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Final Exam Review : Name: ___________________________

Complete and turn in by the final for up to 10 points extra credit on Final Exam

This exam is not comprehensive. It covers Topographic Maps through the Earthquake Lab. However, as seen
in lab, some basic knowledge of previous rock labs may be required… Everything on the exam may not be
covered on this review, but this is a basic review over everything we have covered. Answer all the questions
correctly for full credit.

Topographic Maps Lab (Ch 14-15):

1. What is a topographic map?

A map that shows the change in elevation over a geographic area through the use of contour lines

2. What is a quadrangle?
A four sided area, bounded by parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude used as an area unit
in mapping
3. The difference between true north and magnetic north is referred to as ________________________.
Magnetic Declination

4. Draw/Give an example of a fractional scale and a bar scale. _________0___________
Fractional scale-(1:24,000) Bar scale-divided into segments that show the relationship
between distance on map and actual distance on earth
5. What does the scale 1:90,000 mean in words?
That the distance of 1 unit on the map translates to 90,000 units on earth

6. Given the scale above: 1 foot on the map = _________________

90,000 feet on Earth’s Surface

a. 1 inch on the map = _____________miles

7,500 on the Earth’s Surface - Show work.

(KNOW how many feet = 1 mile).

b. 1 cm on the map = ________________

2,952.756 km on the Earth’s surface
90,000/ 30.48=2,952.756

7. If you are given a topo map that says “7.5 minute series”, what does that mean?
it covers 7.5 minutes of latitude and longitude

8. What units are latitude and longitude measured in?

15 minute series topo map

9. Give the directions latitude and longitude run across the surface of the Earth.
Latitude is east-west and Longitude is north-south
10. How many mile(s) are in one section?
1 mile east/west and 1 mile north/south

How many mile(s) in one Congressional Township?

6 miles
How many sections in one Congressional Township?

11. On the figure below (The larger figure) indicate where the Base Line and Principal Meridian are located.

a. How did you know this?

base line runs east/west and principal meridian runs north/south

12. Using the Public Land Survey and the following 3 figures, name the locations of the letters:

base line
Principal meridian



! R1W

Number the sections inside the black box (one township) in the correct order:

A-T1S, R1W
B-T1N, R1W
C-T1S, R1E

a. __________1/4
SW __________1/4
NW _________Sec
12 T_________
1N R___________
1W (Know this order)

b. __________1/4
NW __________1/4
NE _________Sec
33 1N
T_________ R___________

c. SE
__________1/4 __________1/4
SW _________Sec
29 T_________
1S R___________

13. How wide is a township (in miles)? _________________


14. How wide is a section (in miles)? ____________________


15. A contour line connects all points of equal _____________________________.


16. Contour the image to the right:

17. Find the slope between the ‘X’s, using the scale
given. Answer in feet per mile. Contour values X
given are in feet. Show work.

18. Know the Rules of Contours:

a. In steeper areas the lines become (closer, X

farther). Closer

b. T / F Contour lines can cross

c. Contour line point (upstream, downstream). 1 Mile

** Be able to ID all these features (contours,

longitude, latitude, Township and Ranges, etc.) on a real map.

Geologic Ages (Ch 12-13)

19. Are only sedimentary rocks used for relative age determinations? Explain:
Yes, because it's based on fossils and only sedimentary have fossils

20. Explain the relative age relationship of faults to the rocks they cut:
The fault is younger than the rocks they cut

21. Look at the diagrams in Question 23 below:

a. In figure 1 below, could it be possible to determine an absolute age of these rocks? If yes, explain in
detail how you may be able to do this:

b. In figure 3 below, could it be possible to determine an absolute age of these rocks? If yes, explain in
detail how you may be able to do this: no
22. How do you determine the relative ages of igneous rocks? (List the ways)
superposition, cross cutting, and index fossils

23. For each of the following cross sections, determine the relative age sequence of the rocks. Place the
answers in the spaces on the right. Remember to always start by looking for the oldest rock and working
your way from oldest to youngest. Don’t forget to consider all intrusions and faults! The diagrams go
from simplest to hardest to let you progressively improve your skills.

