Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 41

The Structure of Academic

Structure is an important feature of academic writing. A well-structured text enables the
reader to follow the argument and navigate the text. In academic writing a clear structure and
a logical flow are imperative to a cohesive text. Furthermore, in many university assignments
the correct use of structure is part of the final assessment.

Most academic texts follow established structures. This page describes some
common structures in academic writing: the three-part essay structure and the IMRaD
structure. Structure should be considered on all levels of text so you will also find
information on structuring paragraphs.

Common structures
The structure of your writing depends on the type of assignment, but two common
structures used in academic writing are the three-part essay structure and the IMRaD
structure. Even shorter essays that are not divided into titled sections follow such a
structure. Longer texts may be further divided into subsections. Different disciplines
or departments may prefer that students use a certain structure, so make sure to
check with your instructor if you are not sure what is expected of you.

The three-part essay structure

The three-part essay structure is a basic structure that consists of introduction, body
and conclusion. The introduction and the conclusion should be shorter than the body
of the text. For shorter essays, one or two paragraphs for each of these sections can
be appropriate. For longer texts or theses, they may be several pages long.
Home / Write & cite / Academic writing

Denna sida på svenska

The Structure of Academic

An important feature of academic texts is that they are organized in a
specific way; they have a clear structure. This structure makes it
easier for your reader to navigate your text and understand the
material better. It also makes it easier for you to organise your
material. The structure of an academic text should be clear throughout
the text and within each section, paragraph and even sentence.
The Structure of the Entire Text and of Each Section

Most academic texts in the sciences adhere to the model called imrad, which is an
acronym for introduction, methods and materials, results, and discussion. Imrad is often
illustrated with the following image (see explanation below).

The model should, however, be complemented with sections for aims and research
questions, as these make up the very backbone of an academic text in the sciences.
These often appear towards the end of the introduction, but sometimes also after a
separate heading.

Below is an overview of what should be included in each of the sections of the

academic text, as well as advice on how to structure your text and make it more


The aim determines the entire academic text and the content found in each section. The
aim captures what you intend to achieve with your study. One example could be that the
aim of the study was “to investigate how effective nursing interventions are for smoking
cessation”. It is crucial that the aim is consistent with every other section of the text. The
title should highlight the same aspects of the study that your aim does, and all the
subsequent sections of the text should respond to the aim.

Research questions

The aim is often rather general, and may have to be narrowed down with research
questions. In other words, research questions are specific questions that enable you to
reach your aim. In the example given above, research questions could be, “What
nursing interventions exist?” and “How many patients are still smoke free after one
year?”. Remember that there must be a clear link between your aim and your research
questions, but they should not be identical. Only ask questions that will help you fulfil
your aim.

If you have several research questions, you should consider how to order them. Is there
a logical order, in other words, can some questions only be understood after having
read others? Are some questions more important than others? Place the research
questions in an order that makes sense to you and then maintain that order
throughout the rest of your thesis.

Your aim and your thesis must be delimited and narrow, as you can only research a
small part of the world in your studies. For this reason, the sections that concern what
has been done in the study – methods and results – are narrow in the imrad model


In order to make your delimited research interesting to others, however, you must place
it in a larger context. For that reason, the introduction of the text must start with
something much more general than your research questions. It is often said that the
introduction should be shaped like a funnel (as it is in the imrad model
above). This means that you should start in a broad and general manner and then
gradually zoom in on your own, more specific topic. The text needs to start with
something that your reader can relate to, and that shows your reader what field your
research will contribute to, as well as how it will do so.

The introduction should provide everything the reader needs to know in order to
understand your aim as well as why the aim is important. Convincing your reader that
your aim is important often entails showing that there is something we do not know, but
that we would benefit from knowing – perhaps in order to provide better care or develop
a new drug or new treatment method. It could also entail indicating that there is a
problem with an existing method and that alternative methods are needed. When you
have accounted for the context and pointed to the importance of new knowledge in the
field, your reader will be well prepared when you present your aim and research
questions towards the end of the introduction. (As mentioned above, the aim and
research questions are sometimes placed under a separate heading, which may be
placed right after the introduction.)

Please note that the introduction may also be called a background. Sometimes the two
terms are used to refer to the exact same thing; at other times, they refer to different
things. You may be asked to write a short introduction that raises your reader´s interest
and gives a very short introduction to the field, followed by a more extensive
background section. Sometimes your instructions will specify what sections your thesis
or assignment should include, and what should be included in each part; sometimes
they will not. In the latter case, always ask your instructor. If you are writing a thesis you
can also examine previous theses in your field in order to get an idea of what they
usually include. (Just remember that theses may differ from each other significantly,
so never use just one thesis as a template; look at several. Also remember that
instructions and instructor expectations can change).

Methods and Materials

In the methods section you should show your reader exactly how you have conducted
your research, that is, what you have done to fulfill your aim and answer your research
questions. First, your reader should understand how you got the results you did, and
second, after reading this section, they should be able to duplicate your research. But
what is meant by "exactly" how you conducted your research? Keep in mind the
significant facts; how you got your results, and what the reader would need to do to
duplicate them. Disregard irrelevant details: you do not, for instance, need to tell your
reader that you went to the library or that you talked to Barbro the librarian. Neither do
you need to tell your readers about all the ideas you had or things you wanted to do but
did not do. Focus on what you did, and account for the choices you made, when

It is helpful if you begin your methods section by writing something overarching about
your method, such as mentioning your study design. If you tell your readers right away
that your work is a literature review or that your method consisted of interviewing nurses
using semi-structured interviews, it is easier for the reader to understand the details
that follow the overarching statement. Your reader needs to be able to understand the
purpose of the details before being introduced to them.


In the results section you should account for your results in an objective manner,
without interpreting them (interpreting your results is what you do in the discussion part).
If you posed several research questions, you should account for the results in the same
order that you posed your research questions; the consistency will help make the text
coherent and help your reader understand the information you are presenting.

It may help your readers if you use illustrations such as tables and charts when
presenting your results. The illustrations should be clearly linked to your text, but you
should not repeat all the information provided in the chart. Instead, account for the most
important aspects or trends visible in the tables or charts; in other words, tell your
reader what you want them to observe. Please note that tables and charts should be
understandable without reading the body text, so it is important that you
include captions that indicate what they illustrate.


