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First edition

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Design and production: L|GARISI'<GENCE

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2 i P o w e r T r o n s f o r m eFru n d o m e n t o l sA- R E V A
4 I PowerTronsform
r domentols-AREVA

ransformers anddistributionsgstemson
arevital componentsin the electricitgtransmisston
which so mang of us dependfor our modernstandardof living. Largelghiddenfrom public
view transformersarethe enablingtechnologgfor the efficient transportof electricalenerggfrom
whereit is produced,whateverthe primargfuel source,to whereit is neededwhetherbg industrg,
railwagsor domesticconsumers.Theelectricitgwe usetgpicallgpassesthroughfour or more
transformersbeforeit reachesour homesfrom the powerstation,and in the last 100+gearsa
substantialglobalindustrghasbuilt up to supptgtransformersin largenumbersto meet the needs
of the utilitg companiesfor everlarger,moreefficientandmorecosteffectiveequipmentto support
the risein the demandsandexpectations of theircustomers.Muchof the basictechnologgusedin
transformers is quite mature,but the designtoolsand manufacturingtechniquesareconstantlg
improvingandthe rangeand capabilitgof the finishedproductsis constantlgexpanding.

Utilitg companiesand manufacturersmust form a veru closepartnershipto successfullg

deliveran electricalsgstemthat meetsthe needsof consumersin all the necessargrespectsof
safetg,technicalcapabititg,economiceffictencg,reliabilitg,maintainabilitgand environmental
compatibititg.Thispartnershipdependson a highlevelof mutual understanding, andnowherein
the industrgis this moretrue than in the supplgof transformers. Manufacturersmust understand
the requirementsand the importance of the job the will
transformer be to do and utilities
and industrialcustomersmust understandwhat is possiblewith existingtechnologgand how
particulardemandswill impact on the complexitg,cost and potentialreliabilitgof the finished
transformer.Therewill alwagsbe newchallengeslike highervoltages,higherpowers,the integration
of renewablegeneration,and the efficient replacementof aging equipment,that demandthe
highestlevelof knowledge.

This book is a tremendouslgusefulresourceto help meet the needfor a good and up to date
understanding of transformers andtransformertechnologg.Specificallg the bookwill helputilitg
and industrialengineers and other readers appreciate the normal practices,what is possible
now and what developments areexpectedtn the transformerindustrgin the future.Thereis an
obligationto share knowledge and experienceso that the industrgcan functioneffectivelgand
developin the future.Arevahasshownthat it takesthis obligationseriouslgbg makingsomuch
of its experttseavailablewith the publicationof this book.

Mr P Jarmanis recognizedworldwideas a TransformerTechnicalSpecialist, with over20 gearsexperience
in research,engineeringand technicalmanagementof transmissionnetworktransformers.
He is Chairmanof the BritishNationalStandardsCommitteefor PowerTransformers and is involvedin
CIGRE work tn thecapacitgof Convenorfor WGA2.27(Facilitiesfor ConditionMonitoringof Transformers)
and as a memberof variousother workinggroupsrelatedto transformers.He will shortlgbecome
the tJKRegularMemberfor CIGRE SCA2 (Transformers)and is alsoinvolvedin IECwork in the capacitg
for IECTCl1,MTs,for the revisionof IEC60076-lstandard.
of IJKreDresentative

PowerTronsformer l5
6 I P o w e r T r o n s f o r mFeurn d o m e n t o lAsR

fter morethan a centurgof existence, arestill a matterfor specialists.

transformers Dealing
with this essentialpieceof electricitgnetworkequipmentrequiresbroadtechnicalknowledge,
goodphgsicalunderstanding and the expertiseaccumulatedfrom both theoreticaldevelopment
and practicalexperience.

With overone hundredgearsof experienceand technologicalbreakthroughsin the power

transformerindustrg,AREVA T&Dhasmorethan 9000mediumand largepowertransformersin
operationin majorpowernetworksoverfive continents.It hasa strongindustrialpresenceclose
to its customerswith factoriesand dedicatedR&Dand competencecentersall overthe world,as
well as beingabteto offer alt tgpesof powertransformersup to the highestratings.AREVA
hasdevelopedand concentratedthe extensiveexperienceand expertisethat gou wouldexpect
from a powertransformerpartner.

T&D'sinvolvementwith its customersgoesfar begondjust the delivergof a transformer.


Awarethat the successof powertransformerprojectsrequiresa highlevelof communicationand

understanding betweenpartiesandpartners,AREVA T&Dhascreatedthis POWER TRANSFORMER
BOOK. It is dedicatedto all professionals
whoneedto dealefficientlgwith transformerdesigners,
manufacturers, suppliersand servicesuppliers,as well as to the individualswhowishto develop
or complementtheir knowledgeof powertransformers.

Thisbookcoversthe fult tife cgcleof powertransformersfrom projectspecificationto recgclingand

to new R&Dtrends.It is the resultsof a collaborativeeffort from overfiftg technicaltransformer
expertsfrom AREVA T&Dpowertransformerfactoriesand R&Dcentersall overthe world,and offers
to readersthe benefitof our collectiveexpertiseand internationalreal-lifeexperiencefor the whole
rangeof powertransformers.

It is intendedto be usedas a personallearningtool for all peoplewho are involvedwith power

transformers - includingcontractmanagersandinspectors,
- from novicesto techntcalspecialists
operators,assetmanagersand eventop technicalmanagers.Writtenas a referenceworkingtool
from a neutralviewpoint,it alsohighlightsthe technicalchoicesthat AREVA T&Dhasselectedin
tts standardsand practicesasbeingthe bestsolution.

the bookis dividedinto two volumes:

Tobestfit our users'needs,

VolumeOnetntroducesreadersto the "Fundamentals"of transformers,includingtheir historgand

the implementationof powertransformerprojects.After an overviewof the full powertransformer
knowledgeto answerquestionssuchas:Howto
appticationrange,it bringsthe readerthe necessarg
specifga transformer?Howto estimateperformances Howto transportit? How
and characteristics?
to optimizeon siteinstallation?Whatissuesaffectoperation?Howto protecta transformer?

PowerTrqnsformer l7

VolumeTwoprovidesan insight into transformer"Expertise",taking readersthroughan in-depth

presentationof specialaspectsof powertransformerdesignand technologg,manufacturing,
testingand newtrends.It is intendedfor useas a referenceguideto supportdetailedtechnical
choicesand evaluationrelating to all specificationaspectsfrom designto testing, including
materialsand qualitg. It alsoprovidesa preparationfor the future in terms of developmentand

Forefficient use of this learningtool, great carewas givento its navigationfacititg. Foreach
volume,a user-friendlgglobalcontenttableprovidesan overviewof the structureandcontentdown
to the first levelof sub-chapters.
Eachchaptersubsequentlgbeginswith its owncontentsummaru
and detailedcontenttable.Insidethe chapters,crossreferences aremadeto othersectionsand
volumes,detailingadditionalaspectsof the samesubject.

I wishto sharewith gouthe expertiseand experience T&D"Experts"bg

of the recognizedAREVA
offeringthis book as a valuableworkingtool for all readers.

Wehopethat thesevolumesillustratehowmuchvaluewe attributeto customersatisfactionand

mutual understanding.At AREVAT&D,our commitmentgoesfar begondthe delivergof power


BI PowerTronsformer - A R E VA

Thisbookis the resultof a collaborative

effortbg technicalexpertswithin AREVA
facilities,competencecentersandR&Dcentersall overthe world.Wethankthem for this impressive
team workand their willingnessto shareour collectiveexperienceand expertise.

lohn CRAY,Ian MACKAY, Vijagakumaran MOORKATH
PeiDeYE Galip ASAR,SophieBRAVO,
Gilbert LUNA,Michel MARTIN, Tirdad BOROOMAND,
ChristophePERRIER, Domenic ROTILI, lohn HUMBLE, David J IACKSON,
AndreasBRUNKOW, William YOUNG.
Karl Heinz HAEGER,
Gunther HOBA,FrankHOFMANN,
MichaelROESNER, TobiasSTIRL,

Wewishto thank AllenWHITEfor the specialsupporthe broughtto this project.

Finallg,we areespeciallggratefulto the operationalcommitteemembersof this project,for their

globalreviewingwork.Thesespecialreviewersare MurtelBONDON, EricCHEMIN, AtanDARWIN,
Franqois DEVAUX,MilanSARAVOLAC, and WilliamYOUNG.

Wealsowishto thankour suppliersandpartnersfor their contributionsto varioussubjectmatters

presentedtn the book.Pleasereferto the acknowledgementspagesin secondvolume.

PowerTronsformer - A R E VA
Fundomentols i9





2 l[#tl.l3$f;Y5*?TC 37 4 I|?-XJ?TRANSP.RT


2 . 1 4 LOSSES B4
2 . 1 7 COSTDRIVERS 95

r0 I Power - A R E VA




6IHFH''3iJ-l',oN?1 7 7

6.I TOADING 179 INDEX Vol.2 458

6.8 cofrrnot 202
6 . 1 0 E N DO F I I F E 206

PowerTronsformer - AR EVA
Fundqmentols I lr
12i P o w eT e ru n d o m e n t o- lAs R E V A
r r o n s f o r mF
Trqnsformershqve existed for more thon q century,yet they qre still
o motter for speciolists.Before discussingthe use of trqnsformers,it
is useful to know their history.Thisfirst chopter offers you on insight
into this rich post, which includesthe eorly discoveryof tronsformer
principles,the improvementof performqncesqnd rqtings ond the
continuingcontributionsfrom AREVAT&D rhot hqve helped to drive
qnd fuel the power trqnsformer evolution.
This chopter olso gives o globol overview of the numerous power
trqnsformer types ond common rqnges by opplicotion, bosed
on AREVA T&D's long experience os one of the world's most
well-recognized designers qnd mqnufqcturers. Understonding
the vqrious types qnd opplicotions will help the reoder to
understond how to correctly select the right tronsformer for the

P o w e rT r o n s f o r m eFr u n d o m e n t o l-sA R E V A i l3

The RightTrqnsformerfor
the RightApplicqtion 1 a

EorlyStoges t5

Theprocessof Discoveryof TronformerPrinciples t 5

SporkInductors t5
InitiolApplicotionof AlternotingCurreni l t5
ThesecondoryGenerotor t6
TronsformerDevelopmenl 17
Tronsformer 17


1 , 2 , 7 . AREVAGroup t9
1,2,2. AREVA T&D 20
1.2.3. AREVAT&D'sPowerTronsformerBockground 20
1,2,4, AREVAT&DTronsformerFoctoriesoround
the World 20

1.3.1. PowerGenerotion 22
I .3.1.l . PowerStotionStepUpTronsformers
or GenerolorTrqnsformers 22 Unit(AuxiliorylTronsformers(UATI 23 Stortingor StotionServiceTronsformers {SSTI 23
1,3.2. Tronsportof Energy 24 Interconnection
Tronsformers ond Autotronsformers
for TronsmissionNefworks 24 ConvertorTronsformers for HVDCLinks 25 SmoothingReoctors for HVDCLinks 27
I.3.3. PowerFlowControl 27 Phose-shifting o FACTS
Tronsformers, Solution 27
Tronsformers StoticVAr Compensotor 29 ShuntReoctors 29 SeriesReqctors 30
1.3.4. PorticulorIndustriolApplicqtions 3l LorgeDriveConverterTronsformers 3l
\.3,4.2. RecifierTronsformers for Electrolysis
Applicotions 3t FurnoceTronsformers 32
1.3.5. RoilwoysApplicotions 33
I .3.5.1. TrockSideTronsformers JJ

1.3.6. of Energy
Distribution 34
l.l.l. EorlyStoges
The basic transformerprinciple and its applicationsin the electricalequipmentdomain were
systematicallydiscoveredin the nineteenthcenturyby a seriesofcreative engineersand inventors,
many ofwhose namesare,to this day,associatedwith some of our most common tools and processes.
From the initial discoveryof electromagneticinduction to the developmentof the first spark inductors,
firstly in open-coilform and ultimately as closedcoils, these pioneersproposedmany alternating
current applicationsthat would becomesuch innovationsas revolutionaryelectricpublic lighting
systems,thus beginningthe practicaltransformer technologyfor consumersin the domesticand
industrialarenas.They havebequeathedthis fine heritageto all.

l . l .l . l . fhe Process of Discoyery of Transformer Principles

In 1831,MichaelFaraday demonstratedthe principle of electromagneticinduction, creatinga voltage
pulse acrossthe secondaryterminalsof his experimentalapparatusby interruptinga direct current
flowing in the primary coil.
Faradayunderstoodthat a currentvariationin one coil would generatevoltagein anothercoil.
Faraday,as far as we know did not foreseepracticalusesofhis discoverybecause,up to that time,
AC had beenconsideredunsuitablefor industrialpurposesand only DC applicationswere beingused
for electrochemistryand electroplating.
In 1832,JosephHenry discoveredthe conceptofself-inductance,and that when interrupting current,
the rapid flux changeinduceda very high coil voltage.
In 1836,NicolasCallan increasedthe voltagethat was generatedby using a two-coil converter.When
an intermittent current circulatedby a batterythrough a "primary" coil of a few turns, he found that a
high voltageappearedat the terminalsofthe "secondary"coil which compriseda largenumber ofturns.
The core used in this experimentwas made of a ductile iron bar and was not closed.
In 1838,Charles.J Pagein Americaand, tn1842,
AntoineMassonin France,were ableto generate
severalkilovoltsusing similar devices.These
werethe first generationof sparkinductors.
In 1853,Heinrich DanielRuhmkorff increased
the length of the spark first to 200 mm then to
450 ffiffi, by improving both the vibrator device
and the coil insulation(Fig.l.lo).
The spark inductorwas, in fact, a high voltage
t r a n s f o r m e r ;b u t , o d d l y e n o u g h a t t h i s e a r l y
stage,it was consideredto be a DC deviceand Fig.l.lo - Ruhmkorff
Spork lnductor
it contributedmore to transformerproduction @ Mus6e
EDF Electropolis
technologydevelopmentthan to its theoretical
aspects. Applicofionof AlternotingCurenf

In the 1850's,an electrical application finally made it to the forefront in the form of electric Iighting
using carbonarc lamps.
In 1848,Leon Foucault constructed an automatic electromagneticregulator.
Initially,carbonarc Iampswere suppliedusing a DC generator,but it becamequickly apparentthat
AC generators,which did not havea commutatorand were thus cheaperto manufacture,were also
suitable for powering arc lamps - hencethe birth of the practical application of alternating current.
In the 1870's,PavelJablochkoff improvedthe flame-arclamp using two parallel carbonrods. The use
of "Jablochkoffcandles"unableswider use of electricallighting and it made it clearthat one generator
could actuallyfeedseverallamps.When connectedin series,a supplyof 1 000 to 1 500 Volts could
operate20 to 30 Iamps over severalkilometers.The problem was that all lamps had to haveidentical
power and, when one lamp went out, all lamps in the line would be switched off.

r u n d o m e n t o l -s A R E V A
P o w e rT r a n s f o r m e F 1{

In 1877, Jablochkoff realizedthat insteadof a direct connectionto the serieslink, the lamps could
be suppliedthrough a two-coil inductiondevice.

1.1.f .4. fhe Secondary Generotor

In 1882,LucienGaulard from Franceand the Englishman,JohnDixon Gibbs,patenteda distributing
power systemthat used alternatingcurrent with t'wo-coilinduction deviceslinked by an open iron
In 1884devices,now known as secondarygenerators,were used in the first alternatingcurrent
distribution system to light a twelve kilometer section of the London Underground.Meanwhile,
in Italy, all the stationsof the Torino-Lanzorailway line where equippedwith electriclighting, the
most distant lamp being situated40 km away from the 2000 Volt generatoroperatingat'J'33 Hz
Fig.l.lb showsa secondarygeneratorthat was built in 1884.Evenat this time, the iron corewas still
In the model shown in tig.l.lr, the primarywinding has 455 discs,the sameas on the secondary
By the mid-1880s,the main faults of this devicewere becomingevident:high reluctanceof the iron-air
magneticcircuit, a small iron coresectionalarea,the weak inter-turn insulationthat did not permit
sufficientlyhigh operatingvoltages,and the low ratio betweenthe primary and secondarycoils.
In the yearsfollowing the experimentalschemesin London and Turin, Gaulard becameconvincedof
the usefulnessof using a closediron core.He built a secondarygeneratorsimilar to the modelshown
in Fig.l.lr, consistingof two generators(asin the previousgeneration)side-by-sidebut this time with
a singlecorecreatedby connectingthe top and bottom ends of the two previouslinear cores.With
this arrangement,it was possibleto build generatorswith a power of 1 kW or more.

Fig.l.lb - TheSecondory of 1884

Generolor Fig.l.lc - TheSecondory of 1886
@ Mus6e Eleclropolis

Despiteits imperfections,the secondarygeneratorcan be consideredas the forerunnerofthe


?cwer 1'ranstormerFundamentcis- A R E VA
1 /
l.l. | .5. Ironsfo rmer Developmenf
In 1885,GeorgesWestinghouseforesawthe
p o t e n t i a la p p l i c a t i o n so f G a u l a r da n d G i b b s '
s e c o n d a r yg e n e r a t o r s H . i s d e v e l o p m e nw t as
not new, but his designwas the first that could
handlehigh powerand that promisedto be cheap
to manufacture.He importedseveralapparatus
and beganexperimentingwith AC networks.
William Stanley,a Westinghouseengineer,was
in chargeof improvingthe secondarygenerator
and building the first commercialdevice(refer
to Fig. I.ld).
The first commercialapplicationof the "induction
coil" was in 1886,providinglighting for offices
a n d s h o p so f t h e t o w n o f G r e a tB a r r i n g t o n , Fig.l.ld - TheStonley

In the meantime,Hungar:anengineersl(aroly
Zipernowsky,Otto Bl6thy and Miska D6ri, from
the GanzCompanyin Budapest,createda closed
core apparutus basedupon Gaulard-Gibbs's work
The main improvementsof the "ZBD" system
-> A high voltageratio betweenhigh voltage
(L 400 to 2 000 V) and low voltage(about
-> The primarieswere connectedin parallel
to the supplyline, ratherthan in series
-> A closediron corewithout an air gap at
thejoint giving a low voltagedrop and low
The patentapplicationof this apparatuswas the Fig.l.le - TheZBD
first to use the wo td "transformer" and hence @ CNUM
the transformerthat we know todaywas born.
In L889, the Russian engineer Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolski developedthe first three-phase
Thus, the principlesof the transformerwere establishedand haveremainedunchangedup to the
presenttime, though their efficiencyand capacitieshavegonefurther than any of the early innovators
everwould have expected.
The inventionofthe transformer-connectedpower systemmarked a new era in the history of electrical
engineering.However,we owe much to Gaulardand Gibbsfor their groundbreakinginvention, which
is consideredto be the first important step towards the invention of the transformer.

l. 1.2. TronsformerMilestones
As early as the late nineteenthcentury the transformerhad becomean essentialpieceof electrical
equipment for the effectivetransmission and distribution of energy in the form of efficient electric
Transformerschangethe electric power generatedat low voltage into electric power at a higher
voltage for transmission, before bringing it back to a lower voltage Ievel appropriateto the end
user's application.As is the casewith constantpower, the voltageand current vary inverselywith
one another: so by increasingthe voltagelevel, the current is decreasedby the same proportion. This
permits reducedconductorsectionin the transmissionlines and in the relatedinfrastructure.

PowerTransformer - A R E VA
Fundomentols i17

Transformerproduction lines were started in Hungary in 1889, then during the early 1890's, in
westerncountries- notablyin Europe.In 1893, CFTH(CompagnieFranqaisepour I'exploitationdes
brevetsThomson Houston) commencedproduction in Paris in cooperationwith what would become
GeneralElectricCorporationin the USA. CFTH is one of the severaleminent grandparentsofAREVA
T&D power transformersand its breakthroughsare now part of AREVAT&D power transformers
product line history.
During the industrialization period at the beginning of the 20'h century transformer manufacturers
were, in the main, servinglocal utilities and working with them in closepartnerships.They served
the power transformationneedsof limited size power plants, industrial mills, local industrial end
users,and later on lighting for remoteconsumers,domesticdevicesor electromotion.Transformer
rated power remained limited to a few thousands of kVA and voltage levels at a few kV.
Stage-by-stage, the growing needsof electricityend usersfor power from ever-moreremote power
generationsites drove the attainment of higher power production capacitiesand more efficient and
competitivetransmission solutions. Power station capacitiesincreased,and so did transmission line
lengths.To optimize the overalltransmissioncosts,the number of transmissionlines in parallelhad to
be kept to a minimum, and voltagelevelswere thereforeincreasedto limit nominal current, conductor
crosssections,and associatedtransmissionlosses(proportionalto the secondpower ofcurrent for
sameconductorsection)for the same levelof transportedpower.
In the early part of the 20thcentury there was an astounding(at least,it was at that time) voltageleap
to 220 kV, However,the demandfor powerwas so great that, a new standard400 kV voltagelevel
was achievedby the Europeannetworks by the middle of the 20'hcentury.The drive did not halt there
and, by the 1960s, the first 800 kV networkswere being developedin countrieswhere generation
siteswere significantlyremotefrom their major consumptionareas(USA,Canada,Venezuela...).
This evolutionwas made possibleby major improvementsin transformer technology,designand
manufacturingprocesses,insulating materials,copperconductorsand magneticsteel.In just over
one century of existence,transformer dimensions haveconsiderablydecreasedwhilst performances,
power rating and voltage levels have constantly advanced.
IobleLlo illustrates, by way of AREVAT&D references,the enormous progressin dimensions and
ratings that have been achievedthroughout a truly remarkablecentury:

1929 1933 1962 200r 2004

3,5MVA- 40 MVA. 2OOMVA 245}/4VA- 750MVA- 435t2rkv

kv 22018.8kV 220t20kv 765118kV Three-phase
Inter connection Threephase Generator Three-phase Generator
transformer transformer transformer Generatortransformer transformer

l.l o - Ptogress
Toble inDimensions
overo [enlury
The increaseof power and voltagecan also be summarized,once again basedon AREVAT&D power
transformer experience,in Fig.l.lf. In this figure, power ratings are shown in MVA for both single and
three-phasetransformers, in addition to high voltage levels.This chart excludesautotransformers,
which although they may be of higher rated power have lower sizing power.
The growing needfor bulk powertransmissionand interconnectionbetweenindependenttransmissionand
distribution networks, togetherwith the deregulationofpower generationmarkets and power supply cost
optimizationsfor end userbenefits,has calledfor new solutionsofferingon-line flexibility of supply.

lB I Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA
HVsingle Phose
orThree MVA Phose
single MVA

| 400
I 200KV
-- r000
s= 800




| 920 | 930 | 940 r950 | 960 r970 | 980 | 990 2000 2010 2020

Fig.l.l f - Hislorkol
inVohoge Rotings
andPower ofPower

To this end, new types of transformerswere developedin the secondhalf of the 20'n century for
such ventures as HVDC (High VoltageDirect Current) Iinks and FACTS(FlexibleAlternating Current
TransmissionSystems),with on-goingimprovedunderstandingof the behaviorof theseand other
transformertypesand, in doing so, making enormousstridesin the modellingof dielectric,thermal
and magneticfield distributions.

From the very beginningoftransformer history AREVAhas beena major playerin the developmentsin
the designand manufactureof reliableand innovativetransformersolutions that meet the challenging
requirementsof modern electricpower transmission and distribution, as well as the specialdemands
of industrialapplications.
The power transformerbusinessforms part of the Group'sindustrial strategy,and has sustainable
developmentas its focal point.

As we approachthe end of the first decadeof the 21't century we take pride in the fact that AREVA
has an important industrial presencein over 40 countriesand a worldwide salesnetwork in over
100 countries.The Group offers its customersreliabletechnologicalsolutionsfor COr-freepower
generationand electricaltransmission and distribution. AREVAis the world leaderin nuclear power
and the only company to cover all industrial activities in this field (mining, chemistry, enrichment,
fuel, services,engineering,nuclearpropulsion, reactors,reprocessing,recycling,nuclearclean up
and decommissioning).
AREVAs businesseshelp meet the 21't century's greatestchallenges:making energyavailableto all,
protecting the planet, and acting responsiblytowards future generations.
The AREVAGroup made its debut as a world-classleaderin eachof its businessareasthrough the
mergerof all of the CEA-industries(Commissionof Atomic Energy),COGEMA,the world's nuclear
fuel specialist,and FRAMATOMEANP, the leader in nuclear power plant construction.
Ln2004, AREVAacquiredthe ALSTOM T&D division, which becameAREVAT&D.

P o w e r T r o n s f o r m e rF u n d o m e n t o l s- A R E V A 19

In AREVAs Transmission and Distribution division, dedicatedand specialistemployeesdesign,
manufacture and supply a complete range of high quality products, systems and servicescovering
everyelectricity transmission, distribution and industrial application.
One of the industry leaders,AREVAT&D offers superior products,including: Automation, Protection
and Control equipment, Switchgearand Transformers.
Today,AREVAT&D's expertiseis the collectiveexperienceof all the companiesthat havejoined forces
since the beginning.Among its oldest parents is the FrenchThomson Houston Companywhich was
createdin 1893, and subsequentlymergedin 1928 with the Socidt6Alsaciennede Construction
Mdcanique(France)to createALS.THOM.
The company that would ultimately become AREVA T&D, merged with its equivalent English
counterpart,the GeneralElectricCompany,to becomeGECALSTOM.The GermancompanyAEG
(includingpart of SCHORCHGmbH) and SPRECHER& SCHUHfrom Switzerlandare also among the
legary companiesof what becameALSTOM and then finally AREVAT&D in 2004.
With recent partnerships throughout the numerous transformations of the company structure
together with the past 20 years of strategic acquisitions,AREVAT&D has continually capitalizedon
the ancestralsavoir-faireof its original founders,while consolidatingand nurturing its strengthsand
knowledgeto better servethe world market in its capacityas a truly global leader.
AREVAT&D's rich human fabric is not only an expressionof its multitude of businessunits and their
geographicand cultural diversity, but is by and large the result of a remarkable ability to integrate
and harnessall these individual energiesin the serviceof sharedpower. This deeplyrooted expertise
complementsthe innate passion for discoveryand innovation: engenderinga win-win formula, and
capturing the very essenceofAREVA T&D from its origins to the present day.

1.2.3. AREVAT&D's PowerTronsformerBockground

Today,AREVA T&D Transformers representsthe formation and integrated experienceof over one
hundred yearsof technologicalbreakthroughs.AREVAT&D was originally a pioneer in the power
transformer field, and it still maintains its leading position at the cutting edge of technology in the
T&D world.
Among the innovative achievementsand contributions of the AREVA T&D legacy companies are
notable transformer patents and firsts. AREVAs experts developedpatents for interleaveddisc
windings and supplied the first 1050 kV transformers for Extra High Voltage test lines as far back
as the 1960's.
In the 1970's, AREVAT&D manufacturedthe largest500 MVA generatortransformersfor European
power stations as well as the first 500 kV transformers for Russia.
AREVAT&D has been a major partner in the developmentof all 800 kV networks since the 1960s:
its Europeanpower transformer manufacturing units helped createthe Canadian800 kV networks
and havefacilitated the improvementsin its reliability since then, supplying 800 kV interconnection
transformers and shunt reactors.The creation ofVenezuela's800 kV network in the 1980s and
capacity increasesin the 800 kV networks in the USA were also among AREVA T&D's proud
achievements:designing and manufacturing the three-phase800 kV generatortransformers. With
more than 40 years of experienceat 800 kV, AREVAT&D Power Transformers has moved up to the
next level of expertisewith extra-high voltage solutions.
In terms of HVDC technologies,AREVAT&D pioneeredthe first HVDC convertertransformers that
were suppliedto Canada,and later in Franceand the UK, as earlyas the 1980s.
AREVA T&D offers ahead-of-the-curve solutions for major power networks and industrial power
supply systemsaround the world, including all types of transformers and reactorsup to the highest
rated power and voltage levelswith the guaranteeof the highest performanceand reliability.

1.2.4. AREVAT&DTronsformerFqctoriesoround the World

A pioneer from the very beginning, AREVAT&D offers its customers and partners worldwide power
transformer expertise.Becausepower transformersare complo<equipmentsthat are specificallydesigned
on a contract-by-contract basis,AREVAT&D managesits industrial aaivitywith detailed principles and
rules, guiding worldwide engineeringand manufacturingtools and processesin everyfactory.

20 1 - AR EVA
A centralmanagementteam organizesand supportscontinuousimprovementthat guaranteesthe
highestexpertiseimplementationin all of the worldwide plants.This not only appliesto the design
principlesbut also includesstandardizedsoftwareand industrialprocesses.Dedicatedtransformer
R&D centersand competencecentersare locatedboth centrallyand insideour factories,particularly
in countrieswith sustainedactivity,making full and efiicientuse of both Iocaland centralexpertise,
and speeding-uptechnologytransfersfor the continuedbenefit ofour customersall over the
In 2008, with a strong internationaldevelopmentand industrialpresence- including,factories
with extensiveexperiencein UI(, Germany,Turkey,Australia, Brazil, India, Indonesiaand China
- AREVAT&D drivesits policy to provideexpertand professionalsupport closeto its customersin
all five continents.AREVAT&D has built an enhancedcustomerrelationshipthat goesbeyondjust
a standardsupplier/ customerposition.AREVAT&D guaranteesquality and customersatisfaction
for equipment that is designedto meet the customer'sspecificrequirementson eachproject.All
technical,industrial and commercialpersonnelin AREVAtransformerplants throughoutthe world
are dedicatedto servingthe customers'needswith a specialunderstandingof their local practices
and expectations.


As mentionedearlier,the powertransformerenablesthe optimizedtransmissionof electricalenergy
and is an essentialcomponentat eachstep,from generatronto consumptlon.
Powertransformerscan be classifiedby their applicationtype, by their position and function in the
transmissionand distribution networks,as well as by the type of power supplythat they provideto
end userswho haveelectro-intensiveapplications.

H.V(e.9.400 to 800 kV )


TRAT{SFORftIIER H.V(e.g245kvl






Fig.l.3o- Generol in Nelworks

of PowerTronsformers

P o w e rT r a n s f o r r n eFr u n d c m e n t a l -s A R
fl 1
EVA l _ l

A brief descriptionof the differentpowertransformersby applicationis providedin the Fig.1.30,

clarification of power rangesas basedon the comprehensiveexperienceof AREVAT&D's worldwide
Distributiontransformersolutionsare specificallyexcludedfrom the scopeof this book.

l.3.l.l . PowerSfofionSfep-Uplronsformersor Generolorlronsformers
The GeneratorTransformerlis an essentialelementof all nuclear,thermal, combinedcycleor
hydraulicpower stations.It is also known as a Unit Transformeras per C57.116-1989 IEEEGuide
for Transformers.GeneratorTransformersare step-uptransformersthat are directly connectedto the
generatoroutput terminalson their LV side,in orderto increasethe voltageup to the HV network's
transmissionvoltage;they are also calledunit transformers(UT)in IEC standardsas they transform
all or a portion of the Unit2output to the power systemvoltage.
As most generatorsare designedto operateat a voltageofbetween 11 and 30 kV this is also the usual
LV rangefor a generatortransformer,whereastheir HV voltagescan go up the highesttransmission
voltagesof800 kV and in the near future up to 1200 kV. One ofthe featuresofgeneratortransformers
is that they have a high voltage ratio.
The generatortransformer must be designedto permit the prescribedactive and reactivepower
supply./absorption without limiting the generatoroutput, whilst also maintainingunit and voltage
systemstabilities.The rating must be sufficientto supplythe full megawattoutput of the generator
with laggingor leadingpower factor.It is for this reasonthat generatortransformersare usually rated
in MVA at about 1/0.85 of the MW output of the turbine generator.
This type of transformer must cope with voltage variations due to load rejections or switching
operations.The former are often followed by generatorover-excitations.Furthermore,these
transformersmust withstandthe sameover-loadsthat are demandedof the generator.
The basic parametersdefining the design requirements are the voltage regulation range,the voltage
levels,the impedance,the MVA rating, over-excitationrequirements;all as listed with their selection
methods in the internationalguidesfor transformers,including,where applicable,the special
requirementsof transformersthat are directlyconnectedto generators.
GeneratortransformersusuallyhavedeltaconnectedLV windings and star connectedHV windings.
The delta LV connectionis to reducethe very high current passingthrough eachphase ofthe LV
winding (line current dividedby r/:), and to limit the zero sequenceimpedanceof the transformer.
The HV star connectionallows gradedinsulationof the HV winding to be used sincethe neutral is
usually solidly grounded,and the tap changer(if any)on neutral of HV side has a lower current rating
and is thus of lower cost.
In rare cases,generatortransformerscan havea delta equalizingtertiary winding, or a tertiary winding
that has the purposeoffeeding the power station auxiliariesat a lower voltagethan the generator-
The selectionbetweenthree-phasegeneratortransformers and banks of single-phaseunits is a most
important one for thosewho are responsiblefor buying or speci$ringgeneratortransformers(refer
to (hopter
2).Three-phaseunits offer more compactdesignswith the resultingIowerreal estatecosrs,
a lower risk of earth fault or short circuit owing to the reducednumber of externalconnections,a
relativelylower direct purchasecost and lower total lossescomparedto banks of single-phaseunits.
On the other hand, the lower cost of providinga spare,easiercompliancewith transportlimitations
(massand heigh$ togetherwith manufacturers'factory equipment limitations are all benefits of
single-phasebanks solution. This is often the only choice for power plants with very large capacity
such as nuclearpower plants.
Unlike transmissioninterconnectiontransformers,generatortransformersare fully loadedmost of
the time and call for low total loss levels.

7- Thegeneratortransformerfamilydoesnotincludeherestepuptransformersforconnectionofsolnrorwindfarmstothe
2- The"unit"definittonasperLEEECST.ll6-L9B9Nguilefortran{ormersdirectlyconnectedtogeneratorsisthegeneratororgen
associated auxiltaries
anl energy
togetlwr power.
asa singlenurceofeltctri.c

22 PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
In addition, high or very high voltage and highly rated power transformers are required for base
load stationssuch as nuclearor the largestthermal powerplants.This meansvery specificexpertise
has to be brought into play. High capacityproduction equipment,extensiveand expensivetesting
equipment are demandedfrom generatortransformer manufacturers.The inherently severeloading
conditionscall for high securityfactorswith
respectto winding thermalgradientsand cooling
performances.High ratedcurrentsrequirefinely
tuned control of the magneticfield inside the
tank in order to avoid Iocahzedoverheating of
the associatedmetallicparts. Finally,the very
highestdegreesof reliability and availabilityare
requiredfor thesetransformerssincethey are
totally indispensablefor the supplyof power to
the network.
The overviewsand the recommendationsthat
areprovidedin this book arebasedon experience
backedby a long list of referencesrelatingthe
particularsof any generatortransformersthat
AREVAT&D has designed,manufactured,tested
and deliveredwith MVA and voltageratingsthat
includethe following:
-> 550 MVA,single-phase units, 20/400 kV
1100 MVA,three-phase unit, 27/4LS kV Fig.I.3b- 245MVA,18/765
-> 245 MVA, three-phaseunits, L8/ 765 kV Tronsformer

(UAI) Unit(Auxiliory)Tronsformers
The unit (auxiliary)transformer suppliesthe power to the power station auxiliariesthat are neededfor
the operationof the unit. It is energizedwhen the generatoris in service(seetig.l.3d).
UsuallyHV delta/LYstar connectedto providea
neutralconnectionto earth for the unit auxiliary
system,thesetransformershaveratingsof a few
MVA up to 60 MVA or more, accordingto the
power stationtype and auxiliarypower needs,
for water circulationpumps, electricboiler feed
Unit auxiliarytransformersare often equipped
with on-loadtap changersto ensurea substantially
constantvoltagelevelto the station auxiliaries
despitethe largevolt agevariationthat occurs
during the start up phase.They can be specified
to havethreewindings,i.e. one primarywinding
a n d t w o s e c o n d a r yw i n d i n g s . T h i s a l l o w s
Iimitation of the short circuit powerin eachof the Fig.l.3c- Three
auxiliarysystemsand providesa second,possibly Auxiliory
redundant,sourceof supplyto the auxiliarysystem
(seean examplein Fig.l.3c). Sforfing or Sfofion Seryice lronsformers (5SI)

Starting transformers or station transformerssupply the power station auxiliaries including the ones
that are dedicatedto the generator unit(s) system, during unit startup and shutdown and when the
unit auxiliary transformer is not available(seetig.l.3d).
Starting transformers tend to have higher ratings than the auxiliary transformers of the same unit.
In a multi-unit power station,they would havethe power supply capacityfor starting up two units
(multi-power supply through a serviceselectedor a standby starting transformer), together with the
power supplyfor a part of the power station load.

PowerTronsforrner i23

Theyaregenerallystar-starconnectedin orderto permit a neutralconnectionto earthfor both HV network

systemand LV power station auxiliarysystem.They are usuallyconnectedto a HV network in the range
of110 kV to 550 kV.Theyareequippedwith on-loadtap-changersto provideconstantvoltagelevelto the
powerstationauxiliaries,not withstandingHV networkvoltagevariationsaswell as a wide loadvariation.
In somecases,their provisioncanbe dispensedwith, suchasin gascombinedcyclestationsthat generally
havelow powerneedsfor auxiliarysupplies.Unit auxiliarytransformerswould then supplypowerneeded
for auxiliaries,includingthe needsduring the start-upphase,throughthe generatortransformers.A
switch or generatorcircuit breakeris, in this instance,connectedbetweenthe generatorand the LV side
of the generatortransformer.



