination metal worm/plastic worm wheel
▪ Shaft angle Σ of 90°
▪ m ≥ 0.3 mm, Zworm < 6 (better efficiency, strength)

Possible calculations
▪ Tooth root load-carrying capacity
▪ Tooth flank load-carrying capacity
▪ Efficiency

VDI 2545 – General

▪ VDI 2545 has no calculation for crossed helical gears

▪ KISSsoft adapted the calculation, so that it can also be used for crossed helical gears
▪ Also possible for plastic/plastic combinations

▪ Possible calculations
▪ Tooth root load-carrying capacity
▪ Tooth flank load-carrying capacity

General remarks: calculated safety factors could be too low, depending on the elongated
eliptical contact under load or wear.

Modules used

ZPK Cylindrical gear package

ZA5 Geometry sizing functions and special calculations
ZA 10 ISO 6336: 2006
ZA 15 Graphical method for calculating the tooth root stress
ZA 17 VDI 2545: 1988, for plastics, wear calculation with safety against
shearing according to Fürstenberger
ZA 18 Static strength (metal and plastic);
ZA 21 VDI 2736: 2014, for plastics (Sheet 2), wear calculation with safety
against shearing according to Fürstenberger,
ZA 30 Contact analysis for cylindrical gears

Modules used

ZE1 Geometry of crossed helical gears

ZE2 Strength calculation on the basis of ISO6336/Niemann, method Hirn
ZE3 Strength calculation for plastics on basis of VDI 2545/Niemann, Hoechst
method, wear calculation according to Pech
ZE4 Static strength (bending and shearing) for metal and plastic
ZE5 VDI 2736 for plastics (Sheet 3), wear calculation according to Pech

ZY6 Progressive Profile corrections, arc-like running in curve, Topological

ZZ3 Backlash
ZZ6 Plastics Manager

Possible additional modules

ZA3 Rough sizing (cylindrical gears)

ZA4 Fine sizing (cylindrical gears)
ZA24 Tooth root stresses with FEM
ZE6 Fine sizing for crossed helical gear

ZZ1 Load spectra, service life, transmissible torque/power

CA1 2D DXF and IGS Export
CB1 STEP and Parasolid format export in 3D through Parasolid kernel