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# ENGD2007: Strength of Materials

## Name: Nizamuddin Patel

Date: 19th October 2016

Instructions

## 1. Read this lab note, including the Appendix in page 5.

2. Using the CES package, find the average values of material properties/attributes listed in the table on the
next page. Complete the table and then answer the questions in the following page.
3. This work counts towards 5% of CW in Term 1.
4. Submit this logsheet via the Blackboard by 10.00 pm, next week Thursday.

Learning outcomes

## 1) Learn to use CES package

2) Familiarise with material specification and attributes

## Using CES … Using CES …

(2) Find the CES EduPack package in the All Programs folder

(3) Click CES EduPack open CES Selector. Then select Level 3
Table: MaterialUniverse
Subject: All materials
Click relevant material categories from the dropdown manual
Click material subcategories/material name ….

## (4) To find material’s information

 Each material’s information file contains a brief description, some technical notes, and a list of
material’s properties.
 Composition: the compositions of a material are given in weight percent over a range, for
example
C: 0.7 – 1.7 %: means that the carbon (C) content ranges from 0.7% to 1.7%. The average
carbon content is found by (0.7 + 1.7) / 2 = 1.2%
 Property of the material is also given over a range with a unit. For example,
Compressive strength: 335 – 1.16e3 MPa: means the compressive strength of this material
ranges from 335 MPa to 1160 MPa. The average value is found by (335+1160) /2 = 747.5 MPa
e3 = 103
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Complete this table All must the average values

## Price Density Tensile Young’s

Material Composition (GBP/kg) (Kg/m3) strength Modulus
(MPa) (GPa)
1050 steel C (Carbon)- 0.515 0.4105 7.85 × 103 747.5 212
(normalised) Fe (iron)- 98.7
A medium carbon steel Mn (manganese)- 0.75
P (phosphorus)- 0.02
S (sulphur)- 0.025
EN GJL grade 200 C (Carbon)- 3.3 0.2985 7.125 ×103 250 111.5
gray cast iron Fe (iron)- 93.45
Mn (manganese)- 0.7
P (phosphorus)- 0.08
S (sulphur)- 0.075
Si (silicon)- 2.4
Wrought Al (aluminium)- 100 1.505 2.7 ×103 58 70.5
commercial purity Other- 0.005
aluminium 1-0
Non-ferrous

## Wrought Al (aluminium)- 92.7 1.82 2.8 ×103 438 74.5

Aluminium alloy, Cr (chromium)- 0.05
2014, T6 condition Cu (copper)- 4.45
Fe (iron)- 0.35
Mg (magnesium)- 0.5
Mn (manganese)-0.8
Si (silicon)-0.85
Ti (titanium)-0.075
Zn (zinc)- 0.125
Other- 0.075
Wrought Al (aluminium)- 8.5 2.165 1.805 ×103 292.5 45
Magnesium alloy, Cu (copper)- 0.025
AZ80A Fe (iron)- 0.0025
(Non-ferrous) Mg (magnesium)- 90.6
Mn (manganese)- 0.31
Ni (nickel)- 2.5 ×10-3
Si (silicon)- 0.05
Zn (zinc)- 0.5
Other- 0.15
Aged Ti6Al4V - Al (aluminium)-6.125 15 4.425 × 103 1.185 × 103 115
 Titanium alloy C (Carbon)- 0.05
A light alloy Fe (iron)- 0.2
H (hydrogen)- 0.00625
N (nitrogen)- 0.025
O (oxygen)- 0.1
Ti (titanium)- 89.5
Other- 0.2
High density high Polymer- 100 1.55 951 23.4 0.938
molecular weight
polyethylene (PE),
unfilled
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Epoxy, standard Polymer- 100 1.81 1.255 ×103 67.3 2.41
Unfilled
Thermosets

Soda Lime Glass, AI203 (alumina)- 1 1.0745 2.465 × 103 32.6 69.95
0080 CaO (calcia)- 5
MgO (magnesia)- 4
Na2O (sodium oxide)- 17
SiO2 (silica)- 73

Carefully examine the above completed table, and answer the following questions:

1. The major differences in composition between cast iron and steels are
(a) Cast iron has more iron (Fe)
(b) Cast iron has much more carbon (C) and silicon (Si)
(c) Cast iron has compositions that are similar to steels

2. Compare the tensile strength of the aluminium alloy, 2014, with that of pure aluminium, find
out how many times the strength of aluminium is increased by alloying?

