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# 4 .

## By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Explain thermal equilibrium
Explain how a liquid-in glass thermometer works

## During a barbecue session using burning charcoal, why does

a piece of cold meat become hot after a while?

When two objects are in thermal contact with each other, heat
energy is transferred from one object to another. Compare
the rate of heat energy transfer from hot object to cold object
and from cold object to hot object.

There is a net flow of heat energy from the hotter object to the
colder object.

## The hot object________, while cold object becomes ______.

After some time, heat energy is transferred at the same rate
between the two objects.

## 1. What is the net heat transfer between the two objects?

_______
2. What happen to the temperature of the two objects?
_______

## Based on the situation When two objects are in thermal equilibrium,

above, state the conditions
1. ___________________________________
when two objects are in
2. ________________________________

When the rate of heat energy transfer between two objects in thermal contact
is the _______, the two objects are in _________________________
- -

1. Glass Tube
What is the advantage of using glass?

## 2. Upper Fixed Point

For mercury thermometer, the upper fixed point is ______
Why is the upper fixed point also known as steam point?

## 3. Narrow Capillary Tube

4. Mercury
State the physical property of mercury that makes it suitable
to be used in liquid-in-glass thermometer.
1.
2.

## 5. Lower Fixed Point

For mercury thermometer, the lower fixed point is ____ .
Why is the lower fixed point also known as ice point?

6. Bulb
1. Thin glass wall

2. Large Bulb
1. Given the length of steam point, L100 is 14.9 cm and the length of ice point of a
mercury thermometer, L0 is 3.6 cm. What is the temperature of a liquid when
the length of mercury thread, L in the same thermometer used gives a reading
of 9.0 cm?

## 2. The temperature of liquid W is measured by using a mercury thermometer. The

length of the mercury column at steam point and ice point are 41 cm and 6 cm
respectively. When the thermometer is immersed in the liquid W, the length of
the mercury column is 34 cm. what is the temperature of the liquid W?

𝐿−𝐿0
For a mercury-in-glass thermometer, 𝜃 = x 100˚C
𝐿100 − 𝐿0

## Where 𝜃 = the unknown temperature

L0 =
L100 =
𝐿𝜃 = length of mercury column at the unknown temperature
4 .2

## By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Define specific heat capacity
𝑄
State that 𝑐 =
𝑚𝜃

## Determine the specific heat capacity of a liquid

Determine the specific heat capacity of a solid
Describe applications of specific heat capacity
Solve problems involving specific heat capacity

, , c

(WATER)

## What is the specific heat capacity of water?

/
Mass of the empty beaker, m1 _______________ kg

m = m 2 - m1

## Final temperature of water, _______________ ˚C

Increase in temperature, = _______________ ˚C

## Specific heat capacity of water,

= ____________ J − −

(ALUMINIUM)

## What is the specific heat capacity of aluminium?

/
Mass of aluminium block, m _______________ kg

## Specific heat capacity of aluminium,

= ____________ J − −

## 1. Why felt cloth used to wrap the apparatus?

_____________________________________________________________

2. Explain why the gaps between the immersion heater and thermometer in the
aluminium cylinder are filled with oil?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
3. Why did the temperature continue to rise after the power supply has been
switched off?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

4. Why the values of specific heat capacity of water and aluminium from the
experiment are higher than the actual values?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

5. State one of the precaution step while carry out this experiment.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

1. Water as a

##  Water has a _________________________

 Acts as a heat reservoir as it can absorb a great amount of _____before it boils.
 Used as a __________________

2.
Explain how sea breeze occur :

 During the day time, heat energy from the sun is absorbed by the sea
and the land.

 Xx

3.

## Explain how land breeze occur :

 During the night time, heat lost from the sea and land.

1. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 3.7 kg of
water from 56 0C to 71 0C. (Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1).

## Amount of heat required, Q = mcθ

= 3.7 x 4200 x (71-56)
= 233, 100 J

2. 255 g block of an aluminium at 143 0C is cooled until 43 0C. Find the amount of
heat is released. (Specific heat capacity of aluminium = 900 J kg-1 C-1).