O l|Vbusforgenerolor
conneclion AUXILIARIES
@ Generolor
bus IOAD
@ tVlerminols
@ Auxiliories
O Moinbusbreokers
@ SyslemHVbusforSSTconneclion

Fig.l.3d- Typitol
Diogrom in(57.116-1989
osProvided ANSI

1.3.2.Trqnsportof Energy
ond Aufofronsfo
rmersfor lronsrnission
The most common network transformeris the interconnectiontransformer,which providesa
step-upor step-downfacility and interconnectstwo systemsof differentvoltagesto allow the exchange
of power betweenthe two systems.It is designedto handle all the specifiedrequirementsof each
individual network as well as the site's physical constraints and its expectedperformancelevels.
Major utilities with large,highly inter-linked networks often havestandardizedspecificationsfor their
typical interconnectiontransformerfamilies. Nevertheless,the transformer designermust ensurethat
the transformerremainscapableof dealingwith eachspecifiednetworksituation.Thesetransformersare
often designedto havea wide voltageregulationrange,eitherwith on-loador de-energizedtap-changer
operation.Sometimesthey are equippedwith a tertiary and sometimeswithout. Frequentlythey havea
specificshort-circuitimpedancerequirementto limit short-circuitcurrentto acceptablelimits. Oftenthey
haveveryspecificdimensionallimitations,and performancesthat fit the end-user'sfinancialoptimization
criteriafor the givenoperationalregime,and lifetime that was envisagedat the time of purchase.
From relativelylow power ratings of say a few tens of MVA for step-down transformers through
the much larger ratings of severalhundred MVA for interconnectionautotransformers,and up to
1 000 MVA or evengreaterfor inter-tie transformersof very largesystems,they can be designedas
three-phaseor single-phasebanksdependingon end-userprioritiesand transportationconstraints.
Interconnectiontransformerscan be manufacturedwith two separatemain windings, which offer
galvanicisolation betweenthe two interconnectednetworks.This is a common solution chosenwhen
the voltagetransformationratio is of the order of 1.5 to 3.5 or higher.

24 Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA
For a voltagetransformationratio that is closerto 2.0 (generallybetween1.5 to 2.5 basedon AREVA
T&D experience), the autotransformersolution is often chosen,as the closerthe ratio is to l-.0 the
greaterthe economicadvantagesof this solution.
As per the IEC Standard 60076-1, definition: "the autotransformeris a transformerin which the two
(main)windingshavea commonpart, and as suchare auto-connected".TheMV winding is the common
winding, comprisingthe turns that are common to both the primary and secondarywindings. The HV
winding is comprisedof this commonwinding plus a seriesconnectedwinding that is thus logically
designatedthe "serieswinding".
By virtue of the common winding being "shared" by the two main sides of the transformers,tne
autotransformeroffers the advantageof using less material. It is lighter, has smaller dimensions,
Iower losses,and offers a more economicallyoptimized solution comparedwith a two winding
interconnectiontransformerof equivalentpower rating.
T h e m a i n d r a w b a c ko f t h e a u t o t r a n s f o r m e r
solution is that it offers no galvanicisolation
betweenthe two interconnectednetworks:a
disruptionin one voltagesystemwill directly
affectthe secondone. As an interconnection
transformer,the autotransformerusuallyprovides
an on-loadvoltageregulationrangeto keepthe
voltageleveloutput constantand to influence
t h e t e a c t i v ep o w e r e x c h a n g eb e t w e e n t h e
interconnectednetworks.It is typicallyspecified
to havestar connectionfor main windings,often
with the neutraldirectlyearthed,and sometimes
with a tertiarywinding connectedin delta. F r.3e- 250M\tA
,500/,h/n0/,nfi6 kVSingle-
Subsequentchaptersof this book will clarifyand (ooledwith-Regulution
P seAufolronsformers,
explainthe possibleautotransformersschemes R t2x2.5%
ge: DtTCr
and characteristics such as complexregulation
arrangements,designs for constant flux regulation at high voltages or booster schemes.These
clarifications are basedon the shared experiencefrom worldwide AREVAT&D factoriessupplying a
Iargevarietyand ratings ofautotransformers such as:
+ '1,125MVA, three-phaseunits, 330/275/33 kV
+ 1 100 MVA, three-phaseunits, 400/275/L3 kV
+ 550 MVA, single-phaseunits, 765/512/69 KV (seeanotherexamplein Fig.l.3e).,Conyerforlronsformersfor HYDCLinks
Electricalpower is generatedas alternatingcurrent (AC).It is also transmitted and distributed as
AC and (apartfrom certain traction and industrial drives and processes)it is generallyconsumed
as AC.
In some circumstances,however,it is economicallyand technicallyadvantageousto introduce direct
current (DC)links into the electricalsupply system.In certain particular situations, it may be the
only feasiblemethod of power transmission. When two AC systemscannot be synchronized,as the
distanceby land or cableis too long for stable and/or economicAC transmission,DC transmission
is used.At one <<convertor station> the AC is convertedto DC, which is then transmitted to a second
convertorstation,convertedbackinto AC, and fed into anotherelectricalnetwork. HVDC transmission
applicationsfall into three broadcategoriesand any schemeusuallyinvolvesa combinationof two
or more of these.The categoriesare:
l) Transmissionof bulk power whereAC is uneconomic,impracticable or subject to environrnental
restrictions.Typically,for bulk power long distancetransmission,the cost ofAC transmission and
associatedlossescombinedwith the necessaryreactivecompensationplant may haveprovento
be prohibitive, comparedto DC connectioncosts and line towers of similar rated AC transmission
lines (Costof HVDC converterstations shall neverthelessbe taken into account.).Submarine

1 - DETC: De-Energized

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentcls 25

cableschemesare anotherapplication.Thesebulk power transmissionschemeshavevery high

DC voltagelevels,that can be in the regionof 400 to 800 kV DC and thus more cost effective.
II) Interconnectionbetweensystemswhich operateat dffirentfrequencies,or betweennon-synchronized
or isolatedAC systems.The "back-to-back"HVDC schemeis applicablehere, with DC voltage
levelsoften lower than for the bulk transmissionscheme.
III) Improvementof AC systemperformance:This is accomplishedby addingfast, more accuratecontrol
of HVDC power embeddedin the AC system.
HVDC is a well-proven transmission medium offering very high reliability and availability,with
individualschemesrangingfrom somehundredsof MW and aiming to reach7500 MW in capacity
with the tendencytowardsevenhighertransmissionrangesin the future.
The HVDC converter transformer, an important elementof thesesystems,transformsthe AC supply
voltagefrom a three-phasenetwork to the requiredconvertorbridge input voltage.Equippedwith
an on-loadtap-changer,it limits the effectsofsteady stateAC voltagechangeon the convertor.The
transformeralso providesfault-limiting impedanceto preventexcessivecurrent from damagingthe
power electronicsequipment.Finally,HVDC convertertransformersprovidea 30o phaseshift betrveen
the two 6-pulsebridgesthat makeup the 12-pulseoperation,throughthe utilizationof star and delta
connectedsecondarywindings (seeFig.l.3f).


Fig.l.3f- Bssic

DCtransformercomponents, usuallysuperimposed
on the AC ones,appearboth during serviceand
during factorytesting,and generatehigh levelsof
stresson the valvewindingsthat are connectedto
the rectifierbridge.The designand manufacture
of HVDC convertertransformersrequiresa fine
masteryof insulationstructures.Furthermore,
the high harmoniccontentof the load current
demandsa veryspecificand detailedknowledgeof
thermal design.This makesthe HVDC converter
transformersone of the most complex"special
t r a n s f o r m e r s "f o r t r a n s m i s s i o na p p l i c a t i o n s .
A detailedpresentationof thesetransformers' Fig.l.3g- Three-Phose
HVD( (onverfer
specialties, basedon AREVAT&D's broadfield 310MVA lnsuloled
experience, is providedin of Volume I Section 6.2.

l0 T c w e r T r * n s { a r m e rf u n C a r n e n t c l s- A R E V A Smoofhing Reocfors for HVDClinks
Smoothing reactors
areusedin HVDCTransmission.

A fonverler

T= Converler
( =[onverter
L= D[Reoclor
Fig.l.3h- (omponenls

Theyareinsertedin serieswith the DCline immediately

after the rectifierbridge(and are designatedL, DC
reactors,in Fig.l.3h),and performtwo main functions,
in conjunctionwith other filter elements:
I) To reducethe amountof superimposed rippleon
the DC currentby presentinga high impedanceto
the flow of harmoniccurrents;
II) To reducethe ratesof currentrise in the eventof
a short circuiton the DC system.
Smoothingreactorscan be dry typeor oil immersed
AREVAT&D hastraditionallydesignedandmanufactu-
red oil type reactors(seeFig.l.3i).Unlike dry types,
which havewidespreadelectromagnetic field effects,
theseoffer a low levelof electromagnetic radiation
outsidethe tank.
However,to protectthe environment,and particularly
the motors,relaysand switchgear,againstmagnetic Fig.l.3i - 0il lmmersed (Roling
flux effects,a magneticshieldis placedagainstthe 1850 A,270 kV)foro Submorine
HVD( Link
i n t e r n a lw a l l o f t h e t a n k ( s e ea l s o i n f o r m a t i o ni n
Volume 2,Seclion6.7).

I.3.3. Power Flow Control Phose-Shiffinglronsforrners,o FACIS Solution
Requests for improved transmission
gridsto strengthen
calledfor the largeinterconnected theirpowersystemsandimprovereliability.
Dueto theseinterconnections, steadystatepowerflow mustbe controlledwithin certainpartsof
thesesystems. Themainfactorsinvolvedaredifferentimpedances of parallelpaths,powerfactor
mismatchandvariations betweengeneration andconsumptron.


When parallellines are used,the power flow in eachline is distributedaccordingto the respective
impedancesof eachIine. This usuallymeansthat the highestcurrent flows in the path of least
impedance.However,this may be contrary to efficient system operation.
Phase-ShiftingTransformers(PSTs)are one solution for power flow control. They permit the insertion
of variableor constantvoltagewith an adjustablephaseangle into the line where they are series
connected.Variation ofthe phase angle controls the real power flow through the line, whereas
variation of the in-phase voltage magnitude controls reactivepower flow.
Phase-ShiftingTransformersare usedin two main sltuatlons:
+ Interconnectionbetweentrvo independentnetworks,to allow the couplingand control of power
transfer in a condition that is acceptableto both networks.
+ In interconnectednetworks,to increasethe efficiencyof existingsystemsby optimizing the
powerflow accordingto capacityof eachtransmissionline and so relievingflow restrictions.
Phaseshifters are categorizedas two families: PSTwith one activepart or PSTwith two activeparts.A
single activepart permits independentphaseangleand voltageregulation and is suitablefor a limited
voltage,phaseanglerangeand power level.For higher power phaseanglevariation and voltages,a
PSTwith two activeparts becomeseconomicallyattractive.Quadratureboostersoffer economical
solutions when limited phaseshifting anglesare requiredwith voltagevariation permitted. For larger
phase angle regulation, constant modulus phaseshifting transformersoffer voltage modulation
independentofphase anglevalues.
The use of PhaseShiftersis alwaysa specialcasebecausethe designcriteriaaretailoredto the individual
network specificationsand requirements.As these transformersgenerallyhave large ratings and are
thereforeheavyunits, manufacturinglimits as well as the transportconstraintsmust be taken into
consideration.The throughput ratings of thesetransformerscan reach 3 000 MVA (seetig.1.3|.
Sedion 2 of this book provides detaileddescriptionsof some of the variety of phase-shifting
6.1of Volune
transformerschemesthat are availableand explainsthe technologyand applicationcasesbasedon
AREVAT&D expertiseand experience.

tig.l.3i- 2750MVA
400/S0 Tronsformer

28j PoweT e ru n d o m e n t o- lAs R E V A

r r o n s f o r mF Sfofic VAr Compensofor lronsformers
Static VAr Compensators(SVC)are flexible solutions in transmission networks and grid connections
for industrial power supply applications,when improvementsof power systemefficiencyand reactive
power balanceand control becomeimperative. SVCsare used to:
I) Leverageexisting transmission networks to minimize congestion.SVCsinject reactivepower to
maintain voltage levels in systemsevenwhen they are in a congestedstate.
II) Manageand control network disturbancesat the grid connectionimmediatelybeforean industrial
application.SVCsprovide dynamic control of voltagethrough absorption,/injectionof reactive
power to maintain voltagewithin the contractual range.
SVCTransformersare used to connectSVCequipmentto transmissionlines. Thesetransformers
combine the complexity induced by DC components,evenif they are moderatein this instance,with
high levels of harmonic and rated currents.
Common ratings of SVCtransformers covera wide rangefrom 15 MVA for a typical 33 kV system to
above300 MVA at 275, 400 kV or other voltagedependingon the particular HV network (seeFig.l.3k).

tig.l.3k- I50MllAl15/14.6
kVSVCTronsformer Shunf Reocfors

Largeoil immersed reactorsare usually classifiedas being a power transformer type due to their
common design issues and technologyprinciples as well as the same manufacturing processes
and heavyequipment requirements.They also use the same raw materials and components as
power transformers. Nevertheless,their functions on the system are completely different. Whereas
transformers have at least two windings and transform electrical power from one voltage level to
another,reactorsusually haveonly one winding and do not transform voltagelevelofelectrical power.
The shunt reactor is used to compensatefor the capacitivepower produced by a lightly loaded line
by injecting its reactivepower.
The developmentof HV and UHV long distance transmission networks createdthe need for shunt
reactors,along with applicationswith underground cables(for example, around cities) or with
submarinecables.Indeed,both long distancetransmissionlines and cablesgeneratesubstantial
amounts of capacitiveenergy(transmissionlines due to capacitancedistributed on a long length, and
cablesdue to their inherently high capacitance)which adverselyaffectstheir operation, particularly
at low load conditions, creating an undesirablerise in voltage.

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols 29

Shunt reactorsare usedto compensatethe capacitiveload by introducinga reactancebetweenline

and earth and are switched in, primarily, when the load is low
They thereforeprovidea solution to increase
network stability and maintain an economically
acceptablenetwork insulationlevelby:
I) Maintainingan acceptable voltagewhatever
the load, and within the limits compatible
with networksinsulation.
ID Limiting transientovervoltagesinducedby
switchingoperations,suddenload shedding,
or phase-to-earth fault.
III) Decreasingline lossesby capacitivecurrent
Somenetworksoperatorspreferto connectthese
reactorsto the tertiary of autotransformers,
which are connectedto HV lines. However,the
g e n e r a lp r a c t i c ei s t o c o n n e c tt h e s er e a c t o r s
directlyto the HV line to optimize the position of
shunt reactorsindependentlyfrom the position
of the interconnectionautotransformers.
S h u n t r e a c t o r sc a n b e s i n g l e -o r t h r e e - p h a s e
accordingto end user requirements.Ratings
from 20 to 200 MVAr are commonly used for
applicationon 230 kV up to the highest EHV Fig.l.3l - 765kVtl0 MVAr Reoclor
Sedion 2 ofthis book further describesshunt reactortechnologyand its issues,basedon
AREVAT&D worldwide experiencewith gappedcore reactorshaving low vibration and noise levels.
This includessingle-phaseunits up to 800 kV - 110 MVAr, 400 kV - 200 MVAr and 275 kV - 250
MVAr three-phaseunits that are currently in operation on all five continents (seealso Fig.l.3l). Series Reocfors

The cost of switchgear in a network is highly dependent on the maximum fault current the circuit
breakers may have to break. For financial reasons,current limiting devicesare necessaryto reduce
fault currents to required levels.This requirement may be identified at the first stage of a network
development,or may appear later when newly connectedpower capacity in the network raisesthe
fault current aboveexisting switchgearand other equipment capabilities.For such purposes,Series
Reactorscan be installed in seriesconnectionas current limiting devicesin order to reducefault
currents and control load flow.
Seriesreactorscan be single-phaseor three-
p h a s e ,d r y t y p e o r o i l - i m m e r s e d ,a n d t h e
constructioncanbe unshielded,non-magnetically
shieldedor magneticallyshielded.
For moderatevoltagesand throughput ratings,
d r y t y p e r e a c t o r sa r e e c o n o m i c a ls o l u t i o n s ,
whereasfor higher voltagesand throughput
ratings, magneticallyshieldedoil-immersed
reactorsoffer reliabledielectricsolutionsand
containmentfor stray magneticfields.
F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o n S e r i e sR e a c t o r si s
providedin Seclion 6.6of Volume 2 demonstrating
AREVAT&D's expertisein largeseriesreactors, Fig.l.3m- I 850MVAr
includinga referencewith 2640 MVAr throughput
rating(seealsoFig. l.3m).

30 I - A R EVA
AII industrial activities require electricalpower. Large industrial sites often entail dedicated
substationswith step-downpower transformersconnectedto the HV network.Thesetransformers
are conventionaltransformers,but with some specialconsiderationspertaining to the industrial
application - such as frequent short-circuits, high harmonics etc...However,the focus here is on the
electro-intensiveindustrialapplicationthat requiresextraspecialpower transformers. lorge Driye Conyerfer lronsforrners

Thereis alarge rangeof specialapplicationsthat requirespecificpower suppliesfor variablespeed
drive (VSD)systemsor for frequencyconversionsuch as in large ships, rolling mills for metal
industries,mining, pumping substations,and rolling stock. Largedrive rectifier transformersare
combined with frequenry convertersto supply these applications.
According to the use, the load and duty cycleswill vary and transformer ratings and capacitiesmust
be carefullv calculated.
Largedrive rectifiertransformersare connected
on their secondarysidesto thyristor12-pulse
rectifiersthat use a Gradtzbridgescheme.The
t h y r i s t o r c o n t r o l c o v e r st h e s y s t e m v o l t a g e
regulationneedsand doesnot requirecombined
regulationtransformers.Largedrive convertor
transformersare most frequentlyof the double
secondarywinding type, allowingfor 12-pulse
rectification.They usuallyhavea tertiarywinding
connectedto a filter bank for harmonicfiltering
andfor powerfactorcompensation. Thesespecial
transformersmust offer tightly tolerancedinter-
winding impedancerelationshipsfor correct
convertergroup operationthus optimizingthe - Active
costsof the filteringand compensationbank. verler
A p p l i c a t i o n sc o m m o n l y r e q u i r e l a r g e d r i v e Power(ompressors
convertertransformerswith rated power from a
few MVA to above100 MVA to supply loads up
to 15 kV DC (seean examplein Fig. l.3n).
More detailscan be found in Volume 2,Section Electrolysis
The electrolysisprocessis usedto producemetalsthough primarily aluminum, magnesium,copper
and zinc, or chemicalssuch as chlorine. Electrolysisis a continuous, stable and very energy-intensive
processthat consumeslargeto extra largequantitiesof high quality DC current betweenan anode
and a cathode,in a bath; for example,an aluminum bath.
In these industrial applications,electricpower is a very large part ofthe overall production cost,
which meansthat an efficientand safesupply is essentialto the overallelectrolysisprocess.For an
aluminum application,energyconsumption is 14 000 kWh per ton of aluminum producedfrom
alumina. This is three times as much as for smelting one ton of steel in an arc furnace application.
To supply electrolysisapplicationswith the required DC currents derivedfrom AC power, several
groups of rectifier power transformers combined with rectifiers are connectedin parallel operation.
Theserectifiertransformersare specialtransformersdesignedand manufacturedto support high
levelsof constraint;in other words, the high currentswith high harmonic content createdby the
thyristor or diode rectifiersthey are connectedto. The associatedtechnicalchallengesare mainly
in the mastery of high magnetic fields for internal and surrounding components,the lossesand the
thermal performanceof exit connectionsand tank walls.
A variety of arrangements,connectiondiagrams,phaseshifts betweentransformersconnectedin
parallelto the DC supply system,regulationsolutions, use of interphasetransformersand mechanical
arrangementsof the transformers including solutions with severalactiveparts are clarified inVolune 2,

P o w e r T r o n s f o r m e rF u n d c m e n t a l s- A R E V A ?1

The applicationrangefrom medium size - for copper,zinc or chlorineelectrolysis* goesall the way
to the very largest ratings (for aluminum electrolysis).
Two voltage and current rangesof AREVAT&D rectifier power transformers answer the needs of all
+ For zinc, copper,chlorine:1-00-500V DC, and up to 140 kA DC
+ For aluminum: 450-1600 V DC, and up to 110 kA DC (seean examplein Fig.l.3o).

l.3o- 80Ml/A
Fig. -220
kV- Transfomers
80kARectifier Produdion
Arc Furnacesare usedfor metal production,typicallysteeland ferrous alloys.They operateby utilizing
the heat from an electricalarc to melt the scrapmetal in a furnaceand then refine the molten metal'in
a ladle furnace.These are electro-intensiveapplications,requiringvery high currents and operating
with ryclical loads that are determinedfrom the mass of metal and the metallurgic requirements.Arc
furnacesare suppliedby AC arc furnacetransformers,which are connectedon the HV side to the grid
usually at a voltagelevel of 36 or 72.5 kV and are connectedon the LV side directly to the arc furnace
in the caseof AC arc furnaces,or through thyristor rectifiers for DC arc furnaces.
and manufacturedto meet high constraints;
very high currentson their LV sides,frequent
overcurrentsand overvoltages generatedby short-
circuitsin the furnace;so they must withstandthe
associated high thermal,mechanicaland dielectric
stresses.Case-by-case studiesare requiredto
determinethe continuousrating for which they
must be designed,and for load cycleconditions
which includecurrent excursionsof a few times
the furnacerating.
The variety of possible affangements,voltage
- 265MVA,
/ 1683
and the mechanicalstructuresof arc furnace
transformersare detailedin Volume n 6.4.
2,Seclio mer

32i Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA
AREVAT&D is the worldwide leader for ultra large ElectricalArc Furnacetransformers, with major
referencescoveringratings to above300 MVA, and has basedthe information in this chapter on our
globalexperienceand expertise(seean examplein Fig.l.3p).
The arc furnace transformer range goes from small 10 MVA arc furnace transformers up to the
largestunits at 300 MVA, with up to I20 kA arc furnace electrodecurrent on the secondaryside and
secondaryvoltages up to 1700 V.

1.3.5.Rqikqy Applicotions
1.3.5.l. Irocksidelronsformers
Transformers are also very important componentsthat supply power to electric railway locomotives
and vehiclesthat use either DC or single-phaseAC networks.
6 0 0 - 7 5 0v D C
1 200-1500v DC
25 kV 50 Hz or 60 Hz
1 , 5k Y , 1 . 6 2 | H z
DC networks are primarily dedicatedto subways,urban and regionalrailwayswith limited line lengths
and requiring distribution transformer sizesto feed them rather than power transformer ratings.
AC distribution of electricalpower to railway locomotivesis economicalfor high-speedtrains and
heavygoodsrail haulage.
In Europe,the 15 kV L62lrHzwas developedearlyin rail history becauseit alloweddirect supplyto
engineswithout introducingcommutation issues.It is still intensivelyused in some countriesbut
requiresspecialgenerationstationsand/or frequencyconvertersubstations.
Nowadays,the worldwide first standard for supply to electric railways locomotives is 25 kV single-
phaseAC at either 50 Hz or 60 Hz frequenry as is the standard of the local utility network.
In AC systems,the single-phasecatenaryis suppliedfrom a tracksidesingle-phasestep-down
In the lowest cost solution, the
tracksidetransformeris connected HVnetworks HVnetworks
directlyon primary sideto two phases
of an HV transmissionnetworkand,or
the secondary,it is directlyconnected
to the catenaryand rails.This standard
is usedfor medium lengthrailwaysbut
presentsa disadvantageto havelarge
feedingimpedancesand the resulting
high losses.
To improve transmissionefficiency
and systemregulationwhile reducing
earth current and electromagnetic
use- in additionto the tracksidepower
transformers- boostertransformersor
autotransformersat regular intervals
along the track. Theseschemesare
extensivelyusedfor high-speedtrains,
typicallyon thoseof the FrenchTGV. feederI
I Inlermediole
I smfion
with !
I -oy!tql'!g'gr

Fig.l.3q - 25 kt/Feeder
wilho 220kU/2x25kVTrockside

- A R E VA
PowerTronsformer 133

When combinedwith autotransformers,the tracksidetransformerprimary voltageis supplieddirectly

from two phasesof a high voltagetransmissionnetwork, while the secondaryconsistsof a 50 kV
center-tappedwinding giving effectively25-0-25 kilovolts at its terminals.One of the output terminals
is connectedto the catenaryand the other to a feedercircuit, while the mid-point is connectedto the
rail (at earth potential)as shown in Fig.1.3q.
The advantageof this is that the distanceinterval between
feederstations can be increased.
Theseare specialtransformersdesignedto withstand the mechanicalstressesdue to the inherent
fluctuating Ioad current characteristicsand frequentshort circuits conditionscreatedby passingtrains
(seealso some information in Volume 2,Seclion
Common ratings for tracksidetransformer are from 10 MVA rated power with the primary connected
to 110 kV and going up to 60 MVA rated power and with the HV connectedto 220 kV or even400 kV
networksfor high-speedtrain supplies(seeFig.l.3r).

l.3r- 60MVA,
Fig. 220kY/2x25kVTro*side

1.3.6. Distributionof Energy

The applicationsof distribution transformers, oil-immersed and cast resin transformers,which
convertthe voltageofthe distribution network to the appropriatevoltagefor use in the cities and
industriesare not coveredhere.
This book's focusis exclusivelyon powertransformers.

34 r u n d o m e n t o l -s A R
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F EVA
?awerTrnnst*rmer 35
PowerTrqnsformer - A R EVA
This chopter hos been written for those who, qt some point in their
cqreer, moy be colled upon to specify q trqnsformer, interpret o
specificotionfor o design review or wilness o trqnsformer test ond
understond the results. The intention is to provide on insight into
how specificotionsore derived, the key feotures, ond why they
ore significont. Over the post decode, lnternotionol ond Notionql
Stondords hqve evolved to provide the bosis on which oll
monufqclurerscon be ludged. Mony trqnsformer experts, including
those from AREVAT&D, hqve been involved in this stondordizotion
process ond the results hqve oligned oll of the key porometers for
defining ond meosuring tronsformer performonces. This chopter
will exploin why the vorious pqrometers qnd their corresponding
stondqrds ore importont.
The production of o lronsformer specificotionrequires o generol
knowledge of the differentfypes ond the solutionsthot qre in common
usoge.While some decisionsore purely dependont upon end-user
requirements,others moy depend upon on the internollronsformer
properties, or qre obtoined from Nqtionol qnd Internotionql
Stondords. lt is therefore importonl lo understond the moin
tronsformer pqrometersond the Stondordsfhot regulote them.

- A R E VA
PowerTronsformer t37

2. Whqt is Requiredto Specib/ 2,6, COOLINGMODES 59
q Tronsformer? 37 2.6,1, Definitions 59
2,6,2, Choiceof CoolingMethod 6l
2.1.1. Definitions
to Stondords 40 2.7. AMBIENT CONDITIONS 62
2.1.2. Principol
Stondqrd 2,7,1. Temperoture 62
References 2.7,2, Altitude 65
2.7.3. Pollution 67
2,2, 40 2.7,4, SeismicEnvironment 6B
2.2.1. 40 2.7,5. ServiceConditions 69
2.2.2, 40 2,7.6, FireProtection 72
2,2,3, 41
2,2,5. 41 Useof o Topping/RegulotingWinding 73
2,2.6. 4l DeEnergizedTopSelection 76
2,2.7. 4l VqriobleFlux,VoriobleVoltogeVoriotion 7B
2,2.8, 41 SpecifyingTopsfrom Your Needs 79
2,2.9, 41
2.2,12. 42 BosicPrinciples BO
2,2.13, 42 AutotronsformerApplicotions BO
2.2,14, 42
2.2.15, 42 ADDITIONAL
2,2,16. 42
2,2,18 43 2.1I .l . Moin Insuloting
FluidProperties BI
2.2.19 43 2]1.2. Choiceof Fluids B2
2.| | .3. liquid Exponsion B2
2.3. RATINGS 43
2.3.1. Voltoges 43 2.12, SOLIDDIELECTRICS B3
2,3,2, Power 43 2.l2.L MoteriolForms B3
2.3.3. Rotio 45
2,3,4. Connections 46 2.13. TRANSPORTATION

2,4,1, Choiceof InsulotionLwd 49 2.14.1,Losses,Definitionond Presence B4
2,4,2, TypicolInsulotionVolues 50 2,14.2,Copitolizotionof Losses B8
2,4,3, SeporoteSourceAC WithstondLevel 52 2,14.3. Efficiency 90
2.4,4. Shod-Durotionor Long-Durqtion
InducedLevel 52
2,4,5, SwitchingSurge 53 2 . 1 5 . SPECIFYING
2.4,6. FullWove lightninglmpulse 53 2.15.1. Introduction 90
2.4.7. ChoppedWove Lightninglmpulse 54 2.15,2. GuoronteedSoundLevels 9t
2.15.3. Choiceof TestMethod 92
2.5. IMPEDANCES AND PERFORMANCES 54 2.15.4, TestConditions 92
2,5.1, In-Service
Diogrom 54
2.5,2, VoltogeDrop or VoltogeRise 55 2,16. QUALITY REQUIREMENTS 93
2,5.3. lmpedonceVoltoge 56 2.16.1. ISO9000 Benefits 93
'J"16.2. DesignReviewBenefits 94
lJ.16.3. OtherRequirements 94

T.17.1. TheMqnufocturey'sPerspective v)
-i^.17.2.TheBuyey'sPerspective V5
:)"17.3. OtherInfluences 97


J..I 8.1. Convenlionql q7
t. I 8.2. SpeciolCqses


?"l9.l . Tronsformers
Conventionol 103
,",i:,19.2. 103

Most countrieshavetheir own nationalstandardsbut there are two main familiesof Internationally
usedstandards;the InternationalElectrotechnical Commission(lEC)family,which is generallyused
in countriesaround the world where the systemfrequencyis 50 Hz, and the ANSI/IEEEfamily, as
used in North American and other countrieswhere the systemfrequencyis usually 60 Hz. These
two sets of standardsreflect different ways of defining transformers and should not be mixed as they
are not yet fully compatible.

Relqtingto Stondords
A standardis a documentestablishedby consensusand approvedby a recognizedorganizationwhich
provides,for repeatedand common usage,regulations,recommendations,and guide lines, against
which all arejudged,so ensuringequableapplicatron.
Somelargecompaniespossesstheir own catalogueof specifications. Theseadd detail to the design
features,manufacturingprocessesand quality controls,to enhancethe standards,but not conflict
with them.
A standardcan be ofan international,regionalor nationalnature.
Within a Standardsbody,differenttypesof documentare produced:
* Standards,which are of compulsoryapplicatron;
* Recommendedpracticesor recommendationswhich are preferredsolutions,or stateof the art,
but are not implicitly compulsorilyapplieddocuments,unlessthey are specificallyidentified
as such in the tenderenquirydocuments;
+ Guideswhich are more educationallyinformativeand are not compulsorilyapplied.

2.1.2. PrincipollnternotionollyUsedStqndordReferences
IEC has groupedthe main transformerstandardsunderthe 60076 seriesof numbers.Somespecific
applicationssuch as rectifier transformersor railway transformershave stand-alonedocuments
that are not directlydesignatedunder the 60076 seriesbanner,but often invokedocumentsin that
The IEEE standards,despitetheir US origin, are also internationallyacceptedand are often used
as the referencedocumentsfor worldwide countriesthat have a systemfrequenry of 60 Hz. IEEE
standardsrelatingto transformersare groupedunder the C57 serieswhich has a wider scopethan
IEC, as it coversspecialtransformers,instrumenttransformers,as well as many differentrangesof
F o r c o n s i s t e n c y t, h e s y m b o l s u s e d i n t h i s b o o k a r e i n a c c o r d a n c ew i t h I E C S t a n d a r d so r
o Differences befween fhe Principol Sfondsrds
One of the main differencesbetweenthe IEC and the IEEE approachis on the definition of rated
power.Whilst IEC definesrated power in terms of input to the primary side, IEEEdefinesit as the
power that is deliveredat the secondaryterminals.The difference,particularlyin the caseof large
power transformers,is small sincethe internal lossesof the transformer that comprisethe difference,
amount to only a small percentageof the throughput power. Nevertheless,the subtle difference
should not be totally ignored.


The main parametersthat will definea transformer,and which should be specifiedby the customer

2.2.1. InstollotionAltitudeobove Seo Level

The normal serviceconditionrelatingto altitudeis a height abovesea-levelnot exceeding1 000 m.
Installation at a higher altitude affectsboth cooling and dielectricperformanceand must be considered
in the design.

2.2.2. Temperotureof AmbientAir or CoolingMedium

Normal serviceconditionsare definedby a multiplicityof ambientair or ambientwater temperature

4Ai Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA

Where air is the heat dissipation medium, the defined limits for temperature normality are:
Not lower than -25oC,
anil not higher than + 40"C,
anil amonthly average,of the hottest month not greater than 30"C,
anil amaximum annual averagenot greater than 20oC.
Localambienttemperatureslessthan the normal minimum will requireparticular attention in respect
of some constructionmaterials.Temperaturesin excessof any upper limits will require a level of
thermal compensationto be built into the design.
The normal service condition for water-cooled transformers prescribes a cooling water inlet
temperaturenot exceeding+25oC.
Thus, should the ambient conditions pertaining to the intendedsite differ from the limitations givenabove,
the relevant information should be clearly stated to allow due considerationto be made in the design.

2.2.3. Typesof Tronsformer

The main types of transformer include:

o SeporofeWinding (or DoubleWound)Transformer

This may havetwo or more windings, transforming a system of alternating voltage and current into
another system of different voltage and current, but at the same frequenry.

o Aulofronsformer
This is a transformer in which at least two windings have a common part. Only a proportion of the
power is transformed. This type is normally used when the voltage ratio is low, this being a more
economicalsolution in this case.

o Boosfer Tronsformer
A transformer ofwhich one winding is intended to be connectedin serieswith a circuit in order to
alter its voltage and the other winding is an energizingwinding.

2.2.4. Number of Phqses

Power transformers are usually three-phaseor single-phase,dependingon systems requirements,
sparespolicy, rated power and voltage level, etc.

2.2.5. RotedFrequency
The rated frequencyis normally 50 Hz or 60 Hz, although this can vary for specializedtransformers,
e.g. railway transformers.

2.2.6. Rqied Voltoges

Ratedvoltages should be selectedconsidering standard levels accordingto appropriate national or
international standards.

2.2.7. Roted Power

Generally,the rated power is a function of both the no-load voltageand the load curent. Anyvariation
to this that is intended should be clearly specified.

2.2.8. Lood Cycle

Normally transformers are designedto comply with one of the standard guides for loading either in
the IEC 60076 series or the IEEE C57 series.Any additional or conflicting requirements should be
clearly stated.

2.2.9. ToppingRonge
The tapping (regulating)rangewill dependupon systemrequirementsin respectofpermissiblevoltage
variations on both High Voltage and Low Voltagesides.

2.2.10. Typeof Top{honger

This may be an "on-load tap-changer",OLTC,[IEEE:load tap-changer,LTC] that is suitable for
operationwhile the transformer is energized(and carrying load), or a de-energizedtap-changer

PowerTronsformer - A R E VA
Fundomentols i41

(DETC)also known as "off-circuit tap-changer" IEEE: "de-energizedtap-changer",DETC] that

is safe to operateonly when the transformer is de-energized.

The IEC Standardsl relating to oil-immersed transformers indicate the following guaranteedlimits
for temperature rise with respectto ambient temperature:
Top oil 60r(
Winding averagefor ON or OF cooling 65r(
Winding averagefor OD cooling 70K
The limits in IEEELare:
Top oil 6s r(
Winding average 65K
Hot Spot 80 I(

The abovelimits are applicableto the standard ambient conditions defined in Setlion

2.2.12. Typeof Coolingtiquid

The cooling/insulating liquid in power transformers is normally "mineral oil". The main alternatives
are silicon oil and synthetic or natural esters, as may be required ifthere are special safety or
environmental issues.

2.2.13. Typeof Cooling

The main cooling types are:
+ Natural tlermosyphonic flow through cooling equipment and windings.
+ Forcedcirculation through cooling equipment and thermosyphonicflow in windings.
+ Forcedcirculation through cooling equipment and forced into, and directedthrough, the main

2.2.14. Short{ircuit lmpedonce

The short-circuit impedanceshould be defined to suit system requirements.The impedanceof
the transformer is usually the greatest impedance in the circuit and so it is used to limit the fault
current that can flow in a circuit. The level offault current is proportional to the inverse ofthe
circuit impedance,and so the switching capability of the circuit determines the minimum value of
transformer impedance.On the other hand, the voltage drop at the secondaryterminals is a direct
function of the impedance.The maximum voltage drop that the system can tolerate will determine '
the maximum transformer impedanceon any given tapping position.