Figure 1:



Figure 2:



Figure 3:

! A

Figure 4:

! ! H

Try to write the geologic history of this area:

Geologic Structures (Ch 16- 17):

22. What is the difference between a topo map and a geologic map?
Topo shows elevation and geo shows places and structures

normal reverse

23. What is the difference between a normal and reverse fault? Draw pictures of each. What type of forces
create the faults (compressional or extensional)?
normal the hanging wall is dropping and on reverse it's rising


Syncline Anticline


24. In the figure above label the syncline, anticline, and fault. On the syncline and anticline label where the
oldest and youngest strata is located. On the fault label the hanging wall and the footwall. What type of
fault is it? Reverse

25. What type of fault is this: Is it Right or Left?


26. Use the map view of the fault to right:

a. What direction is the fault dipping? ____________

Right lateral
b. What is strike of the fault plane? ____________

c. Label the hanging wall and footwall

there is none
d. If B is the youngest bed, is this a normal or reverse


e. What is the strike and dip for the beds in this figure?
normal strike,

**Be able to ID normal and reverse faults in map view and

cross sectional view!

27. Use the figure below, which also shows the map view. This
block diagram showing a syncline or an anticline?? Is it plunging or non-plunging? (Know how to
complete block diagrams, given strike and dip symbols). syncline, not plunging

28.In the figure to the left, what direction are the beds striking? What
direction are the beds dipping? (Given North is the top of the paper).
east and west

29. Draw the strike and dip symbols for the following points:

a. N45E 20SE

b. N30W 10SW

30. Matching:
a. __________Angular Unconformity 1. Between parallel strata of same rock type
b. __________Nonconformity 2. Between non-parallel strata

c. __________Disconformity
1 3. Time of no deposition or erosion

d. __________Unconformity
2 4. Between sed strata and igneous/meta strata

** Be able to ID these structures (Unconformities, anticlines, synclines, faults) on real maps, like in lab…

Earthquake Lab (Ch 18-19):

31. For the questions below, use one or more of the following words as a word bank: P-waves, S-waves

a. ____________
Pwaves have the highest velocity.

b. ____________
Both travel through the Earth’s surface.

c. ____________
Pwaves arrives at the seismograph station first.

d. ____________
Pwaves have higher amplitudes.

e. ____________
Swaves do Not travel through liquid.

f. ____________
both travel deeper into the Earth’s core.

32. Review the process in this lab for determining the distance an earthquake is felt from the epicenter. (p.
147 Table 1 and drawing circles Fig 8) See example figure 6 in lab manual.

a. What is an epicenter?
the point on earths surface that is located directly above the focus of the earthquake

33. Continental plates are composed of granite rocks, while ocean plates are composed of basalt rocks.
What type of rocks are these (sed, ig, or meta)? Which have the higher melting temperatures?

34. Circle: The (lithosphere, asthenosphere) includes the crust and the uppermost mantle.

35. Circle: The velocity of seismic slows as they pass through the (lithosphere, asthenosphere).

36. T / F At divergent margins, earthquakes are generally shallow, but at convergent margins, earthquakes
can vary from deep to shallow.

Rivers and Floods (Ch 20-21):

37. In the diagram to the right (Figure C), indicate where

the highest velocity of flowing water would be located
(in this symmetric channel). (This is a cross section
through the channel, the water would be flowing
toward you.) Maximum Velocity

38. Why is the velocity in a channel distributed this way?

since it's a narrow channel, all the energy is pushed to the center and there is less surface area
39. In the diagram below, indicate where the highest velocity of the water flowing through the channel is
located (in this asymmetric channel).

**Understand how velocity

changes with depth in a river/channel)

40. Use the diagram to the right and the letters A or

B to answer the following questions: A B
B represents an area of deposition.

A represents an area of erosion.

B has the highest river velocity.

41. (T / F) A “100-year flood” occurs every 100


42. When calculating the “100-year-flood,” what is the formula for recurrence interval? Include what the
letters represent.
R=recurrence interval
R=(N+1)/M N=number of years (record)
M=rank of a particular year

**Know how to calculate the RI and fill in the chart we completed in lab. Also know how to plot the points and
read the graph as we did in lab.

Groundwater (Ch 20-21):

43. What is porosity? What is permeability? (You may need to look this up on Google)…

porosity is percentage of soil, rock or sediment's volume that is made up of pores

permeability is the capability of a given substance to allow the passage of a fluid
44. The best porosity comes from formation with (coarse / fine) grains. Therefore, the sediment that would
provide the highest porosity would be (mudstone / mudstone-sandstone mix / sandstone).

45. _____________________
Permeability allows water to flow through sediments and has (good/poor) porosity.
Solid rock stops water from flowing through sediments and has (good/poor) porosity.

46. In the diagram to the right, identify the aquifer and the aquitard/aquiclude (Hint-note which formation
the wells are pumping from.)


47. Groundwater flows (upslope/

downslope) and (toward/away from)