The discussion section of your text is where you interpret your results for your reader.
It is the section of your text that is usually most difficult to write, for here you are
not merely writing about something that you have already done, you have to
write and analyse at the same time. All parts of your discussion should analyse your
results. While you may occasionally need to remind your reader of significant points
accounted for in earlier sections of your text, your discussion should not include too
much repetition from your background or introduction, your methods and materials, or
from your results. Please read the section about the principles of paragraphing and
topic sentences and make sure that each paragraph – except the very first one –
contains some analysis of your topic. A common outline of the discussion is the

The first paragraph reminds your reader about the aim, preferably hinting at how you
will contribute to the field. You may for example write “This is the first study to examine
the correlation between …” Then you briefly account for the most important parts of
your results, perhaps linking them to your hypothesis if you have one. You may say that
the first paragraph makes for a shortcut into the discussion: it should enable your
readers to understand the discussion without reading all the sections of your thesis.

The rest of the discussion should analyse and discuss your results. It may be helpful to
keep the following questions in mind:
 What do your results mean?

 How do they relate to previous research? What are the reasons for potential differences
between your study and previous research? What do potential similarities indicate?

 How may your method have affected your results?

 What are the strengths and weaknesses of the study? How do they affect your results?

 How are your results important to future developments? What are the clinical implications, for

 What kind of research is needed in the field in the future, and why?

It is also common to divide the discussion into two parts: a results discussion and a
methods discussion. If you do that, you first focus on the results of your study, and then
scrutinise your methods.


In your conclusion you should fulfill your aim and account for what you have found in
your study. When you write your conclusion you have a golden opportunity to make
sure that all the sections of your thesis are connected and that the focus is consistent in
each section.

Please remember that the conclusion is not merely a brief repetition of your
results. Focus instead on what your results may imply after careful consideration (the
consideration that you outlined in your discussion).

However, keep in mind that accounting for what you have found in your study does not
mean that you can or even should make absolute claims; these cannot often be drawn
from a small study, if ever. Focus instead on what your results may imply – and it rarely
hurts to note that more research is needed.

The Structure of Paragraphs

Both your entire text and each paragraph that comprises your text should adhere to the
conventions of paragraph structure in academic texts. Each paragraph should begin
with an overarching statement or sentence that introduces the topic the rest of the
paragraph then addresses in greater specificity and detail. Each paragraph should also
be unified: it should address one thing or idea only. Each paragraph should also add
something new not found elsewhere in the text. To achieve a clear structure in each
paragraph, use topic sentences.
The Structure of Sentences
Sentence structure also affects your text and your reader´s ability to understand the
information you are presenting. What comes first in a sentence often appears
more important than what succeeds it. Read more about the structure of sentences.

Making Your Structure Visible and Indicating How

Different Parts Relate to Each Other
A clear structure also entails that different parts are clearly connected to each other.
Two ways of achieving a clear structure are to use transition words and start sentences
with what your readers have just read about.

Topic Sentences
Working with topic sentences can help you focus and structure your
text, and make it more reader friendly as well. A topic sentence is a
sentence which captures the essence of a paragraph – the most
central issue, the aspect that is unique about this particular paragraph.
The topic sentence is often the very first sentence of the paragraph,
indicating to your reader what the paragraph is about.

What is a Topic Sentence?

To explain what a topic sentence is, we first have to outline the two basic principles of
paragraphing. First, each paragraph in a text should address one topic or aspect (and
not several at the same time). Second, each paragraph should have a specific purpose
and add something new to the text.

A topic sentence is a sentence which captures the specific purpose of the paragraph –
the most central issue, the very essence of the paragraph. The topic sentence is often
the first sentence of the paragraph, signaling what the paragraph is about.

The topic sentence must be fairly general – you cannot fit everything that you want to
write about a topic into one single sentence. In the rest of the paragraph, you develop
and support the issue signaled in the topic sentence, and potentially give relevant
Topic Sentences Are Good for Your Reader
Topic sentences help your reader navigate the text, as she knows from the very
beginning of the paragraph what the paragraph will be about. A skilled reader of
scientific texts often expects a topic sentence – consciously or unconsciously – and may
therefore be vaguely confused if there is none, or initially believe that your paragraph is
about something else.

Topic Sentences Are Good for You as a Writer

Topic sentences make a text reader friendly, but they are equally good for you as a
writer, and may be powerful tools for working on your text. Working with topic sentences
forces you to consider the relevance of each of your paragraphs – what is your main
point in this particular paragraph? What is the most central issue? What needs to be

Topic sentences can also help you revise your text to make it more coherent and
concise. Once you have formulated a topic sentence, you can go through each
sentence of the paragraph and make sure that it relates to the topic sentence. It should,
as the paragraph should only deal with one topic or aspect. But quite often, you will
discover sentences that do not clearly relate to the topic sentence. You then have two
choices: you can either formulate a new topic sentence which better captures the
essence of the entire paragraph, or take away any sentence that does not fit. The
sentence may fit better in another paragraph, it may need to be developed into a
separate paragraph to address the issue in depth – or it may not be entirely relevant
(and should then be removed).

The Structure of Sentences

This page is under development.

Sentence Order
What comes first in a sentence is often given more attention than what comes later.

 Example: “The Austrian Diabetes Association has reported that daily exercise relieves
diabetes complications" (3).

Here, the Austrian Diabetes Association appears to be the focus of the sentence,
since that is the information the reader is provided with first.
 Possible revision nr. 1: "Daily exercise may relieve diabetes complications" (3).

In this version, the writer only references the study in the in-text citation, and instead
foregrounds the content of the report ("daily exercise..."). The sentence suggests that
the source is not important enough to warrant an explicit mention, and that the
information is credible and non-controversial.

 Possible revision nr 2: "Daily exercise relieves diabetes complications, according to

the Austrian Diabetes Association" (3).

In this version, the writer has reversed the sentence order. Here, the source is included,
but does not overshadow the content.

In short, there are several ways to structure the same information depending on what
effect you want the sentence to have on your reader. Remember: what appears first in
the sentence will seem more central.

Types of academic text

Screen challenge: Can you recognise different types of academic text? Can you identify their
structure, audience and purpose?

Learning objectives:
 Academic objective: To understand the importance of genre
 Reading sub-skill: To identify different genres of text
 Reading sub-skill: To analyse genre, audience and purpose
 Vocabulary: To understand words to describe reading texts.
1. Understanding the importance of genre
When you read English in your academic studies, you will do more than just understand the words in the text. You will
consider meaning, but you will also think about other aspects of the text. These include structure, audience and purpose.