2.2.15. Connections
The transformer connections, e.g. star, delta, etc. should be selectedconsidering the system

2.2.16. Oil PreservotionSystem

The following types are normally used:

o FreeBreofhing Conse rvolor

A chamber allowing for liquid expansionin which there is free communication betweenambient air
and the spaceabovethe surface of the liquid. A dehydrating breather is normally fitted to remove
moisture from the atmosphericair drawn into the chamber as the liquid contracts.

o Conseryotor wilh Diophrogm or Bog

An expansion chamber in which a diaphragm or bag (sometimes referred to as a bladder) prevents
the direct contact of the oil with the atmosphere.

7 - IEC @076-2@ 0997) "TemperatureRise".

2- IECC57.72.OO-2OO6@"GeneralRequirementsforLiquid-ImmersedDistribution,Power,andRegulatingTrarsformers".

42 1 - A R EVA
o Inerl Gos Pressure Sysfem
A systemin which the spaceabovethe liquid is filled with dry inert gas supplied from a pressure
controlled source.

o Complefely/ HermelicollySeoledlonk
Such systemsare sealedfrom the atmospherebut differ from Inert Gaspressuresystemsin that the
pressureis not regulated.Expansionof the liquid is either accommodatedby a changein pressurein
a gas spaceabovethe liquid or by elastic deformation ofthe tank and radiators.

2.2.17.SystemHighestVoltoge (U-f
System highest voltages are standardized according to the voltage levels given in national or
international standards.

2.2.18. DielectricTestVoltoges
Dielectric test voltages are standardizedin accordancewith the voltage level tables included in
national or international standards.

2.2.19. Sound level

The sound level(or noise level)should be specifiedwheneverthe ambient requireslimitation of noise

For eachtransformer winding, there are severalvoltageterms that are applicable:

o RofedVoltogeof o Wnding
This is the specifiedvoltageto be applied or developedfor no-load operation betweenline terminals
of a transformer winding.

o HighesfSysfemVoltogeU.
Eachtransformerwinding is given a value for the "highest voltagefor equipment" U-. This is defined
as the highest r.m.s. (root mean square)phase-to-phasevoltagein a three-phasesystem for which a
transformer winding is designedin respectof its insulation.

o WifhsfondVolfogesol oWinding
Thesevoltagesestablish the insulation level ofthe winding and are checkedby a seriesofdielectric
tests dependingon the value of U^.

. 2.3.2. Power
o RofedPower
The rated power is the conventional value of the apparent power in kVA (MVA for the larger units)
assignedto a winding which, together with the rated voltage of the winding, determines its rated
current. It is the base againstwhich many guaranteedperformanceparameters,such as losses,
impedances,temperature rises etc. are set and measured.For a three-phasetransformer the rated
power expressedin kVA is:

U. is the rated phase-to-phasevoltage [kVl.
1,is the rated line current [A].
This is the no-load voltagemultiplied by the on-load current;the rated power is thereforea conceptual
term since no-load and full load conditions cannot exist at the same time.
The rated power is also the maximum continuous power to which a transformer may be loaded, at

PowerTronsformer - A R E VA
Fundomentols i43

the averageannual temperature,with normal rate of insulation aging.The overall life expectancy
of a transformeris not reducedif, for periodsduringwhich it is operatedat loads in excessof
its continuous maximum rating (i.e. at greaterthan unity rate of loss of insulation life), it is
compensatedby periodsof operationat lower insulation temperature(i.e. less than unity rate
of loss of insulation life). An example of this is a transformer operatedin a frequently changing
cyclic loading mode in which relatively short periods at loads higher than the rated power
are compensatedfor by lower operatingtemperaturesat other times. Sinceit is the absolute
temperaturewhich governsthe aging of the insulation, users of Gas Turbine transformers also
exploit periodsof low ambient temperatureto justify higher temperaturerises and so delivereven
higher power to the grid.

o Pqrticular Cose of Cyclic looding

Considera transformer that is required to operateat the yearly averageambient to a repetitivecyclic
Ioading as shown in Fig2.30below. The correspondingequivalentrated power will not be the one
definedby the maximum current 1r,but by an intermediatecurrent 1r,known as the equivalentcurrent,
given by the equation stated below.


- IypkolTmnsformer
tig.2.30 (ydeft0il

Theequationrelatingto the equivalentcurrentfor the ryclethat is shownin Fig.


From this equation, and that identified previously,viz.

S=Ux IoxJ3
We canconsideran exampleofa transformeroperatingwith a repetitiveloadcyclethat comprises800 I\{VA
for 10 secondsfollowedby 200 MVA for 20 seconds.In this casethe equivalentpowerratingwill be:

r, = [*teoo2 x lo + 2oo2
xzof''' = 4goMVA

A transformer of 500 MVA nominal rating would probably be selectedto perform this cyclic duty. It
should be noted, however,this calculationdoesnot guaranteethat the higher loadingof 800 MVA
can be met without exceedingthe hottest spot temperaturelimits. It is imperativethat the full rycling
conditions that are anticipated are identified so that design calculations can be made to verify that
all limits are complied with.

44 I Power
Trons{ormer - A R EVA
o PorticulorCose of looding os o Functionof Ambienflempe roture
(Gcs Turbine)
In a Gas Turbine transformer, the load applicable to a transformer varies with the ambient
temperature.An example is indicated.in the curve Fig.2.3h

o Effedfve Powerol o TronslormerSecondory:

Rated power is a notional value used for definition or comparison. The effective power at the
secondary at a given power factor (cos<p),must therefore to be defined. When the transformer
supplies power from the secondaryat its rated current /r, the secondaryvoltage no longer has the
no-load (rated)value Urbut an on-load value Ui atthe given cosq. The voltage drop is equal to:
rf ttl

So U!,=(t_ tUr)U,
The effective on load power S,, is:
' sr=uil2'h =0- tu)urtr.,li
And as S,=UIJ| it followsthat:
Effectiveusablepowerat a transformersecondary at a givencosqis obtainedfrom the ratedpower
by applyingthe voltagedrop and not by the efficiency.
Similarly,the ratedapparentpower$necessaryto providea secondaryloadS,,at a givencosq, is

2.3.3. Rotio
In Fig.
23c,if U, is thetransformerhighvolageandN, thenumberof turnsin thehighvoltagewinding;U,
the low volage andN, the numberof tums of the low volagewindingthenthe transformationratio is:
m= NrfN"
The ratio n is alwaysgreaterthan unity independentlyof the energ5ltransferdirection.
Lowvoltagecurrent1, is linked to 1, by the ratiorn:
Iz = -lnlr

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols l4s


Fig.2.3r- Tronsformer

I=i U-JT"
- Diogram
fig.2.3d (onneded
ofStur Winding

2.3.4. Connections
The usual connectionsare:
-+ Star with or without connectedneutral
-+ Delta
* Zigzag(usedprincipally in rectifier power transformer and at distribution voltageslevels).
Referringto the parametersas follows:
1: line current
i: phasecurrent
U: line-to-line voltage
a: phase-to-neutralvoltage
we seethat:

o Sfor Connecfion
it is seenthat the line current is equalto the phasecurrent and the line-to-line
Referringto Fig.2.3d,
voltageis equalto r/3 times the phasevoltage.

o Defio Connecfion
With a Delta connectedwinding as in Fig.2.3e, the line-to-line voltageis equal to the phasevoltage
and the line current is equal to r/3 times the phasecurrent.

o Phose-Shiffing Connecfions
o ZigzagConnection
Azigzagconnectioncreatesa phaseshift and is an alternativeto the extendeddelta. The symmetrical
versionas shown in Fig.2.3f
is ofwide applicationin distributiontransformers.
o ExtendedDelta Connection
For the purposeofcreating a phaseshift, a delta may be extendedto createan extendeddelta as
shown in Fig.2.3g.

o Clock Number Nofofion

Letter symbols are used to denotethe connectionof a particular winding, Y for star connection[IEEE
"!vye"l, D for delta connectionTIEEE"A"l andZfor zigzagconnection.A capitalletter is appliedto
the highest voltagewinding. The intermediate and lowest voltagewindings are allocatedlower case

46i PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

(J=u t-JTt
Fig.2.3e- Diogrum
ofo Delto(onnected


tig. 2.3f- Diugrum (onnecfed

ofo Zigzog Winding


Fig.2.39- Exfended

PoweT e ru n d o m e n t q- lAs R E V A
r ronsformF :47

letters.The provisionofan accessibleneutral is designatedby N or n after the winding connection

and the existenceof a delta-connected winding which is not suitablefor loadingis shown by "(d)".
An anticlockwisevectorrotation is universallyadoptedand sincecombinationsof like winding
connectionsand star-deltaconnectionsallowvariationofthe vectorrelationshipin 30o increments,
IEC adoptsa clock-facedesignationin which the referencevector is the HV winding and is always
drawn at 12 on the clock face.It then follows that a lower voltagewinding, laggingby 30o points to
1 and leadingby 30o points to 11 etc.
The clock number for eachlow-voltagewinding immediatelyfollows its winding connectionletter.
Threeexamplesextractedfrom IEC 60076-1,(Edition2.1/2004-4@)"PowerTransformers- Part 1:
General"are shown belowand illustratedin lis



Dynll YNyn0d5 YNodl


Fig.2.3h- lllu$rolion
ofThree of'(lockNumber'
Exomples ldenlificolion

o PrincipolPowerTronsformerConnecfions
of thewindings
D, d: delta Y,y: star,wye
Z. z: zigzag N, n: neutral
Capitalletters:High Voltagewinding
Small letters:Intermediateand Low Voltagewindings
After theselettersthe clock index is given.
The connectiondiagramsshown in Fig.2.3iare extractedfrom IEC 60076-L (Edition 2.1,/2004-4@)
"PowerTransformers- Part 1: General",and are drawn assumingthat the windings havethe same
polarity relativeto the terminal.
It should be noted that a delta connectedHV is not normally appliedat voltagesabove245 kV.

Insulation levelsare definedin accordancewith the needsofthe local network. Thev are chosenin
order to coordinateinsulation-
InsulationCoordinationis intendedto provideinformationon all essentialactionsthat are necessary
to avoid incidents with the equipment, causedby over voltages.For each transformer winding,
insulation levelsare defined.The international standarddefinesdifferent types ofinsulation voltages
to representmost of the conditionsthat can occur in the networl(.

48 Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA

0 2

A 4

5 7

6 I

II t0

Fig.2.3i- lllu$roling
Some (onnedions
offte StorondDeho

2.4.1. Choiceof Insulqtionlevel

The choiceof the insulationleveldependson the following factors:
+ The highest system voltage:
the highest effectivevalue of voltagebetweenphaseswhich can occur under normal operating
+ Exposureto overvoltagesand levelofprotection ofthe protectivedevices:
it is possibleto reducethe insulation levelby fitting a protectivedevicesuch as a surgearrestor.
+ Conditionsfor connectinga systemto earth (networkearthingmethod).
In selectingthe insulationlevelfor a transformer,there are specialconsiderationssuch as:
-' Single-phase transformersfor star connection(specifiedby phase-to-earthvoltage)shall have
their highestsystemvoltageselectedin accordance with the phase-to-phase value.
.+ When the tapping voltageexceedsthe highest voltageof the system to which the transformer
is connected,the highestsystemvoltageshall be usedand not the tappingvoltage.
* Shouldone delta-connected terminal be earthedduring operation,then a highervoltagemay
be reguireddependingon the winding technologiesand configurations.

r u n d c m e n t o l s- A R E V A
P o w e rT r a n s f o r m e F 49


level Tronsformer
Surge level

Fig.2.40- Diogrom Relofionships

Showing belween

2.4.2. TypicolInsulotionVolues
A large number of insulation levels are included in the various standards,and only a few of the more
widely used levelsare listed here. However,they may not fit to a specificcase,and so for precise
selection,it is advisableto checkwith system specialists,rather than simply selectone from the
2.40basedon IEC 60076-30 data.

Ratedlightning impulse
withstand voltage
(kV peak)

36 70 170
52 95 250
72.5 140 325
r23 230 5s0
r45 275 6s0
170 325 150
245 395 950
362 510 I T75
420 630 r 425
s50 680 1550
800 Not applicable 1950
Ioble2.4s- Typicol End
Line Coordinotion
Insulofion Voltoges

50i Power - A R EVA

o line EndInsulofion
Line End Insulation is selectedfrom a table such as the one below (basedon IEC 60076-3@):

o NeufrolEndInsulofion
The insulation level of the neutral depends on how it will be connectedto earth. The more widely
used types of connection are describedelsewherein this chapter,and provide information to enable
a choiceto be made betweenuniform insulation (inwhich the neutral insulation level is equal to that
of the line terminal) or non-uniform insulation (in which a lower insulation level is adequate).To aid
the selection,some widely used values are given in Toble 2.4h.

17.5 38 75
24 50 125
36 70 170
52 95 250
72.5 r40 325
t23 230 550
r45 275 650
170 325 750

2.4b- Typicol
Tubfe lrleutrol-End

Selection of the neutral insulation level has a big impact on the dimensioning of the transformer.
Inappropriate selectioncan lead to over-dimensioningof up to l-5%, so great care is necessary.
For example,the impacts could be as follows:
+ Excessiveinter-winding distancesand distancesbetweenwinding and core or tank
+ More expensivebushing selectionand greaterclearancesto the tank and auxiliary equipment
+ More expensivetap-changeror perhaps evenvery sophisticatedsingle-phasetap-changers.

o Solidly EorthedNeufrol
The neutral is connectedto earth directly or through a current transformer, but without any impedance
in the connection.
In this case,the separatesource AC withstand voltage should be at least either 38 kV accordingto
IEC, or 34 kV accordingto IEEE.In this case,impulse testing is rarely consideredof benefit.

o lmpedonceEorfhedNeufrol
The neutral is grounded through low impedance,allowing voltagesto appearat the neutral end,
as determined from the impedance characteristics, but only for a short period (usually less than
1 second).In most instances,the minimum separatesourceAC voltagewithstand level given in
is usually consideredsufficient to cover all operational cases.

o lsolofed Neufrol
Either the neutral is not connectedto earth or alternatively there is a high impedancebetween the
neutral and earth. In this case,it is usually advisableto have uniform winding insulation.
For system voltages higher than 72.5 kV this situation introduces further risks and should be
selectedwith great care, becauseof its impact on transformer over-dimensioning.A full scalestudy
on systemconditions and potential transient performancesshould thereforebe undertaken.However,
such transient voltage events are normally adequatelycoveredby the specified separatesource AC
withstand voltage.

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols | 5l
2 To spEcrFyA TRANsFoRMER?

2.4.3. SeporoteSourceAC Withstondlevel

This specifiesthe power frequencyvoltagewithstand levelof the insulation betweenthe windings and
their environment(otherwindings, Ieads,tank, core,etc.).It is verifiedby applyingthe appropriate
voltageto the winding with line and neutral terminals connectedtogether,and with all other windings
connectedto earth. The transformer winding is required to withstand the voltagewithout failure for
a duration of 1 minute.
Only the voltagewithstand betweenwindings and other normally earthedcomponentsis checkedby
this test, and no turn-to-turn stressesoccur.

2.4.4. Short-Durotionor Long-DurotionInducedLevel

This specifiesthe AC test levelof the line end of the winding toward its environment (otherwindings,
leads,tank, core,etc.)and appliesstressesbetweenparts including betweenturns that are in excessof
the stressesthat existin normal operation.Sincethe volts-per-turnis greaterthan in normal service,
the supply frequenryis increasedto avoid core saturation.This test is usually performedafter the
separatesourceAC test.
During the test, partial dischargemeasurementsare usually made for windings for which the system
voltageis above72.5 kV.
The test can be of short duration;6 000 ryclesfor a 50 Hz transformerandT 200 cyclesfor a 60 Hz
transformer,but for systemvoltagesabove170 kV a long-duration inducedAC voltagetest including
partial dischargemeasurementis specified.
A typical sequencefor a long duration test is shown in Fig.2.4b.Referenceshould also be made to
Volume 4.3.3
2.Seclions and 4.3.4.

l . t Um
( Uuon
( - fesltime
D. 60minforU*> 300kV0r30minforU,< 300kV
Fig.2.4b- TimeSequence forInduced
fortheApplicotion Test

52i r u n d q m e n t o l -s A R
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F EVA
2.4.5. SwitchingSurge
Standardshave defined a specific test to addressthe stressesand over-voltageswhich occur due to
switching operations on the network.
The typicalshapeis shown in Fig.2.4c.
More detailsof the test sequenceand conditionscan be found
in Volume

t.0 I

0.9 /
Wove Tl = 1.67T
froil durolion Tl > 20ps
,l Durotion toU 2 0,9Uc T2> 200ps
,l Tz Firslrelurn lozero T3> 500ps




Fig.2.4t- Swilching

2.4.6. FullWovelightninglmpulse
During Iightning events,a resultant transient voltagewave traversesthe network and impinges upon
the transformer. which has to withstand it.
The typicalshapeis seenin fig.2.4d.More detailsof the test sequenceand conditionscan be found in

Wove : Tl - 1.2pst 30%
Wove : T2'50ps t20o/o
Tl ondT: Il - l,6l T


Fig.2.4d- Lightning
lmpulse Requirements

e ru n d o m e n t o- lAs R E V A
r r o n s f o r mF
PoweT | 53
2' *HAT rs RE.,TRED
To spEcrFy

Z.l.z. ChoppedWove lightning lmpulse

To addressthe voltageshapeswhich occur when the lightning voltagesare modified and reduced
after a flashoveroccurs acrossan insulator, the standard have defined the following typical wave as
shownin tig.2.4e.
More detailsof the test sequenceand conditionscan be found in Volume 2,Sections

Wovefrontdurolion: Tl = 1.2pSt30%
Wove : 12= 50pS t20%
Floshover T,: 2...6 pS

- Chopped
Fig.2.4e Lightning

2.5.1. In-Service
o lronsformerSimplifiedEquivolentCircuifDiogrom
The characteristicsof a loaded transformer can be describedby means of an equivalent circuit. The
generalform of this diagram is describedin Volune 2,Sedion1.4,but becausepower transformersare
very efiicient and the no-load currentsvery low in comparisonwith the load currents,it is usually
sufficient to consider the simplified version which follows in Fig.2.50.


Fig.2.50- Simplified Model


s4i P o w e r T r o n s f o r m e rF u n d o m e n t o l s- A R E V A
R resistancereferredto the secondaryside
X leakagereactancereferredto the secondaryside
Ur, U, primary and secondaryvoltagesrespectively
Uro secondaryno-loadvoltage
Ir, I, primary and secondarycurrentsrespectively
Z, rp load magnitudeand phaseangle.

o On lood Diogrom
showsthe loadvectordiagramof the transformer,in which:
t 0 _- u l

- 0nloodDiogrom

Uro no-loadsecondaryvoltagel
U2 secondaryvoltage under load Z cos g
U* short-circuit voltage, Ir(R + iY1
IzR activecomponent of the short-circuit voltage
I2jX reactivecomponent of the short-circuit voltage.

2.5.2. Voltoge Drop or Voltoge Rise

IEC 60076-1 - Power Transformers - Part 1: General,definesvoltage drop or voltage rise for a
specifiedload conditionas:
"the arithmetic dffirence betweenthe no-load voltage of a winding and the voltage developedat the
terminalsof the samewinding at a specifiedload and powerfactor, the voltagesuppliedto (oneof) the
other winding(s)being equal to:
- its rated value if the transformer is connectedon the principal tapping (the no-load voltage of the
former winding is then equal to its rated value);
- the tapping voltageif the transfoftneris connectedon anothertapping."
The changein voltage,AU, results in a reduction in magnitude of Urfor lagging power factor loads
(as shown in Fig2.5b)but as the power factor changesto leading, a point is reachedat angle <po,when
the magnitudeof Urequals that of Uro.Increasingthe lead anglefurther results in U, becomesgreater
in magnitude than Uroi.e. a voltage rise results.
Taking S"to be the rated power, S,to be the load losses,Uscthe short-circuit voltage,we have:
c '
I r R = f y l Q Q a n a 4 x=,l i l " -n tl

PowerTronsformer 155
It is given by the formula:

LIJ vo= IrR cosq+ Irx sin, + (!-'*'q-/,R'inq.)'

In a transformer of large active power, i.e. when S, > 1.6 MVA,the active component lrRcosq is
negligible in comparison with the reactive (inductive) component.

2.5.3. lmpedonceVoltoge
o Definifion
For a two-winding transformer, IEC60050 - International ElectrotechnicalVocabulary(IEV number
42L-07-OL) defines the "impedance voltage at rated current (Jor the principal tapping)" as:.
" the voltage required to be applied at rated trequency to the line terminals of a winding of a polyphase
transformer,or to the terminals of a winding of a single-plnse transformer,to causethe rated current to
flow through theseferminals when the terminals of the other winding are short-circuited."
The Standard also notes that the value is normally related to the appropriate referencetemperature.
The impedancevoltage is often orpressed as a percentageof the rated voltage and since in large power
transformers, the resistive component R is negligible compared to the inductive component X, the
terms short-circuit voltage, short-circuit impedanceand impedancevoltage are equivalent.

o Influenceof the lmpedonceVofiogeon lronsformerDesign

The effect of impedancevoltage, Un, onthe size of the transformer will be consideredby assuming
that the per unit impedanceis similar to the per unit reactance.
Fig.2.5cshows a section of a winding in which:
Er = the radial depth ofthe LVwinding
>, = the radial depth of the FIV winding
0 = the distance between windings
L* = the axial dimension of the windings
D** = the diameter ofthe averageturn
N1 = the number ofturns in the FlVwinding
UL = the rated voltage of the HV winding
IL = the rated current of the FIV winding.

56 1 PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

The impedancevoltage, expressedin percentageofthe rated voltage,can be approximatedby:

* t'
" ' .nD**,1."'
x-..={a. 'u^N?
L * \ 3
* o)] /!L)
This can be simplified by replacing all the constant values by t:
( ^ (>,+>" \l
x^.. = ) p. 71Jz
.fru*on | - * d rl
t L^ \ 3 ))
We can deducefrom this formula that:
.+ The dominant factor is the number of turns becauseit is a squaredterm.
+ The value ofX is inverselyproportional to the height Z- and directly proportional to D**for
which the variations are small.
+ At constant copper volume, the reduction in X causedby an increasein height Z* will be
accentuatedbecause2.r,2, and.D ** also decrease.
Conversely,decreasingZ* increases2'2rand D* resulting in an enhancedincreaseinX.
.+ The dimension cr, also has a significant effect and enablesthe value of the short-circuit
impedanceto be adjustedwhen other parametersare fixed.

o Applicotion
We have previously noted the influence of the number of turns Nt on the impedancevalue. The
following formula gives the volts-per-turn:
where B is the flux density,^4"is the cross sectional areaof the core steel and/is the frequency.
N , = ( J r fv = u r f ( J i ' r ' f ' B ' A " )
SinceB, U, and f are constant values (B limited by the quality of silicon steel, and U, and/fixed), it
can be seenthat N1 is inverselyproportional to the area ofthe core.

o Procficol Conseguences on lhe lronsformer Size

Consideringthat the variation in the short-circuit impedanceis within the required tolerancesand
that the height Z- is to remain reasonablyconstant, then:
o To increasethe impedance,N1 must be increasedand therefore,the core cross-sectionreduced.
Consequently,the volume ofthe core and no-load losseswill reduce,but the conductor mass dnd the
load losseswill increasebecauseofthe higher number ofturns. The savingsin core mass surpassthe
increasein conductor mass and so the total mass ofthe transformer decreases.
o To reducethe impedance,the number of turns must be reduced,and therefore the core cross-
section increased.The volume ofcore is increased.no load lossesincreaseand load lossesare
reduced.The mass of the transformer increases.
This can be summarized as:

\ \
v \ v
Ioble2.50- Sommory

o Influenceof fhe fmpedonceVofiogeon fhe TronsfornerShorf-CircuilWithstond

Severalfactors dictate the choice of the short-circuit impedanceof a transformer:
+ Maximum allowable short-circuit currents
-+ Voltage drop
-+ Reactivepower consumption
-r Power transmission stability.
Rigid observanceof these last three factors would lead to a low short-circuit impedancevalue, but
the necessityof limiting the short-circuit current forces the opposing argument. A low transformer

P o w e r T r o n s f o r mFeurn d o m e n t o lAs R
- EVA | 57

short-circuit impedancegivesrise to higher short-circuit currentsand, becausethe short-circuit forces

are proportional to the squareofthe current, to very high forces.
The transformer designmust be adaptedto withstand these forces.This sometimesrequireslow
current densitieswith a correspondingincreasein the copper mass.
The IEC standard3gives some indications about the minimum short-circuit impedanceof a
transformer accordingto its rated power. Seealso Seclion 3.5.

o Hondling lmpedonce Colculofions

r ImpedanceConversionfrom Percentageto Ohms
The expressionofthe short-circuit voltageas a percentageofthe rated voltage is very convenientfor
network calculation.Nevertheless,it is sometimesuseful to expressthis value in Ohms.The following
formula allows this:
t,' = .1!Yi , in ohms per phase(equivalentstar connection)
S-= The referencepower used to expressthe short-circuit voltage [MVA]
z, = The short-circuitvoltage as a percentageofU,
U, = The tapping voltage of the winding under consideration,[kV]
o Value of the Short Circuit Current for a Given Impedance
The following formula is used to calculatethe short-circuit current:
1*, = -rJ--:-, [kA]
U, = the tapping voltageof the winding under consideration,[kV]
Z, = the short circuit impedanceof the transformer, [ohms per phase]

" s'
the short-circuit impedanceof the system (equivalentstar connection),[ohms per phase]
U"= the rated voltageof the system, [kVl
S = the short-circuit apparentpower of the system,[MVA]
o Minimum Short-CircuitImpedancefor a Given Short-CircuitCurrent
The following formulae can be used to determine the minimum short-circuit impedancevoltage
neededto limit the short-circuit current to a given value.
Case 1: where the supply system is assumedto have an infinite short-circuit apparentpower

4' = +x 100, minimum short-circuit voltage as a percentage.

S. = the rated power of the transformer, [MVA]
Ssc= U" x 1* x 16 the maximum allowable apparentshort-circuit power of the system, [MVA]
U" = the rated voltage of the system, [kV]
1* = the maximum allowable short-circuit current, [kA]
Case2: where the actual short-circuit apparentpower of the system at the transformer is taken into
If the system fault capacityis S, and the maximum allowable fault current 1,",the short-circuit
impedancez" of the system can be determined:
S=U"x I*xJ3_

3 - IEC 60076-5@Q006-2) "AbilitytoWithstand


5B I PowerTronsform
Feu rn d o m e n t o A
l sR
- -1-0- 0 x'1 . . -
1""= (1"ratedcurrentof the transformer)
s = u"xI,xJ:x199
_ 100
= J_X-
z" = + x 100,the systemshort-circuitvoltageasa percentage

In this casethe transformer short-circuit voltage should be z such that 4 = 1+ 1,


z = ?r 100- ] x 100,transformershort-circuitvoltageas a percentage
s". s
/.(-.s \
z = 100x s.' x | 3 l, transformershort-circuitvoltageasa percentage.

The heat produced in the transformer must be transferredto an external cooling medium if the
transformer is to be maintained in a desiredstate of thermal equilibrium (not exceedinga guaranteed
Whilst the actual design specificationfor cooling equipment is complex and depends,in addition to
the heat dissipating requirements,on the application and size of transformer, its environment etc., a
generalclassificationofcooling types accordingto some key parametershas been developed.

2.6.1. Definitions
According to IECaand IEEE5standards,a four-letter code identifies the different cooling methods of
liquid-immersed power transformers. These codesare describedbelow.
First letter: Internal cooling medium in contactwith the windings:
-+ O mineral or synthetic insulating liquid with fire point <300 'C
.+ K insulating liquid with fire point >300"C
-+ L insulating liquid with no measurablefire point.
Secondletter: Circulation mechanism for the internal cooling medium:
+ N natural thermosyphonic flow through cooling equipment and in windings
+ F forced circulation through cooling equipment, thermosyphonic flow in windings
+ D forced circulation through cooling equipment, directed from the cooling equipment into
the main windings.
Third letter: External cooling medium:
-+ Wwater.
Fourth letter: Circulation mechanism for the external cooling medium:
.+ N natural convection
+ F forced circulation (fans, pumps).
Without going into the detailedtheory of eachcooling method, the different processesare explained
below. Referencesmade to oil are also applicableto other internal cooling media.

4 - IEC 60076-2@ Q997) "Temperature

5- IEEEStandaillCST-72.00'2O00rM"GeneralRequirementsforLiquid-lmmersedDistribution,Power,andRegulating

r r o n s f o r mF
e ru n d o m e n t o lAs R
- EVA i 59
To spEcrFy

o Nofurol Circulofion of Oil

In the simplest case,ONAN cooling is achievedby natural circulation driven by the difference in
temperatureAe betweenthe oil in the tank 0, and that in the radiators0, (seeFig.?.60).
By adding fans to this cooler, ONAF,the efficiencyofthe external heat transfer can b e i m p r o v e d
reducingthe oil temperaturein the radiatorfrom 0, to 0, (seeFig.2.6h).
The greaterA0 increasesthe
oil flow rate and the coolingis further improved.

Fig.2.6u- ()NAN
cooling Fig.2.6b- 0NAF

In practice,the improvedheat removalefficiencyof the fans in ONAF cooling allows the use of a cooler
with a smallersurfaceareathan that for ONAN. The disadvantages are that it requiresan auxiliary
power supply,control and protectionand may increasethe noiselevel.

o Forced Circulolion of Oil

Pumps may be used to increasethe oil circulation.This improvesthe heat transferto the external
cooling medium and reducesconsiderablythe temperaturedifferencebetweenthe top and the bottom
of the radiatorstherebyloweringthe oil temperaturerise in the top parts of the transformer.
In the caseof OF type cooling,oil circulatesinto the windingsby convection(seeFig.2.6r)thereforethe
Iocaloil temperatureat the top of the windings may be higher than that measuredat the top of the
transformer.This requiresspecialattentionto be taken in the assessmentof winding temperature.
For high powertransformers,it can be advantageousto direct the oil circulation through the windings;
this is the OD coolingmode.The greateroil velocityinsidethe windings improvesthe heattransfer
betweencopperand oil and lowersthe copper-oiltemperaturegradient(seeFig.2.6d). It also reduces
the top oil temperature rise within the winding and therefore the hot spot rise is much reduced
comparedto the OF coolingmode.

Fig. - 0tAF
2.6c (ooling Fig.2.6d- 0DAF

a\) r u n d o m e n t o l -s A R E V A
7 a ' w e rT r o n s f o r m e F
In the caseof disc or spacedhelicalwindings,obstructions(e.g.washers)are often addedalternately
on the inner and outer diametersof the winding; directingthe oil horizontallybetweenthe discsto
improvethe copper-oilheat transfer (see[ig.2.6e).This practiceincreasesthe hydraulic resistance
of the winding and caremust be taken that the resulting distribution of oil through parallelpaths


Fig.2.6e- Forced
in Disc

In somecases,more efficientcoolerssuch as air-blastor water-typecan replacethe radiatorsbank.

Theseoffer a considerablereduction of the dimensions of the transformer footprint, i.e. in plan view.
A disadvantageofsuch coolersis that they offer little, ifany, natural cooling capabilityand in the
eventof an auxiliarypowersupplyfailurethis could restrictcontinuedtransformeroperationto only
10 to 60 minutes,dependingupon the initial load.

2.6.2. Cholceof CoolingMethod

o low Powerlronsformer(S.below 50 MVA)
Low power transformers often use natural cooling method (ONAN). This requires no particular
maintenanceand is not subjectedto any exteriorconstraintsuch as auxiliarypower source,control
devicesetc. This is a particular advantageat unmanned substations.In any case,this method permits
the later addition of some auxiliary fans, increasingthe nominal capacityof the transformer,in respect
of the guaranteetemperaturerise.
However,this modifies the performances:short-circuit voltageincreaseswith the current and load-
Iossesincreasewith the squareof the current.

o MediumPowerlrsnsforner(S.befween50 MVAond 150 MVA)

CombinedONAN/ONAF is common, generallywith the ONAN capabilityup to about 75o/oof the
ONAF rating.
Control of the fans (bringing into operationor stopping them) may either use the top oil temperature,
as measuredby an oil thermometer or thermostat, or the winding temperatureusing a winding
thermal indicator,for operationalcommands.
This method requires an auxiliary power supply to the fans and relays to control the fans'
The transformercan operatenormally under ONAN conditions,preferablyat reducedload, should
the power supply to the fans fail.

r u n d o m e n ? q l-sA R E V A
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F ol
In the caseofdisc or spacedhelicalwindings,obstructions(e.g.washers)are often addedalternately
on the inner and outer diametersof the winding; directingthe oil horizontallybetweenthe discsto
improve the copper-oilheat transfer (seeFig.2.6Q.This practiceincreasesthe hydraulic resistance
of the winding and care must be taken that the resulting distribution of oil through parallel paths


- Forced
Fig.2.6e OiltlowinDkcWinding

In somecases,more eflicientcoolerssuch as air-blastor water-typecan replacethe radiatorsbank.

Theseoffer a considerablereductionofthe dimensionsofthe transformerfootprint,i.e. in plan view
A disadvantageofsuch coolersis that they offer little, ifany, natural cooling capabilityand in the
event of an auxiliary power supply failure this could restrict continued transformer operation to only
10 to 60 minutes,dependingupon the initial load.

2.6.2. Choiceof CoolingMethod

(S.below50 MVA)
o low PowerTronsformer
Low power transformers often use natural cooling method (ONAN). This requires no particular
maintenanceand is not subjectedto any exteriorconstraintsuch as auxiliarypower source,control
devicesetc. This is a particular advantageat unmanned substations.In any case,this method permits
the later addition of some auxiliary fans, increasingthe nominal capacityof the transformer,in respect
of the guaranteetemperaturerise.
However,this modifies the performances:short-circuit voltage increaseswith the current and load-
lossesincreasewith the squareofthe current.

o Medium Power lronsformer (S, befween 50 MVA ond 150 MVA)

CombinedONAN/ONAF is common, generallywith the ONAN capabilityup to about 750,6of the
ONAF rating.
Control of the fans (bringing into operationor stopping them) may either use the top oil temperature,
as measuredby an oil thermometer or thermostat, or the winding temperature using a winding
thermal indicator,for operationalcommands.
This method requires an auxiliary power supply to the fans and relays to control the fans'
The transformercan operatenormally under ONAN conditions,preferablyat reducedload, should
the power supply to the fans fail.

r u n d o m e n t o l -s A R E V A
P o w e rT r a n s f o r m e F 6l
To spEcrFy

o lorge Power lronsforner (S, over 150 MVA)

The number of radiatorson a largepower transformer can be considerablewhen using ONAF cooling
methodbut the use of forcedoil circulation(OFAFor ODAF)will permit a significantreductionof the
coolingplan dimensions.
As for the ONAF cooling method describedabove,oil thermometers,thermostatsor winding thermal
i n d i c a t o rp r o v i d ec o m m a n d
functionsfor the operationof
fans and pumps.
Controldevicescan generally
be set to providethree stages
o f c o o l i n ga n d t h u s e n s u r e
that fans and pumps are
consumingpoweronlywhen it
is necessary to do so.Typically
the threestagesmay be:
-> ONAN cooling up to
600/oof the full load
-> ONAFcoolingat between
600/oand 80o/oof the full
>> OFAF-ODAFcooling for
over80o/oof the full load.
To reducethe dimensionsof
the coolingplan, it is possible
t o r e p l a c et h e r a d i a t or s b y
air blast coolers(seeFig.2.6t).
When using this system,the
pumps must be operated
wheneverthe transformeris
enetglzed,but the number of
fans in servicecan be adapted Fig.2.6f- 280MVA
Three-Phose - 0DAF
Tronsformer (oolingwithAirBlost
to the serviceconditions.

This section discussesthe effectsof ambient and why it is important to include this information
when specifyinga transformer.The explanationsare basedon IEC and IEEE standardsand apply
to oil-immersedtransformers. Similar criteria apply in other standardsand it is essentialthat the
transformermanufactureris advisedof which international,national or local standardsapply and
their order ofprecedencein the eventofconflicting requirements.
Similar datawill applyto dry rypetransformersand relevantstandardsshould be consultedfor further

During operation,a transformergeneratesenergylosseswithin its core,windings and associated
structures.Theseenergylossescausethe various componentsto becomehotter than the surrounding
OperatingTemperature= Ambient Temperature+ TemperatureRise
In order to preservethe integrity of the equipmentit is important that the operatingtemperatures
ofcertain parts ofthe transformerare restrictedto definedlevels.In particularthis appliesto the oil
and the solid insulationsystem.
AII of the componentsin the insulation system have a thermal classificationthat indicatestheir
maximum operatingtemperature.Abovethesetemperatures,the solid insulationsystemwill begin
to degradeat a greaterrate than normal, leadingto a premature "end of life" of the insulation system
and eventuallvto failure of the transformer.