Tensile strength of aluminium alloy 2014 = 438MPa
Tensile strength of pure aluminium 58MPa
438/58 = 7.55
Strength has been increased by 7.55 times

3. Compare the Young’s modulus of the aluminium alloy, 2014, with that of commercial pure
aluminium, find out how many times the modulus of aluminium is increased or decreased by
alloying? Also explain why the increase in Young’s modulus by alloying is less than the
increase in tensile strength (refer to 2 above).

Young’s modulus of aluminium alloy 2014 = 74.5 GPa
Young’s modulus of pure aluminium = 70.5 GPa
74.5/70.5 = 1.06
Strength increased by 1.06 times
The increase in Tensile strength is more than Young’s modulus as alloying increases the
strength, but decreases their ductility

4. Considering your answers to questions 2&3, which two of the following statements ate true?
(a) It is very effective to increase the strength of aluminium by alloying.
(b) Alloying can also significantly increase the Young’s modulus of aluminium.
(c) It is not very effective to increase the Young’s modulus of aluminium by alloying.
(d) Aluminium can be made much stiffer by alloying.

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5. Compare the prices (on per weight base) between magnesium alloy, aluminium alloy and steels.
Which one is the most expensive? Briefly explain why.

Magnesium alloy= 2.165 GBP/kg
Aluminium alloy= 1.82 GBP/kg
Steel= 0.4105 GBP/kg

Magnesium alloy is the most expensive metal out of the three. Magnesium is the most
expensive as it expensive to mine than aluminium and steel. It also has a lot of demand than the
other metals.

6. Polymeric materials generally have much lower strength and stiffness (Young’s modulus) than
metallic materials.
(a) True, or
(b) False

(a) polyethylene
(b) epoxy
(c) rubber

(a) Na2O
(b) CaO
(c) SiO2
(d) Al2O3

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Appendix:

## Four digits: XXXX

divided by 100 = carbon
content (in wt%)

Alloying condition:
10: no other alloy elements (carbon steel)
Others: alloy steels (details cannot be
revealed by the digits)

Normalising of steels – heat the steel to a high temperature (800-1000oC), soak for a period of time,
then cool the steel in air or by fan-cooling, producing a structure with moderate strength

Hardening of steels: heat the steel to a high temperature (800-1000 oC), soak for a period of time,
then cool the steel rapidly by quenching in water, oil, or other cooling media, producing a hard
structure (called martensite) with significantly increased strength, but reduced toughness.

## Tempering of steels: After quench-hardening, steels are always tempered by heating to a

temperature between 160oC and 650oC for a couple of hours to achieve the required strength and to
improve toughness.

Grey cast iron: carbon takes the form of graphite flakes embedded in a steel matrix.

Wrought alloys: are made for subsequent forming by metal-working (deformation) such as rolling,
forging …, and machining. They are not intended for casting.

## Cast alloys: are made specifically for casting.

Temper specification of aluminium alloys: related to metal-working and heat treatment conditions
of the alloy.
T6 condition: solution heat treated and artificially aged.

Solution treatment: heat the aluminium alloy to a temperature 20-50 oC below the melting
temperature to allow the alloying elements to dissolve in the aluminium matrix, then quench the
alloy in water to preserve the structure at high temperature.

Artificial ageing of aluminium alloys: heat the solution treated alloy to certain temperature (100-
300oC), soak for a period of time (can be up to 24 h). This facilitates the precipitation of small and
hard particles dispersed in the aluminium matrix.