First, however, you need to understand what genre a text belongs to – in other words, what kind of text it is. When you
begin to understand different genres, you will be able to use this knowledge as a tool to approach new or unfamiliar
academic texts.

2. Understanding text type

2.1 Six main text types
What types of text will you encounter during your academic studies? Click on the tabs on the left-hand side to find out
more about different academic texts.

Key terms
Structure: To refer to the way the text is organised.
Click for more

Shorter student texts: essays
Longer student texts: dissertations and theses
Research articles
Case studies
Textbooks are specifically designed to help the learner. For example, they might have summaries or review quizzes.
Textbooks vary in style, tone and level depending on their audience. They are a good place to start when learning about a
new topic.

2.2 Check your understanding

Match the text types on the left-hand side to the statements on the right by clicking on the boxes you wish to connect.

In the following videos, students discuss the requirements of reading
Click for more

Portfolio activity
This activity will help you learn about common genres in your discipline. Take a look at all

Click for more

Restart activity

Shorter student texts: essays

Longer student texts: dissertations and theses

Research articles

Case studies


These are written for readers who have expert knowledge of a topic.

This is a good place to start your research.

These could be 80,000 words long for PhD students.

These show the importance of a piece of research.

Access these to find out about writing in your discipline.

These describe changes or developments, e.g. within a company or social group.

3. Analysing text: Genre, audience and purpose

The term 'genre' refers to the typical structure and organisational patterns of a text, its intended audience and its purpose.

All texts are written to communicate with a specific audience – this audience could be experts, or it could be newcomers
to the topic. The audience becomes part of a community when interacting with the genre, based partly on what they expect
from it and their understanding of its purpose.
The purpose of a particular genre might be to:

 Present and explain information

 Persuade the audience to accept a new argument

 Describe a process.

At a greater level of detail, the purpose of a particular genre could be to:

Present a claim → offer citations to support the claim → provide explanation and examples to help understanding →
evaluate this material.

You will be able to manage your studies more effectively when you have developed a good understanding of the main
types of text you will read (and listen to), as well as those you need to write (and speak).

3.1 Check your understanding

Read the four text extracts. In the questions which follow, you will be asked to identify the genre, audience and main
purpose ('G – A – P') of each text. Choose one of the possible answers, then click 'Check answer'. Use 'Next' to move
through the questions.Remember that you do not have to understand every word of the texts – just focus on identifying the
G – A – P.

Sustainable transport for a large business: the case of Leeds Metropolitan University
There were 2,287,540 students in UK higher education in 2004/2005. A high percentage live away from home, or come
from abroad (some 318,395) and they are heavy consumers of transport. There were 109,625 full-time academic staff, and
51,030 part-time staff, plus many administrative and support staff. Higher education is a large foreign currency earner. It is
big business. But some universities are massive, and equate with very large corporations both in their financial turnover,
and in the environmental footprint generated by their transport activities.

Leeds Metropolitan University is a good example. It is one of the largest universities in the UK, with 52,000 students and
3,500 staff. Its turnover is about £135 million per annum. Of course, its economic impact is far larger than this, as the
student body is not an insignificant proportion of the total population of the city, and they are all consumers and spenders.
The university has three major campuses. One of the campuses is on the edge of the city, on a restricted site. A second
campus is five miles north from the city centre, on an outstanding but inaccessible parkland site, while a third campus is
fifteen miles away in Harrogate.

Source: Wetherly & Otter, 2008, p.221

What are the main effects of the global financial crisis of 2007-8? Discuss with
reference to at least two sectors of the global economy.
The global financial crisis of 2007-8 has had a number of major interrelated effects. These effects are important and wide-
ranging. This global financial crisis was arguably the most major crises of its type since the great depression of the 1920s
and 1930s (Crotty 2009), and was caused by various factors including the US sub-prime lending phenomenon, high
consumer debt in many of the major advanced economies, and banking practices. This essay examines the most serious
effects following the crisis and argues that their impact was not only financial and economic but also social and
environmental (Peters, Marland, Le Quere, Boden, Canadell & Raupach 2012).

First and foremost the crisis was financial, but it was also social. In other words, the impacts were felt by ordinary people
in serious ways. For instance, there was a significant tightening in the lending behaviour of banks in western economies,
particularly the USA and the UK. Many people were no longer able to get loans to buy houses, with access to credit made
more difficult.

The role of grazing

Many of the world's greatest grasslands have long been grazed by wild animals, such as the bison of North America or the
large game of East Africa, but the introduction of pastoral economies also affects their nature and productivity (Figure 2.7)
(Coupland, 1979).

Light grazing may increase the productivity of wild pastures (Warren and Maizels, 1976). Nibbling, for example, can
encourage the vigor and growth of plants, and in some species, such as the valuable African grass, Themeda triandra, the
removal of the coarse, dead stems permits succulent sprouts to shoot. Likewise the seeds of some plant species are spread
efficiently by being carried in cattle guts, and then placed in favorable seedbeds of dung or trampled into the soil surface.
Moreover, the passage of herbage through the gut and out as feces modifies the nitrogen cycle, so that grazed pastures tend
to be richer in nitrogen than ungrazed ones. Also, like fire, grazing can increase species diversity by opening out the
community and creating more niches.
Source: Goudie, 2006, p.30

Mutation analysis of the candidate genes SCN1B-4B, FHL1, and LMNA in patients
with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
Introduction: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetically determined heart disease
characterized by fibrofatty infiltrations in the myocardium, right and/or left ventricular involvement, and ventricular
tachyarrhythmias. Although ten genes have been associated with ARVC, only about 40% of the patients have an
identifiable disease-causing mutation. In the present study we aimed at investigating the involvement of the genes SCN1B-
SCN4B, FHL1, and LMNA in the pathogenesis of ARVC. Methods: Sixty-five unrelated patients (55 fulfilling ARVC
criteria and 10 borderline cases) were screened for variants in SCN1B- 4B, FHL1, and LMNA by direct sequencing and
LightScanner melting curve analysis. Results: A total of 28 sequence variants were identified: seven in SCN1B, three in
SCN2B, two in SCN3B, two in SCN4B, four in FHL1, and ten in LMNA. Three of the variants were novel. One of the
variants was non-synonymous. No disease-causing mutations were identified. Conclusions: In our limited sized cohort the
six studied candidate genes were not associated with ARVC.

Source: Refsgaard et al, 2012, p.44

Peer-to-peer activity
This activity will help you to develop your approach to academic texts.