62 Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA
The transformeroil acts as both a coolantand as an insulating medium. From a dielectricpoint of
view, if the oil becomestoo hot, it will start gassingand the gaswill soon saturate the oil locally and
form bubbles. Equally, hot solid insulation can evolvegas bubbles if sufficient moisture is present.
These bubbleswill impair the insulating properties of the oil.
Oil properties,such as viscosity and volume, changewith temperature.At low temperaturesnatural
oil movement can becomesluggish and this would impair the cooling properties. The changein oil
volume acrossthe full operating temperature range has to be allowed for in the mechanical design
ofthe transformer.
It is, therefore, necessaryto have knowledgeof both the ambient temperature characteristicsof the
particular site and the permitted temperaturerises, in order to determinethe operatingtemperatures
of eachof the components.

o Reosonfor SpecifringlemperofureRrse
The normal ambient temperaturerange and correspondingtemperaturerises are defined by
internationalstandards.Thesedefinedlimits providefor the safeoperationof the transformer in most
countries of the world. The limits also allow for a reasonablelife expectanry.Nevertheless,there will
be locations where the ambient conditions are outside the standard range of temperatures,yet it is
still a necessitythat the operating limits of temperature are not exceededunder normal operation.
To cover the wide variation in ambient temperature,both with time and by location, it is convenient
to speciff temperaturerise limits in lieu of actual temperaturesas these can be controlled during the
design process,thus maintaining the operational temperature requirements.
Measurementof the temperaturerises forms part of the type testing processand henceprovides
evidencethat the equipment meetsthe relevantstandardsand is thermally capableof a long and
reliable life span.

o Guoranteed lemperofure Rise Volues

. Top Oil (Liquid) Rise
This is the differencebetweenthe oil (liquid) temperatureat the top of the tank and the ambient
o AverageWinding Rise by Resistance
This is the differencebetween the averagewinding temperature and the ambient temperature. The
averagewinding temperatureis measuredby the resistancemethod and includes extrapolationback
to the point of shutdown. Details of this can be found in the IEC and IEEE standards.
r Hot Spot TemperatureRise (IEEEonly)6
This is the differencebetweenthe hottest-spot winding temperature and the ambient temperature.

o Normol Ambienf lemperofures

The standard ambient temperature rangesas defined in IEC and IEEE standards are as follows:
Maximum Limit not exceeding 400c
AverageMonthly Temperature not exceeding 30'C
AverageAnnual Temperature not exceeding 20"C
Minimum Temperature not lessthan -250C
If the transformer is cooled using a waterloil heat exchangerthere is an additional stipulation:
Water Temperatureat coolerinlet not exceeding 25oC
Maximum Limit not exceeding 40"c
AverageDaily Temperature not exceeding 300c
AverageAnnual Temperature not exceeding 20"c
Minimum Temperature not lessthan -25"C

6- LEEEC57.72.OO-2006fiYIclnuse5,11,1,1

- A R E VA
PowerTronsformer j63
2 To spEcrFyA TRANsFoRMER?

If the transformeris cooledusing a water,/oilheat exchangerthere are additionalstipulations:

Water Temperatureat coolerinlet not exceeding 30'c
AverageDaily water temperature not exceeding 2 5'C
Minimum water temperature not less than 10c

o Normo I Temperalure Rises

The standardtemperaturerises associatedwith the standardambient temperatures,as definedin
IEC and IEEE standardsare as follows:
Top Oil TemperatureRise 60 I(
AverageWinding Riseby Resistance 65 I( for ON or OF
70 K for OD
Top Oil TemperatureRise 65 K
AverageWinding Rise by Resistance 65 I(
Maximum (hottest-spot)temperature rise 80 I(
Theseare all maximum valueswith no positive toleranceand apply to oil-filled transformers only.

o Effecf of Ofher Ambienf Condifions

Where ambient conditions exceedthe standard maximum limits, adjustments must be made to the
guaranteedtemperaturerisesin order to keepthe permissibleoperationaltemperatureswithin the
From the standards:
Maximum ambienttemperature 40"c
Winding temperaturerise 6s I(

Operatingtemperature 105"C
So it follows that:
Winding temperaturerise (I()
= 105 ('C) - maximum ambienttemperature('C)

As an example:
New maximum ambienttemperature = 550C
New reducedwinding rise = l_05"c- 55'c
The processis repeatedusing the averagedaily and averageannual ambient temperatures;the new
guaranteedwinding temperature rise being the minimum of the three calculatedvalues.
The same procedureis applied to the guaranteedoil rise correction.

o Effecf of Low Ambienf lemperofure

Low ambient temperaturesneed to be consideredas these also affect the design and operation ofa
transformer.When speci$zinga transformer it is important to provide the transformer manufacturer
with as much relevantdetail as possibleabout the intended location of the equipment.Temperatures
below -25oC are consideredas unusualserviceconditions.

. Effect on Materials
Operationat low temperaturesrequiresthe use of specialfabricationsteel and may also affectthe
materials used for oil gasketsand other construction parts. Specialancillary protection and control
equipmentmay also needto be used and heatingdevicesmay be requiredto keepthis equipment
Transformeroil propertieschangewith temperature.At low temperaturesthe viscosityincreases,
which in turn can lead to poor oil circulation for ON regimes.This may require the use of specialized
oils. There is also a significant volume changewith temperature and provision must be made in the
expansionvesselsto account for the wider variancein volume.

64i PowerTronsformer - A R EVA


. Effect on Loading
Specialstart-up proceduresare required for transformersthat are being operatedat very low ambient
temperatures,especiallyfollowing significant periods out of service.It is usual in these casesto
operatetransformersunder no-load conditions in order to establishsteadystate oil flows. Some
mechanical components such as pumps and on-load tap-changersmay need to be preventedfrom
operation below certain critical temperatures.
There are circumstanceswhere higher than nameplateloading can safely occur at low ambient
temperatures.The resultant higher temperatlre rises will be offset by the lower ambient, such that
the absolute temperature is no higher than for normal conditions and there is no additional loss of
life. In this case,it is acceptableto effectivelyincreaseboth the loadingand the associatedtemperature
rises at specificlow ambient temperatures.Thesevaluescan be agreedon a contractualbasisbetween
the purchaser and manufacturer.

o Effecf of Enclosure
Largepower transformersare usually designedto operateoutsideof buildings, howeversmaller units
may be installed in enclosedsubstation cells. In such situations, which may have restricted air flow
it is important to ensure that sufiicient air is circulated past the transformer to enable dissipation
of the transformer losses.This will prevent excessiveincreasesin ambient temperature within the

2.7.2. Altitude
The density ofair decreasesas altitude increases.The effect ofthis is to reducethe cooling ability of
transformerswhen used at altitudes in excessof 1 000 m abovesealevel.Note that this effect is with
respectto transformers cooled by air only and does not apply to transformers cooled bywater.
The density changealso affectsthe dielectric properties ofair and increasedexternal electrical
clearancesare required at these higher altitudes. The transformer manufacturer will make any
necessarydielectric adjustments for operation at increasedaltitude and in accordancewith the
relevant standard.

o IECStondpoinf
The transformer is consideredto be capableof delivering its rated power correctedfor altitude
in accordancewith the following criteria based on the cooling mode. In both casesthey apply to
installations over l- 000 m.
For naturally cooledtransformers (..AN):
The winding rise limit is reducedby 1 K for every400 m above1 000 m.
For force cooled transformers (..AF):
The winding rise limit is reducedby 1 K for every250 m above1 000 m.
In both casesthe correction is rounded to the nearestwhole number.
A correspondingcorrection can be applied in reverseifthe temperature rise test is carried out in a
factorv that is above1 000 m.

PowerTrqnsformer t65

o IEEESfondpoinf?
r Operation at Full RatedPower
The transformer is consideredcapableof deliveringits full rated power provided the averageair
temperature at the correspondingaltitude, given in Toble
2./0,is not exceeded.


Liquid-immersed self-cooled 30 28 25 23

Liquid-immersed forced-air-cooled 30 26 23 20

Liquid-immersed forced-oil -cooled

with oil-to-air cooler

Ioble2.70- Moximum
Temperoture Airfor(onying
ofCooling Roted

o Operation at ReducedPower
The transformer may be operatedat a reducedpower rating. The power deratingfactor dependsupon
the cooling mode, as shown in Toble

Liquid-immersed air-cooled 0.4

Liquid-immersed water-cooled 0.0

Liquid-immersed forced-air cooler 0.5

Liquid-immersed forced-liquid-cooled with liquid-to-air cooler 0.5

Liquid-immersed forced-liquid-cooled with liquid-to-water-cooler 0.0

2.7b- Roted
Toble kVA(orrection
forAltiludes 3 300ft (l 000m)

7 - Tables2.7a and 2.7b copiedfromlEEE

standard C57.97-1-995@.

66 1 PowerTronsformer - AR EVA
2.7.3. Pollution
Due to contamination, the power frequenry withstand voltage of the external insulation of the
equipment may decrease.Flashoverof the insulation generallyoccurswhen a contaminatedsurface
becomeswet due to light rain, snow, dew or fog when the washing effect is not significant. At the
dew point, as determined by the barometric pressure,the water vapor in the air condensesto water.
The dew point is associatedwith relative humidity, and high relative humidity indicates that the
dew point is closer to the ambient air temperature. As indicated in the IEEE Standard 1313ru8, the
contamination is produced by two sourcesas follows:
a) Industrial: Industrial pollution may be the main causeof the contamination deposit. The units of
measurementof industrial contamination aremg/cm2. The severityof the contamination has been
standardizedby considerationofan equivalentsalt deposit density (ESDD).
b) Maritime: Salt water spray may contaminate the insulation surface.The salt contamination
intensity is measuredin units of grams per liter of water.
The generalsite severityand its definition as per IEEE Standard L2431l49and CIGRE1o
are shown in
the following loble2.7c.

None 0.0075 0.015

Very Light 0.015 0.03 0 - 0.03
Light 0.03 0.06 0.03- 0.06
Average / moderate 0.06 0.r2 0.06- 0.10
Heavy 0.I2 0.24 > 0.10
Very heavy 0.24 0.48
Exceptional > 0.49

2.7c- (onlominotion
Tohle Severity'

In IEC 60071-2@11,four qualitative levels of pollution are specified (seeToble 2.7d).This table gives
for each level of pollution, a description of some typical correspondingenvironments. The insulator
is required to withstand the highest system voltage in polluted conditions continuously with an
acceptablerisk offlashover. The long-duration power frequency withstand voltage is selected to
correspond with the highest systgln voltage for phase-to-phase insulators, or for phase-to-earth
insulators, this value divided bv r/3.

8 - IEEEStanilaril7373.2 -7999trM"GuidefortheApplicationof
9'IEEE Standaril7243 - 79!17(Bilru "Guidetofniprwing
70 - CIGRETechnicalBulletin63
(B 10)
77 - IEC 6M77-2@ThirdEditbn(L996-12) "IrwlationCoordination-

PowerTronsformer 167
2l wnAT rs REGT,TRED

o RecommendedCreepoge Drsfonces
Tobh identifiesspecificcreepage
2.7d distances to withstandthepollutionofthe four classes,
(althoughthesedistancesaremorerelatedto insulationdesignthanto insulationcoordination).

- Areas without industries and with low density of housesequipped

with heating plants
- Areas with low density of industries or houses but subjected to
I frequent winds and/or rainfall
- Agricultural areas2
Mountainous areas
- All these areas shall be situated at least 10 km to 2O km from the
sea and shall not be exposed to winds directly from the sea3

- Areas with industries not producing particularly polluting smoke

and/or with average density of houses equipped with heating
II - Areas with high density of houses and/or industries but subjected 20.0
to frequent winds and/or rainfall
- Areas exposed to wind from the seabut not too close to coasts (at
least several kilometers distant3)

- Areas with high density of industries and suburbs of large cities.,'

ru with high density of heating plants producing pollution .fig1 25.0
Heavy - Areas close to the sea or in any case exposed to relatively sff5ffii
winds from the sea

- Areas generally of rnoderateextent, subjectedto conductive dusts

and to industrial srnoke producing particularly thick conductive
- Areas generally of moderate extentovery close to the coast and
exposed to sea-sprayor to very strong and polluting winds from 31.0
the sea
Desert areascharactenzed by no rain for long periods, exposed
to strong winds carrying sand and salt, and subjected to regular

Toble - Recommended
2.7d (reepoge (lE(60071-2
ltlstonces 1996 l@)
2,7.4. SeismicEnvironment
Performancerequirementsfor oil-immersed transformer and reactorsin a seismicenvironmentwere
included in IEEE C57.LL4 Guidel3.
o Per{ormonce Requiremenfs
Oil-immersed transformers and reactors must withstand the levels ofvibratory ground motion that are
specifiedby the user. The user may also provide a responsespectrum to be followed in the transformer
design. As indicated in the aforementionedguide, the maximum vertical ground accelerationused

72 - IEC/TR 60875 (7986-05)@"Guideforthe

73 - IEEE C57.774N. Guide-L990"Sei.smicGuideforPonterTransformers
Withdrawn2)thMay 1996.

68l PowerTronsformer - AR EVA


in calculations should be at least two-thirds of the maximum horizontal accelerationthat is given.

The vertical and horizontal componentsare combined to producethe most severeequipment stress.
The transformer should be designedto survive the "design earthquake".A "design earthquake" is
one which produces the maximum vibratory ground motion that the transformer must withstand
without functional impairment.

o SersmiclnlormalionSuppliedby User
The user should provide the following information to the manufacturer:
+ Adequate information about the seismic environment in which the transformer or reactor is
to be located
+ Referencesto all applicablecodes
.* The condition that may be consequentialof a seismic event
.- The maximum accelerationsthat can be expected
.+ Historical event data.

o Ground Accelerofion leyels

Typical ground accelerationlevels are indicated in Tqble

Zone Acceleration (Vo of Gravity g)


3 40

2/^,28 20

1 10

0 Localbuildingcode

Toble - Ground
2.7e Accelerolion

2.7.5. SewiceConditions
Serviceconditions have a very significant influence on the capability and lifetime of a transformer.
Thus, the specificationof a transformer must preciselydefinethe serviceconditions such as ambient
temperature,humidity, altitude, extreme climatic conditions (tropical,desert,off-shore etc.),seismic
activity, severecontamination and network quality, that may be expected.
The transformer manufacturer should design in accordancewith these requirements taking into
accountthe worst serviceconditions and the most critical loading regimesthat are specified.
Unusual servicecondition requirementswill increasethe cost oftransformer. The actualcost increase
will dependupon the severityof those conditions.
International standardsdefine the serviceconditions as follows.

o UsuolServiceCondifions
Usual service condition of the liquid-immersed distribution and power transformers, and
autotransformersand regulatingtransformers,single-phaseand multi-phase,with voltagesof 601 V
or higher in the highestvoltagewinding are stated in the IEC and IEEEstandardspreviously referred
to. Someof these conditions are indicated as follows:
r Wave Shapeof SupplyVoltage
A supply voltage deformation should neither exceed5% of the total harmonic content nor have
an even harmonic content greater than 1% ofthe total. Phasevoltages supplying a poly-phase
transformer should be substantially equal in both magnitude and in time displacement.

PowerTronsformer t69
2i wnAT rs REGIuTRED

. LoadCurrent
The load current shall be approximatelysinusoidal,and the harmonic factor should not exceed
0.05 per unit.

o Unusuol Service Condifions

In IEC 60076- 114,unusual serviceconditions are given as follows;
+ High altitude
+ Extreme high or low temperature
.+ Tropical humidity, desert conditions
-+ Seismicactivity
+ Severecontamination
+ Operation at higher than rated voltage or at reducedfrequenry
.+ Loads involving abnormal harmonic current
+ Specialloadingcycle
Any unusual serviceconditionsmay leadto specialconsiderationin the designof a transformer.Some
of the aforementionedconditions are coveredin more detail as follows:
o Insulation at High Altitude
To be pedantic,the insulation strength at high altitude cannot be designatedan "unusual" condition,
sincethe standardsidentify the correctionsthat must be made for the effectsof altitude.The following
paragraphsare, therefore, simply intended to emphasizethe need for identification of a site altitude
that is in excessof 1000 meters abovesea level.The dielectricstrength of the transformersthat
depend in whole or part upon air for external insulation decreasesas the altitude increasesdue to
the effectofreducing air density.In the IEEEC 57.12.00@standard,the dielectricstrength correction
factor is indicatedfor altitudes greaterthan 1 000 m (3 300 ft). The minimum insulation necessaryat
the required altitude can be obtained by dividing the standard insulation level at 1 000 m (3 300 ft)
by the appropriatecorrection factor, extractedfrom the Standard,given by Toble 2.7f.

roffiffi 1 000 3 300 1.00

r 200 4 000 0.98

1 500 5 000 0.95

1 800 6 000 0.92

2 100 7 000 0.89

2 400 8 000 0.86

2700 9 000 0.83

3 000 10000 0.80

3 600 12000 0.75

4 200 14000 0.70

4 500 15000 0.67

Tuble - Ahilude
2.71 (orreclion

L4 - IEC 60076-1-Edition2,1 (2000-0q@.

70 I PowerTrqnsformer - A R E VA
As indicated in IEC Standard60137@1s, the insulation level is basedupon conditions that pertain to
any altitude not exceeding1 000 m abovesea level. In order to ensure that the external withstand
voltagesof the bushing are sufficient at altitudes exceeding1 000 m, a longer arcing or creepdistance
is required as calculatedfrom the table.

. Unusual Temperatures
Ambient temperature is an important factor in determining the load capability of a transformer.
As ambienttemperatureincreases,in order to maintain the stableloadingcapabilityof the transformer,
it is necessaryto increasethe cooler capacity,reduce the winding temperature gradients or reduce
the total lossesof the transformer.
It is therefore recommended that a relatively low level of load-losses is specified for transformers
operating in extreme high ambient temperature.The cooling performanceof a transformer will
be affected by the extreme high ambient temperature. During the design stage of the transformer,
necessarycorrectionshaveto be taken into accountwhile choosingthe coolers.
As ambienttemperaturedecreasesto extremelow levels,coolerstability (oil, heat-exchanger) becomes
important. The strength of mechanicalparts (steelstructures)as well as the continuedfunctionality of
protection and monitoring equipments are also important. Specialattention has to be paid to select
the right material for the transformer tank if the ambient temperature is extremely low.

. Tropical and Desert Climate

For transformers operating in tropical and desert climate areas,utmost attention has to be paid to
selectthe right material and equipment during the designstage.The quality of paint and steel surface
treatment is extremely important for this kind of extreme climatic condition.

. SeismicActivity
The seismicactivity levelat the transformer location is important for the mechanicalwithstand design
capability of the transformer. In extremely severeseismic activity conditions, dynamic withstand
calculations may be necessary.Specifically,the design of the active part to tank connectingjoints,
the conservatorand supporting framework, the turret and cable box joints and their supports, the
foundation arrangementsand bushing design are of great importance.

o SevereContamination
For transformersworking in highly contaminatedareassuch as chemicalplants, steelsmelting plants,
mines etc., specialprecautionshaveto be consideredto protect the transformer. The protection and
monitoring equipment has to be designedto minimize dust ingress,specialpainting processesmay
have to be applied,and cable box connectionsto the supply may be preferredto open terminals.
Above all, increasedperiodicityfor inspection,intensivecleaningand maintenancehas to be seriously

r Qperation at Higher than RatedVoltage or at ReducedFrequency

According to IEC Standards,transformers should be capableofoperating continuously on any tap
position at no load, with a voltageaboverated or a frequencybelow rated,without exceedinglimits of
temperature rise in accordancewith the standard provided that neither the voltage nor the volts per
Hz ratio exceed110% of rated values. Furthermore, transformers should be capableof continuous
'over-fluxing' where
servicewithout damageunder conditions of the ratio of voltage over frequency
exceedsthe correspondingratio at rated voltage and rated frequencyby no more than 596.
IEEEStandardshavedifferent requirements.Accordingto IEEEStandards,transformersare required
to be capableof operating continuously, aboverated voltage or below rated frequenry, at maximum
rated kVA for any tapping, without exceedingthe averagewinding temperature rise limits of the
standard, provided that the secondaryvoltage does not exceed105% ofrated voltage, the volts per
Hz ratio does not exceed105% ofrated, the load factor is 80% or higher, and the frequencyis at
least95% ofthe ratedvalue.

75 - IEC Stanilaril 60737 Flfth edition(2003 - O8)@

, "IrsulatedBushingsfor
abweL 000 V".

- A R E VA
PowerTronsformer 171

lt may be necessaryto specify a no-load tapping voltage in excessofthe system highest voltage in
order to satisft a particular load requirement.However,the transformer should not be operated
with a terminal voltagein excessof the systemhighestvoltageand the tap position should be set
o Loads Involving Abnormal Harmonic Current
Abnormally high harmonic content of load currents (refer to Seclion
Usuol (ondition$
Servire may cause
excessivelossesand over-heating.
o SpecialLoading Cycle
Referenceshould be made to the appropriateLoadingGuide beforeembarkingupon any overload
regime.Operationbeyondthe nameplaterating will generallyinvolvesome loss of life unlessthe
resulting temperature rises are fully offset by a low ambient temperature. If the intended load cycle
is to be outside the regimescoveredby the guides,it is imperativethat this is clearlyspecified.Above
all, the oil and hot spot temperaturerecommendedlimits containedin those guidesto preventgas
generationshould be most strictly observed,preferablywith generousmargins.

2.7.6. Fire Protection

Substation fire protection system design practice and applications are coveredby severalstandards
and guidesl61718,and this article presents some of the salient points that are evident in those

o Oil-Filled Subsfofion Equipmenf

Power transformers, oil-filled reactors,regulators and oil-filled circuit breakers,current and voltage
transformers, and other similar equipment are filled with large quantities of insulating oil.
Over-heatingor arcing failure can lead to the oil becomingvaporized,thus freeing combustible
gases.Thesegasespresenta hazard,both in terms of their explosivecapabilityand becausethey
build up the internal pressure.Gaspressurewhich cannot be relievedby the protectivedevicesmay
causea tank to burst, or an insulator to rupture. Oncethe tank or insulator is ruptured, the escaping
combustiblegasesand the spilt insulating oil may ignite from an arc or other high temperaturesource
resulting from the failure. Substationfires are a most important concernbecauseof the risk of injury
to personnel,the knock-oneffectsoffire and uncontrolledoil spillage,to other equipmentand the
long-term outagesthey create.Suitableprecautionsmust be taken.

o FireQuenching Pifs
Pits are constructed under oil-filled equipment to collect oil that is accidentallydischarged.For the
immediate fire quenching of the spilled insulation oil, crushed rock or stone is used to fill the pits.
The size of stone used is usually in the range of 1.9 - 7.6 cm. Within limits, the larger the diameter
stonesthe quicker the seepageofoil into the pit. On the other hand, ifthe stonesare too large,the oil
volume in the intersticesof the stoneswould be too largeto be speedilycooledand fire extinguished.
Before a substation oil-containment system is designed,the volume of oil to be contained must be
assessed.In general, an oil containment system should be sized to contain the volume of oil in the
single largest oil-filled piece of equipment plus any accumulatedwater from sourcessuch as water
spray dischargefrom fire protection systems,rainwater, and melted snow.

o Fxed Woter Extinguishing Sysfems

Most transformer fire-extinguishing systems for substations employ a water extinguishing agent.
The water system must be supplied from an ever-readyand reliable source.The deluge system uses
an array of fixed pipes fitted with dischargenozzles.The pipework andnozzle locations are tailored
to meet the transformer site layout, and so provide a specificallydesignedwater dischargepattern
to cover the whole transformer and its environs. Sometimes,the local water main is not able to
accommodatethe needsof the water extinguishing system,or doesnot exit in a suitable location. In
such cases,more complex methods haveto be employed.For example,a bank of nitrogen bottles or

76 - IEEE Standanl gTg - 7994 (R 2004)rvt "GuideforSubstationFire

77 - IEEE Standanl 980 - 7994 (R 2OJqDrlt "GuidcforContainmentandControlof Oil Spilkin Substatiors".
78 - IEEE Stanilaril 7727 - (R 2OOqrM "GuidefortheDesign,Construction
andOperatioiofSafeand ReliableSubstationsfor
Environment ".

72 1 PowerTronsformer - AR EVA
a motor-driven pump can be utilized to createthe pressurethat is necessaryto drive the water from
a holding tank. The water systemshould be capableof supplyingat least 0.17 liters/second/mzof
the transformer plan area,inclusive ofthe tank, oil filled tap-changerpockets,expansionvesseland
radiators. The volume of water should be sufficient to provide a supply at the aforementioned rate
for a minimum of 30 minutes for eachtransformer to be protected.

o Oil Seporofion
Where a water-extinguishing system is used, the oil and water mixture producedmay be discharged
through a gravity type oil-water separator.Severaltypes ofthese oil-water separatorsystemsare
referredto in the standards.Thesesystemsare basedon the fact that there is a differencein specific
gravity betweenoil and water, which means that the oil will normally float on top of the water. Thus
the water/oil mixture oil may be piped to an oil separatorthat will retain oil but allow water to pass
through after separation.The stone-filled pit is designedto be large enough so that the liquid level
after the 30 minutes deluge period is situated approximately0.3 m below the top of the stone.

o Foqm Extinguishing Sysfems

Foamsystemsare activatedin a similar way to fixed water systems.The advantageof the foam system
is that it forms a blanket and providesan immediate smothering effect beforethe burning oil reaches
the pit. The disadvantageoffoam is that it contains large quantities ofair and is thereforeelectrically
conductiveand may causefurther flashover.

o Nilrogen lnjecfion Fire Extinguishing Sysfem

The principle of this system is that as soon as the pressurestarts to build up in the transformer tank
as a result of an internal arc, instantaneousdepressurizationis activated.The oil-gas mixture is
evacuatedto a separationtank that is mounted adjacentto the transformer,and a conservatorshutter
is closedto preventoil from the conservatorfeedingthe fire and, more importantly, to preventoxygen
from coming into contact with the very flammable oil-gas mixture.
Nitrogen injection into the transformer tank is initiated, to blanket the inside of the tank and prevent
further generationof explosivegasses.

o Fir*Extinguishing Sysfem Ac{uofors

The fire-extinguishing system is actuated by heat-sensing devices.The earlier the fire is detected,
the more effectivethe fire-extinguishing processcan be. The post-actuation procedure involvesthe
immediatede-energizationof the transformer and pump motors, in order to firstly eliminate the
source of arc re-ignition and then to initiate the water delugeto cool the oil and extinguish the fire.

2.8.1. Useof o Topping/RegulotingWinding
Transformers are connectedto systems in which the voltages seen by the end user have to be
maintained within fixed tolerances.However,without any form of control, the system voltage level
would vary with system loading and with load power factor.
The simplest and most cost effectivemethod of controlling the voltagelevel is to equip transformers
with a number of tapping points in the windings, voltagevariation being achievedby varying the
number ofwinding turns in circuit by changingthe position of the tapped connection.The variation
in voltagecan be achievedeither with the transformer de-energizedor particularly with short term or
daily loadingfluctuations,with the transformer energized.Different qrpesof tap-changerare required
for these two situations.
Fluctuations in systemvoltagewill usually be time dependant,lasting from fractions of a secondup
to several hours. With present tap-changing technology, only fluctuations of above approximately
l-0 secondscan be effectivelycontrolled by changingtransformer tapping positions.
Tappingscan be used to provide:
I) Adjustment of supply systemvoltageto maintain statutory limits.
II) Control of power flow betweenparts ofthe supply system.
III) Provision ofan auxiliary secondaryvoltage.
IV) Provision of a reducedvoltage for motor starting.

PowerTronsformer 173
To spEcrFy

o Vorialion of Impedance Depending on lopping Posifion

. Positionof Tappings
The tappedsectionof winding may be part of a main coil as shown in Fig.2.8o (o!to {c)or a separate
coil Fig.2.80
t0)& (b!are common for distributionand small powertransformers,whilst {r}and (d)are more
common on medium and largepowertransformers.
The choiceof position of the tapping coils is dependanton the insulation classof the winding, the
through current and the tapping rangerequired.In principle,either winding (or evenboth) may be
tapped,but in practiceit is more common to tap the HV winding sincethe number of tappingturns
must be an integer and the current is lower. In general,for large power transformers,more tap-
changeroptions are availablefor higher voltage,lower current applications,although in the USA,
high current,Iowvoltagetap-changersare available,and are often specified.

Pri Sec Pri Sec

(s) (b)

Pri Pri

(cl (d)
Fig.2.8u- (ommon

The abovefigures,Fig.2.8o (o)and {d),show linear tap connections.

In all but the lowest rated transformers,arrangement(o)would producea magneticunbalancewhich
would likely result in short-circuitforcesof a magnitudewhich could be impracticalto restrain.The
arrangementof (b)maintains overall axial ampere-turnsymmetry howeverthe flux disturbance,
when the tapping coil-sectionsare out ofcircuit, results in increasedlocal forcesand eddy losses
in the windings. As the size of the transformerincreases,it is often necessaryto reducethis effect
by distributingthe taps into two smaller,symmetricalparts. As a consequence of theseeffects,the
inclusionof taps in the main coil is generallylimited to small variation(e.g.+/-5o/oin 2.506steps).

/4 Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA
By using a separatetapping coil, more opportunity exists to maintain a symmetricalampere-turn
distributionoverthe full tappingrange.A linear on load tap changer(OLTCor LTC),connectedas in
'1I Bo(d),commonlyallowsup to about 17 tap steps,but 34 are possiblewith standardcoarse/fine
and reversingOLTCsas per fig.2.8b.
For specialapplications,an evengreaternumberof taps is possible
using a multiple-coarse/fineOLTC.
o Effecton TransformerImpedance

Pri Pri

?"8b- Coorse/Fine
Fig;. ondReversing

Pri Sec



lurns ...min.
(o) posilion




Fig.2.8c- lmpedonce
Voriofion Ronge
fie Topping
ocross forTwoTopping

Tower Transfarrnerftsndcrn*nf*is - A R E VA
To spEcrFy

One effectofvariation in voltageratio by tapping is an associatedvariation in transformer impedance.

A changein the tapping position will affect the ampere-turn distribution or even changethe volts-
per-turn (see2.8.3), all of which causeimpedancevariation;the resulting impedancecharacteristic
being dependanton the position ofthe tappingcoil.
Fig.2.8tshows how the impedancecharacteristicacrossthe tapping rangeis affectedfor two positions
of the tap coil. This impedancevariation is important when consideringwhich transformers are
suitable for parallel oration in service(seeSection
wilh0[T().Additional information on
this topic may be found in Seclion 3.5.
o On-lood lop Chonging
On-loadvoltagevariation (changingtapping position without disconnectingthe transformerfrom
the supply systemi.e. without disruption of the supply)is made possibleby means of an on-load
tap-changer(OLTCor LTC).
High speedon-load tap-changersconsistof a relativelyslow moving tap selectorand a fast acting
diverter switch. The diverter switch makes and breakscurrent during operation betweentapping
positions,whilst the selectorswitch operatesby selectingand preselectingtapping positions without
making or breaking current. Making and breaking current involves arcing betweenthe contacts
resulting, in gas and carbon due to local oil breakdownfor the majority of tap-changers.For this
reason,the oil in the diverter switch is kept separatefrom the transformer. Recentdevelopmentsin
OLTCshave seen the introduction ofvacuum interrupters into the diverter circuit which eliminate
the arcing under oil. This has the claimed benefit of reducedmaintenance.
The majority of modern OLTCsare of the high-speedresistor-typefitted to the HV windings of a
transformerbut when an OLTCis requiredon the LV side(still common in someareaof North America),
it may be necessaryto use a reactor-typeOLTC.This uses an additional continuously-ratedmidpoint
autotransformerconnectionto providean additionaltap midway betweenthose directly availablefrom
the tappingcoil therebydoubling the effectivenumber of tappingpositionsavailableto the operator.
o PorollelOperofionwifh OIIC
Parallel operation of transformers in supply systems is a common requirement. In order to achieve
efficient use of parallel transformers the following requirements must be adhered to. Further
information on this topic may be found in item Section 6.2.3.
Transformers should preferably have the same ratios over the desired tapping range. They should
also havethe same percentageimpedanceson their respectivebasesto ensurethat eachtransformer
will be capableof reachingits optimum load. Somedissimilarity betweenunits can be accommodated
but will result in additional circulating currents and may reduce availablethroughput power for the
combined transformer parallel grouping.
The windings to be operatedin parallel must be of the same phasedisplacement/vectorgroup and
must be of the same polarity for single-phasetransformers (otherwisea short-circuit will result).

2.8.2. DeEnergizedTop Selection

By means of a de-energizedTap-changer(DETC)(also known as off-circuit tap-changer (OLTC))or
reconnectablelinks (generallyunder oil), the transformer operator can select a different ratio only
when the transformer is de-energizedand disconnectedfrom the circuit. CAUTION:Operationof
a DETCwhen the transformer is energizedis dangerous.It will result in an uncontrolled arc which
could have disastrousconsequencesfor the operator and the plant.
De-energizedtap selection is only applicablewhen the need to provide a small shift in the nominal
operatingvoltagerangethat is not expectedto happenoften. It might allow identical transformersto
be deployedin different parts of a network with slightly different ratio to suit the local need or might
be used to take accountoflong-term systemchangesas might result from additional generating
capacityin the system or shift in load pattern.
Onceset for the prevailinglocal systemvoltageconditions,the tap position rarely needsto be changed,
howevertransformers fitted with DETCshould periodicallybe disconnectedfrom the supply and the tap-
changeroperatedthrough the tapping range a few times to cleanthe contacts.Otherwise,carbon may be
createdby the cunent continuouslypassingthrough the very thin oil film that qdsts betweencontacts.This
could lead to an increasein the contactresistance,overheatingthe contacts,and eventuallyleadto failure.

76 I - AR EVA
(o)Bridging (b)Lineor

Fig.2.8d- Typicol
De-Energized Arrongemenls
Top-(honger Fig.?.8e- DuolVoltoge Arrongemenl


tig.2.8f- Diogrom Stoy'Delto

Showing Anongemenl

l\ t2.s%,
II) t5.0% or
IID +2.50,6, -7.5o/o
usuallyin 2.5o/oregulatingsteps.
Cominonconnectionsfor de-energised tappingsare"Linear"typeand "Bridging"type,as shownin Fig.2.8d.
In the bridging connection,the tapping sectionsare divided into two groups and the selectoradds
tap sectionsto the circuit from alternategroups.The diagramin tig.2.8dshows all possible(but not
In the linear arrangement,all the tappingsectionsare in one group and are addedsequentiallyto the
circuit by the selector.
The voltageappearingbetweenopen-circuittappingsectionsand adjacentcoil sectionis usuallylessusing
the bridging connectionand this allowing a smaller electricalclearancebetweenthesecoil sections.
o Pdrticulor Applicofions
. Dual VoltageTransformers
Transformersdesignedto supplyat two alternativevoltages,(e.g.10kV or 20kV or perhaps11kV or
33kV), are sometimesfitted with a DETCto switch betweenone voltageconnectionand the other
without having to open up the transformer.
Fig.2.8eshows an exampleof a schemepertaining to a series/parallelconnectionusing a DETCto
switch betweenvoltages.This featureis generallyusedwhen it is plannedto upgradethe substation
to a higher voltagewithin a few years, or perhapswhen the transformer will be used initially at one
site and then movedto anotherthat has a differentvoltage.

r u n d o m e n t o l -s A R E V A
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F 77
2 *HAT ts REe,TRED
To spEcrFy

o FurnaceTransformers
In the caseof Furnacetransformers that normally require a large regulation range on the LV side, a
DETCcan be used to changea winding connection from star to delta, again without opening up the
For example for a furnace transformer requiring the following voltages:
63 000V / 250to 1 200V
A transformercan be suppliedas:
PrimaryVoltage: 63 000V
SecondaryVoltage: With primary in star 250 to 700V
With primary in delta 250 \6 to 700 Jl = +ZS to L 2L2V
The star,/deltachangeoveris accomplishedby a DETCas shown in Fig.2.8f,whilst fine tappings,which are
not shown in the figure for reasonsof simplicity,are accomplishedby meansof an on-load tap-changer
in eachphase.

2.8.3. Vorioble Flux,VoriobleVoltogeVoriotion

The majority of transformershave a nominally constant no-load, volts-per-turn regardlessof tap
position and hencea constantflux densityin the core.This is known as constantfluxvoltage variation
or CFW. The alternativeis variablefluxvoltagevariation(VFW) and occurs,for instance,when tappings
are providedon the HV side for LV variation.
. Applicofio n of VFW
A commonapplicationofVFW is in autotransformers
with tappingsat the neutral end Fig.2.89and either
the HV voltage (U1) or LV voltage (U2) may be
constant,whilst the other is regulated.In either
case,it is evidentthat changingthe tap position
also changesthe number of turns in both circuits,
thereforethe volts-per-turnand hencethe coreflux
densitychangeswith tappingposition.
This is generallyof use when auto-transforming
betweentwo high voltagelevels,where tappingsat
the neutral end allow the use of a single 3-phase
tap-changer(an alternativearrangementemploying
line-endtapsfor CFW require3 single-phaseOLTC
with insulationlevelappropriateto U).
o Effecfs on fhe Volfoge of ofher Circuifs
A disadvantageof VFVV arisesin transformers
connectingmore than two circuits.Sincechanging Fig.2.8g- Aulolronsformer
tap also changesthe volts-per-turn,the voltageon
all winding having a fixed number of turn on the same corewill also vary with tapping position.
This would generallybe acceptablein the caseof a stabilizingwindingbut may or may not be acceptable
for an auxiliary winding dependingupon the specificload it must supply. Should it be necessarythe
effectofchanging turns can be compensatedfor by the inclusion ofa separateboostertransformer,as
shownin Fig.2.8h.
o Effecfs on fhe Nolood losses
The changein core flux density means that the no-load loss of VFW transformerschangeswith
As an example,the following autotransformer design is considered:
Transformerrating 240MVA
Voltageratio 400/L32/L3kV
Vectorgroup YNaOdIL
The HV voltage of 400kV is held constant, and a regulating range of 132 kV plus15% to minus 596
is provided on the LV.
For this Autotransformer,the flux densityvariation acrossthe tapping range is minus 796to plus
3.4Voof that on principal tapping.