## Amount of heat released, Q = mcθ

= 0.255 x 900 x (143-43)
= 22 950 J

## 3. 0.4 kg of water at 80 0C is mixed with 0.46 kg of water at 53 0C. Assuming that

no heat is lost, find the final temperature of the mixture. (Specific heat capacity
of water = 4200 J kg-1 C-1)

## Amount of heat released, Q = Amount of heat required, Q

mcθ = mcθ
0.4 x 4200 x (80- θ) = 0.46 x 4200 x (θ - 53)
θ = 65.6 0C
4 .3

## By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Define specific latent heat
𝑄
State that 𝑙 = 𝑚

## Determine the specific latent heat of fusion

Determine the specific latent heat of vaporisation
Solve problems involving specific latent heat

## Amount of heat required to change

the phase of 1 kg of the substance
at a constant temperature.

## Amount of heat required to change

1 kg of the substance from solid to
liquid phase without a change in
temperature. =

## Amount of heat required to change

1 kg of the substance from liquid to
gaseous phase without a change in
temperature.
 Molecules arranged in regular patterns and closed
tightly to each other.
 When heated, molecules gain energy and vibrate at
their fixed positions
 Kinetic energy increase and temperature increase

##  The temperature rises

 The heat supplied increase the kinetic energy of
molecule
 Molecules begin to move faster and randomly
 Liquid starts to boil
 Latent heat of vaporisation is absorbed to provide
energy to overcome the forces of attraction between
the molecules
 When the gas cooled, heat is released to the
surrounding
 Kinetic energy of molecules decrease
 Temperature of gas decrease
 Gas begins to condense into a liquid when reached
condensation point
 Temperature remains constant
 Latent heat of vaporisation is released to surroundings

##  Liquid begins to freeze when reached freezing point

 Molecules closely packed
 Temperature remains constant
 Latent heat of fusion is released
(ICE)

## Mass of the empty beaker 2, m2 _______________ g

Mass of beaker 1 with water, m3 _______________ g

m 3 – m1

m 4 – m2

## Mass of ice melted by the heat

supplied by the heater,
_______________ g
m = (m3 – m1) – (m4 – m2)

## Specific latent heat of fusion,

= ____________ J −

(WATER)

/
.

minutes, m2

## Specific latent heat of vaporisation,

= ____________ J −
Given,
Specific heat capacity of water = 4 200 J kg-1 C-1
Specific heat capacity of ice = 2 100 J kg-1 C-1
Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.36 X 105J kg-1
Specific latent heat of vaporisation of ice = 2.26 X 106J kg-1

1. An immersion heater rated at 800 W is fitted into a large block of ice at 00C.
How long does it take to melt 0.5 kg of ice?

Q = ml
Pt = 0.5 x (3.36 x 105 )
800 x t = 302 400
t = 210 s

## 2. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 1.4 kg of ice at 0 0C to water at

30 0C.

Q = mLf + mc
= (1.4)(3.36 x 105) + (1.4)(4200)(30)
= 646 800 J

3. Find the amount of heat needed to convert 0.5 kg of ice at -15 0C into steam at
100 0C

## Q = (mc)ice + (mLf)ice + (mc)water + (mLv)steam

= (0.5)(2100)(15) + (0.5)(336 000) + (0.5)(4200)(100) + (0.5)(2260 000)
= 1 523 750 J

4. Calculate the amount of heat needed to convert 100 g of ice at 0 0C into steam
at 100 0C.

## Q = (mLf)ice + (mc)water + (mLv)steam

= (0.1)(336 000) + (0.1)(4200)(100) + (0.1)(2260 000)
= 301 600 J
4 .4

## By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to

Explain gas pressure, temperature and volume in terms of kinetic theory.
Determine the relationship between
(i) P and V (ii) V and T (iii) P and T
Solve problems involving pressure, temperature and volume of a fixed mass of gas.

##  The molecules are in ________________motion.

PASCAL,  When a molecule collides with the wall of the
Pa container and bounces back, there is a change in
___________ and a force is ________on the wall.
 The _______________is the pressure of the gas.

##  The molecules move ________ in random motion

and ________ the whole space in the container.
(metre)3,
 The volume of the gas is _________ to the
m3
volume of the container.

##  The molecules are in _______________motion

Kelvin,
and have an average _______________ which is
K
proportional to the temperature.
’ ’

Boyle’s law states that the Charles’ law states that Pressure law states that
pressure of a fixed mass the volume of a fixed mass the pressure of a fixed
of gas is inversely of the gas is directly mass of gas is directly
proportional to its volume proportional to its absolute proportional to its absolute
provided when the temperature when its temperature when its
temperature of the gas is pressure is kept constant. volume is kept constant.
kept constant.