Click for more

NextBackRestart activity
Score: 0 / 1
Text 1: Sustainable transport for a large business: the case of Leeds Metropolitan University
What is the genre of this text?
A: Case study

B: Research article

C: Student essay
Check answer
Correct! Notice the focus on a specific case (in this text it's a university). There is sufficient description of the main
features of the case, such as background and statistical information.

Text 1: Sustainable transport for a large business: the case of Leeds Metropolitan University
Who is the audience of this text?
A: Researchers

B: People who live in Leeds

C: Students in the discipline of the topic

Check answer
This is the wrong answer. The audience of this text are students in the discipline of the topic.

Text 1: Sustainable transport for a large business: the case of Leeds Metropolitan University
What is the main purpose of this text?
A: To request a better transport system

B: To offer a detailed account of a particular organisation

C: To encourage students to attend Leeds Metropolitan University

Check answer
This is the wrong answer. The main purpose of this text is to offer a detailed account of a particular organisation.

Text 2: What are the main effects of the global financial crisis of 2007-8? Discuss with reference to at least two
sectors of the global economy.
What is the genre of this text?
A: Textbook

B: Case study

C: Student essay
Check answer
This is the wrong answer. This is an extract from a student essay. The style is appropriate for a student essay, with
initial background information to contextualise the topic, followed by a statement of aims/thesis statement. The student
integrates citations to add support to his/her argument.

Text 2: What are the main effects of the global financial crisis of 2007-8? Discuss with reference to at least two
sectors of the global economy.
Who is the audience of this text?
A: Experts in the area of finance

B: Undergraduate students

C: A lecturer and/or other examiner

Check answer
This is the wrong answer. The audience of this text is a lecturer and/or other examiner.

Text 2: What are the main effects of the global financial crisis of 2007-8? Discuss with reference to at least two
sectors of the global economy.
What is the main purpose of this text?
A: To demonstrate understanding for the purpose of assessment

B: To provide useful information for financial planners

C: To share the results of the writer's own research project

Check answer

Text 3: The role of grazing

What is the genre of this text?
A: Dissertation or thesis

B: Textbook

C: Case study
Check answer
This is the wrong answer. This is an extract from a textbook. The extract clearly presents information on the topic
(grazing) with plenty of supporting examples and citations as necessary. The writers aim to make the information
understandable for the audience.

Text 3: The role of grazing

Who is the audience of this text?
A: People who raise animals in Africa

B: Experts in the field of agriculture

C: Students in the discipline of the topic

Check answer
This is the wrong answer. The audience of this text are students in the discipline of the topic.

Text 3: The role of grazing

What is the main purpose of this text?
A: To present and explain information on a topic, taken from multiple sources

B: To encourage farmers to practise grazing as a means to greater production

C: To share the results of an extensive research project with fellow experts

Check answer

Text 4: Mutation analysis of the candidate genes SCN1B-4B, FHL1, and LMNA in patients with arrhythmogenic
right ventricular cardiomyopathy
What is the genre of this text?
A: Research article

B: Student essay

C: Textbook
Check answer
Correct! This abstract to a research article contains a large amount of information presented in a dense format. It
moves from the Introduction and background through Method and Results to the Conclusion. The style is technical.

Text 4: Mutation analysis of the candidate genes SCN1B-4B, FHL1, and LMNA in patients with arrhythmogenic
right ventricular cardiomyopathy
Who is the audience of this text?
A: Undergraduate students

B: Other researchers, academics and postgraduate students

C: People who have heart disease

Check answer
This is the wrong answer. The audience of this text are other researchers, academics and postgraduate students.

Text 4: Mutation analysis of the candidate genes SCN1B-4B, FHL1, and LMNA in patients with arrhythmogenic
right ventricular cardiomyopathy
What is the main purpose of this text?
A: To provide medical advice

B: To give an overview of the topic

C: To present a summary of a piece of research

Check answer
This is the wrong answer. The main purpose of this text is to present a summary of a piece of research.
Although there are many genres, you will probably have to read a limited number; the genres you have to write will be
different again. Thinking about the relationship between the writer and the intended reader of a text will help you
understand why the different genres that you read and write have different characteristics.
4. Understanding words to describe reading texts
4.1 Focusing on vocabulary
Choose one of the possible answers from the drop-down menu. Use 'Next' to move through the questions.

NextBackRestart activity

Understanding Academic Texts - Structure and



Texts are structured in different ways in different subjects, but the majority of reading
that undergraduates do falls into just three categories:

1. An argumentative/thesis structure
2. A problem – solution structure
3. A report structure

The purpose of an argumentative text is to persuade the reader to accept a point of view,
an opinion or perhaps a new truth. In a way, a problem – solution text also presents an
argument and attempts to persuade the reader that the solutions presented are workable
and worth implementing. A report does not present an argument, but it may still be
biased if all the facts are not presented. It is important to find out whether the facts
have been taken from a credible source.

The following activities will focus on an argumentative structure.


1. Purpose

People speak to be listened to. Writers also write to be listened to. Just like speaking,
writing is a form of communication and people always communicate for a reason, or
purpose. Being aware of the writer’s purpose for communicating a message helps you
understand why the writer has chosen to mention some facts or details and not others, or
perhaps why the writer has chosen to use certain words and not others. It, therefore,
helps you recognise bias in a piece of writing which gives you the chance to decide
whether you agree with or trust what the author says. As an undergraduate you need to
become good at this particular skill.

We cannot see into an author’s head, but there are usually clues available to us that can
assist us in working out what the author’s purpose is. Essentially, a text is written to
achieve at least one of these three general purposes:

1. To entertain (E)
2. To inform (I)
3. To persuade (P)
5. dentify the purposes of the short texts below and write E, I or P next to them. The first one
has been done for you.

1. If you need a friend, just text me. If you need a good laugh, just give me a call. If you need money. I'm
not contactable!!

2. Pop star Madonna was the world's top-earning celebrity over the past year.

3. Having ordered and paid for two whiskies and sodas, the Jew, raising his glass, nodded to his
companion and took a drink. The glitter of a magnificent diamond which he wore seemed to attract the
other's attention almost hypnotically.

4. All eyes were on Sandra Bullock at the Palazzo del Cinema when she appeared with George Clooney
to present their new 3D sci-fi film, Gravity, which opened the Venice Film Festival. Clooney and
Bullock joked and clowned as they posed for photos on the red carpet, with Clooney opting for a simple
black tuxedo and bow tie.