78l PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

The associatedvariationin no load loss is:
Maximum turns - 57 kW
Nominal turns - 67 kW
Minimumturns - 74 kW
Note that the no-loadsound levelwill also changein sympathywith the flux density.






t- J

- Boosler
tig.2,8h Tronsformer

2.8.4. SpecifyingTopsfrom Your Needs

Sincethe additionof tappingsto a transformerincreasesthe complexityand cost of the design,care
should be taken to correctlyspecifythe actualtapping rangerequirementsof the transformer.The
purchasershould analysea number offactors that affectthe tappingrange,such as:
I) The load to be supplied
II) The power factorof the load
III) The range of supply voltagevariation
IV) The transformer impedance
V) The direction of power flow, and whether this is reversible
This issueis fully describedin IEC60076-8PowerTransformers-Application

The first choicethat has to be made is betweena separatewinding transformerand an auto-connected


r Fundctmentills- A R EVA
?avrer Transforrne / Y

? " 9 . 1. B o s i c P r i n c i p l e s
In a separatewinding transformer,high and low voltagewindings with voltagesU, and U, are
galvanicallyseparate.A current/, into the HV winding would result in a current 1, out of the LV
winding (asshownin Fig. ?.9ru).

Fig.2.9u- Tronsformer
Windings [:ig"?.9h- Aulo-Tronsformer

In an autotransformer,the coil(s)in the lowvoltage circuit are also common to the HV circuit and are
referredto as the "common winding". The arrangementis shown in tig.2.9b.
Only a voltageof (U, - Ur) needsto be addedin serieswith the common winding to obtain the HV
voltageof Ur (Coil(s)that achievethis are referredto as the "serieswinding"). It can also be seenthat
the current in the common winding is the differencebetweenthe LV current I, and the HV current 1r.
This meansthat the powertransformedby eachwinding (theproductof actualvoltageand current)is:
MVA,;on.,,*.= Ur(l, - t r) = (tl, - Ur) I,
Comparingthis with the rated apparent power (Jrlr=Urlrshows the relative size of the activepart of
an autotransformeris smallerthan that of the equivalentseparatewinding transformer:
WAron,Jo*"a -
Autofactor_ _ (U, Ur) t, =(, _LL\
" Mvuppo,",,, UrI, l. U, /
It can be seenthat the greatestbenefit in using an autotransformeris achievedas the transformation
ratio approachesunity. However,autotransformersdo have some disadvantages(e.g.no galvanic
isolation betweenprimary and secondarycircuits, low effectiveshort-circuit impedance,complex
arrangementsfor voltagevariationetc.)which limit their use.

2.9.2. AutotronsformerApplicqtions
Largeautotransformersareusedto connectbetweentwo stable,high-voltagetransmissionlines having
the samephaserelationship(e.g.between800 and 400kV or 400 and 220kV),but autotransformers
are also usedat the other end ofthe electricaldistributionsvstembecauseoftheir lower cost.


Many transformershaveonly trvowindings but it can be economicallyandlor technicallyadvantageous
to have more windings. Typical uses of additional windings include:
I) In star./starconnectedtransformers,to reducethe effectof 3'dharmonic interferencewith local
communicationssystemsdue to unbalancedloading:it also allowsthe flow of zero-phasesequence
currentsunder certainshort-circuitconditions.Suchwindings needto be delta connectedbut for a
3-phasetransformer it is not necessaryto make the winding accessibleexternallyin service.It is not

B0 l Power - A R EVA
uncommon howeverto make one connectionaccessiblevia a bushing for connectionto fault detection
equipment. The advantageof not making more than one connection availableexternally is that this
precludesthe possibilityofan externalearth fault (a 3-phasefault on the LV is often particularlysevere).
The correct designationfor a winding fulfilling this function is a "stabilizing winding" definedby IEV
421,-03-09as "a supplementarydelta-connected winding, especiallyprovidedon star-staror star-zigzag
connectedtransformersto decreasethe zero-sequenceimpedanceofthe star-connectedwinding".
II) For additional auxiliary supplies.An "auxiliary winding" IEV 421-03-08] is "a winding intended
only for a small load comparedwith the rated power of the transformer".
III) For the supplyof power factor compensatingloads.
IV) To interconnect additional supply systemsoperating at different voltages.
V) For use as a test winding only.
The windings of III) to IV) may be referred to as "low voltagewinding" llEV 421-03-041 or
"intermediate voltagewinding" llEV 421-03-051 as approprrate.
The low-voltagewinding can usually be designedwith sufficient impedanceto the other windings to
limit the occurringfault currentsto acceptablelimits. Howeverin some casesit may be necessary
or more economicalto includeadditionalimpedancein the form of seriesreactance.Thesereactors
can be addedin three configurations.


rof tbl k)
- Posible
fig.2.100 Reoclor
ino delh-conneded

(o)the reactorsX, are in serieswith eachdeltawinding phaseand limits the fault currents
In Fig.2.100
for external LV side faults and for line-to-earth faults in the other windings which circulatefault
currents in the delta winding.
(b)the reactorsX, areconnectedin serieswith the line terminalsof the LV winding. In this
In Fig.2.100
connection they are effectivein reducing fault currents for external faults on the LV side only.
The connectionin Fig.2.100 (c)can be usedto limit the circulatedfault currentsin the delta from line
to earth faults in the other windings.This can only be usedwherethe LV is "buried" i.e.wherethere
is no requirementto supplyan externalload.

In a liquid-filled transformer,the insulating liquid works as electricalinsulation as well as a heat
transfer medium. The transfer of heat constitutes the big advantageof insulating liquids over solid
materials.However,the flammabilityof some of the liquids usedis one of their weaknesses.
The liquid in a transformer can also be effectivelyexploited, as a tool to evaluatethe "health" of the
transformerby meansof variousphysicalor chemicalanalyses.
This item will briefly describethe main characteristicsof the insulatingfluid and will then present
the different types of insulating liquids presently used in transformers.
2.ll.l. Moin InsulotingFluidProperties
When consideringthe specificationof the fluid that should be used in a particular transformer, there
are some characteristicsthat are important to long operationallife. Theseare:
+ Kinematic Viscosity
+ BreakdownVoltage / Dielectric Strength
+ Permittivity, Dielectric Lossesand Resistivrty

e ru n d o m e n t o- lA
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m F s R EVA BI

+ Acidity
+ Water Content
+ Oxidation StabiliW
+ FlashPoint

2.11.2.Choiceof Fluids
+ Mineral Oil is the fluid that is most usedin the transformerindustry and, at present,is generally
the only one usedfor largepowertransformers.
+ SyntheticLiquids includethe two main types:siliconeoil and syntheticester.Although they
havehigh fire resistance,they are also much more expensivethan mineral oil and are therefore
confinedto usagewherevolumesare small such as distribution and tractiontransformers.
.+ VegetableOils are natural esters.Derivedfrom soya,sunflower, rapeseed,etc., they are highly
biodegradable,hencethe recent developmentstowards application in increasinglylarger
+ HalogenatedLiquids (PCBor askarel)were largelyused in the past becauseof their non
flammability.Thesefluids havebeenprohibited for over 20 yearsbecauseof their toxicity with
respectto both human health and to the envrronment.

Fluctuatingambient temperaturesand different loading conditions during the operationof a
transformer will causethe temperature of the liquid to vary. Its density varieswith temperature and
thus, so doesits volume.Dependingon the operatingconditions,the oil temperatureof a standard
transformercan changebetween-25oC and +100'C for a standardambient environment.tig.2.llo
shows the relative changein expansionof mineral oil for different oil temperatures.

. ara

-25 25 50 75 100
- ()il
tig.2.llo hponsion ()ilTemperotwe

It can be seen that the oil volume changesby around 996 betweenthe minimum and maximum oil
temperatures.This possiblevariation in oil volume must be accommodatedwithin the mechanical
designof the transformertank.
To take this variation of oil volume into considerationthere are two basic types of arrangement
availablei.e. with or without a separateexpansionvessel.Thesesystemsare designedin conjunction
with the liquid preservationsystem(seeSedion 2.2.16).
o lronsformers wifh Seporofe Exponsion Vessel
The potential expansionofthe liquid is provided for by an expansionvessel,or conservator,which is
usually installedon the top of the transformertank (fig.2.llb),or at the top of the coolerbank if it is
separatefrom the transformer.If the transformeris equippedwith an on-load tap-changer(OLTC),
there is usually an additional conservatorfor the liquid ofthe tap-changer.

o lronsformers wilhouf Seporofe Exponsion Vessel

B2 PowerTronsformer - A R EVA


Fig.2.llb - Tronsformer
Vessels Fig.2.llc - Tronsformer

2.lld- Tronsformer
Fig. withCorugoled

ln most instancesof creatinga transformer specification,there is no necessityto detail the solid
insdlationmaterials.The temperatureclassificationof the materialsis generallyall that is necessary.
For oil-immersedtransformers,classA insulation materialsare specifiedin the standardsand this
is usually a sufficient definition. However,there are some specialapplicationsfor which evena basic
knowledgeof the types insulation materials may prove advantageous.

+ StandardKraft Paperis commonly usedfor the insulation ofthe conductorsand is appliedin the
form of a narrow tape, but it may also be used in wide sheetform betweenlayerwindings.
+ Thermally Upgraded PaperTUP is a kraft paper that is chemicallytreated to improve its
thermal performance,and is of greatestbenefitfor conductorinsulation.
+ I(raft Board (Pressboard)is used in power transformers in low-density form for moulded
insulatingcomponentsand in high-densityform for structuralcomponentssuch as spacers,
supportsand barriers.Thicker materialcan be producedfrom sheetsofpre-compressed
pressboardlaminatedwith caseinglue or polyesterresin.
+ CrepePaperis a kraft paper,either standardor thermally upgraded,which has beensubjectedto
a specialmechanicalprocessthat imparts a random crimping giving the paperextensibility.It is
ideallysuitedfor the insulation ofirregular shapessuch asjoints, stressrings, curvedleadsetc.

r u n d c l m e n t o -l sA R E V A
P o w e rT r a n s f o r m e F B3

Diamond Dot Papercomprisesepoxyresin appliedto a strong basekraft paperin a regular

pattern of diamond shapeddots. It is sometimesused betweenlayersand for the outer layer of
the conductor insulation in distributions transformers.When polymerizedduring the drying
process,it forms bonds betweenconductors;increasingthe stability of the winding block.
Laminated DensifiedWood is made by joining and stacking thin wood veneers,and bonding
under pressurewith a thermosettingsyntheticphenolic resin adhesive.Laminatedwood is
usedonly for insulatedmechanicalcomponents.
Phenolic Resin BondedPapersheets,cylinders and tubes can be used, for example as an
alternative to pressboardfor winding cylinders when additional mechanical stability is
Fiber Glass and Epoxy or PolyesterResin offers high mechanical strength and high thermal
Enamel is generallyused directly on the conductors,for exampleto providethe strand-to-
strand insulation in the Continuously TransposedConductor (CTC).

I Lilf iillr*::Tli":illnffl"niHhTf,f,l?3,1",1f;,-,l
Largepower transformerstend to be very heavyand often haveto be transportedto remote locations
over frequently rough terrain, and then moved around into fairly precisepositions at their final
destinations.It is not surprising,therefore,that the transportationoflarge transformersis a very
specialistoperation requiring careful preparation and planning. Fortunately,when specifuinga
transformer,it is usually not essentialto have a deepknowledgeof transportationmethods.This
appliesequallywhether the customer or the supplier is responsiblefor the transportation of the
transformer. Again, fortunately there are a number of specialistcompaniesequippedwith specialist
tools offering expertiseand experiencein the safehandling of expensivecapital plant. This is the
intendedmessageto be taken from this brief section,but further information on this topic is contained
in (huoler

2.t4. LOSSES
"Operational" transformers differ from the ideal model in that they absorb both active and reactive
power. From a user's perspectivethese are important both for the operation of the transformer, in
terms of voltageregulationand short-circuit current limitation, and for the operatingcosts of the
transformer in terms of the energylost. The former relatesto the reactivecomponent (VARs),whilst
the latter relatesto the activecomponent and is known as loss (Watts).
The reactivecomponent is usually indirectly specifiedby the user in terms of impedance,which for
power transformers is principally a reactance.Occasionallyuserswill also specifiithe activelossesof
the transformer, usually as a maximum value, perhapsto meet minimum efficiencyrequirementsof
an overall installation, but more often than not the choiceof lossesis left up to the manufacturer.By
placinga monetaryvalueon the losses,userscan comparethe tenderoffersof differentmanufacturers,
both in terms of initial cost and the ongoing energycosts associatedwith the losses(seeSecion 2.14.2,
As these lossesform an important part ofthe contractual agreementbetweenthe purchaserand the
manufacturer,they are the subject ofguarantees,the definition ofwhich and their tolerancesare
coveredby the relevant national and international standardsfor transformers, e.g. IEC 60076, IEEE

2.14.1. Losses,Definitionond Presence

The lossesofthe transfotmer can be broadly separatedinto two categories.These are known as no-
load lossesand load losses.

o No-lood losses
Thesearethe activelosses(in Watts or kW) that are dissipatedwheneverthe transformer is energized
at ratedvoltagebut not loaded.They are made up principally ofthe hysteresisand eddycurrent losses
in the magnetic core. For modern core steels,the ratio of hysteresisto eddy current loss rangesfrom

84 I PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
about 40:60 for conventionalgrain-oriented steel through 28:72for high permeability (Hi-B) steels
to 36:64 for the highest quality domain refined (laser or chemical etched) steels. These ratios are
approximate and dependant on flux density, the aboveratios being for'J,.7 Tesla.Additional losses
may also arise in any magnetic steel bolts that passthrough or very closeto the core as well as other
structural steel elements such as clamps and flitch plates that are in close proximity to the core. At
the normal operatingflux densitiesfound in power transformers,the permeability of the core steelis
at least an order of magnitude greater than that of normal mild steel so the amount of flux entering
these componentsis usually very small. Consequentlythese additional losseswill also be very small
and are generallyignored.
The no-load loss is highly dependant on the voltage applied to the transformer and its frequency,
but since these are usually maintained closeto their rated value, the no-load loss is consideredto be
constant when carrying out an optimized capitalizationexercise(seeSection 2.14.2).

o Nolood Curren|
This is the current absorbedby the transformerwhen it is energizedat ratedvoltagebut is not loaded.
It has two components: an in-phase component, neededto supply the active no-load losses,and a
quadraturecomponent,which is required to magnetizethe core ofthe transformer.The total no-load
current is usually expressedas a percentageof the full load current for the particular winding that is
energized.With modern core steel and a well designedand constructedcore,the no-load current for
a power transformer is typically much less than 1% of rated current.
If a sinusoidal voltage is applied to a transformer, the flux induced will also be sinusoidal but due
to the non linear nature of the magnetizationcharacteristicof the core steel,the no-load current
will be non-sinusoidal with a significant harmonic content. The values of the individual harmonic
componentswill vary with the type of core steel, the working flux density,the winding connections
and the quality of the core construction. Sometypical values of harmonic content of no-load current
are given in Tsble

1.8 t.7 1,.6 1.5

3'd LSo/o L5o/o L4o/o 1,4o/o

5tn 28o/o 260/o 2Lo/o 20o/o

7,h L00/o 7o/o 4o/o 3o/o

9tn 2o/o Io/o Io/o Lo/o

Tuble2.14u- TypicolHormonic
(onfentof No-loodCurrenf

It should be rememberedthat these are percentagesof the total no-load current which in itself is very
small comparedto the full load current.
As with the no-load loss, the no-load current will vary significantly with voltage.

o lood losses
Theseare the lossesthat are presentwhen rated current is flowing in the windings. They vary as the
squareof the load current. The load loss can be split into three basic parts: resistiveloss in windings
and connections,eddy current loss in winding conductors and "stray" loss due to leakageflux
impinging on metallic componentsoutside the windings.
The bulk of the losses occur within the windings themselves.The largest proportion of the losses
within the windings is due to the DC resistanceof the winding, typically around 90%. Theseresistive
losses are commonly known as the I2R losses and are calculated by multiplying the square of the
r.m.s. rated current of each loaded winding by its resistanceat a given referencetemperature. The
remainder of the loss within the windings is mainly as a result of eddy currents flowing within the
winding conductors. These eddy currents are induced by the alternating leakageflux impinging on
the conductors. The magnitude of the eddy currents is related principally to the dimension of the

PowerTronsformer 185
To spEcrFy

winding conductor perpendicularto the leakageflux. In core form transformers, the leakageflux is
principally parallel to the axis of the windings so the conductorsare generallychosenwith relatively
small dimensionsin the radial direction(typically1-3 mm). Where paralleledconductorsare used
for a winding, it is possiblefor circulating currents to flow due to non-uniform flux linkage,thus
creating additional resistivelosses.However,by careful transposition of the conductorsthrough the
Iength of the winding, it is generallypossibleto equalizethe enclosedleakageflux and thus eliminate
or minimize the circulating current losses.
Additional load lossesoccur outside of the windings. Someof these are due to the load current in the
Ieadsand connectionsto the windings.Theselossescan be significantfor lowvoltage,very high current
windings e.g.rectifierand furnacetransformers.The majority of the connectionlossesresult from their
DC resistanceand form part ofthe total I2Rloss, but in very largeconductorsfurther lossesoccur due
to the skin effect,which effectivelyreducesthe current carryingareaof the busbar,thus increasingits
apparentresistance.A largecomponentofadditional lossesis createdby the leakageflux produced
by the windings impinging on the tank, core and clamping structure and creatingeddycurrent losses.
Similarly,the magneticflux surrounding heavycurrent connectionsalso induceseddy current loss in
the tank and other metallic parts. Theseadditional lossesare often termed the "stray loss".
o Reocfiye losses in YAr
In addition to the activelosses,the transformerwill also absorbreactivepower due to the leakage
reactancebetweenthe windings. At full load current, the VARsconsumedis obtained by multiplying
the rating of the transformer(in VA, kVA, MVA etc.)by the p.u. reactance.For power transformers,
the reactanceis usually practicallynumericallyequal to the impedance.As an example,ifwe consider
a 150 MVA transformer wifh 12% impedance,the reactivelossesare approximately;
Q = 150 000 x 0. 12 = l8000kVar
By comparison,for the aboveexample,the typical activelossescould be in the region of 600 kW
dependingon design.
o Yoriotion of losses with Temperature
No-load lossesare partly made up of eddycurrent losseswithin the steel.Eddycurrent lossesvary
inverselywith the resistivityof the material,which for conductingmaterialsincreaseswith increasing
temperature.Henceas the temperatureof the core increases,the eddy current losseswill reduce
and since the hysteresislossesare more or less constant with temperature the total losseswill also
decrease.Transformerstandardsrequire that transformer lossesare measuredat or about the normal
ambient temperature for the test field, so the lossesmeasuredwill normally representa worst case
scenario,sincein servicethe transformerwill normally be aboveambienttemperature.No temperature
correctionfor the no-loadlossesis prescribedin eitherIEC 60076 or ANSI/IEEEC57.L2.90.
I2Rlossesin the windings are obviouslyproportional to the resistanceof the windings and, as stated
above,the resistivity of the conductor material will increasewith temperaturethus increasingthePR
losses.In the caseof copperconductorsthe variationin resistanceR, at a temperatureTlto R.rat a
temperature Z, is given by the formula:

Note: In ANSI/IEEEStandardsthe constant235 is replacedby 234.5
Conversely,eddycurrent lossesin the windingwill vary in the inverserelationshipto the I2Rlossesfor
the reasonexplainedpreviouslyfor the no-load loss. Additional eddycurrent lossesor stray lossesin
the tank etc. will also reducewith temperature accordingto the temperaturecoefficient of resistivity
for the material concerned,but, as it is not practicalto separatethe winding eddy and stray losses
by measurement,all lossesother than I2Rlossesare assumedto reducein inverseproportionto the
winding resistancewhen calculatingthe total lossesat referencetemperature.
In IEC 60076, the load lossesare correctedto a referencetemperatureof 75"C whereasin ANSI/IEEE
C57.L2.00 the referencetemperatureis 85"C. If the lossesare measuredat a nominal ambient of
20"C, the ft losseswill increaseby approximately2I.5% in the IEC caseand by 25.5% in the ANSI/
IEEEcasewhen correctingto the respectivereferencetemperature.Typically the combined eddy and
stray loss is of the order of 10-20% of total load loss.This meansthe total load losseswill increase
by around L5-20% when correcting from ambient to referencetemperature.

86 I PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
o Voriotion of losses with Tap Posifion
Thereare many combinationsof tappingarrangements,particularlyin the caseof autotransformers
and it is not possibleto give universalguidanceon the variationof losseswith tap position.Analysis
here will be limited to the simple two winding core type transformerwith taps in the HV winding
for variation of the HV tapping voltage.The windings are assumedto be arrangedoutwardsfrom
the core asLY/HY/Taps, but the principlesoutlined here can be appliedto more complexcases.
Sincethe resistanceand current of the LV winding are fixed, the lossesin the LV winding will remain
essentiallyconstant.As the tap-position variesthe resistanceof the HV winding will changein a
mannerdependingon whether linear,/coarse-fine or reversingtaps are used.Thus the 12Rin the HV
winding will changeboth due to the changein current and the changein resistance.There will also
be changesin the stray and eddy current lossesdue to the changesin leakagefield distribution. A
typicalvariationin the total load loss overthe tappingrangecan be seenin the graph tig.2.140 below
for both linear,/coarse-fineand reversingarrangements.

E l.l

0.8 0.9 l.l

- Typicol
Fig.2.140 Vodolion

o loleronce on losses
IEC and ANSI/IEEEstandardsboth containstandardtolerancesfor the acceptanceoftransformers
with respectto losses.Thesetolerancesbetweenthe guaranteedvalue ofloss and the final measured
valueobtainedon test are summarizedin the Toble

: Standard ,: Tolerance on Tolerance on Tolerance on

No-load Loss Load Loss Total Loss

IEC60076-L 75o/o L5o/o L0o/o

A N S I / I E E EC 5 7 . L 2 . O O I0o/o None specified 6o/o

- Permissible
Ioble2.'|4b Tolerqnces
Tolerancesare requiredto allow for material,constructionaland testingvariances.
In the caseofno-load loss,the coresteelhas a certainvariationin its valueofspecificlossfrom batch
to batch. Transformer manufacturers normally work with the typical value of specific loss provided
by the core steel manufacturer rather than the maximum guaranteedvalue for a particular grade of

r u n d a m e n t a l -s A R
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F EVA 87

steel.This meansthat some transformerswill measureabovethe expectedvalue and some below.

In addition to the variation in the core steel, there is certain variability in the manufacturing process
of the core in terms of accuraryof cutting, and building which will add further potential for a spread
in the measuredresults.
In the caseofthe load losses,the value ofthe winding resistancecan be calculatedto a high degreeof
accuracysince the value of resistivity for electricalgradecopper and aluminum is closelycontrolled.
Allowancecan also be made for the resistanceofthe connectingleads.Tolerancesdo exist, however,
for the cross sectional area of the individual conductorswhich will result in a toleranceon the
resistancevalue. There will also be toleranceson the manufactureddimensions of the windings
resulting in toleranceon the length and hencea further toleranceon the resistancevalue.Tolerances
are also requiredon the calculationofeddy current and stray loss.

2.14.2. Copitolizotionof losses

Despitethe high efficienry of a transformer, the lossesrepresentwasted energy. Over the lifetime of
a transformer,these losseswill havea marked financial and ecologicalsignificance.When comparing
different transformers having different losses,the effect ofthe lossesis consideredby a process
commonlyknown as "capitalizationof losses".
Transformersare usuallyconnectedto the system100% of the time, henceno-load loss represents
a continualbut steadythresholdenergydrain. Load loss variesdependingupon nature ofthe load,
which is often cyclic,and representsenergylossesin additionto those of the no-loadcondition.
Foreachofthese losses,it is possibleto assigna losscapitalizationrate.The loss capitalizationrate,
in each case,is basedon the estimated energyrates including amortization over the lifetime of the
transformer.For the no-load lossesthis will be relativelystraight forward. However,for the load loss,
the load profile overthe period also needsto be considered.Allowancescan also be factoredinto each
capitalizationrate to accountfor the ecologicalimpact ofthe losses.Loss capitalizationrates derived
in this way are the net presentvalue energyprices per kilowatt.
When consideringthe material costs and kilowatt lossesof a given transformer, it can be generally
statedthat lower losseslead to higher material costs.For given loss capitalizationrates,a balance
must be made betweenthe desireto achievelowest possiblelossesand the consequentialincrease
in material and hencepurchasecost of the transformer.
When transformersare to be evaluatedusing capitalizationof losses,the purchaserprovidesthe
manufacturerwith the loss capitalizationratesfor the no-load and load losses.The manufacturerthen
aspiresto achievethe best possiblebalancebetweeninitial purchasecost and total cost ofcapitalised
loss,i.e. the optimal capitaliseddesign.

o Mefhod o[ CopitolizingCosfsDuefo losses

As indicated above,the loss capitalization rates are equivalentto energy costs over the lifetime
of the transformer,expressedin today's prices.In order to comparethe lifetime cost of different
transformers, one comparesthe differencebetweentheir total capitalizedcosts.
The total capitalizedcost (CC)ofa transformer can be expressedas
c C= c ,+ ( a x r o ) + ( r x 4 )
€ = currencyunit
C, = purchaseprice of transformer (€)
A = loss capitalizationrate of no-loadloss (€/kw)
Po= no-loadloss (kw)
B = load loss capitalizationrate (€/kw)
Pr,= load loss (kw)
The same currency must be used for the purchaseprice and the capitalization rates.
The capitalization rates (A and B) are also those provided to the manufacturer by the purchaserfor
use during the transformer design process.

o Inyesfmen I O ptimizolion with Copitolizotion

Knowledgeof the cost of lossescan also aid decisionsabout investmentin new transformersand
choicesbetweentransformers with different losses.

B BI Power
Tronsformer - AR EVA
The kilowatt loss for a given load profile is given by
kwL= Po+(tr)'xrr
l," = r.m.s load factor
Cithersymbols are as previously defined.
The amount of energyused by the transformer expressedin kilowatt hours per year
The annual cost ofenergy is expressedas
€lyear = kWhlyearxtariff €lkWh
Any two transformers can be comparedby calculatingthe abovevalues for each.
Examplesare given below showing two methods of comparison:"simple payback"and "savedenergy
. Simple Payback
The basic formula for simple paybacktime is given by
Pricedffirence (€)
SimplePayback(years) -
Energysavings(€l year)
Its application is shown in the following Toble 2.14tand demonstratesthat the increasedcost of
transformer 2 could be recoupedin 5 years becauseof the lower losses.In this example,we use
Euros. but the format remains valid for anv currencv.

Thansformer L Thansformer2

No Load Loss, kW Po 130 100

Load Loss, kW Pk 400 350

Load factor, (per unit) Lf 0.6

kilowatt loss, kW kwl- 274 226

Energy used per year kWh/Year 2 400240 r 979760

EnergyTaritr €/kwh 0.01897

Annual Energy Cost €lYear 45 527 37 552

Energy savings €/Year = (45527-37 552)=7 975

Price of transformer € 63 226 103103

Price Difference € 103103- 63 226= 39 877

Simple payback time Years 39 87717975 = 5 years

Toble - Typicol
2.14c Poyhock (simple
Comporisons Method)

o SavedEnergyCost
The cost of energysavedover the lifetime of atransformer can be compared

7 = p€r unit interestrate

n = numberoJyears
Its application is shown in the following Toble Basedon the previousexample,it shows that, over
the expectedlifetime, there is considerablebenefit in using transformer 2.

PowerTronsformer t89
2i wnAT rs REo,TRED
To spEcrFy

Thansformer L Transformer 2
Energy used per year kWh/Year 2 400240 | 979760
Difference in energy
kWh/Year 2 400240- I 979760= 420480

Price of transformer € 63 226 103103

Price Difference cg
103103- 63 226- 39 877
Number of years Years 30
Interest rate p.u. 0.07
480* 0.07+ (1 - (1 - 0.07)30)
= 63 0701420
Energy Saving €/kwh = 0.0074€/kwh
Iobh2.14d Poybotk (Soved
Comporkons (ost
tnergy Method)

2.14.3. Efficiency
Efficiencyis a measureofwasted energyand is statedas a percentageof the rated power.Transformer
lossesdependon the load of the transformer. Also, as transformers are electromagneticdevices,the
lossesare related to the power factor, cos g, ofthe load.
The efficiencyof a transformer as a percentageof rated power is given by:
s'xftx9osrP .1
?' ? = l o o r [
L S ,x f t x c o s g + ( P o + P k x k 2 ) )
S" =
Rated Power (kVA)
Po =
No Load Loss (kUD
Pk =
Load Loss at Rated Power (kW)
cosg =
k -
Load Factor = actual Ioad kVA = RatedPower
Despitehaving seeminglyIargelosses,transformers are very efficient machines.
The Tobfe
below shows typical values for a2O0 MVA transformer.

Load factor k n Tl
costp=l cosI = 0.8

1.00 99.74 99.67

0.75 99.76 99.7|

0.50 99.77 99.7r

0.25 99.69 99.61

Toble - Efficiency
2.14e versus

Most people are familiar with the "hum" that is heard when a transformer is energized.The hum is
often referredto as noise,but its correctterminology is sound. In the caseofthe transformer,the hum
can be regardedas an unwanted or unpleasantsound, hencethe use ofthe term "noise".
In order to ensurethat "noise" is not a problem in serviceat site, the purchaserneedsto considerhow
to set a suitable guaranteelevel for sound when placing an order for new equipment.

e0 l PowerTronsformer - AR EVA
There are a number of options availablefor defining sound levels. Beforea formal contract is signed,
the manufacturer and purchaser should agreethe following information:
+ the guaranteedsound pressureor power level
+ the choice of test method
-t the test conditions
+ the presenceof auxiliary equipment, such as coolers
This will avoid any ambiguity in the interpretation of the results obtained when the transformer has
its final acceptancetests.
In some countries, legislation existswhich requiresproducts to operatewithin specifiednoise limits.
Care should be taken to ensure compliance with such legal requirements. There are some product
performance standards that include typical sound levels such as found in NEMA TR 11e.It should
be noted that the sound levels provided in this latter document do not reflect sound levels that are
presently achievableusing "state of the art" techniques and materials. It does, however, provide a
starting level for initial assessmentof site requirements.
Detailedinformation regardingbasicsound conceptsand determinationof sound levelscan be found
in Volume

2.15.2. GuqrqnteedSound levels

The purchaser normally derives a guaranteedlevel for the required sound level by considering the
on-site environment in conjunction with the factors describedin Seclion Theseinclude load power
factor, variation ofload current and operatingvoltage,harmonics in the supply voltage and load
current, DC magnetization and remnant flux effects, resonancesand sound level build-up, as well
as the influence of distance from the transformer. Considerations should also include the type of
voltageregulation (constantor variableflux designs,which are dependanton tapping arrangements).
The guaranteedsound level will be taken into account by the manufacturerwhen designingthe
transformer or reactor.
For some sites,there will be no limitations on sound level,but this situation is becominglessfrequent
as environmentalissuesare becomingmuch more relevantthesedays.In many cases,the purchaser
may require a sound pressure level to be met at a large distance from the transformer, such as
at the fence-lineof an installation. This requirementis often introducedto comply with national
regulations regarding sound level values. The prediction ofthese values requires knowledge about
sound propagationin the specificenvironmentofthe installation; this is normally not availableto the
transformer manufacturer, although simple predictions can be made as shown inVolune2, /.5.4.
It is usually,therefore,more appropriatefor the purchaserto guaranteeeither the sound power level,
or the sound pressurelevel. The latter would needto be guaranteedat one ofthe standard distances
specifiedin international standardssuch as IEC 60076-'J-02o or C57.12.9021.This distancedepends
on whether the cooling fans are running or not; it is usually 2 meters or 0.3 meters, respectively.
The best way to expressa guaranteelevelis as a sound power level,as this is independentofdistance
from the transformer. However,as sound power cannot be measureddirectly (seeVolune2,Seclion 7.5.2),
the method of derivation from sound pressureor sound intensity measurementsmust be agreedat
the tender stage.
In some situations, the required values will be lower than achievablewith normal design methods
and specialtechniquesor attenuation equipment will be needed22. Such techniquesare discussedin

79- NEI,IATR 7 7993 (R2000) "TrarsJormers,Regulators,

20- IEC 60076-10 (2005-07)@"PowerTran{ormers - Part10 DeterminntionofSoundLarcIs".
27- IEEE Standaril C57.72,90N "TestCodeforLiquid-immersed
Distribution,PowerandRegulating & Guilcfor
22 IEEE StanilarilC57.736 - 2OO0[rt,"GuidcforSoundLevelAbatementandDeterminntianforLiquitl-ImmersedPower

PowerTronsformer - AR EVA
Fundomentqls r91

2.15.3. Choice of Test Method

o Sound Pressure Meosuremenfs

Historically,the sound level of a transformer has usually beendeterminedby the sound pressure
method. Either the averagesound pressurelevel at a specifieddistancefrom the transformer, or the
sound power level determinedfrom this measurementis recordedin the test report. Although sound
pressure measurementshave generally been the preferred method, they do need correcting for the
influenceof backgroundsound levelsand reflections.Although small distribution transformerscould
be testedin an anechoicchamberthat removesthe influenceofbackgroundsound and reflections,
this is not practicalfor larger transformers.Thereforecorrectionsin accordancewith the international
standardsmust be used to obtain accurateresults.unlessother methodssuch as use ofsound
intensitymeasurementsare applied.

o Sound lntensity Meosuremenfs

Soundintensity measurementscan be used to determinea sound power level as shown inVolume 2,
Sound intensity respondsonly to the propagatingpart of a sound field, ignoring any
non-propagatingpart, such as standingwavesor reflectionsand reducesthe influenceofexternal
sound sources.The measurementthereforerequires no correctionsto be made. In recentyears,
sound intensity measuringequipment has becomegenerallyavailableand is therefore becomingthe
IEC 60076-1-0permits the use of either method. As sound intensity measuringequipment is not
alwaysavailable,it may be necessaryto agree,at the time of tendering,which test method will be
usedin the particularinstance.

2.15.4. Test €onditions

o Generol
The normal measurementof sound levelis madewith the transformersuppliedin an open circuit
condition. The transformer is required to be connectedand energizedat rated voltage and rated
frequenry at no-load condition and with the tap-changer,if any,set on the principal tapping. Pumps
and fans are set to operateas appropriatefor the particular rating casebeing tested.Where there
are multiple ratings including a natural cooledrating, it may be necessaryto repeatthe test with and
without the cooling equipment operational.This should be agreedat the tender stage.

o AuxilioryCooling Equipment
If the cooling equipmentis separatelymounted but less than three metersfrom the tank wall, the
prescribedcontour,as definedin IEC 60076-l-0, includesboth transformerand coolingauxiliaries.
Sound tests therefore give a combined sound level for both items. This is acceptablewhen no sound
enclosureis to be fitted to the transformer at site. However,when such an enclosure is specified,a
more relevant test will be to perform two separatetests to determine the individual sound levels of
each of the two items, namely the transformer and the cooler.
The appropriateoption should be selectedand agreedat the tender stage.

o Volfoge Regulofion
When the transformer is equippedwith a tap-changer,the transformer may, on certain tapping
positions, produce sound levels that are greater than the levels at the principal tap position. This is
particularly true if the transformer is of the VariableFlux VoltageVariation type. Nevertheless,sound
measurementsare made only with the transformer set on the principal tap unless it is otherwise
specified.The excitation shall be appropriateto the tapping in use.

o lood CurrenfSound
Sound level measurementson transformers havegenerallybeenmade under open circuit conditions
with only the magnetizingcurrent flowing in the windings. This has been acceptablebecausethe
core sound has normally been the primary sourceof noise. However,advancesin core materials and
design,occasionallycoupledwith low induction levelshave reducedthe sound generatedby the core
such that the load current sound causedby the windings may now be a significant contributor to
the overall sound level. Ifthis is the case,it may be necessaryto carry out a load current sound level

92 I PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
measurementwith rated current at rated frequencysupplied to the windings using the short-circuit
A guide as to whether a measurementunder load conditions may be relevant is given by the formula
found in IEC 50076-1-0:
=:e+f Skf

L*n,ris the A-weighted sound power level of the transformer at rated current, rated frequenry
and impedancevoltage;
S, is the rated power in MVA;
Sois the referencepower (1 MVA).
For autotransformersand three winding transformers,the equivalentdouble-wound rated power,
S,is used instead ofS..
lf LwA.rN is found to be 8 dB or more below the guaranteedsound power level, Ioad current sound
measurementsare not appropriate.This should be agreedat the time oftendering. The aboveformula
should not be used to provide the expectedvalue ofload current sound, as it is only indicative.
o Reduced lood Currenf
lf the measurementscan only be performedat a reducedcurrent, due to capacitylimitations, the
sound power level at the rated current may be calculatedusing the following equation:

h v w = t - n r + 1 { ,- E
1 .!

Lno,*is the A-weighted sound power level at rated current;
Lno.ris the A-weighted sound power level at reducedcurrent;
1" is the rated current;
f. is the reducedcurrent.
The equationis valid for a reducedcurrentof> 7O96of the ratedcurrent.The use ofthis approximation
should be agreedat the time of tendering.