P1V1 = P2V2 1 1
= =
1 1

## 1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram above.

2. Piston is push until the volume of air is 100 cm3.
3. Observed and record the pressure of air through bourdon
gauge.

## The experiment is repeated by pushing the piston at different

volume of air which are 90 cm3, 80 cm3, 70 cm3, and 60 cm3.

## Volume, V (cm3) 1/V (cm-3) Pressure, P (Pa)

100
90
80
70
60
Plot graph P against 1/V

## 1. Based on the graph, state the relationship between P and V.

_____________________________________________

## 2. Explain the relationship between pressure and volume of

gas based on kinetic theory of gases.
 When the volume of a gas is decreased, the number of
molecules per unit volume increases.
 The molecules will collide more frequently with the wall of
container.
 The rate of collision increased by as the force acting on per
unit area of the wall container is increased.
 Therefore pressure exerted by the gas increased.

## 3. State one precaution step while carry out this experiment.

Tightened and greased the rubber tube to prevent leakage
of air from the syringe.

## To investigate the relationship between volume of air and

temperature of air

: temperature of air

## : mass of air , pressure of air

/ Thermometer, meter rule, retort stand, concentrated sulphuric acid,
water, rubber bands, capillary tube, Bunsen burner, wire gauge

## 1. Set up the apparatus as shown above.

2. Heat the water and stir continuously until the temperature
reaches 30˚C.
3. Observed and record the length of air column (indicate the
volume of air) by using meter rule.

## xperiment is repeated by heating the water to temperature 40

˚C, 50 ˚C, 60 ˚C, and 70 ˚C.
Temperature of air, T (˚C) Volume of air, V (cm3)
30
40
50
60
70

## 1. Based on the graph, state the relationship between V and T.

V is directly proportional to T.

## 2. Explain the relationship between volume and temperature of

gas based on kinetic theory of gases.
 When the temperature of the gas increase, the molecules
move faster as kinetic energy increased.
 The molecules push the sulphuric acid column up.
 Hence the air expands and the volume increase.

## To investigate the relationship between pressure of gas and

temperature of gas

: temperature of gas

: pressure of gas

: volume of gas

## / Round bottom flask, beaker, thermometer, bourdon gauge, stirrer,

tripod stand with wire gauze, Bunsen burner, rubber tube, retort
stand with clamp, tap water

## 1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram above.

2. Fill the beaker with cold water until the water reached the
neck of the round bottom flask.
3. Stir the water and record its initial temperature.
4. The water is heated slowly until the temperature of water
reaches 30 ˚C.
5. The Bunsen burner is moved away and water is stirred until
the temperature of air is in equilibrium with the temperature
of water. The temperature and pressure of air are recorded.

Repeat the above steps until the water reaches 40˚C, 50˚C,
60˚C and 70˚C.

30
40
50
60
70

## 1. Based on the graph, state the relationship between P and T.

P is directly proportional to T.

## 2. Explain the relationship between pressure and temperature

of gas based on kinetic theory of gases.
 When the temperature of the gas increase, the molecules
move faster as kinetic energy increased.
 The molecules will collide more frequently with the wall of
container.
 The rate of collision increased by as the force acting on per
unit area of the wall container is increased.
 Therefore pressure exerted by the gas increased.
3. State one precaution step while carry out this experiment.

## Tightened the rubber tube to prevent leakage of air from

1. A bicycle pump of uniform cross section has a length of 28 cm and contains air at
atmospheric pressure. If the piston is pushed inwards a distance of 13 cm to pump
air into tyre, what is the pressure of the air in the pump at this instant?

P1V1 = P2V2
(1)(28) = (P2)(28-13)
P2 = 1.87 atm

## 2. A gas of volume 22 m3 at 42 0C is heated until its temperature becomes 71 0C at

constant pressure. What is the increase in volume?

V1 = V2 , 22 = V2 .

T1 T2 42 + 273 71 + 273
V2 = 24.03 m3

3. The air pressure in a container at 28 0C is 1.3 x 107 N m-2. The container is heated
until the temperature is 69 0C. What is the final air pressure if the volume of the
container is fixed?

P1 = P2 , 1.3 x 107 = P2 .

T1 T2 28 + 273 69 + 273
P2 = 1.5 x 107 N m-2