5. At the same time, lecturers are urging their students never to be satisfied with the arguments they are
presented with, never to take things on trust, always to challenge, always to see the weak points, or to
want to push the argument further. Then along comes the National Survey, treats them as consumers, and
asks them if they're satisfied. I find myself thinking "I jolly well hope they're not", or at least, not yet. For
maybe the right time to be asking someone about what they got out of their course at university is not
when they are still in it, or as they are just leaving it, but five, ten, twenty years later, when they've got
some perspective on what difference it made to their tdves.

6. Current data do not indicate that exposures to vapors from contaminants in electronic cigarettes
warrant a concern. There are no known toxicological synergies among compounds in the aerosol, and
mixture of the contaminants does not pose a risk to health.

This text is about an entertainer, Madonna. Its purpose is simply to inform the reader
about the celebrity who earned the most money over the past year.
E This is taken from a short story whose purpose is to entertain the reader.
This is a news report about a film festival, so it is informing the reader. However, such
I a text might be found in a weekly entertainment or gossip magazine, in which case its
purpose could also be to entertain.
The writer tries to persuade the reader that giving evaluation questionnaires to
P students right at the end of a course is not the best time to do it. The writer makes
his/her point in quite an entertainingway.
The writer seems to inform the reader in an objective way that e-cigarettes are not
poisonous. However, take a closer look at the phrase “Current data do not indicate…”
The writer actually puts forward an argument and tries to persuade the reader that
such cigarettes are harmless. If the article was written by the company that produces
these cigarettes, there is a possibility that this research could be biased, because it
would not be in the company’s interest to criticise its own e-cigarette.

2. Perspective

The writer’s perspective is a term that means the writer’s opinion, point of view, attitude
or feelings about a particular idea, situation or topic. The vocabulary the writer chooses
to use will often be a clue to the writer’s perspective. This is often referred to as the
writer’s tone.

The sentences below express different attitudes or feelings about Lisbon, the capital
city of Portugal. Which of these tone words describe the writer’s attitude? In most
cases more than one attitude is expressed.

1. Factual, dramatic

2. Irritated, critical

3. Frank, reassuring

4. Concerned, cautious

5. Sentimental

Types of academic writing
The four main types of academic writing are descriptive, analytical, persuasive and critical. Each of
these types of writing has specific language features and purposes.

In many academic texts you will need to use more than one type. For example, in an empirical

 you will use critical writing in the literature review to show where there is a gap or opportunity
in the existing research
 the methods section will be mostly descriptive to summarise the methods used to collect and
analyse information
 the results section will be mostly descriptive and analytical as you report on the data you
 the discussion section is more analytical, as you relate your findings back to your research
questions, and also persuasive, as you propose your interpretations of the findings.

The simplest type of academic writing is descriptive. Its purpose is to provide facts or information. An
example would be a summary of an article or a report of the results of an experiment.

The kinds of instructions for a purely descriptive assignment include: identify, report, record,
summarise and define.

It’s rare for a university-level text to be purely descriptive. Most academic writing is also analytical.
Analytical writing includes descriptive writing, but you also re-organise the facts and information you
describe into categories, groups, parts, types or relationships.

Sometimes, these categories or relationships are already part of the discipline, sometimes you will
create them specifically for your text. For example, if you’re comparing two theories, you might break
your comparison into several parts, for example: how each theory deals with social context, how
each theory deals with language learning, and how each theory can be used in practice.

The kinds of instructions for an analytical assignment include: analyse, compare, contrast, relate,

To make your writing more analytical:

 spend plenty of time planning. Brainstorm the facts and ideas, and try different ways of
grouping them, according to patterns, parts, similarities and differences. You could use
colour-coding, flow charts, tree diagrams or tables.
 create a name for the relationships and categories you find. For example, advantages and
 build each section and paragraph around one of the analytical categories.
 make the structure of your paper clear to your reader, by using topic sentences and a clear

In most academic writing, you are required to go at least one step further than analytical writing, to
persuasive writing. Persuasive writing has all the features of analytical writing (that is, information
plus re-organising the information), with the addition of your own point of view. Most essays are
persuasive, and there is a persuasive element in at least the discussion and conclusion of a
research article.

Points of view in academic writing can include an argument, a recommendation, interpretation of

findings or evaluation of the work of others. In persuasive writing, each claim you make needs to be
supported by some evidence, for example a reference to research findings or published sources.

The kinds of instructions for a persuasive assignment include: argue, evaluate, discuss, take a

To help reach your own point of view on the facts or ideas:

 read some other researchers' points of view on the topic. Who do you feel is the most
 look for patterns in the data or references. Where is the evidence strongest?
 list several different interpretations. What are the real-life implications of each one? Which
ones are likely to be most useful or beneficial? Which ones have some problems?
 discuss the facts and ideas with someone else. Do you agree with their point of view?
To develop your argument:

 list the different reasons for your point of view

 think about the different types and sources of evidence which you can use to support your
point of view
 consider different ways that your point of view is similar to, and different from, the points of
view of other researchers
 look for various ways to break your point of view into parts. For example, cost effectiveness,
environmental sustainability, scope of real-world application.
To present your argument, make sure:
 your text develops a coherent argument where all the individual claims work together to
support your overall point of view
 your reasoning for each claim is clear to the reader
 your assumptions are valid
 you have evidence for every claim you make
 you use evidence that is convincing and directly relevant.

Critical writing is common for research, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate writing. It has all
the features of persuasive writing, with the added feature of at least one other point of view. While
persuasive writing requires you to have your own point of view on an issue or topic, critical writing
requires you to consider at least two points of view, including your own.

For example, you may explain a researcher's interpretation or argument and then evaluate the
merits of the argument, or give your own alternative interpretation.

Examples of critical writing assignments include a critique of a journal article, or a literature review
that identifies the strengths and weaknesses of existing research. The kinds of instructions for critical
writing include: critique, debate, disagree, evaluate.

You need to:

 accurately summarise all or part of the work. This could include identifying the main
interpretations, assumptions or methodology.
 have an opinion about the work. Appropriate types of opinion could include pointing out
some problems with it, proposing an alternative approach that would be better, and/or
defending the work against the critiques of others
 provide evidence for your point of view. Depending on the specific assignment and the
discipline, different types of evidence may be appropriate, such as logical reasoning,
reference to authoritative sources and/or research data.
Critical writing requires strong writing skills. You need to thoroughly understand the topic and the
issues. You need to develop an essay structure and paragraph structure that allows you to analyse
different interpretations and develop your own argument, supported by evidence.