All AREVAT&D Power Transformer plants are ISO 9001 accredited.This accreditationgives to our
customersthe assurancethat the quality systemsof the organisationwill meet all the international
recognisedstandards.Nevertheless,the customers may havespecificrequirements that must be defined
when speciftingtheir transformers.Thus, the applicationof QualityAssuranceto eachcustomer'sorder
is continually respectedwithout prejudicingthe particular requirementsof his specification.

2.16.1. ISO 9O0OBenefits

The ISO 9000 family of standardsaddressesthe subjectof quality management.ISO 9001-23 contains
a list of standardizedrequirements for the managementof the quality system.
When specifyinga transformer, AREVAT&D recommendsthat the ISO 9001 standardshould apply,
since the most effectiveway of ensuring that the product will meet the minimum expectedquality
standard is to require its suppliers to demonstrateISO 9001-registration.
ISO 9001 is a detailed international standard basedon multi-industry experiencesand is regularly
revisedbasedon experience.It coversmany aspectsofthe organisationand accreditationand regular
auditing assurescustomersthat a good quality managementsystem is in place.This starts with the
quality policy and the setting of the objectives, and continues with audit reviews. Regular audits
provide the data neededto achievethe targeted objectivesby reviewing internal processessuch as
design,production, training etc. and assessingthe generallevel ofcustomer satisfaction.
ISO9001 specifiesthe minimum requirementsthat the quality systemmust meet, but it is sufficiently
flexible to allow implementation in different businesssectors.Further information, on this topic can
be found in Volune 2,fhopler
The following section discussesthe benefits of using the design review procedure,which is one of
the requirements of the 9001 standard.

23 - ISO 9007'2000@ "QualityManagement - Requirements",


PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentsls i93

2.16.2. DesignReviewBenefits
ISO 9001 recognisesthe benefit of design reviews as an effectivemethod for improving the quality
ofthe final product.
The most obvious benefit of the design review is the early identification of errors or deviations in
respectof the customer's specification.A mature design review processavoids misunderstandings,
starting from the initial tender designinputs right through to the final commissioningof the product,
through a rigid processwhere all relevant knowledgeand past experiencesare used.
All AREVAT&D PowerTransformerplants apply a standardizeddesignreviewprocessfor improving
the efficienry and effectivenessof the design. Going beyond the mandatory processesspecified by
the ISO 9001 standard,AREVAT&D has developedthe design review procedureinto an immensely
powerful quality managementtool.
The design reviewprocessstarts at the tender stage,but is reborn with the design launch meeting at
the commencementof each contract and finishes with the closing review upon completion. Several
intermediate gate reviewstake place during the progressof the contract in order to review all main
At each stage,the most up to date techniquesand technologyand the most suitable methods of
production and testing are appliedto meet the strict regulationsofthe organisationto avoid any
deviation from best practice.
When speciffing a transformer,the customermust identify its own particular requirementsregarding
design reviews. Some customers ask that their own tailored design review processis to be applied
to the contract. This must be notified in advancein order to avoid inconsistenciesbetween the
AREVAT&D internal design reviewsthat are run in parallel. AREVAT&D is in favor of this customer
involvementin the designreview processas the ultimate objectivesof supplier and client are the
same, resulting in earlier detection of possible misunderstandingsand more effectiveidentification
and implementation of correctiveaction. It is also the opportunity for both parties to share their
respectiveexperiencesand discussthe progressmade in the technologiesused.

2.16.3. Other Requirements

Verification and validation activities must demonstratethat the design satisfiesthe requirements as
defined in the design input specification.
AREVAT&D issuesa quality control plan for all its largepower contracts.This plan is not standardized
as it must reflectthe particular product itself as well as the manufacturingequipment and machinery
which may differ from one plant to another. Our customers rely on and trust AREVAT&D's quality
and processes.However, if other specific requirements are applicable,they must be notified by thl
customer when specifyingthe product.
When speciffing a product,the customermay referto the following non-exhaustivelist of information
- the list of drawings that must be used if interchangeability
with an existing product is
- specificprogressreporting and frequenry ofsubmission
- project launch meeting attendeesand their responsibilities.
' Project Management
- quality assuranceproject plan for the contract
- list of drawings to be submitted to the customer for
- administrative letters to be sent
- timing for the design review(s)and the final acceptance
- processand maximum duration for the drawing approvals
- list of "as built" drawings
- customiseddrawing title blocks if required
- numbering system to be used for the contractual
drawings if this differs from that of
- specifictests to be performed by the sub-suppliers of material
and/or component devices.

94 1 PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
-+ Production
- specificquality plan requirements if any
- gate milestone reviewsfor production follow-up
- schedulingfor final acceptancetest.
.+ Validation and Test
- standardsto be applied
- list ofadditional tests not included in the standards.
'+ Shipment
- specificpacking marks if required
- instructions to the forwarder if the customer is responsiblefor shipment.

+ Site Erection
- limits of responsibility
- risk assessmentsand method statements
- health and safetyregulations, if there are specific requirements
- environmental declaration if there are requirements that are specificto the area.

+ Maintenance
- AREVAT&D provides a comprehensivemanual for operation and maintenancewith its
products. However, if specificpracticesare requested,they can be included within this
manual for the benefit of the maintenanceteams.

The transformer manufacturer and the customer have influence on different factors which affect not
only the initial cost of the transformer but also the total lifetime cost.

The transformer designer endeavorsto offer the optimum capitalized2abid, byvariation of parameters,
in order to weigh production cost of the transformer, againstthe resultant performanceas measured
by the cost ofits losses.
Materials account for such a high proportion of the production costs of a large power transformer
- from 60% to 80% depending upon its size and complexity - that the design can be sensitive to
volatility in the global commodity market. The key materials for the transformer industry are copper,
steel,wood pulp/insulation and oil. Within the company'ssourcing strategy,the designermust
therefore ensure the timely availability of materials of an appropriate quality and quantity and for
this reason it is common for companiesto developpartnershipswith key suppliers to bring benefits
sdch as lead-time reduction, quality improvements etc.
With such significant material content, changesin the material cost basewill clearly influence
the design offered when no capitalization is applied e.g. if the cost of copper were to increase
disproportionatelyto that of core steel,it might be beneficialto reducethe mass ratio of copperto core
steel,by consideringa designwith larger core diameter and fewerwinding turns. In some largepower
transformerswith significant loss evaluationhowever,the overallcapitalizedvalue often continuesto
reducewith increasingmaterial content until the transport dimensions impose an upper limit.

2.17.2.The Buye/s Perspective

There will alwaysbe pressureto reducethe initial cost of the transformer, but the operator needsto
take a longer term view to ensure maximum availabilityat minimum lifetime cost. The capitalization
exerciseusually only provides a rough approximation for a small part of the through-life cost and
other considerationsmight include the loss of revenuewhich would result from the non-availability
of a large,strategicallyimportant transformer - in a very short period such costscan exceedthe initial
capital investment in the equipment itself.
For strategicallyimportant transformers,the buyer must not simply compareselling price and cost of
Iossesbut must also placea value on the quality ofthe product. Someindication ofthe manufacturer's
quality can be obtained from a pre-contract audit which might include a review of:

24 - Refer to section2.1-4.2Capitalization
of Losses.

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols i9s

+ FactoryIeadtime,
+ FactoryAcceptanceTest failure rate,
.+ On time delivery record,
-+ In-servicefailure rate,
+ On time delivery record,
+ Warranty offered.
This is often combined with technical clarification whereby the customer ensures that all relevant
data has been made availableto the manufacturer. In special casesthis may also be followed by a
designreviewprocessin which the manufacturerdemonstrateshow he will achievethe requirements
of the customer.
Mitigtion strategiesfor dealingwith loss of transmissioncapacitygenerallyinclude provisionof some
spare capacity.By ensuring the availability of a spare transformer, the long lead-time necessaryto
manufactureand delivera replacementis removedbut deploymentofthis sparestill incurs some loss
of operational time. Other costs include routine maintenanceof the spare transformer and storage
accommodationuntil required: a long-term storageareamust be suitable for the fully erectedmass
and include oil retention facilities, auxiliary supplies,etc.
Considera group ofN paralleltransformerssupp$ing a total baseload Sr.lfthe plant in eachbranchhas
only capacityS'=S/N then if one branch of the circuit becomesunavailablethe supply capabilityof the
group would be reducedto S'(N-1-)/N.Increasingthe rating of the componentsin eachbranch to Srz(N-1)
would ensurefull group capacitywhen one branchwas unavailable.An increasein transformer rating
might be achievedby increasingthe conductor cross-section(making the transformer physicallylarger or
by initiating a higher mode of cooling(e.g.ONAN to ONAE ODAF(I)to ODAF(2))- the choicewould be
influenced by the loss capitalization and any transport restriction.
If insteadof a fixed baseload, the load fluctuates over a period, then more complex aging algorithms
might also allow the overloading capability of the transformer to be consideredin such a way as to
minimize any necessaryincreasein transformer rating.
Whilst some smaller transformers may be selectedfrom a supplier's standard product range, most
large power transformersare bespokeitems, tailored to the customer'srequirement.Customers'
Specificationsrange from the "functional" type which describesonly what must be achievedby the
plant to the "prescriptive"type which may, for example,specifysome design acceptancecriteria,
control how the plant shall be designed,manufacturedand tested, etc.
A specificationbiasedtowards the functional requirements may be more suited to the operator of a
relativelysmall number oftransformers, as it allows the supplierto offer an optimum solution for that
application alone basedon performance,manufacture, material sourcing etc. whereas an operator
with responsibility for a large number of similar transformers will often benefit from a greater level
of standardization and a more prescriptive specificationwhich offers some significant operational
benefits,such as reducedtype-testingcosts,improvedplanning, better risk managementand simpler
maintenance,through the reduction in the variety of spare parts and training. In some cases,it may
evenhelp reducedeliverytimes. In order to satisfythe requirementsof different operatingregimesor
sites, however,the opportunity for wide-ranging optimization is generallylow since designvariation
envelopes,such as allowableimpedance,tend to be narrowwhile largetapping rangesand additional
cooling capacitymay be necessaryto enablesatisfactoryoperational interchangeabilityofplant, and
these featuresoften incur an initial price premium.
The prescriptiveapproachlocks in costs, so it is important during the developmentof such
a specificationto have an appreciationofhow the specifiedparameterscan affect the cost and
performance.Consider,for example,the effectof lowering the reactancefrom some arbitrary starting
value. This could be done by reducing the number of winding turns and increasingthe core areato
maintain the same flux density, so immediately a changein the cost of materials and manufacture
can be expected.However,since the transformer impedanceis a key element in limiting the current
flowing in the circuit during nearby short-circuit faults, care must be taken in the coordination of
other plant to ensure their fault capacityis not exceeded.Guidanceon the selection of appropriate
minimum transformerimpedancesis givenin IEC60076-825.

- Part 8 "ApplicationGuide"
25 - IEC6O076'8 7997@."PowerTran$ormers

96 | PowerTronsformerFundomentcls-AREVA
2.17.3.Other Influences
Changingexternalfactors also have a cost impact. Increasingenvironmentalawarenessand
commercial and legislativepressureswill continue to encouragethe supplier and operator to reduce
waste in all its forms. Reducingloss (electricalwaste)and noise emissionsusually meansusing more
materials and results in larger transformers. However in more denselypopulated regions spacefor
developmentwill becomeeven more difticult to obtain so manufacturerswill be askedto minimize

It is desirablethat the customer's enquiry specifies,as clearlyand preciselyas possible,the technical
requirements of each transformer. Insufficient or ambiguous data is likely to result in requests for
supplementaryinformation, or a potential mis-match betweenthe manufacturer and customer

2.18.| . ConventionolTronsformers
For conventionaltransformers,customersare expectedto provide, as a minimum, the following
information and data:
a. The international or national standards(for example:IEC,ANSI/IEEE, BS,DIN, etc.)to which the
transformer is required to conform;
b. Type of transformer,for example,separatewinding transformer,auto-transformer,generator
Single-phaseor three-phases;
Vector connection symbol;
The frequencyofthe supply;
Whether the transformer is for outdoor or indoor use;
Whether the transformer is of the dry or liquid-immersed type;
The type ofoil preservationsystem required or preferred;
The type of cooling that is required;
The rated power of each winding. If the transformer has severalcooling designations,the rated
power for each designationshould be given;
The rated voltageof eachwinding;
The type and range ofvoltage regulation, viz.;
+ Off-circuit or on-load voltage regulation;
-+ Which winding is required to be tapped;
-+ The desirednumber of tapping positions and the tapping range;
.+ Whether reduced-powertappingsarepermitted and the tapping position that can havereduced
m. The maximum servicevoltageof eachwinding;
n. The required insulation levels for eachwinding;
o. The earthing method of the system (groundedor ungrounded)and the insulation levelsof all
neutral points;
p. The requiredimpedancesrelatingto eachpair ofwindings on principal tapping and any restrictions
on the impedanceson other tappings should be given;
q. The capitalizationvalues for the evaluationofno-load and load lossesand the capitalization
rates to be appliedto auxiliary power consumption should be provided.Alternatively specificloss
guaranteevalues may be requested;
r. It should be clearly specifiedwhether the manufacturer is responsible for the transportation of
the transformer, and whether there are any restrictions (size,weight etc);
s. The details of current transformer provision and/or current transformer accommodation
t. The number of transformers to be supplied.
The aboveinformation should be provided by the customer for eachtransformer enquiry.

Someenquirieshavespecialrequirements,requiring the customerto provideadditionaltechnical
information and data to enable the manufacturer to fully consider all potential implications within
its offer.

PowerTronsformer 197
2 *HAT ts RE.,TRED

When the customerhas specialrequirements,theseshould be fully detailedin the enquiry document,

for example:
a. Specialenvironmental conditions that are outside those defined by standardsas being normal;
b. Ambient temperatures;
c. Altitude;
d. Earthquakeintensity;
e. Limits on the circulation of cooling ar;
f. Contamination classificationof the environment;
g. If a stabilizing winding is required, the earthing method should be given and, if appropriate,the
rated power of this winding;
h. Specialrequirementsrelatingto toleranceson impedances;
i. In the caseofa generatortransformer,whether it is directly connectedto the generatorconnected
via switchgear,and any load rejection conditions that are to be applied;
j. Whether the transformer is to be connecteddirectly or through short-distanceoverheadline using
k. Site dimensional restrictions that may potentially affect clearancedistancesbetween terminals
and to ground;
3Tf: irun"*'*il;:i"TffiH, particularry
to frequentover-loads;
' When the load current wave shapeis likely to be seriouslydistortedor the three-phaseload
is imbalanced;
' The short-circuit characteristicsof the power grid systems(short-circuit power or current of
the system, or the system impedanceand the baseto which it is referred);
m. When it is requiredto operatein paralleloperationwith an existingtransformer,the requirementshould
transformer beprovided,
shourd suchas:
+ Voltageratio ofother tappings;
n. Impedanceon principaltapping,and ifthe tappingsare outsidethe rangeoftS% from the rated
voltageratio, the impedanceon the maximum plus tapping and on the maximum minus tapping
should be given;
o. Connectiondiagram or connection symbol;
p. Load loss on principal tapping at rated current, correctedto the correspondingreference
q. Any specificrequirements for noise and vibration;
r. Any specialrequirements regardingpaint, including performance,color and thickness;
s. Specialrequirements regardingtransformer oil;
t. Any special requirements regarding the transformer mechanical structure, for example, high or
low level tank flange, free standing or separateradiator banks;
u. Any specialtests as definedby the standardsor which are not included in the relevantstandards;
v. Specialrequirementsfor terminal connections,for example,connectionwith GIS,connectionwith
. bus-bar trunking or cable box outlet;
w. Any componentsand accessoriesthat are required to be supplied by a specificmanufacturer,and
will have an impact upon the offer, should be identified;

ii*m*l r,tt#mn*m.*J;triliril'Jffffi
in conjunction with the on-load tap-changer;
The inclusion of a specificmanufacturer of the cooler, and/or speciffing standby cooling

f t ;rdi:tr;:"""#:1ilft;Tr1Tl"if;, winding
measuring system is specified; "pticar
A specialconservator,for example,a corrugatedexpansionconservator,is required;

9Bi Power
Tronsformer - AR EVA
+ An automaticcontrol cabinetfor the coolingsystemis required;
+ A gas-in oil on-line monitoring device,an on-line bushing monitoring device,a moisture
measuringdevice,an on-line partial-dischargemonitoring deviceor a transformer on-line
monitoring systemis required;
+ Any specialrequirementsin respectof the auxiliarypower supplyvoltage;
-' Any specialrequirements regarding bushing current transformers for bushings;
y. Any particular customer requirements regarding the provision by the manufacturer of
documentation and drawings during the tender and/or contract stages,must be clearly
For specialtransformers,such as HVDC convertertransformersand Phase-ShiftingTransformers,
the customermust providethe necessaryspecializedtechnicalrequirementsand parameters(refer
to Seclions How
HVDI Tronsformen
[onverler and 2.18.2
How loSpecify Tronsformer
o Phose-Shifting {PST)).
o How fo Specify HVDC Conyerfer lronsformers
Referenceto the applicationofthe current InternationalStandardsis essential.
rEC 61378-2
In addition to the above,customersmay havetheir own individual specifications,which may take
precedence overthe Internationalguidelines,where indicated.
The minimum data requiredwhen creatinga specificationfor HVDC convertertransformersis as
shown in Tobles2.18sto 2.18r.


Specification to which -+ InternationalStandardsand customerspecific requirements.

transformer will comply

Number of phases or active + This may be determinedby cost, transportrestrictions,strategicspare

parts requirements,and power or voltage level.

Frequency + The supply voltage cycles per secondin Hz.

Cooling type + Generally determined by the rated power and often incorporatesan
element of sparecapacity for maintenanceetc.

Rated power + The required MVA rating.

Tapping details + The number of stepsrequired in the positive and negativedirection

and the percentagevafiation required of the line voltage.
+ The range is usually greater than that for a generator step up or
transmission transformer.

Insulation / test levels for + Generally determinedby the International Standardbasedon Lightning
each winding Impulse (LI), Switching Impulse (SI) and Power Frequency(RMS) voltages.

Vector connection + The Line side is generally Star connectedwith the Valve windings
being Star and I or Delta connected.

Dimensional or interface -+ Details of the station physical parameters,civil works, valve hall
limitations proximity etc.
->Transport restrictions, including maximum size and weight of
indivisible loads.

Altitude above sea level + Altitudes above 1 000 meters will effectively reduce the rating of the

Site ambient temperatures + Ambient temperaturesthat are higher or lower than Standardlimits
can affect the materials used in the construction of the transformer and
the overall operational performance characteristics.

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols ,99
,.ffi wHAT ts REQUIRED

Dimensional or interface D> Details of the stationphysicalparameters,civil works, valve hall

limitations proxlmlty etc.
-> Transportrestrictions,including maximum size and weight of
indivisible loads.

Overload requirements -> Any cyclic or seasonaloverloadconditionsneedto be clearly

specifiedas thesemay impact upon the designof the rating / cooling plant

Noise requirements >> Any limitations on noiseassociatedwith Load or No-Load conditions.

These should be clearly defined in terms of sound PRESSURE or sound
POWER and also identified for each componentpart, such as coolersetc.

Tnhle - Minimum
2.18u Generol


The type of HVDC Scheme -> TransmissionLine scheme:usually long distances,where the cost
into which the transformer of AC lossesand reactivecompensationplant is excessiveor where an
will be located: underseaconnectionis essential.Thesetypesof schemeusually have a
-> Thansmission Line scheme very high DC voltage and a very high AC voltage associatedwith them.
D> Back-to-Back scheme -> Back-to-Back scheme:betweentwo AC systemsthat are incompatible
in terms of frequencyor synchronizationor where direct connection
would result in excessivefault levels or if systemvoltagesare different.
D> Thesetypes of schemeusually have a lower DC voltage but high
currentsassociatedwith them.

Specification to which -> There are frequently customers'specificationsthat are relatedto the
transformer will comply operationof the particular valve design.

Rated voltage of each -> The rated systemoperationalvoltages,AC and DC levels.

winding and DC voltages
for the valve windings

Test requirements - details D> Any testsin addition to thosedetailed in the relevant standards.
of any special tests >> The valve winding DC test levels are determinedby the number of
bridges within the particular schemerequired.

Impedance requirements -> The short-circuit impedancevaluesrequired for the transformer

should be specified,often betweenStar/Starand Star/Deltawindings,
along with any applicabletolerancelevels over the tapping range (usually
different from the International Standard).
-> The systemshort-circuit characteristicsshould also be specified.

dildt values -> The rate of changein the current is essentialinformation for the
selectionand performancecriteria applied to the On-load Tap-changer.

Operational Loss limits -> Any limitations on operationallosses(including capitalizatronvalues).

Theselossesare often averagedover a selectionof loads and include
harmonic effects at each of the loading conditions specified.

Harmonic current details >> The full range and content of the Harmonic current is essentialto
ensurethat the transformeris suitably rated to cope with the impact of
theseduring normal serviceoperation.
-> Harmonic current content will also impact upon the selectionof
the copper conductorsused in creatingthe internal winding design of a

Igble - Minimum
2.lSb Doto

r00 r u n d a m e n t o l -s A R E V A
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F
Auxiliary voltages D> Including AC and DC sourcesfor protection / monitoring and cooling

Fittings including bushing D> It is important to detail all of the necessaryfittings, protection and
type monitoring devices required.

IYpe of oil preservation -> Details of the preservation system including whether an air cell
system is required in the conservator (expansionvessel) or a free breathing
iurangement via an external moisture removal device.

Ioble Doh forFine

c Howfo Specifro Phose-Shiffing
GeneralNotes on PSTs
-+ PSTsare used to control power flow along transmission lines.
+ The magnitude and direction of power flow are controlled byvarying the phaseangle between
input and output voltages.
+ QuadratureBoostersare a sub-group ofPSTs that control the phaseangle but haveno control
over the magnitude of the resulting output voltage.
.+ Retard(voltagebuck)tappingsare definedas being thosewhich causethe output voltagevector
to lag the input voltagevector.
.' Advancetappings (voltageboost) are defined as being those which causethe output voltage
vector to lead the input voltagevector.
Referenceto the applicationofthe current International Standardsis essential.This is the "dual logo"
document: IEC 62032 / IEEEC57.135.
In addition to the Standard above,customers may have their own individual specifications,which
may take precedenceover the International guidelineswhere indicated.
The minimum data required when creating a specification for a PST is shown in Isbles 2.18dand 2.18e

Specification to which D> International Standardsand customer specific requirements.

transformer will comply

Number of phases >> These are generally 3 phaseunits due to the interconnection
requirementsbetween the shunt (exciter) and serieswindings.

Frequency D> The supply voltage cycles per secondin Hz.

Cooling type D> Generally determined by the rated power and often basedon a mixed
cooling system having both Natural and Forced modes of operation.

Throughput Power (MVA) D> Ji x Voltage between phasesx Line Current.

Rated voltage(s) D> The operational voltage of the line to which the terminals of the PST
are connected.

Insulation/test levels D> Generally determined by the International standardbasedon Lightning

Impulse (LI), Switching Impulse (SI) and Power Frequency(RMS)
voltages related to the system to which connection is to be made.

Dimensional or interface F> Details of the station physical parameters,civil work etc.
requirements >> Transport restrictions, including maximum size and weight of
indivisible loads.

PowerTronsformer I l0t

Ambient temperatures >> Ambient temperaturecan affect the materialsused in the construction
of the transformerand the overall operationalperforrnancecharacteristics.

Altitude above sea level -> Excessivealtitude (above 1 000 m) will effectively reducethe rating of
the transformer.

Noise requirements -> Any limitations on noise associatedwith Load or No-Load conditions.
These should be clearly defined in terms of sound PRESSURE or sound
POWER and also identified for each componentpart, such as coolersetc.

Overload requirements -> Any cyclic or seasonaloverload conditions need to be clearly

specifiedas thesemay impact upon the design of the rating / cooling plant

Operational Loss limits -> Any limitations on operationallosses(including capitalizatronvalues).

Thesemay be split into No-Load Loss, Load Loss and, where applicable,
Auxiliary Loss. If not specified,the InternationalStandardinvoked will
determinewhether tolerancesare applicableto the values indicated.

Tnble - Minimum
2"18d DotoforPSTs


Rated power
-> Throughput Power -> .6 x Voltagebetweenphasesx Line Current.
-> Rated Equivalent Sizing -> Usually is Throughput Power x (no-load phaseangle).
Power (MVA): (SeeSeclion3.1.4)

No-load phase angle, -> The VA Switching Capacity of the Tap-changerusually limits the
range required and the maximum PhaseShift and MVA of the PST.
number of steps -> PST's are designedaround the selectedTap-changer,rather than
the Tap-changerbeing selectedfrom the transformerdesign as with
-> The On-Load PhaseAngle is a function of the No-Load PhaseAngle,
throughput power, impedanceand power factor.

Impedance requirements -> Considerationneedsto be given to the condition where a zero boost
characteristicpotentially exists, creatingexcessivefault levels.
-> Impedancesshould be evaluatedfor the extreme operatingparameters
and the zeroboost condition, where a close coupled auto-transformermay
be required for certain PST configurations.

Testrequirements- D> Any testsin addition to thosedetailed in the relevant standards.

specialtests !+ As theseunits have the externalbushingsassociatedwith the Series
winding only, it is often necessaryto design for a 'double ended'
Lightning Impulse, as both setsof bushing terminals are likely to be
exposedto such a phenomenaduring operationalservice.The level of
such a test requiresclarity in the specification.

Terminal Identification I> By convention, input terminals are connectedto the source.
>> It is essentialthat the customer& manufactureragree,without
ambiguity, which terminals are connectedto the source.

Toble - Minimum
2.18e Dolo
Porficulor (tsenficl
foPSTs ofDimensions
forDelerminolion ondWeights)

In addition,the information requirementsthat are listed in Table

abovearevalid for PSTsalso.

142 i Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA
The bidder should carry out a thorough review of the customer's enquiry. If there is a lack of clarity,
ambiguityor insufficientdetail,the biddershould requestappropriateclarificationfrom the customer.
The extent of the detail containedwithin the offer will often dependupon the nature of the enquiry.
If the customersimply requiresa budgetaryor indicativeproposal,the level of technical(and
commercial)detail containedwithin the offer will generallybe limited. Alternatively, if the customer
requiresa full and comprehensiveoffer, it will be necessaryfor the enquiry likewise,to be sufficiently
detailed(referto Sedion2.18).

2.19.1. ConventionolTrqnsformers
For conventionaltransformers,the bidder should endeavourto provide,in any full and comprehensive
offer, the following information and data:
a. The standardsapplicableto the design,manufacture and testing of the transformer(s);
b. Type of transformer;
c. Number of phases;
d. Connectionsymbol;
e. Frequenry;
f. Outdoor or indoor installation:
g. Coolingtype;
h. Ratedpower of eachwinding. If the transformerhas severalcooling methods,the rated power
for each cooling method should be given;
i. Ratedvoltageof eachwinding;
j. Method and rangeofvoltage regulation;
k. Maximum servicevoltage of eachwinding;
l. Insulation levelof eachwinding, including (whereappropriate)full wave impulse voltage,chopped
wave impulse voltage,switching impulse voltage,short time power frequencywithstand voltage;
m. Insulation level of neutral point at each side, including where appropriate,full wave impulse
voltage,and short-time power frequenry withstand voltage;
n. lmpedanceand permissibletolerances,including permissibletolerancesof impedanceat maximum
plus tapping and maximum minus tapping;
o. Guaranteedvalue of temperature rise, including (where appropriate)the temperature rise of top
oil, winding, tank, core and metallic construction parts;
p. No-load losses,load losses,auxiliary plant power, and permissibletolerances.The reference
temperatureof load lossesshould be defined;
q. No-load current (%);
r. Noise level and whether value refers to Sound Pressureor Sound Power:
s: Over-loadcapability;
t. Category quantity and performanceof current transformers;
u. Type oftank construction;
v. Outline dimensions and total weight of installed transformer, including oil volume;
w. Outline transport dimensions and weight.
The bidder should identify all deviations to the customer's technical requirements as set out in the
enquiry.Where possible,the bidder should endeavourto provide alternativesolutions or parameters
for the customer'sconsideration.

Where the customer has specifiedspecialrequirements,the bidder should endeavourto provide, in
any full and comprehensiveoffer, an adequateresponseto all such requirements,for example:
a. Where the ambient temperature is higher than is specifiedwithin the applicable standard,
the guaranteedvalue for temperaturerise should be providedaccordingto the actual ambient
temperature so specified;
b. Where the transformer is to be installed in a seismic area,the bidder should provide evidence,by
calculation, of the seismicwithstand capability of the transformer;

P o w e r T r c n s f o r m e rF u n d o m e n t o l s- A R E V A I 103

c . Where the transformer is to be operatedin an areaof severepollution, the bidder should provide
the customer with the permissible pollution severitylevels and the total and protected creepage
distancesfor the bushings;
d . Where there is a stabilizing winding, the bidder should, where appropriate,confirm its nominal
rated power;
e . When a customer has indicated a particular overloadrequirement,the bidder should confirm the
overloadcapability of the transformer;
f. The short-circuit withstand capability should be confirmed, by calculation if this is stipulated in
the enquiry document;
g. Where there is a specialrequirementfor oil, the bidder should confirm the type and performance
h. When requestedby a customer,the bidder should endeavourto providethe following calculation
+ When coolersare used,the permissiblelong-time serviceload of the transformerwhen one
or more of the coolersis out of service;and the permissibleservicetime of the transformer
under rated load when all coolers are out of servtce;
+ With ONAF cooling,the permissiblelong-time serviceload of the transformerwhen one or
more, or all fans are out of service;
* When cooling is with pumps, fans and radiators,the permissiblelong-time serviceloading
of the transformer when the pumps are out of service;and the permissible long-time service
Ioad of the transformerwhen both pumps and fans are out of service.
When the transformer is to be installed in a humid or an arid tropical environment, the bidder
should confirm salient details, such as: performanceof component items and surfacepaint
treatment details:
j. When a customerhas specialrequirementsfor teststhat are additionalto or more onerousthan
those specifiedin the applicablestandard,the bidder should confirm the list ofroutine tests, type
tests & specialtests, to avoid any future ambiguity;
k. When a customer has specialrequirementsfor component items and accessories,the bidder
should confirm the supplier name, component type, performanceparametersand the quantity of
such component items & accessories.When it is relevant,a catalogue,or extract from it, may be
provided for customer's interest.
Certain information detailed above may not be available at the time of tendering. In such
circumstances,the bidder should inform the customer that this information will be provided during
the executionof the contract, within a pre-agreedtime frame.
The bidder should identify all deviations to the customer's technical requirements as set out in the
enquiry.Where possible,the bidder should endeavourto providealternative,lower cost or higher
security solutions or parametersfor the customer's consideration.
For specialtransformers,such as HVDC transformersor PST's,the bidder should provideinformation
and datawhich is additionalto conventionaltransformers(referbelow to Sedions 2.19.2
forHVD((onverler and 2.19.2
Tronsformers TheMinimum Required
Informolion fromtheEidder

o fhe MinimumInformolionReguiredfromfhe Bidderfor HVDCConyerferlronsformers

There are a number of essentialpiecesof information which are required from the bidder when
evaluatingthe suitability / complianceof a HVDC convertertransformer. These are detailed below:
a. Confirmation of conformancewith the customer's specification;
b. Confirmation of conformancewith applicableInternational Standards;
c. A detailedlist, including references,regardingany deviationsfrom the specificationor lnternational
d. A detailed set ofTechnical Scheduleswhich provide sufficient data for the purposes of

+ Inrush current characteristic;
-+ Site performanceexpectationstaking into account harmonics etc.

104| PowerTronsformer - AR EVA

f. A set of guaranteedperformancevalues, generallyassociatedwith losses,temperature rise and
g. A dimensional drawing giving the following information:
+ Overall size of the complete assemblyincluding location in respectof valve hall walls;
.+ Transportation dimensions of largest component;
-+ OverallWeight of the complete assembly and / or sub-parts;
+ Transportation weights;
-+ Quantity of liquid contained overall and for transport (if applicable).
h. A list of the potential sub-suppliersof the components/ materialsto be used within the
construction of the transformer;
i. A generaldescription ofthe constructional features associatedwith the transformer; such as the
core type,winding types and relativepositions of windings to one another and to the core,the
clamping system used, and the tank construction etc.;
j. The associatedcosts broken down into:
+ Total transformer cost:
.+ Transportcost;
+ Installation / erection cost.
k. The commercial Terms and Conditions to be applied.

o lhe Minimum lnformofionReguiredfromfhe Bidderfor PSTs

There are a number of essentialpiecesof information which are required from the bidder when
evaluatingthe suitability/compliance of a Phase-ShiftingTransformer. These are detailed below:
a. Confirmation of conformancewith the client's specification.
b. Confirmation of conformancewith applicableInternational Standards.
c. A detailedlist and referencesregardingany deviationsfrom the specificationor International
d. A detailed set ofTechnical Scheduleswhich provide sufficient data for the purposes of
e. A set ofguaranteed performancevalues, such as throughput power, phaseanglevariation range,
losses,temperaturerisesand noise.
f. A dimensional drawing giving the following information:
-+ Overall size of the complete assembly;
+ Transportation dimensions;
.+ Overall Weight of the complete assembly and / or sub-parts;
+ Transportation weights;
.+ Quantity of liquid contained overall and for transport (if applicable).
g. A list of the potential sub suppliers of the components/ materials to be used within the
construction of the transformer.
h. The type ofPSToffered:
+ Single or Dual core;
'+ Single or Dual tank;
+ Number of tap-changers;
.+ Whether an Advance/ Retard Switch is used;
+ Whether an additional booster unit is used;
-+ QuadratureBooster.
i. A generaldescription ofthe constructional featuresassociatedwith the transformer; such as the
core type, winding types and relative positions of windings to one another and to the core, the
clamping system used, and the tank construction etc.
j. The associatedcosts broken down into:
+ Total transformer cost;
-+ Transport cost;
+ Installation / erection cost.
k. The commercial Terms and Conditions to be applied.

PowerTronsformer ; 105
1 0 6I PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Hoving goined o generol understondingof trqnsformerporometers
qnd Stondords in use, this next chopter is oimed ot providing o
voriety of tools ond doto to mqke qn educqted ossessmentof the
principle tronsformer performonce rotings. Derived from AREVA
T&D design tools, curves, formuloe, etc., this informotion should
qllow the reoder to produce o credible estimote of o potentiol
tronsformer's performoncesqnd chorocteristics,including weights
ond dimensions,losses,mognetizing currents, relotive voriotions
in impedonce ocrossthe topping rqnge, qnd q bosic estimqtionof
sound level.
It should be emphosized thot this is on educqted estimote.More
specificond detqiled informotionon the subiectmotter con be found
in Volume2.

PowerTronsformer i 107
3 i now ro EsrftiATEpERFoRryrANcE

Chqpter contents
3. How to EstimqtePerformqnce
qnd Chsrqcteristics? 107

3.1. slztNc PowERDEFINIT|ON toe

3.1.1. Tronsformerswith More ThonTwoWindings
3.1,2. Autotrqnsformerswith TertioryWindings
3.1.3. Tronsformerswith Tops
3.1.4. PhoseshiftingTrqnsformers (PSTsl 1l0

3.2.1. TronsportMoss lll
3.2.2. On SiteMoss 112
3.2.3. Oil Moss I 13


3.3.1. TrqnspodDimensions ll3
3.3.2. On SiteDimensions 114
3.3.3. Cleoroncesfor CoolingPurposes 122


3.4.| . Typicollood ond Nelood Losses 124
3,4.2, TypicolNoloqd Current 125
3.4.3. TypicolInrushCurrent 125
3,4.4, TypicolCoolingLosses 126

3.5. 126
3.5.1. 126
3.5.2. 127
3.5.3. 130

3.6.1. Nelood SoundLevel 130
3.6.2. loqd SoundLevel 132
3.6.3. Addition of Nolood qnd lood Sound Power levels r33
3,6.4, DifferencesBetweenFocloryTestsond FieldSound
LevelMeosurements 134
The prescribedway of defining the throughput capabitityof a transformer is to use the rated power.
This rated power is well defined in the standardsand is one of the main parametersof sizing a
transformer. However, this essential parameter does not always give a clear identification of the
physical size of the transformer. In order to overcomethis particular difficulty, it has becomea well
known practice in the transformer industry to introduce a sizing power definition, which better
determines the physical size of the unit in "SizingMVA". This "SizingMVA" not only is a more
meaningful indicator of the physicalweight and dimensions but is also better correlatedto the man
hours required to manufacture the unit and to its price.
As an initial demonstrationof the application,referenceis made to the simplest feasibletransformer,
which has only two windings and neither winding is providedwith tappings. In this simple case,the
rated power of eachofthe separatewindings is equal to the transformer rated power. The higher voltage
(HV) winding is dimensioned to carry the rated load (SoMVA) and the same applies to the lower voltage
(LV)winding. In other words the transformer has trvo windings eachdesignedto havethe number of
turns and conductor cross-sectionalareafor S" MVA rated power. Its SizingMVA(S,i,.e)k defined as half
the sum of the rated powers of all windings i.e. (S,+ S.)/2 which in this caseequalsSn.
The simple casesets the basefor other more interestingapplications.For instance,applyingthis
sizing definition to a simple shunt reactor of 100 MVAr containing only one winding of 100 MVA
capability,leads to the conclusion that its sizing power is only (100 + 0) MVA / 2 = 50 SizingMVA.
Most types of transformershavetwo or more windings, for example;autotransformers,transformers
with a tapping winding, and phase-shiftingtransformers.This chapterwill give the basiccalculations
ofthe physicaltransformer size and use this to developassessmentsof other parametersfor the main
types of transformers that are normally encountered.