The structure of the academic text

In order to make academic texts easy to read and their contents easy to find, they usually follow a
predetermined structure. Although this structure may differ slightly depending on the subject, the objective
remains the same: to make it easy for the reader to find what they are looking for in the text. The
structure’s role in this is to be the very framework that holds all the different parts
together.Regardless of how advanced your text is, the various parts of the text must relate to each other
so that the reader can follow your line of thought. In addition, each part serves a specific purpose, and the
way you construct them is what creates cohesion.
In this section of the Writing Guide you will receive advice on the overall components that should be
included in academic papers and reports. You will also receive a description of the various functions of
the different components. To learn more about creating linguistic structure in terms of chapters,
paragraphs, and sentences, see Creating cohesion.
Depending on the scope of the assignment and your current level of study, the various parts of the
academic paper may be more or less important. Therefore, always follow the instructions for the
assignment when planning your writing. Under Resources, you will find templates and other resources
from the higher education institutions involved in the development of Writingguide.se.
Well-structured academic papers share certain characteristics:
 all asked questions have been answered or addressed
 the reader understands where the writer is going
 all accounts appear to be relevant to the whole
 the theory you have described is used to analyse and interpret data
 the method is described well and corresponds to your research issue
 the results correspond to the aim
 the discussion links empirical data, theory and method together
 the conclusions are justified by the results of the discussion
Academic papers are to be written according to an established structure, which may differ, depending on
the subject. The IMRaD model (Introduction, Method, Results and Discussion) is usually applied to
subjects in the fields of science and engineering. In social sciences and humanities, the structure is freer.
The “spool of thread” model – a holistic perspective on your

After Dysthe, Hertzberg & Løkensgard Hoel (2011, p. 171)

The “spool of thread” model can suitably be used as a basis for writing your paper. The model
describes a holistic perspective on academic papers, in which you, the writer, begin by writing in
general terms, gradually become increasingly specific, and conclude by explaining what, specifically, you
have arrived at in general terms. Simply put, you start big and then you go small, and conclude by
showing how the small – the specific topic you have chosen to write about – affects the big.
The “spool of thread” model demonstrates how important it is to write not only about what you are
interested in, but also to put what you write into a context that can be understood by others. Again, the
focus should be on communicative aspects of writing.
Title page
Not all assignments require a title page, but when they do, it is good to know that most higher education
institutions offer templates or instructions for designing your title page. Remember that the title page is
to provide information instantly to the reader regarding the title, author and type of work. It is also to
provide information concerning your study programme and the higher education institution you are
How to come up with a good title

A good title is supposed to generate interest and, at the same time, describe what the paper is about.
These two aspects are not always easy to combine. Here are some tips on what to think about:

Read more
Abstract or summary
An abstract or summary provides a brief account of the main content of an academic paper. The purpose
of the summary is partly to generate interest, and partly to present the main issue and key results. Most
importantly, the summary is to capture what the paper is about. Shorter papers usually do not require a

The summary is best written when you have almost completed your project. Only then will you know what
you have actually written. A good idea is to work on a draft summary alongside your paper, and revise it
as you go along. The summary is a difficult text to write, as it is to cover a lot of content in a small space.
But, that is also why it is a useful text to work on – it forces you to formulate what your project is about.

Table of contents
In more lengthy texts, e.g. papers, you may be required to include a table of contents. Do not
underestimate the importance of this! Instead, see it as an opportunity to give the reader an idea of what
the text is about at an early stage. This is done by formulating headings and subheadings that briefly
explain the content of each chapter. For more information on formulating headings, see Outline in The
writing process section.
Most word-processing programs offer templates for tables of contents, which the program will
subsequently create for you. By using these, you ensure that the table is correct and looks good.

The introduction often contains:

 a background to the topic

 aim and issue
 a description of the outline of the text
An introduction is necessary in order to engage the reader and acquaint them with the subject, as a
soft-start and orientation. The aim of the academic paper is usually included in the introduction, but
sometimes, especially in more lengthy texts, the aim has its own subheading. In the introduction, you can
also provide a background to the topic and an overview of relevant published research in order to place
the topic in a wider context. The introduction is intended to lead to the research issue of the paper.
Instead of writing that you are interested in the subject, describe why it is interesting. The focus is to be
on the subject, not you as the author.

The introduction is not something you simply write at the beginning of your project and then lay aside. We
recommend that you return to the introduction throughout the writing process to see if something needs to
be added, removed or rephrased, as this section is to reflect the entire paper, including your discussion
and conclusions. It should be possible to link any drawn conclusions to what you wrote in your

This section is to give the reader the necessary background information in order to understand the
context in which your study was conducted. Depending on the scope of the text, the background is
sometimes part of the introduction and sometimes included as a separate chapter. If you are unsure of
what applies in your case – talk your teacher or supervisor.

In the background section you can, for example, provide a historical overview and explain important
concepts. For instance, if your paper is on teaching and learning, perhaps you will want to account for
relevant policy documents (the Swedish Education Act, curriculum, etc.). In contrast, if the topic of your
paper concerns medical science, you may want to account for certain medical terminology or concepts.

In the background section – or in a separate chapter – you must also include a presentation of previous
research in the field. In this presentation, you are to describe any research of relevance to your paper, for
example, similar studies or research findings which can be related to your results. Furthermore, you must
justify why the selected research is relevant to your own study.

The best way to learn how to write a certain type of text is to read others’ texts of the same type. Ask your
lecturer for examples of texts, or search for them yourself in DiVA, where you can find student papers as
well as research publications which have been produced at a large number of Swedish higher education

Aim and Issue

The aim and research issue are the very essence of the introduction. Everything you write in the
introduction, and by extension in your paper, must therefore be related to the aim. You may need to break
down the issue into one or several research questions. Read more about how to formulate the aim,
research issue and research questions under Aim, issue and research questions – delimiting the subject
matter in The writing process section.
Describing the outline of the text – metatexts

One way to make it easier for the reader is to describe the structure of the paper in the introduction. This
description is commonly referred to as a metatext – a text about the text.

The Writing Guide provides several examples of metatext, for example, at the top of the current page: “In
this section of the Writing Guide you will receive advice on the overall components that should be
included in academic papers and reports. You will also receive a description of the various functions of
the different components.”
Metatexts serve as a guide for the reader, and can be used in all parts of your paper. For more
information about metatexts, see Creating cohesion.
Examples of how to start your introduction

One way is to refer to a current event:

“On 7 September 2016, the Evening Standard reported on major staffing issues in home care in certain
parts of the country. It was found that the problems had existed for a long time, but that the situation had
now become acute in several places. This was also noted by….”

Read more
In an academic paper, it is important to present the theoretical framework and central concepts in the
subject area you have chosen for your paper. Sometimes this is done in a separate chapter; other times it
is included in the introduction or in the method chapter. If you are unsure – ask your lecturer what applies
to your particular subject.
When presenting the theoretical framework you have applied, it is important that you, with reference to
your aim, justify why the particular theories you selected are relevant.

What is a theory?

It is not entirely easy to answer the question of what a theory is. Partly because it differs from one subject
to another, and partly because the term has different meanings depending on the context in which it is
mentioned. “I have a theory!” is something you might have said when believing that you have found a link
between two adjacent events. Such use of the concept works very well in everyday life, but in academic
contexts, a theory needs to be more substantiated than that.

Read more
Do not mistake the theory chapter with the part of the background section that concerns previous

Describing your method is an important part of your paper, as this is where much of your credibility is
established. In the method chapter, you are to account for what you have done, and explain why. You
are also to describe how you collected your material and how you will analyse it, as well as any
delimitations you have made.
The first thing to consider when writing the method chapter is whether the method you have chosen
reflects the aim of your text. You must therefore explain your choice of method, and how you will apply it
to address and answer your research issue or research question. You are also to describe how the
choices you made have affected the validity and reliability of the study.


Stands for "Information and Communication Technologies." ICT refers
to technologies that provide access to information
through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT),
but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes
the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication
In the past few decades, information and communication technologies
have provided society with a vast array of new communication
capabilities. For example, people can communicate in real-time with
others in different countries using technologies such as instant
messaging, voice over IP (VoIP), and video-conferencing. Social
networkingwebsites like Facebook allow users from all over the world to
remain in contact and communicate on a regular basis.
Modern information and communication technologies have created a
"global village," in which people can communicate with others across
the world as if they were living next door. For this reason, ICT is often
studied in the context of how modern communication technologies
affect society.
Updated: January 4, 2010

ICT (information and

communications technology -
or technologies) definition
 Published on December 20, 2015

Mohamed Taher
FollowMohamed Taher
Job Seeker - Executive IT,Networking,Internet SRVs & System
Engineer,ERP, Monitoring IP CAMs Looking for New Job

ICT (information and communications technology - or technologies) is

an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application,
encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network
hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the
various services and applications associated with them, such as
videoconferencing and distance learning. ICTs are often spoken of in a
particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries.
The term is somewhat more common outside of the United States.
According to the European Commission, the importance of ICTs lies
less in the technology itself than in its ability to create greater access to
information and communication in underserved populations. Many
countries around the world have established organizations for the
promotion of ICTs, because it is feared that unless less technologically
advanced areas have a chance to catch up, the increasing technological
advances in developed nations will only serve to exacerbate the already-
existing economic gap between technological "have" and "have not"
areas. Internationally, the United Nations actively promotes ICTs for
Development (ICT4D) as a means of bridging the digital divide.

Source : http://searchcio.techtarget.com/definition/ICT-information-and-

ICT in Philippine History

ICT played a very important role in the history of the Philippines. Many of the campaigns that
call for social change would not have been successful if it were not for ICT. As the Philippines
struggle to demonstrate unity for a call to action or social change, ICT has always been there to

The first significant role that ICT played for the Filipinos was the radio broadcast of Radyo
Veritas, where Cardinal Sin encourage the Filipinos to help end the 22-year regime of then,
Ferdinand Marcos. That exemplifies how the EDSA People Power Revolution started, and it
lasted from 1983 to 1986. Without that radio broadcast Filipinos would not have been moved
into action.

After the People Power Revolution, EDSA Dos in the year 2001 follows. Here text brigades
happen after 11 prosecutors of then President Joseph Estrada walked out of the impeachment
trial, and gather a very large crowd in EDSA. That gathering would not have been there, without
the text brigades.

Million People March was the next exemplification of how ICT helped in unifying people into
one main goal, and it was to condemn the misuse of the Priority Development Assistance Fund
(PDAF). The organizers and promoters of the Million People March used Facebook and
Change.org as their mediums to gather almost 400,000 Filipinos in a series of protest that mainly
took place in Luneta Park from August 22-26, 2013.

Recent storms in the Philippine history gave birth to the People Finder database powered by
Google. During the typhoon Yolanda, the People Finder was a vital tool for people across the
globe to track the situation of their relatives. This proved to be successful and is now adopted by
more organizations to help people track relatives during calamities.

online platform - Computer


An online marketplace that places one party in touch with another, such as buyers and sellers.
Examples are eBay, Craigslist, Amazon Marketplace, Airbnb and Uber. The online system may be
entirely self-contained, or it may allow third-party apps to connect via the platform's programming
interface (API). See platform.

compare and contrastthe nuances of

variedonline platforms, sites,and content to
bestachieve specific
10 Promising Web Platforms
richard macmanus / 20 Aug 2008 / Web

In this post we review 10 promising developer platforms for the Web. We’re not talking
about the obvious ones either, like Facebook, iPhone, OpenSocial or even Twitter. Those
have been covered extensively already. The list below features some of our favorite
‘lesser known’ web developer platforms. There are bound to be other excellent developer
platforms not noted below, so as always please use the comments here to point out your
own favorites.

We’ve written a lot of times about developer platforms for the Web and we’ve reviewed
a fair number of them. A web platform at its simplest is an API, allowing external
developers to build on top of your web app or product. As we explained in our post APIs
and Developer Platforms: A Discussion on the Pros and Cons, “offering an API is a great
way to make developer friends and developing for a large Platform has the potential to
bring your work to a huge audience.”

Note: the content in this post has been written collectively by members of the RWW
team. Also the list below is in no particular order.

1. Imeem Developer Platform: Music

Major social networking site Imeem launched a developer platform in March that will
enable read/write access to user information and more. Imeem is a site where users can
upload music, create and listen to any uploads and blog about music all for free. Imeem
pays internet radio-style licensing fees for each time a copyrighted song is played.

The new platform is a Flex and ActionScript API that will let developers create
customized music players, access activity data and build things like recommendation
engines, smart playlists and music games.
Read more…

2. YouTube Platform: Online Video

The video uploading platform announced by YouTube in March may not have been what
many pundits expected but it could mark a major turning point for both YouTube and
thousands of other sites around the web.