3.1.1. Tronsformerswith More ThqnTwo Windings

Applying the definition given aboveto a transformer having 3 windings, we have for example:
Ratedpower of high voltagewinding (Sr*) = 1gO
Ratedpower of lowvoltage winding (SLv)= 1gO *O "UO
Ratedpower of tertiarywinding (S-) = 30 MVA
S"i,ing= (Snv+ Srv+ Srv)/2
Ssi,ing= (100 MVA + 100 MVA + 30MYA)/2
Ssi"ios= Il5 SizingIuIUA

3.1.2. Aufotrsnsformerswith Tertiory Windings

A two winding auto-transformer has a winding that is common to both the HV and LV circuits and
so all of the power is not actually transformed. It is necessary,in this instance,to correct the rated
power to a transformed power before adding the effect of the Tertiary.As an examplewe see:
RatedPower of high voltagewinding (Snv)= 100 MVA
Voltage of high voltagewinding (U"u) = 400 kV
RatedPower of lowvoltage winding (Srv)= 100 MVA
Voltageof low voltagewinding (Urv)= 1l-0 kV
Rated Power of tertiary winding (S*) = 30 MVA
Voltageof tertiary winding (U*) = 13 kV (doesnot affect the calculation)
Ssi,ing = Q x (L - ULv/Urr) x S* + 5*;72
Ssi,ios = Q x (1,- 1-1-0kV/400kV)x 100 MVA +3O NNA)/2
Ssi"ios = 87.5 SizingMVA

3.1.3. Tronsformerswith Tops

As an example,we consider a transformer with 2 windings and with a tapping (regulating)winding
on the high voltageside.The rating must be correctedto take into accountthe highest valuesofboth
voltage and current that are applicableto any tapping.
Ratedpower of high voltagewinding (Snv)= 100 MVA
Tapping range ofthe HVwinding is (&",) positive L2% and.(Rn"r)negative1-296
Ratedpower of the untapped lowvoltage winding (Srv)= 100 MVR
= (Sxux [(t + R*,) / (1 - R,"J] + Sti/2
S,i,ing (100 MVA x [(1 + 0. 12) / (L - 0.12)l + LOOMYA)/ 2
= 1L3.6 SizingMVA

PowerTronsformer - A R E VA
Fundomentols I t09

3 How ro E'TMATE

3.t.4. Phose-Shifting
The RatedEquivalentSizingMVAis calculatedas follows:
y'3 x RatedVoltagebetweenLines x Line Amps xfunction (No-Load PhaseAngle)
whercfunction(No-Load PhaseAngle) is determined in a number of ways, dependantupon the type
of Phase-ShiftingTransformer required (Fig.3.loto O. (The value of y'3 is the phase factor that is
appropriateto a 3 phase system in which line values are used to define voltage and current ratings.
For singlephaseunits, it is usual to referto phasevaluesand the phasefactor is therefore1).

AsymmetricalPSTs& QuadratureBoosters:

SizingMVAis equalto:

sin cr x ThroughputlwA

Fig.3.lo- Veclor


Symmetrical PSTs:

An example of one approach with a single


SizingMVA is equal to:

2 x sn(alL) x ThroughputMVA

Fig.3.lb- Veclor

Hexagonal Connection PSTs:

For fixed shift applications, the hexagonal

connection is normally used.
The equivalent MVA which determines the
physical size of each part is dependantupon the
phase shift angle as detailed below:

SizingMVA is equal to:

4 x sin(60o - o/2)sin(sJz) x ThroughputtuIUA


Fig.3.lc- Veclor
Diogrom (onnection
ofHexugonol PST

1 1 0I Power
Tronsformer - A R E VA
The actualmassesrelatingto a transformerdependupon a wide rangeof specifiedrequirements,such
as transformertype,cooling types,coolerlocation,loss capitalizationrates,impedance,transportation
or site accessconstraints,mounting inside an enclosure,and, to some extent,on the relativecosts
of the activepart materials.Long beforethe transformerdesignhas beencompleted,however,it is
often convenientto make estimationsof keyweightsfor planningor cross-checking purposes.Only
the final completedesigncan take into accountall of the many specifiedrequirements,but a selection
of curvescoveringsome key parameterestimationsare presentedin this chapter.
Somemass differencesexist between 50 and 60 Hz transformers, becausefor the same flux density
the 50Hz transformercorehas a largercross-sectionaL arcaand hencea greatermassthan a 60 Hz
core.This characteristichas an effecton all masses:transport,on site and oil masses.
Despitethe massdifferencesbetween50 and 60Hz transformers,the varianceon the dimensionsis
of secondorder effectin comparisonwith the variancesdue to capitalizationrates,coolertype etc.

The first of these key parametersis the mass of the heaviestpackage,which is usually the activepart
enclosedwithin the tank. The figure below providesestimatesof typical transport massesof this
heaviestpart basedupon the SizingMVA as derivedin Seclion
When using this curve (Fig.3.20),cognizancemust be given to the fact that more oneroustransport
constraintswill probably give rise to a lighter packagethan indicated here. On the other hand, a
transformer that has very high capitalizationcost valueswill probablybe heavierthan the curve might
show.Of course,if knowledgeof anothertransformerhavinga rating within about 150%, the same
generalspecification,similar impedance,and similar capitalizationratesexists,extrapolationto the
new designis possibleby plotting the known point on the graph and drawing a new curveparallel
with that shown in the figure.


i I i l--- i 6oHz I
'1 t/ ll
/l ltt
at, I
100000 | ./r | | ! | I


r00 200 300

Fig.3.2u- Typicol

r u n d o m e n t c l -s A R E V A
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F tlt
3 | no* To EsTMATE ANDcHARAcrERls'cs?

3.2.2. On SiteMoss
Another parameterthat is of considerableinterest at the planning stageis the total site mass of the
complete transformer, shown in Fig.3.2b. Knowledge of this parameter, even considering a limited
3.2,will permit some initial estimates
range ofvalidity as elrplainedin the opening remarks of Seclion
to be made in terms of plinth strength.

112 | - A R EVA
3.2.3. OilMoss
It is advantageous,also,to know how much oil that it will be necessaryto dealwith at site. As for the
other key massesrnentioned previously,the oil mass can also be related to the SizingMVAas shown
abovein Fig.3.2c.
It must be borne in mind, however,that oil mass dependsvery much upon the type
of cooling provided. A radiator bank contains more oil than an air blast cooler and much more oil
than a water heat exchanger,for the same duty.

3.3.1. TronsportDimensions
Having consideredthe mass parameters in Section 3.2,the next stage is to review and estimate some
key linear dimensional parameters.As we haveseenthat typical massesof the heaviestpackagecan
be related to the SizinglWA,then so too can transport dimensions, as shown in tig.3.3o.

PowerTronsformer | il3
3 | no* To EsrrrnATE ANDcHARAcTERrsrrcs?

3.3.2. On SiteDimensions
The fully erectedon site dimensions will depend mainly on the power rating, the highest voltage lwel, :
the type of cooling, the orzeralllengths of the H.V. bushings and any site limitations that may exist. i
In viewofthe manyspecifiedrequirements
andlimitations,predictionof sitedimensionsis difficult 1
upto ratingsof aboutIOOMVA.
relatingto largertransfonners
areshownin Figs.
to 3.3i.
. ONAF CooledwithTonkArlouniedRodiotors
a) SmalVmedium

114I PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

b) Medium/Iarge slzetransformers

Rating: 240 MVA - 50 Hz - 3 phase transformer

H.V. 275 kV and L.V. 110 kV with TV
Length - 12 000 mm
Height -8600mm
Width -7600mm

tig. 3.3r- Typicol

0fo Lorge

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols ll5
3 | pERFoRrnANcE
To EsnMATE ANDcHARAcrERrsrrcs?

. Cooling Hoving Seporofe Rodiolor Bonk

a) Small/mediumsizetransformers
with ONANcoolingin separate

116 | PowerTronsformer - AR EVA

b) Medium/large size transformers with ONAN/ODAF cooling in separateradiator bank

PowerTronsformer | 117


o ODAF Cooled Bosed on Air Blosf Coolers

a) Small/mediumsizetransformers

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
b) Medium/Iarge srzetransformers

Rating: 310 MVA - 60 Hz - 3 phase

H.V. 230 kV and L.V. l l2kv
Length - 13 200 mm
Height - 11 700 mm
Width -8800mm

Fig.3.39- Typicul
Lorge with(}DAF
Sized (ooling

r u n d o m e n f o l -s A R
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F EVA il9
J I now ro EsrrrnATE nANcEANDcHARAcTERrsncs?

ODWF Cooled Bosed on Woter Coolers


120 I PowerTronsformer - AR EVA


Using a pulley block attachedto the crane hook, together with suitable fabric slings, the bushing is
tilted to the correct angle for mounting in the transformer with the oil level gageatthe lowest point.
Maneuveringinto position abovethe blanking plate in the HV turret, the blanking plate is now
removed from the turret; and the HV lead from inside the transformer, which is securedto the end
of the nylon rope, is drawn up through the bushing central tube. The bushing is slowly lowered into
the turret whilst keepingthe HV lead free from kinks, and when the bushing correctlypositionedand
oriented, it is securedto the turret. The retaining pin is fitted into the draw lead connector at the top
of the bushing, the nylon rope is removedand the bushing top terminal is refitted.

. AssemblyProcedurefor Drow BorTypeBushings

The assemblyprocedurefor a Draw Bar type of bushing is much the same as for the Draw LeadType
ofbushing, exceptthat there is a long bar or rod that passesthrough the centraltube ofthe bushing
and the connectionto the lead from the winding is made at the bottom of the bushing in lieu of at
the top. The draw bar, therefore,is loweredthrough the central tube using the nylon rope and is
connectedto the lead. All three threadedthrough the bushing inner tube as it is being lowered into
the turret.

. AssemblyProcedurefor LowerPolmTypeBushings
Inthis case,the conductorof the bushingis fixedwithinthe centraltube.There is no necessityfor
drawing leads or bars using nylon rope. The bushing is fitted generallyin the manner described
previously but the lead from the winding is now required to be bolted directly onto a palm mounted
at the baseof the bushing.Whereasin the casesof the two previouslydescribedbushingtypes,the
HV lead is flexible, in this instanceboth lead and bottom palm are fixed. Flexibility, therefore, has to
be introduced betweenthe fixed conductors.The flexible copper strips that make up the connection
cannot effectivelybe dielectricallyshielded by the bushing inner tube, so for higher voltages,a
separatecoronashieldis requiredto coverthem.

This corona shield, which is usually packedwithin the bushing case,but detachedfrom the bushing,
is lowered over the HV line to winding busbar (often a rigid insulated copper tube) and the bushing
is set up generallyas in the two previously describedexamples.Damageto the outer surfaceof the
corona shield, or any inclusion in the insulating coating,is likely to give rise to partial dischargewhen
the transformer is energizedand this would be most undesirable.
Lowvoltage,very high current bushings,as used,for example,on generatorstep-uptransformers
fall into the categoryof Lower Palm Type. In this case,however,the voltage,typically of the order of
24 kV is low enough to obviatethe need for a corona protect to protect the flexible connections.

5.3.8. Auxiliory Wiring Operotions

The marshallingkiosk or control cubiclemay havebeenmounted on the transformerfor dispatch,
in which case,it will alreadybe almost fully wired to the transformer componentsand ready for
connection to substation power supplies and cabling to Control Rooms, other transformers etc.

Alternatively the kiosk may be receivedat site with all internal wiring complete, but will require to
be mounted on the cooler bank structureor on the transformeror as a free standing,stand-alone
structure, dependingupon the user's specifiedrequirements.The transformer will, in this instance,
haveto be fully wired at site in accordancewith the relevantdrawings.

5.3.9. Erectionof Other ltems

Previoussectionshavedescribedfitment of major components.There are, however,severalother
items that may have been removedfor shipment. Unless expresslyidentified in the documentation,
these remaining items may be fitted at any convenienttime during the erection operations.

5.3.10.TouchingUp PointWork
Paintwork is expectedto remain satisfactoryfor the number ofyears that is specifiedin the standards
that are applied to the supply contract. Inevitably, some paint damagewill have occurred either as

r s BI PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
receivedat site or during the site erectionprocess.Flangeswill havebeenbolted together,sometimes
with new gasketsbeing fitted, and often with unpaintedfastenersbeing used.The damagedpaintwork
and the newly assembledcomponentshave to be brought up to the required standard. Edgesof
gaskets and all fasteners are painted over using a painting system that gives the same number of
coats, coat thicknesses and adhesion, that is compatible with the factory applied paint treatment.
Paintedsurfacesthat have been damagedor scratchedduring assemblyare made good, firstly using
a wire brush to remove all flakes of paint and rust, and ensuring that the surrounding areasare
also given attention, and then using abrasivepaper to make the surfacesmooth. No ridgesin the
paintwork should be obvious. Beforerepainting commences,residual debris is clearedaway and the

Once the transformer has been fully erected,a final check is carried out to ensure that all work
has been completedsatisfactorily.A signedand dated checklist is the best way of demonstrating
satisfactoryquality status.

Substationearthing connectionsare not normally included in the transformer supply. However,the
transformer tank and cooler bank structure are providedwith earthing points (shown on the General
Arrangement Drawing) that are positively earthed in accordancewith the site requirements.

The proceduresfor preparingthe internals of the transformer to achievethe required state of dryness
and the introduction ofthe oil are explained in this section.

5.5.1.Winding Exposure
Much has already been said of the vulnerability of the transformer to possible ingress of moisture
and to other contamination. However, the Installation Instruction Manual will probably repeat the
messageseveraltimes that there is a need for extreme care, attention and extreme vigilance during
the erection processand especiallywhile the tank is open to atmosphere.
Cleaning out inadvertently introduced solid contamination may be a very difficult task, but finding
it in the first place can be horrendous. Moisture can be removedat site, but the processof doing so
takes many times longer to complete than the original factory dry out. It is far better to take early
precautions and make adequatepreparations,than to have to recoverfrom a bad situation that has
been introduced during the erection process.

5.5.2. VqcuumProcessing
Followingthe transportation,which could be very lengthy and under variableclimatic conditions,and
having completed the off-loading and the erection procedures,the transformer is now ready for its
final insulation conditioning process.This starts with an optimization of the insulation drynessand
making readyfor oil impregnation, by means of pulling vacuum.

o VocuumPump
In order to obtain a reasonablepumping speed,the pump displacementwould typically be about
250 m3lhour for a tank volume of 40 000 liters or greater.The vacuum pump is connectedto a valve
and a temporary manifold that is attachedto a port near the top of the transformer, preferablyto the
expansionvesselvacuum pipe or to the filling port on top ofthe expansionvessel.Vacuum pipes are
arrangedto be as short as possibleand the internal diameterof the pipe is preferablythe same as that
of the pump inlet. Sincethe vacuum pump is connectedto the transformer, the same contaminant-
free conditions are applied to it as they are for the transformer. Pumps equipped with gas ballast
facility will be set to havethis facility in use during the initial pump down stage.However,if the pump
is to be left running unattended for long periods, the gas ballast valve must be closed.

PowerTronsformer | 159
5 How rs oN-srrErNsTArLATroN
opr MtzED?

o)l o I
v9 r l
TI ll

fififi ffi
--t-- -5- -3- lT


I AA356
I |
T l

AA504 AA503
M502 AA501 M508 AA507
M506 AAs05
I ,<
I cF372 R { ( o
@ d{


\7 DR,\ I N

\ naozr


L \ aeozz

\ -7
\ nnozs





o (\
(! N
o o
GT c!

lr) o
lr) () :
l.r) <o



{ t {



{ { {
OPERATION o a a o a a o o a o o O O o o o o o o o a o a
a a a o o o O o o o o o o o o o a
o a a a o o o O o a o o r't o o o o a
OILFILLINGOLTC a o a a a U a o a o o a o o o o o o o a
OILDRAININGOLTC a a a a o o a a a o o o o o o o a o o a
EVACUATION o a a o a o o a a o o o o o o o O


OIL DRAININGCONSERVATOROF MAINTANK o o o a o o o a a a a o o o o o o o a o o a

OIL FILLINGCONSERVATOROF O L T C (WITHOUTVACUUM) a o a o o a o a o o o o a o o o a
OIL DRAININGCONSERVATOROF O L T C a a a a a o o a o a a o o o o o o o a

"Beforeopening and closingoperationof all gate valves on the transformerloosethe

packingbolts on upper part. After the operationis ended re-tightenall the packingbolts"

ARE\/A o =OPEN O =CLOSED 3805037

Fig.5.50- Typicol

P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e frt u n d o m e n t c l -s A R EVA
. Vocuum Goges
The tank pressureis measuredwith a gagethat is connectedat the temporary manifold, and
specificallynot to the vacuum hose or to the pump. A good quality, barometricallycompensated,
capsulegageis satisfactoryfor measurementsdown to about 1 mbar. Below this level the vacuum is
measuredwith specialistgages.

. Applicofionof Vocuum
Vacuum is appliedto a port as high as possibleon the transformer tank or other component(typically
referringto either the GeneralArrangementDrawing or the ValvePlateas shown in Fig.5.50), only when
it has been reasonablydemonstratedthat there is no possibility of free water being drawn through a
leakinggasketorjoint. Gaskettedjoints are checkedfor drynessand any freewater is removedfrom the
tank cover.In poor weather conditions the transformer is sheetedwith a tarpaulin to prevent further
precipitationon the tank and pipe surfaces.When the transformeris fully erectedand the atmospheric
effectstaken care of, the dry gas pressureis slowly releasedand the dry gas equipment disconnected
beforepreparingfor vacuum processing.Fig.5.5bshows the oil filling hose connectedto the valveofthe
oil filling port that is piped to ground level.An oil sampling deviceis providedalso.

Fig. OilFilling
5.5b,- wilh()ilSompling
Volve (onnbced
Device Plont
toProcessing '

. Iop-ChongerDiverferCfiombers
The diverter chambersof in-tank tap-changerswill not withstand vacuum applied only to one side. Thus
the diverter chamberpressureis equalizedwith the main tank by openingthe tap-changerequalizing
valve.When the oil filling procedureshavebeencompleted,it is most important to rememberthat the
tap-changerequalizingvalve is re-closedto maintain the integrity of the two separateoil systems.

. TopChongerChombers
Where tap-changersare fitted in chambersthat have insulating barrier boards,the barrier board
is usually not capableofwithstanding a vacuum differential acrossit. The two sides are, therefore
equalizedby ensuringthat the tap-changerchamberisolatingvalvesremain open during vacuum
processing.Tap-changerchambersthat havebarrier boardsalso haveseparateoil feedpipes and each
is fitted with a gas and oil actuated(Buchholz)relay.

PowerTronsformer I r61
5 i now Is oN-srrErNsrALrATroN
oprM tzED?

o Ot, Seporotor Bogsor Membrones

Wherethe transformerexpansion vesselis fittedwith an oil separatorbag or flexiblemembrane,
betweenthe insideandoutsideof the bagto preventdamage.
vacuumis equalized

o Breothers
Desiccantbreathers are either removed, or suitably blanked off, before vacuum is applied and are
reinstated after oil filling.

. Gos AnolyzerEquipment
The sensorvalve is closed,it is then removedand the valve is fitted with a temporary blanking plate
and gasket.

5.5.3. Oil LevelIndicotion

A transparent plastic hose, capableof withstanding vacuum, is connectedtemporarily betweenthe
transformer expansionvesseldraining valve and the tank draining/lower filtering valve,in order that
the oil level can be monitored during the oil filling process.

5.5.4. VocuumDrop Test

When vacuum is appliedto a transformer, a vacuum drop test is carried out to ensure that there are
no leaks in the tank that would result in moisture or air being drawn into the transformer.
To perform this test the tank is evacuateddown to about 200 mbar, the vacuumvalveis closedand the
pump is stopped.There should be no noticeablepressureincreaseover the duration of one minute. A
pressureincreaseduring that period is indicative of a leak, which must be found and rectified before
proceedingfurther. The next stage is to pump down to about 10 mbar and the processis repeated
except that this time the pressurewithin the tank should not increaseby more than 1 mbar over a
longer period, ofsay, 30 minutes. Onceagain,any leaks are found and repairedand the test repeated
until there is a satisfactory result. When such a result is produced, pumping is continued to reach
a vacuum of 0.5 mbar or better, and this level is maintained for 12 hours before and during the
subsequentoil filling operationsthat are describedbelow.

5.5.5. Reports
Reports giving a summary of times, temperatures and oil test results, as well as oil supplier's
certificates,are maintained.

5.5.6. Oil Quolity

o Ol, Quolity before Filling

Insulatingoil complieswith the specified
standard,typicaltyIEC 60296,and sometimeswith the
user'sspecialrequirements. Thefollowingaretypicalparameters of oil for use in a high voltage
ElectricStrength >55 kV
Moisture Content <10 ppm
GasContent <2o/o
PCBContent Not detectable
Should the oil quality as receivedmeet the specifiedparameters,typically as listed above,vacuum
pumping can continued to until a vacuum of 0.5 mbar or better is attained.This level is maintained
for 12 hours before and then during the subsequentoil filling operations that are describedbelow.
In the event that the oil has not met the prescribedquality requirements,the vacuum is held, but the
pump may be stopped, until oil of the requisite quality becomesavailable.

o Oil FillingPoini
The transformer is filled with oil, typically via the top tank filtering valve.This ensuresthe oil enters
the tank as globules rather than as a stream and hence aids the degassingprocess. In the remote
event that wet air has been sucked into the transformer inlet hose, this air is extractedimmediatelv
by the vacuum plant without passingthrough the bulk oil first.

162 | PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

. Oil Pressure
During the oil filling operation,when the transformer tank is under vacuum, the oil inlet hose is
maintained under positive pressure,indicatedby a gageat the oil inlet valveon the transformer tank.
The oil inlet valve is controlled to maintain a pressureat this point of about 150 to 350 mbar (2 to 5
psi), whilst achievingthe appropriateflow rate.

5.5.7. CompleteOil Filling

The tap-changerdiverterchambersare equalizedwith the tank and tap-changerchambersby opening
the tap-changerequalizingvalve.Similarly,the tap-changerchambersare equalizedwith the tank by
ensuring that the tap changerchamber isolating valvesremain open. Thus, inevitablywhen oil filling
the transformer, the tank starts to fill with oil before any of the interconnectedchambers,including
the tap-changerchambers.
The oil is arrangedto pass from the oil tanker or a settling tank, through an oil processingplant to
the top tank filteringvalve as describedpreviously.The oil must conform to the quality requirements
in Sedion5.5.6()il0uolity
The oil flow at the entry valve is controlled to maintain a positive pressureaboveatmospheric,and to
limit the flow rate if necessaryto 5 000 liters/hour (300 US gallons/min), or a rise in oil level in the
tank not exceeding1 meter,/hour (3 fee7hour), as measuredon the temporary oil level indicator.
Oil filling is continued until the oil level indicated by the prismatic or magnetic oil level gageon the
transformerexpansionvesselcorrespondswith the ambient temperatureand then the vacuum is
releasedto dry air of dew point -40oC or better.Upon completionof oil filling under vacuum, the
tap-changerequalizing valve is closed.
At this point all air releasepoints on the tap-changerare bled and the oil level in the tap-changer
expansionvesselis adjusted accordingto the ambient level indicated on the oil level gage.
All shut offor removedequipment are reinstated ready for operation.
In the event that the expansionvessel is fitted with an oil/aft separator bag or membrane, the
equalizing valve betweenthe bag breather pipe and the expansionvesselvacuum pipe is closed.
Now the air releasepoints on the transformer and cooling system are bled using the valvesand vent
plugs providedand the oil pump intermittent proceduredescribedinSection5.5.8is performed,followed
by repetition ofthe air release.
It is probably necessaryfor the transformer expansionvesseloil level to be readjustedfollowing air
venting by pumping oil into the transformer at atmosphericpressurevia the oil processingplant.
The oil and vacuum hosesmay now be dismantled,the vacuum pipe valveclosedand blanking plates
fitted. Should the expansionvesselbe fitted with an oil/ air separatorbag, the bag is inflated via the
breatherpipe to a pressureof 100 mbar (1.5 psi), and the vent points on the top of the expansion
vesselreleasedwhilst maintaining this pressure.
Finally it is necessaryto ensure that all valveshave been returned to their In-Servicepositions.

5.5.8. Oil PumpIntermittentProcedure

The transformeroil pumps are run for about five to ten seconds,then allowedto stand for ten minutes
and the processis repeatedfor a total ofsix cycles.The purpose ofthis operation is to createsurges
in the oil that are sufficient to move chambersoftrapped air.

5.5.9. OilSompling
Oil sampling devicesare provided on the transformer tank, and perhaps other oil chambers, from
which oil samplescan be taken for testing. Beforethe transformer is put into service,oil samplesare
taken from the unit to determine the acceptabilityof the insulating oil.
All items used for filling sample bottles or syringesare scrupulouslycleanedand dried prior to taking

. TypicolOil SomplingProcedureUsingBoftles
Typically,the equipment for this operation is:
+ 25 liter drain-offcontainer

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols I r63



r 5f#,'j?f:T;:1ilH''.
* Self adhesivelabels
* Samplebottles

r ;ffi tl",ii:'J"?lf",
First of all, the sampling devicespout is thoroughly cleanedusing a lint free cloth, and then the clear
plastictube is attachedto the spout.The drain-offcontaineris positionedunderthe samplingdevice
so that the plastic tube just hangs into it and the sampling devicespindle is unscreweduntil a steady
flow of oil emergesfrom the plastic tube. After ensuring that no air is trappedin the tube, 2 to 3 liters
of oil is run offinto the drain-offcontainer.The temperatureof the oil in the drain-offcontaineris
measuredand recorded.This temperatureis assumedto establishthe temperatureof the bulk oil
from which the samplewill be taken.
After first unscrewing the cap from the sample bottle and immediately placing the tip of the plastic
tube into the neck, the bottle is half filled, the cap replacedand the liquid gently swilled around the
inside of the bottle to flush the whole internal surfaceof the bottle. The oil is then poured over the
end of the plasticsamplingtube and into the drain-offcontainer.This flushing processis repeated
oncemore beforethe sampleto be analyzedis taken.
The plasticsamplingtube is insertedso that the end is at the bottom of the bottle. Oil is permitted
to run into the bottle, and the tube withdrawn as the oil levelrises,but making sure that the tip of
the tube is alwayskept below the oil levelto preventthe introduction of air bubbles.The bottle is
allowedto overflow until there are no air bubbles,and the sampling deviceclosed.Upon removal
of the plasticsamplingtube from the bottle, a little oil is pouredfrom the samplebottle to createa
thermal expansionspace,and the cap immediatelyreplaced.
The details of the sample including transformer serial number, rating, voltageclass,year of
manufacture,date,time, ambientweatherconditions,oil temperatureand the name of the person
taking the sample,are addedto the adhesivelabel.This is firmly attachedto the bottle after,of course,
cleaning the outside ofthe bottle with a degreasingagent.
Now the plastic samplingtube can be removedfrom the sampling device,wiped clean and stored
safelyfor the next use, and the cap on the sampling devicespout refitted.The oil in the drain-off
containercan then be disposedofand any oil spillageclearedawayin a safeand approvedmanner.
The sample bottles are forwarded to an approvedanalytical laboratory for analysis and the results
checkedagainstspecified criteria.
Other sampling equipment is available,and the sampling procedure,in this case,should be
appropriateto the equipmentthat is used.

. Typicol Oil Sompling Procedure Using Syringes

The sampling devicespout is thoroughly cleanedusing a lint free cloth, and the rubber hose is fitted onto
it and is closedby pinching its free end with the vacuum clip. The samplingvalveis then opened.
Now, the syringeis disassembledby separatingthe piston from the rylinder and laying it in the clean
and dry tray. Openingthe end ofthe rubber hose and letting 1 to 2 liters ofoil flow into the tray before
reclosingthe clip, provides sufficient oil with which to thoroughly rinse the syringe elements.
After closing the end of the rubber hose with the vacuum clip, the syringe,together with its needle,
is reassembled.The piston is pushed fully home whilst the syringe is held vertically with its needle

164 i PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

pointing upwards in order to expel air from it. Then, whilst still holding the syringevertically in the
same position, the needleis inserted through the rubber hose until its tip is gagedto be in the center
of the tube. The syringe is allowed to be filled to about half capacityusing the oil pressureonly, i.e.
without manuallywithdrawing the piston. When it is approximatelyhalf full, and whilst maintaining
the syringe in this same position, it is extractedfrom the rubber hose. The remaining air is expelled
by slightly depressingthe piston. The sampling valve is turned off.
The details of the sample including transformer serial number, rating, voltage class,year of
manufacture,date,time, ambientweatherconditions,oil temperatureand the name of the person
taking the sample, are addedto the adhesivelabel. This is firmly attachedto the syringe.
The rubber hose can now be removed from the sampling device,wiped clean and stored safely for
the next use, and the cap on the sampling devicespout refitted. The oil in the drain-offcontainer can
then be disposedof and any oil spillageclearedaway in a safeand approvedmanner.
The syringesare forwarded to an approvedanalyticallaboratory for analysisand the results checked
against specifiedcriteria.
It is very important to remember that the syringe piston must be free to move, in order to permit
expansionor contraction ofthe oil during transportation. A locked piston could lead to breakageof
the syringe.

5.5.10. Oil CirculotionTreolment

Should the results show that the oil does not meet the criteria specified in Serlion 5.5.12-0il before
oil circulation treatment is carried out until those criteria are met.
The hot oil outlet of the oil processingplant is connectedto a top filter valve on the chamberor tank
intended for treatment, and the inlet to the oil processingplant connectedto the lowest filter valve.
The plant heaterthermostatsare set to raise the oil temperatureto a maximum of 60sC and the
degassingchamber is evacuatedto at least 1 mbar. Under these conditions, the oil is circulatedfor a
minimum of three passes.From the knowledgeof the oil volume to be circulated, probably gleaned
from the GeneralArrangement Drawing, and the oil flow rate of the processingplant, a simple
calculation is used to determine the processduration.
The erection supervisorhas to ensure that there are no volumes of oil that could be shut offduring
the oil circulationprocess,as hydraulicpressuremay build up due to thermal expansionof the oil
and causeserious damageto the equipment.

5.5.11.Completionof Oil CirculotionTreotment

On completion of oil circulation treatment all blanking plates are replacedand all valvesare returned
to their In-Servicepositions. The air releaseand pump intermittent proceduresare repeated.

5.5.12.OilQuolity beforeService
Upon completionof oil filling and during circulation,oil samplesare taken from the main transformer
tank and from cooler sampling points and tested to comply with the prescribedacceptancecriteria
for thd particular transformer, which may typically be:
-+ Electric Strength >55 kV
-+ Moisture Content <5 ppm
-+ GasContent <L%.

Commissioningcomprisesa seriesof checkingoperationsand teststhat areperformedto confum complete
and correct assemblyand conditioning before energization of the transformer. The commissioning
processis jointly owned by the supplier and the user and hencethe checksmust be comprehensive,
complete,witnessedby both parties,fully recordedand signedby authorizedrepresentatives.
The checkswill include:
+ Paintwork
+ Leakagefree
+ Identification of components

PowerTronsformer I 165
5 i uow rs oN-srrErNsTALrATroN
oprM tzED?

i ill:.Tg#*tc'se'
S.6.t. Checkson TronsformerActivePortduring Pre-Commissioning
All examplesassumea 3 phasetransformer.

o RoufineChecksSubjecfIo EguipmentAvoilobilifyof Sife

r Insulating ResistancesbetweenMetallic ComponentsofActive Part and Tank
This test is performed after transportation and after erection to make sure that there is no internal
damagecausedby the trip. It can only be done at the pre-commissioningstageif the connections
betweenthe core and the core clampingstructureare brought out ofthe tankvia bushingsfor the
earthing to be made efiernally.
The metallic componentsreferredto here are the core,frames, flux shunts etc. The test is performed
with a supply of 2.5 kVDC and the oil temperature is measured.
Resultsshould meet acceptancecriteria given in the relevantManual.
. Transformation Ratios betweenthe Different Windings In AccordanceWith the Electrical
The test is performedwith a lowvoltage AC supply of either single-phaseor three phase,and makes
use of either a ratio bridge or voltmeters.Measurementis carried out on all positions of the tap-
changerand results should closelymatch factory testedvalues.
o Voltage VectorDiagram VectorGroup In Accordance With the Electrical Diagram
This test is performedwith a low voltage,3 phaseAC supply,using either a ratio bridge or voltmeters.
When usingvoltmeters, a common point is linked with the two windings under test. AII voltagesare
measured between terminals and the vector diagram traced by inference.The result should match
the diagram shown on Rating Plate.
. ImpedanceVoltage
The test is performed with a low voltage, 3 phaseAC supply.
With the MV or LV or Tertiary terminals short-circuited, the HV winding is supplied and the input
voltage and current are measured:
Z= rJ /.'hxl expressedas ohms
and U* 95= (100 xZxt,l3) / U^
The results should reasonablymatch factorv testedvalues.
o Winding Resistances
This test is performed with a DC supply and measurement is made of each winding in turn for all
positions of the tap-changer,either with a Voltmeter and an Ammeter or with a ResistanceBridge.
The temperature is also recorded.
R =U/I
Correctedfor temperature,the results should closely match factory testedvalues.
r Insulation ResistanceofWindings
Measurementsare made betweeneachpair ofwindings and betweeneachwinding and earth using a
supply of 2.5 kVDC. The oil temperature is also recorded.Correctedfor temperature, results should
meet acceptancecriteria given in the relevant Manual.
. Oil Quality
Oil quality should meet acceptancecriteria given in the relevant Manual.

. tl?:,f;,k'firhof conbeCoriedouronSife
Measurementof the insulation resistancebetweenthe tank and the earth with a DC supply at 500 V
is carried out.

166 | PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

. Capacitanceand Loss Angle (tan6)Measurement
Measurementis usually performed with a supply of 10 kV AC using a CapacitanceBridge.
o SweptFrequencyResponseAnalysis
Measurementis performed, if specifiedin the contract, and results are usually comparedwith those
obtained in the factory.There are, as yet, no standardsrelatingto the acceptabledegreeofvariation
of results. More information on FRA, including its application in transformer "fingerprinting" can
be found in Volune2, Sedion

5.6.2. Checkson Other Equipments

. De-Energized (olsoknownos "off<ircuitlogchonger")
The electricalposition indicator is checkedfor correctfunctionalityon eachposition and then the
DETC is padlockedin the selectedposition for operatton.

. On lood lopChonger
The mechanicaladjustment and the synchronization betweenthe motor drive unit and the diverter
switch positions are checked.Satisfactoryelectrical operation including correct direction, electrical
and mechanicalend stops,and correctsequencingis confirmed.

. Buchholz ond lop-Chonger Profecfive Reloys

There is visual confirmation that the Buchholz is completelyfilled with oil.
Air releaseis also confirmed and manual test operationsof the mechanicalmovementand of the
electricalfunctionality of alarm and trip contacts are made.

. Oil ond Winding lemperofure Indicolors

Confirmation is made of the correctnessof the settings of the adjustablecontacts and that the
mechanicalmovement and electrical switch functionality are correct. The presenceof oil inside the
bulb-wells of eachsensor is also confirmed.

. FluidFlowIndicofors
The correctnessof settings and of indicator positions is confirmed. Mechanicalmovement is checked
and correct electricalswitch functionality is confirmed. Furthermore,the mounting direction is
confirmed to be in accordancewith oil flow direction.

. Oil Pumps
A confirmatory with the intendedoil flowdirection
checkthat the mountingdirectionis in accordance
is carriedout.
. Fons
A confirmatorycheckof correctmountinganddirectionof rotationof the motorsis performed.
o Currenf lronsformers
Confirmatorychecksaremadeof polaritiesandratios(if test loopsarefitted),andthat all CTsthat
arenot usedhavebeenshort-circuitedandearthed.
. Oil level Indicofors
Confirmatorychecksaremadeto ensurethat all oil levelvaluesarein accordance
with thespecification
andthat settingsandindicatorpositionsarecorrect.
. PressureRelief Volves
Checksare madethat the pressurevaluemarkedon the deviceis in accordance with relevant
documentation andthat the mechanical movementof the indicatorpin andtheelectricalfunctionality
of the contactare correct.It is alsoconfirmedthat the indicatorpin is in the "ValveClosed"
. Bushings
Thecorrectness of oil levelsandof air releaseis confirmedanda checkis alsomadeto confirma

PowerTronsformer | 167

o Desicconl Air Breother

Confirmationthat breatheris activeis carriedout. This is done by ensuringthe correctcolorationof
the desiccant.Additionally the correct oil level in the respirator part has to be confirmed.