By allowing website owners to combine an on-site video publishing option for their users
with the huge number of people looking to discover new content on YouTube, the
platform will create a mutually beneficial feedback loop that will breathe new life into
both YouTube and the web at large. It’s also got potential to show up all the other big
platform plays we’ve seen to date.

Read more…

3. Fire Eagle: Yahoo’s Location Platform

Earlier this month Yahoo announced that the closed beta period for its location platform
Fire Eagle had ended and that the service was now open for everybody.. Since then, a
number of high-profile services, including Brightkite, Movable Type, Dopplr, and
Pownce have implemented Fire Eagle through the numerous APIs Yahoo provides for
accessing the service.

As we wrote about Fire Eagle when the beta was first announced, it offers API kits in five
different programming languages, it’s got user authorization protocols already available
for web, desktop and mobile apps and it’s using the open standards community built
oAuth to facilitate faster, more secure mashups. This ain’t no cry-baby do it my way or
I’m taking my ball and going home framework like the Facebook platform. This is
leveraging universal open standards.
Note: also see our coverage of the Yahoo! Internet Location Platform, a collection of in-
depth geo-location based APIs.

Read more…

4. Mozilla Weave: Web Platform for User Data

Mozilla recently announced Weave, a new web platform that will store users’ browser
metadata in a cloud environment for access anywhere. Weave is a “framework for
services integration” that will, according to Mozilla, “focus on finding ways to enhance
the Firefox user experience, increase user control over personal information, and provide
new opportunities for developers to build innovative online experiences.”

The basic idea is that browser metadata (things stored in your Firefox profile like
bookmarks, history, RSS feeds, usernames and passwords, etc.) is pushed into the cloud
and stored on Mozilla’s servers. The data is available to users from wherever they get
online and users can share information with friends, family, or third parties while
retaining control over how, when, and if the info is shared.

Read more…

5. Live Mesh: Microsoft’s Multi-device Platform

The new Live Mesh service launched in April as an invite only “technology preview”. It
is Microsoft’s attempt to tie all of our data together. Live Mesh synchronizes data across
multiple devices (currently just Windows computers, but theoretically it will extend to
mobile and other devices in the future) as well as to a web desktop that exists in the
cloud. It can sync data across devices used by a single users, as well as create shared
spaces for multiple users. On the surface, Mesh is a lot like competing file sync services
such as Dropbox, SugarSync (which we covered in January), and even Microsoft’s
own FolderShare product. But what sets Live Mesh apart is its platform approach.

Essentially, Live Mesh is a collection of feeds (which can be expressed as ATOM, JSON,
FeedSync, RSS, WB-XML, or POX). Every piece of data entered into a user’s Mesh —
be it a file, a folder, a message, a user permission, or a new device — is rendered as a
piece of information in a feed. The feeds are then synced with other devices that are part
of that Mesh following rules for how to sync each particular piece of information (i.e.,
File A may sync with Users 1, 2, and 3, while File B may only be told to sync with Users
1 and 2).

Read more…

6. Hakia’s Semantic API

Semantic search engine Hakia announced in June a set of APIs that opens up their natural
language processing and search platform to developers. Hakia’s Syndication Web
Services really comes in two parts: search queries, which allow developers to add web
search functionality leveraging Hakia’s five billion page index, and XML feed calls,
which give developers access to Hakia’s underlying natural language processing
technology. The latter of the two is clearly the more compelling of the
offerings. [disclosure: hakia has been a RWW sponsor]

Read more…

7. Iceberg: Everyone Can Program

There was a time when only technically-savvy people knew how to create content and
publish it to the internet, but the rise of easy-to-use blogging and CMS systems changed
that. Today, everyone can be a publisher. Now, Iceberg wants to bring that same
democratization to programming. In fact, that’s their vision for Web 3.0 – the web where
everyone is a programmer.

Build an App in 3 Minutes

In June Iceberg launched publicly. Although the focus is on business applications, like
CRM or PM tools, you can interface with anything that offers up a web service. For
enterprise environments, instead of using Iceberg as a service, I.T. departments can
download and use Iceberg offline, behind the firewall, to work with their in-house
servers, like Windows SQL server for example.

Read more…

8. Cascada Mobile: Anyone Can Build a Mobile App

In July Cascada Mobile launched a platform called Cascada Breeze, allowing anyone to
take their idea from thought to app in about fifteen minutes. Well, maybe not anyone –
the apps are built using HTML, so you would have to have some rudimentary web
programming knowledge to use their platform. Still, you have to admit, that’s a lot easier
than using a professional development platform.

With Breeze, you can build, test, and distribute mobile J2ME apps that run on hundreds
and handsets. And these are “real” apps, too – fully integrated mobile applications with
their own icon, not just mobile widgets.

Read more…
9. Android: Google’s Open Mobile Phone Platform
We said we wouldn’t discuss iPhone, but we can’t help mentioning Android – because of
its potential to really open up the up-till-now closed mobile phone platform ecosystem.
Earlier this week we reported that the HTC Dream, the first handset to run Android (aka
“the Google Phone”) has been approved by the FCC. In the documents provided, it
appears that we have now a release date for this highly anticipated phone: November
10th, 2008.

Google has been encouraging developers to create applications for Android and
rewarding them for doing so with cold, hard cash with the Android Developer Challenge.
(See our previous coverage here). This has led to numerous third-party applications ready
to flood the market when the phone goes to launch, regardless as to which developers win
the big prizes (Pictured: Teradesk App). According to PCWorld, Google Developer
Advocate Jason Chen told the Android breakout session at May’s Google I/O event that
developers won’t need to get Android applications certified by anyone nor will there be
any hidden APIs accessible only to handset makers or mobile operators. Even the phone’s
homescreen and widgets will be customizable – that’s a much different take than the
locked-down iPhone – and one that caters to users who like to make their phones their
Read more…

10. Meebo: Web Instant Messaging

Unlike most other platforms in the news these days, the Meebo Platform is a closed one.
As at December more than 300 companies had registered to build applications but only
39 had been accepted into the program. Most are multiperson gaming apps, the rest video
and voice chat apps. Companies chosen to participate in the Platform work closely with
Meebo to assure high-quality integration of their applications, the company says.

The Meebo Platform is the third step in the vision for the company, after building a basic
web IM service and then integrating that service into other sites through tools like
MeeboMe and MeeboRooms.

Read more…

Похожие интересы