. Gos Anolyzing Equipment

Confirmatory checkson the correctnessof the mounting position and of the sensor location are

5.6.3. Checkson Connectionsond Functionolityof Auxiliory Componenfs

These checksare performed after all the electricalcablesin, and between all sensors,contacts,
switches,control cabinetsand kiosks have beenwired.
Checkingcomprisesconfirmation that the earthing is satisfactory and that the insulation resistance
or voltagewithstand betweenthe wires/cables and the tank or the cubicle earth is also satisfactory.
The correctnessof alarm and trip functionalityfor all protectionand control equipmentis checked.
The correctnessofpower, protectionand control wiring connectionsbetweenthe principal control
cabinet,the motor drive unit etc. is confirmed,as is the correctnessof supplyvoltages,polarities,
phaserotation etc.
The correctnessof coolingequipmentsequencesin relationto the appropriatecoolingmode,OFAF,
ONAF, ONAN, OFWF etc. is confirmed, as well as the correctnessof startup of fan and pump
It is also necessaryto checkthat pump startup doesnot trip the Buchholzrelayand that the cooling
protectiveequipment "Normal" indications are correct.

Only competent,qualified and experiencedengineersmay work on site and operateand maintain the
equipment used there. It can be very hazardousunless strict controls are exercisedon the workforce,
on the equipment they carry and use and on the proceduresthat they follow At many sites, each
individual has to go through an induction processto learn what can or cannot be done and what must
and must not be done on that site, beforehe or she is permitted on the site. On most sites,work
cannot commenceuntil a "Permit to Work" has beenissuedby the authorizedengineer.Energization
or re-energizationof the transformer is preventeduntil the "Permit to Work" grantedfor the erection
of the transformer has been returned and signed offby the authorized engineer.

5.7.1. Pre-Energizotion
Prior to operation of the transformer, checksare carried out to ensure that all work associatedwith
the operation and maintenanceof the equipment has been completedto the satisfaction of the Site
Engineer.This is normally done by following an establishedpaperworktrail and systematicsignature
Immediatelyprior to energizingthe transformer,repeatedchecksare madeto ensurethat oil levelsare
correct,that air is properly released,that all valvesare correctlypositionedfor serviceconditions and
that the protectionand indication equipmentis functioning correctly.Additionally,coolerfunctionality
is once again checkedfor correctnessand the auxiliary power supplies are confirmed to be available
at the marshalling kiosk. A tour around the transformer should revealany signs of oil seepagefrom
welds or gasketsand the paint condition can also identiff the developmentof a fault. AII problems
are actedupon either immediatelyor via "Non-Conformance"documentationthat will requirethe
agreementof the user's representative.

5.7.2. Normol Stort Procedure

A "Permit to Work" is obtainedfrom the authorizedengineer.This will permit the erectionsupervisor
to obtain keysto the transformer compound,marshallingkiosk and tap-changermotor drive unit etc.
The supervisorwill enter the compound and may repeatsome of the checksalreadycarried out,
dependingupon the time that has elapsedsince the previous checks.Then the controls will be set to
the In-Servicepositions,for example:
o At the MarshallingKiosk
The coolersupplyisolator is set to the ON position and the coolercontrol switch is set to the MANUAL

r 6 Bi Power
The fan and/or pump motor circuit breakersare set to the ON position.
Each fan and pump is confirmed as running smoothly without undue noise, vibration or
Now the cooler control switch is set to the AUTO position.
o At the Tap-ChangerMotor Drive Unit
Tap-changersare set to the normal tap position.
The tap-changermotor protectiveswitchesare set to the ON position and the tap-changermain
control supply switch is also set to the ON position.
The tap-changerlocal/remote switch is set to the LOCALor REMOTEposition as would be required
for service.
Then, all alarms are checkedor reset. The marshalling kiosk, tap-changermotor drive unit and
transformer compound are locked and the keys are returned to the authorized key holder.
The "Permit to Work" is then returned to the authorized engineerfor signing off.
The user then energizesthe transformer in accordancewith the site electricalprocedures.

5.7.3. Normol Operotion

During normal operation, i.e. with the transformer operating within its design limitations, the
transformer core, windings and oil temperaturesrise exponentiallyin line with their respective
thermal time constants until they reach stable values that are determined by the load, the ambient
temperature and the cooler settings. The cooling equipment has been designedto dissipatethe
heat generatedwithin the transformer and to ensure that the transformer operateswithin specified
temperature limits.
During the first few hours of normal transformer operation no alarm signals are expected.However,
occasionallyspurious alarms may occur, and in most instancesrequire some adjustment of a sensor
or a resettingofa contact.Although all reasonablestepshavebeentaken in verifying the transformer
before energization,some faults may have still evadedthe net. No alarm or trip can be ignored
and must be fully investigated.A trip signal, in particular, should always trigger an immediate and
rigorous investigation.
Continual checksare made on the transformer and its auxiliary equipment during those first few
hours ofoperation. These include:
-> Listening for unusual noises emanating from within the transformer tank
+ Listening to the fans and pumps for unusual noises
+ Monitoring the winding temperature indicators for correct operating temperature
+ Checkingthat the oil levels in the various compartments remain correct
+ Checkingthe tap-changerdesiccantbreather for changeofdesiccant color
+ Checkingfor any signs ofoil leakage
+ Checkingthe heaters in the marshalling kiosk and tap-changer motor drive unit are

Upon deiiveryto site, any transformer or reactor,along with accessories,that is not going to be
installed immediately, should be stored in an appropriatemanner. This is particularly important for
large transformers and reactorswhere it is not possible to ship them in a fully assembledstate.

5.8.1. ShortTermStorogeof Tronsformeror Reoctor

Short term storageis consideredas being for a period of up to three months. Transformers that are
shippedin dry gasmay be left under this gasfor a period of up to three months. Periodicchecksof the
gas pressureshould be made during this time. Where a free breathing transformer, alreadyoil filled,
is stored, then a desiccantbreather should be fitted and checkedperiodically for correct coloration.

5.8.2. long TermStoroge of Trqnsformeror Reoctor

Long term storageis consideredas a period greaterthan three months duration. In this casethe
transformer should be fully oil filled and processedprior to storage.A storageconservator,complete
with desiccantbreather, should be fitted to allow for oil expansionwith the changeof ambient
temperature.This breather should be regularly checkedduring the storageperiod.

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomenfols i 169

5.8.3. Storoge of Strqtegic Spore Trqnsformers

liable to be held in storagefor
many yearsbeforebeingplaced
into service.It is essentialthat
all insulation materials are
maintainedin good condition
throughout this prolonged
s t or a g e p e r i o d . I n o r d e r t o
ensurethis, all insulationshould
be underoil. It is recommended
t h a t t h e s e t r a n s f o r m e r sa r e
f u l l y e r e c t e da n d o i l f i l l e d i n
their storagelocation.This may
require some civil works to be
put in placefor oil containment
in the eventof leakage.
F u l l e r e c t i o nw o u l d i n c l u d e
the fitting of bushing turrets Fig5.8u- Short
Bushing using
Sloroge o Molded (rodle
which may contain current
transformers. Bushings may be stored separately,if necessary,provided that they are stored in
accordancewith the recommendationsofthe manufacturer.
Someassemblyand electricalconnectionof cooling equipment is also recommended,as this will
facilitate the periodic operation of fan and pump motors in order to prevent bedding of the bearings.
Someother ancillaryequipmentmay requirea power supplyto be connected.This would certainly
include anti-condensationheaterswithin control cabinetsand additionally any breathersofthe type
that dependupon an electricalpower supply to function ifthese are fitted.

5.8.4. Storogeof ControlCubicles

In those instanceswhere the control cabinet is not fully installed on the transformer, it should
be securelymounted on timber beams in order to ensure ample ventilation. The heater circuit in
the control cubicleshould be connectedto a suitablesupply and commissioned.Where there is a
requirement to run stored pumps and fans, a connectionto a suitable power supply will be required
for this purposetoo.

5.8.5. Inspectionof Trqnsformersduring StorogePeriods

During prolongedstorageperiods,regular inspectionsshould be carriedout. The following inspection
indicated orsightgrasses
compartments and bushings to ensure that the correct oil level is maintained
'+ Visual examination of equipment for any evidenceof oil leakage
* Visual checkthat dehydratingbreathersare functioning correctly
Confirmation that any anti-condensationheatersin tap-changermechanism box and control
cubicles are fully operational
resu inco
I HTl:iT:ffi:1"f,:T?::il:ff
:ffi:iilrfi: "
5.8.6. Storogeof Spore Equipment
Spareequipmentsshould be packedand storedin suitablelocationsto ensurethat they remain in
serviceablecondition.When only outdoorstorageis available,it is recommendedthat all Iooseitems are
packedin weatherproofedcases,which should be storedon timber beamsto allow free air circulation.
Bushingsmust be stored in accordancewith the bushing supplier's recommendations.This may
require the provision of specialstoragecasesor cradlesto mount the bushings at the recommended
storageangle.The porcelain on bushings may require additional protection from accidentaldamage
or vandalism if it is to be stored in a vulnerable location.

17A I Power
Trqnsformer - AR EVA
5.8.7. Storqgeof the Oil
Oil should be properlystored in compliancewith the supplier'srecommendationsand local safety

In order to meet site noise levellimits it may be necessaryto install the transformerwithin a noise
enclosure.Noise reduction measuresand their effectson noise level are coveredin Volume 2 of this
book. This sectiondealswith the effectsof a noise enclosureon the transformerarrangementand
the installationof the transformerwithin the enclosure.

The noise enclosurescan have a roof or be without a rcof, dependentupon the degreeof noise
attenuationrequired.When a transformeris installedwithin a noiseenclosure,the coolingsystem
is usuallyexternalto the enclosure,especiallyif the noiseenclosureincludesa roof.
The coolersare designedto dissipatethe entire transformerloss.Any loss that would normally be
dissipatedfrom the tank surfacewill no longer contribute to the cooling of the transformer lossesdue
to the reductionofradiation and convectioneffectsthat the noiseenclosureimposes.Nevertheless,
the air inside a roofedenclosurewill becomeuncomfortablywarm for any personnelwho might be
inside,and for this reasonplus the desireto keepinternal equipmentat a reasonabletemperature,
air inlet and outlet vents are recommendedfor a full enclosure.
There must be sufficientdistancebetweenthe noiseenclosurewalls, barriers,and the coolerstructure,
to allow free circulation of air to the coolers.The typical recommendedclearancefrom coolersto any
walls is l- meter at the air inlet side and 3 meters at the exhaust side for an air blast cooling system.
This clearancemay vary dependanton fan dimensions in caseswhere cooling is achievedwith fans
mountedon radiatorbanks.More information is to be found in sectionin Setlion 3.3.3.

Fig.5.90- Exomple
Inshlled o lrloise
Within Enclosure (ooling

P o w e r T r a n s f o r m e rF u n d o m e n t o l s- A R E V A : 171
5 rNsrA*ATroN
How rsoN-srrE oprrMtzED?

Fig.5.9b- Tronsformer

Fig. - Showing
5.9c onthe[eft,fie0ubide
offie [ndosure to(ooling
wiftPipework ondfo(onservotor

172 - A R EVA
5.9.2. Terminqtions
The transformer tank must be arrangedto allow any bushings that are connectedto overhead
connectionsor bus-ducting to penetratethe noise enclosureroofwithout reducing the essential
electrical clearances.This is usually achievedby using extendedturret arrangementsthat raise the
bushings clear ofthe top ofthe enclosure.

5.9.3. Pipework
The transformer manufacturer must liaise with the noise enclosuredesignersto ensure that all
necessarypipework connectionsthat needto penetratethe enclosureare provided for. This provision
would include the connectionsboth to the coolers and conservator.

5.9.4. ControlCubicle
When a transformer is installed within a noise enclosure the control cubicle is normally mounted
either on the cooler bank or as a free standing cubicle external to the noise enclosure.Fig.5.9bshows
a free standing cubicle.
ln some specialcases,the end user might prefer a solution with the local control cabinet to remain
mounted on the transformer tank. This necessitatesa larger noise enclosurethat permits easyaccess
(photographon the right).
to operation staff. An example of this is shown in Fig.5.9c

5.9.5. Mointenonce
Specialconsideration must be given to accessfor maintenance of a transformer that has been
installedwithin a noise enclosure.Suitableaccessmust be givento any items that will require routine
maintenance.Ideally,items requiring maintenanceshould be placedoutside the noise enclosure;
howeverin some casesthis is not possibleor practical.An exampleofthis would be the tap-changer
drive mechanism cubicleswhich must be suitably positioned to allow clearancefor the mechanism
door to be fully opened. In order to make this provision, it may be necessaryto locally increasethe
clearancebetweenthe transformer and the noise enclosureadjacentto the drive mechanismcubicle.

Most oil-immersedtransformersare usedin outdoor applications.For indoor use,adequateventilation
becomesimportant. Fire safety,alwaysa potential issue outdoors,becomesfar more importantwhen
the transformer is indoors. Concernswould increasefurther if the transformer is near an areawhere
peoplecongregate.Design of a large installation might need a team approachbetweenexpertsin fire
safety, sound control, ventilation and substation design, as well as the transformer manufacturer.
AREVAT&D has the expertiseto assemblesuch teams, and can offer a complete solution.

Transformersare generallyconsideredto be relativelysafedeviceswhich give long and reliableservice.
However transformer oil can ignite. Catastrophic failures can occur, and risk assessmentmust be
carried out by transformer's owner. In casesomething does go wrong, one of the most important
actions is to minimize the probability that people will be in the vicinity of the transformer and to
ensurefire cannot spreadto other areas.In an outdoor application,blast walls are commonly installed
betweentransformer bays. In an indoor application, the design of enclosures,proximity to adjacent
buildings or public accessareas,and need for fire walls will require detailed consideration.
Various synthetic fluids and vegetableoils are availablethat have a higher flash point than mineral
oil, produce less smoke and a have lower environmentalimpact in the event of fire comparedto
conventional transformer oil. Some are self-extinguishing when the power is turned off. Reference
can be made to Volune 2 for more information concerningthese fluids.
Various fire protection systemswhich are in common usageinclude water deluge systems.Onewell
known proprietary protection system uses sensitiverupture discs to detect a fault and then nitrogen
gas injection to quench the arc. It should be noted, however,that high nitrogen levels are another
possible safetyconcern,particularly indoors, so ventilation would need to be adequate.
Dry type transformers can be an excellentsolution, provided that the rating is not too high. National
Building Regulationsmay prohibit the use of oil filled transformersin safetycritical locationssuch as
the basementof office buildings or on oil production platforms. Cast resin transformers are usually
specifiedfor theselocations.

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentqls | 173


As with any substation,restrictingaccessonly to suitablyqualifiedpersonnelis very important. It

is also important to ensurethat it is easyfor thesepeopleto get out quicklyshould a problem arise.
There should be adequatespacefor a normally sized person to walk around the transformer.A
clearanceof 1 000 mm is recommended.
The use of open terminals means that strict application of adequatesafety clearancesmust be
observed.It should be rememberedthat this may mean that accessto the transformerareais
physicallypreventedwhen it is energized.Air-insulated cableboxesor plug type bushings offer safer
alternativesto open terminals.
Considerationmust be givenat an earlystageof the civil works to the safeinstallation,and subsequent
removal,of the transformer.There are severalpossibleprovisions.For examplein a largeenclosure,a
very high ceiling and an inbuilt overheadcranesystemcould be installed.Alternativelythe roof could
be of an easilyremovabledesign,so that an outdoor cranecould be usedto swing the transformer
overhead,and then lower it into position insidethe enclosure.Yet anotherpossibilityis to provide
a large door, or a removablewall panel,to allow the transformerto be moved in from one side.A
flat concretefloor that extendsoutside the room could permit the transformer to be offloadedby an
externalmobile craneand moved into position using temporaryrollers, skates,or compressedair
skating equipment.Alternatively,the transformercould be providedwith wheels that run on rails
set into the floor.
Ceilingheight and craneaccessshould also be consideredfor maintenancepurposes.For example,
where in-tank tap-changersare used, there must be adequateoverheadspaceand facilities to
withdraw the diverter switch for inspection.

As far as the transformer standardsare concerned,the transformer MVA rating is an absolutely
unambiguous number, which can be proven by a clearly defined test procedure.However in an
operationalsense,the permissibleMVA loading is somewhatflexible. It is perfectlyacceptableto
overloada transformer over a portion of its life, provided that the hotspot temperatureis kept within
reasonablelimits. The alarm and trip signals from the Winding TemperatureIndicator can be used
to enforcelimits. Transformerstandardsgive guidanceon how to calculatethe acceleratedaging
that will occur due to overloads.The important point here, in respectof ventilation provision, is not
to simply considerthe transformer loss at full load, as shown on test reports; the degreeof overload
which may occur, the likely range of ambient temperaturesand the intended durations of overloads,
including extremes,must be consideredin the ventilation design.
The transformer manufacturer's responsibility may end at ensuring the transformer will cool
adequatelyin a totally open space,as defined in the standards.There are many uncertainties in the
situation of mounting within enclosures,and where performanceis critical, it is recommendedthat
a cooling expert is consulted and that the actual performanceis verified in service.
There are three basictypes ofindoor installations - unventilated,naturally ventilated and those with
Unventilatedindoor enclosuresare rarely suitable for all but the lowest ratings of transformers.
Somedistribution or very lightly loadedtransformersmay be locatedin large unventilatedenclosures
provided that the building structure can dissipatethe lossesof the transformer without causingthe
internal air temperatureto rise significantly.
For naturally ventilated enclosuresit is important to haveinlet and outlet aperturesof adequatesize,
and also to have the outlet sufficiently high for the chimney effect to produce a sufficient air flow.
The following approximateformula is for natural ventilation, and basedon a 10 degreetemperature
Minimum inlet area(m2) = 0.3 x kw IJE

kW = totaLheat dissipation of transformer (under appropriateloading conditions).

f1 = Height betweenmidpoint of radiators and the top vent, in meters.
the minimum inlet area
The transformer should be placed at least 600 mm from the walls of the enclosure

174 | PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

+ The transformer should preferablybe mounted so air can flow freely under the base,giving a
small, but worthwhile, cooling improvement
.+ The inlet and outlet openingsshould be on opposite sides ofthe enclosure
.+ The inlet should be as low as possible
+ The inlet should be as close to the transformer radiators as possible
+ If the transformer is fitted with fans, the side where air flows in should be as closeas possible
to the inlet
-+ Placementof the inlet in areaswhere air will be preheatedby, for example,solar heating,
should be avoided
+ Placementof the outlet facing prevailing winds should also be avoided.
For separatemechanicalventilation, a minimum air flow of 3 m3./minuteis required for everykW of
loss at maximum load.
Transformersfiued with fans (ONAFor ODAFcooling),should be consideredat the time of the design
ofthe enclosureand the overall layout, since prudent positioning may obviatethe need for separate
mechanicalventilation. Often the transformer manufacturerhas some flexibility as to where radiators
and fans can be locatedwithout major cost effects.Early discussionwith the manufacturer together
with early supply of drawings of the room may allow the fans to be positioned favorably relative to
the air inlet.
For larger transformers it may be difficult to achieveadequateventilation. Oil pipes protruding
through the wall to an externalcooling bank may provide a suitablesolution. A heat exchangesystem
basedon water cooling is also very compact way of removing large quantities of heat. This suits an
underground application such as a hydro-electricplant, where a plentiful supply of cooling water is
usually available.

Any enclosurewill typically provide a significant amount of sound attenuation dependingupon the
acoustical absorption coefficient of the wall. Careful consideration should be given to the location
and design of the ventilation inlet and outlet, where sound levelswill be higher.
Sound levelsinside the enclosurewill, of course,increasewithin the enclosurebecauseof sound
Sometimesanti-vibration pads,made ofsome resilient material, are placedunder a transformer.This
does not help to reducethe sound which propagatesthrough the air, but preventsvibration transfer
through to the concreteslab, and to other adjacentstructures. For an indoor application, where the
floor on which the transformer sits could carryvibration through to work areas,use of anti-vibration
pads is recommended.

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols | 175
Before its on-siteinstqllotionond commissioning,q tronsformerhos
been designed ond tested to o porticulor specificqtionor stondqrd.
In reol life, o tronsformermustodoptto o number of vqriqtionsfrom
the sfondord operotionol criterio set down in these documents. In
order to qchieve the greofest possible benefit from o trqnsformer, q
good understondingof operoting voriqtions is required.
This chopter highlights topics such qs looding, porollel operofion,
lronsientcurrents,hqrmonics,DCbios,tronsientvohoges,ovedl uxing,
control feoturesqnd mointenqnce.AREVAT&D experts hove creoted
design fools ond techniquesto enoble fhe tronsformer to be oble to
operote successfullyunder oll onticipqted conditions ond vsriqnts.
With the knowledge from this chopter, if is possible fo understond
ond better monoge the long-termoperofion of the tronsformers,thus
offering o long€r, optimized life-cycle.

PowerTronsformer | 177
6 i wnAT rssuEsAFFEcT

Chspter contents
6, Whst lssuesqffect Operotion? v7

6.1. LOADING 179

6 . 1 . 1 . Voriotionof Aging with Lood 179
6.1.2. Estimotionof Hot SpotTemperoture rBt
6.1.3. TemperotureResponseto Chongein lood t82
6.1.4. LoodingBeyondNomeploteRoting 182
6.1.5. Gos TurbineGTApplicotion 184
6.1.6. ThreeWnding looding rB5
6,1,7. Effectof Lossof Cooling 187


6.2.1. Generol tB9
6.2,2, lmpedonceRequirement 190
6.2.3. On'lood TopChonger 190


6,3.1. MognetizingInrushCurrent t9r
6.3.2, Short-Circuit
Current 192




6.6.1. AtmosphericOveryoltoges 197
6.6.2, SwitchingOvervoltoges t9B
6.6.3. Ferroresononce 200
6.6.4, Limitotionof Overvohoges 201


6.8. CONTROL 202

6.8.1. CoolerControl 202
6.8.2. Top{honger Control 203


6.9.1. MointenonceTypes 204
6.9.2. TypicolMointenonceOperotions ZO4

6,10. 206
6 . 1 0 . 1 .Endof InsulotionLife 206
6.10.2.Life Extension 207
6,10.3. 208
6.10.4. 209
6.10.5. 211
6.10.6. 212
6.10.7. 212
The rating of a transformer is derived from the steady-stateload (apparentpower) it may carry
without exceedingthe guaranteed temperature risesl. At a normalized ambient temperature
(within the guaranteedlimits), the insulation is assumedto degrade(or age)at a normal rate when
the transformer is operatedat constant rated load. In practice neither the load nor the ambient
temperatureis constant;the instantaneousload follows the demandsof industrial and domestic
consumersand the ambient varies with the time of day and with each season.
In operation,the transformer is a sourceof lossesthat are describedin Secion Theseare principally
no-load losses,winding losses and stray losses.The loss in eachcomponent is dissipatedas heat and
this must be transferred to some external cooling medium if the temperature of the components is
to be limited (mostly by oiI/air or oil,/water heat-exchangers).
The designof the cooling systemensuresthat the top oil and winding temperaturerisesdo not exceed
the guaranteedlimits, but it is the absolute temperature that determinesthe loading capability of a
transformer.Thermal aging of paper is important becauseit reducesthe mechanicalstrength making
it more susceptibleto tearing which could lead to dielectric failure.

6.1.1.Voriqtionof Aging with Lood

Celluloseinsulation degradesfaster at higher temperatures.Thus, it is usually the thermal
degradationof celluloseinsulation (at the hottest spot) which imposesthe limit. In addition, at a
certain temperature, oil starts to undergo a chemical changeand may give offbubbles of gas. This
must also be taken into accountwhen consideringthe safeoperation of the transformer. The actual
temperature dependenciesof oil and cellulose dependon a number of variables including moisture
content, acidity, oxygenavailability and the presenceofcatalysts.
Montsinger2 showed the gradual reduction of tensile strength over time, with an acceleratingrate
of reduction of strength as the temperature increased.Later investigatorsshowed similar results for
other celluloseproducts.
The basic principle of thermal aging of insulation as a function of temperatureand time followed the
Arrhenius relationship. The rate of deterioration of mechanicalproperties doubles for each 5-10'C
increasein temperature,but is not constant at all temperatures.Equationshavebeen formulated
that allow an approximate estimate of the loss-of-life relative to "normal" expectedlife for known
operating conditions to be calculated.Such equations can be found in the IEC 60076-73 and IEEE
C57.9L4loading guides.
The hot spot temperature which gives rise to an ageing rate of unity is one of the most important
design criteria for a transformer.
Although the rate of aging is known to depend on a number of factors, the normal method of
estimating it is to consider only the hot spot temperature. For instance, the IEC loading guide
considers that a transformer will ageat a rate of unity when operating continuously at a hot spot
temperature of 98"C. This applies to transformers having no chemical treatment of the conductor
paper covering.When thermally upgradedpaper coveringis used a higher value is accepted,for
instance,the IEEE loading guide considersa hot spot temperatureof 1-l-0'Cto equateto a unity rate
of life expenditure.
The majority of transformers are subjected to a wide range of continuously varying ambient
temperatures and hence, even though the load may be constant, the hot spot temperaturewill
fluctuate and the aging rate is not maintained at unity.
However,assuming20oCto be the averageannual averagetemperature,there is a reasonablechance
that the time the transformer spends at ambient temperatures in excessof 20'C will be balanced
by the duration spent below 20"C. Thus the increaseduse of life when operating with an ambient
temperature above20oCwill be offset by the reduceduse of life when it is below 20oC.
The recommendedpracticeaccordingto IEC 60076-7 is to use the yearly weighted ambient
temperaturefor the aging calculationbecauseit givesa more accurateresult than using the arithmetic

7- IEVntmber42T-08-Oltlfrnes"temperahrertse"as:"thed!fferencebetweenthetemperatureofthepartwtder
corsideratbnandthetemperafireofthecookngair or ofthevraterattheintalceofthecoolingequipment,Jor
or reactorsrespectively".
cooled trarsformers
2- tton*inger,V.tI.,"LoadingTrattsJormersbyTemperanre,"NEETrarcactions,vol.49,L930,ppTT6-792,
3 - IEC ffi076-7 (2005-7D@,PowerTransformers - PartT: LoadingGuideforOil-InmersedPowerTransformers.
4 - IEEE C57.97 - 7g!tirM, IEE Guidefor LoadingOil-ImmerwdTrarsJormen'

PowerTronsformer | 179

meanvalue.Basedon the weightedambienttemperature,the normal ageingof the insulationoccurs

when the operatingduration with elevatedhot spot temperatureis balancedby an appropriateperiod
ofthe operationat a reducedhot spot temperature.
Whereasthe yearlyweightedambienttemperatureis to be usedfor thermal agingcalculations,IEC
recommendsthat the monthly averagetemperatureof the hottest month is used for design and test
considerationsof the maximum hot spot temperature.
For dynamic considerations,such as monitoring or short-time emergencyloading,the actual
temperatureprofile should be useddirectly.
Ambient temperatureis of coursenot the only variableencounteredduring operation.The majoriry
oftransformersdo not operateat constantratedload.
Under normal operatingconditionspertainingto the majority of transformers,there is a potential
margin in the life expectancy. For most of their lives,transformersare often operatedat lower loads
and lower ambient temperaturesthan those for which they are specified.Such operationwill still
causea degreeofaging and it should be notedthat the presenceofwater, oxygenand contaminants
will accelerateany agingprocess.
In the IEC loadingguide,the evaluationof the relativeagingof normal paper,relatedto the winding
hot spot, is givenby the following formula:
aging rate at et, .)(et,-98)16
V_ -

aging rate at 98'C

V is the relative aging
Q is the hot spot temperature.
For thermally upgradedpaper,it expressesthe relative aging rate as an exponentialgiven by the
following equation:
( rsooo_ rsooo)
V = e \ t t o + 2 7 3 t h+ 2 7 3 )
iiqn 6 lhl
The temperaturesat which unity rate of aging is consideredto occur,98'C and 110"C for normal
and thermally upgradedpaper respectively,relate to operation at rated power with, in the first casea
weighted averageannual ambient temperatureof 20"C and a hot spot rise of 78K; and in the second
casean averagedaily ambientof 30oCand a hot spot rise of 80I(.
Applying [qn6.lnfor untreatedKraft paperand fqrrS.]bfor TUP, resultsin the curvesof Fig.{r}u,which
show the agingas a function ofhot spot temperature.



E) t00







--#- Thermolly poper

-o-_ Non{hermolly poper
F$9. - Insulofion
$^1ru Aging

r80 P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F
r u n d o m e n t o l -s A R E V A
According to the aging formula for untreated lftaft paper, a transformer winding operating at a
hot spot temperatureof 135"C for only t hour would incur the same loss of life as it would have
experiencedat 98oCfor 72 hours (i.e.equivalentto 3 daysof"normal" operation).Conversely, for a
period operation of 8 days at 80"C, the same winding would only have a loss of life equivalentto 1-
day of "normal" operation.
This knowledgecan now be appliedto a more complexcaseinvolvinga transformersubjectedto a
specifiedload rycle. Knowing the yearly operational regimes of loads and associateddurations, we
can estimatethe hot spot temperaturethat would be neededin order for the transformer to incur the
sameloss of life as it would havedone at a continuoushot spot temperatureof 98oC.
For example,in i- year(8766 hours)let us assumethat a transformerwith normal paperis operated
as follows:
+ ir hours at load factor K,
+ iz hours at load factor K,
+ /rshours at load factor K,
andhr+ hz+hz= 8 766 hours.
For eachload factor,/(N, the winding hot spot temperature00"can be estimated(seeSeclion6.1.2),
N is the number of eachparticular load factor.
The relative aging rate over the year is calculatedfrom the equation:
* hr)@n-ss)16
* hr2@n-e8)/6
lhr2rt^,-s8)16 ]
V =
' yecTr [Eqn6"Tn]
8 766
By monitoring the load and ambient temperature and deriving the hot spot temperatures,it is thus
possible to obtain a coarseestimate of the averageaging of the transformer for the year.
Howeverto assessthe true agingstateof an operatingtransformerrequiresa much more accurate
estimation that takes into account the effect of any harmonics, hot spot location, and a reliable
methodologyfor loss of life prediction.In addition, the water content,in both celluloseand oil, is
among the critical parametersaffecting the thermal life of the transformer.

6.1.2. Estimotionof Hot Spot Temperoture

The hot spot at a constant load can be determined from the values at rated load as follows:
At a steady-stateper unit load of K, the hot spot temperaturefor different cooling modes is given by
the following:
0n= 0o+ L0"+ L4o
For ON Cooling

^e"= ftqn6 l d]

OD* and OF Cooling

^e"=Lou;[t#l . 2*(a0,,,,
- Lou,)t<, [[qn6 l eJ

* For OD coolinga correctionis made:

0n= 0n* 0.15(00- 00,) [rqn6"lf]
eh Hot spot temperatureat consideredload
0; Correctedhot spot temperature(for OD cooling)
0o Ambient temperature
L1o, Top oil temperaturerise at ratedcondition
Le" Top oil temperaturerise at consideredload
A?u, Bottom oil rise at rated load
L0,*, Averageoil rise at rated load
L1o, Hot spot gradientat ratedload

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols i tBt

L0o Hot spot gradientat consideredload

00, Hot spot temperatureat ratedload (default= 98'C)
R LossRatioat ratedcondition(LoadLosses/No-Load Losses)
K Loadfactor (loadcurrent/rutedcurrent)
x Empiricalexponentequalto 0.8 for ON and 1 for OD and OF coolingmodes*
y Empiricalexponentequalto 1.3 for ON and OF and 2 for OD coolingmodes*
* Thesebasicvaluesofthe x and y exponentscan be used in the absenceofmore accuratevalues
obtained from test results.

6.1.3. TemperotureResponseto Chongein lood

Whilst the load on a transformer may changein discretesteps, each component of the transformer
takes a different time beforeit attains the new steadystatetemperatureassociatedwith that particular
It is often necessaryto determinethe thermal capabilityof a transformerduring a load increaseof
duration less than the time neededto attain steady-statetemperatureconditions, perhapsevenfor a
seriesof such load steps.Adding a time elementto equations[[qn6.ld]and [tqn6.le]yields equations
ofthe form:
9oJ(t)= 0.+ A,O,J,Q)+ Lehfz(t) [fqn6.19]
The evolution of the bulk oil temperaturerise with time through to the steadystate value can be
representedby an exponential function and is given by:
qo-f(h)=A0",+(A,0,- L?,,)x(I- e-'tn)
ts is the averageoil thermal time constant [minutes]
r is the time [minutes]
L9o, is the initial top oil temperature rise
1+ n x r' initial load
L1oi= L;o,,'L[ 1" where K-
YYrrL'-L $,]il
1+ R -l ratudload
The winding hot spot temperature gradient is also time and load dependent,but the time constants
for windings have values of only a few minutes (comparedwith an hour or more for the oil), so are
often neglectedsuch that the winding gradient and oil in the winding are assumedto achievetheir
newvalue instantaneously.The generalpracticeis that dependingon the transformer size,the time
constantsare generallyevaluatedfor specificcasesby taking into accountthe massesand the specific
heats ofthe principal materials.
The aboveestimation of transient heating is a simplistic approach.A more refined analysis can be
performed using modeling tools such as those discussedin Section9.3.4.In reality, the heating/cooling
transients do not follow simple exponential curves and for more accuratecalculationsthe effectsof
cooling type must be taken into account. Although OD cooling generally follows the abovesimple
equations,ON and OF have more complex exponentialfunctions that take into accountthe time lag
between load and temperature,which can sometimes result in higher than expectedtemperatures.
The use of fiber-optic temperaturesensorsfitted in the windings allows these effectsto be measured
and monitored.

6.1.4. looding BeyondNomeploteRoting

Loading the transformer aboveits nameplate rating or operating at rated power at higher than the
"rated" ambient temperature,requirescareful considerationof the effectsof aging of the transformer
and also the risk of premature failure that is associatedwith the increaseof temperature.
Increasingthe load current also increasesthe stray flux which causesgreater losses(and increasing
temperature)in the conductorsand constructionalparts. Eventuallythe thermal limit ofthe insulation
with which they are in contact is reached.Further limitations in the increaseof current are imposed
by the switching capacityof the tap-changer,by other equipment with insulation components such
as the tap-changerand bushings, and by the maximum volume of the oil expansionvessel.
One of the most probableimmediate risks when overloadingthe transformer is the reduction in
dielectricstrengthcausedby the appearance ofbubbles,either in the cellulosicinsulation,or on the
surfaceof metallic constructionalparts. This is increasinglylikely when the hot spot temperature
exceedsL4O"C.As mentioned previously,the moisture content can contribute to Iowering this limit.

tB2 | Power
Tronsformer - AREVA
In addition, the cumulative thermal degradationeffectwith time of applicationwill progressivelyage
the insulation.
The standardloading guidesgive recommendationson permissibleoverloadswith regardsto the
maximum hot spot temperatureand transformeragingrate for certainloadingregimes.The more data
that is available,the more accurateand detailedthe assessmentcan be. For a new transformerit would
normally be expectedthat thermal calculationsand factorytemperaturerise test information would be
available.Thesewould permit calculationofthe thermal time constantand a more rigorousassessment
of the hot spot temperatureand its location. However,for an existing transformer,such data may not
exist, although the manufacturermay be able to providelimited designor factorytest information.
A simple approachconsidersthe acceptablemaximum load factor as definedby the loadingguide
and takes into accountthe ambient temperature.For large power transformers,IEC recommends
limits for the per-unit current (i.e. Ioad current/rated current) and these are given as the load factor,
K. in lnble6.lo:

Load factor, K Tlpe of Loading

< 1.5 t\.$.$

For short-time emergency loading 5*ttrnn

< 1.3 tx"1.4

For long-time emergency loading $uqtlnu

tl.lu - LoodFoclorondTypeof Looding


The following designdata should be checked:

+ The winding hot spot temperature and any metallic part temperature in contact with
+ The temperature of any metallic part in contactwith the liquid insulating material,
+ The maximum oil temperature.
The design characteristicsand the transformer conditions (moisture, gas content and particles)
are crucial parametersfor agingof the transformerwhen submitted to a higher load, as the aging
accelerationfactor dependsstronglyon theseparameters.Hencetheir limits should be considered
with particular carewhen the load exceedsthe nameplaterating.
Operationof an IEC transformer at a hot spot temperaturelower than 98oC(e.g.at a low ambient
temperature,or at reducedcurrent)will reducethe rate of aging of the celluloseinsulation to less
than unity. If the ambienttemperatureis below 20'C then some loadingof the transformerbeyond
the nameplaterating becomespossiblewithout exceedingunity rate of loss of life and conversely,at
higher ambient temperatures,unity rate of use of life can be maintained by operation at less than the
nameplaterating.Alternatively,peakloadscan be carriedwithout the needto over-sizeand emergenry
loads can be carriedwithout interruption of power service,providedthe extra loss of life is acceptable
or can be compensatedby subsequentoperationat a lower load or ambienttemperature.
The majority of transformer loading regimesfall into three typical profiles as defined inIEC 60076-7
and as listed below. Limits for each profile are given in Toble

o Normol Cyclic looding

At most sites,the ambient temperaturecan be consideredto cycleover a 24 hour period (aswell as on
a 12 month, seasonalcycle)and the load on the transformerscan often be consideredto be repetitive,
particularly with regardsto industrial demand during the working days of eachweek.
Normal ryclic loading takes advantageof these cyclesto offset periods during which the rate of
use of life exceedsunity with (longer) periods of lower ambient and/or load during which the rate
of use of life is less than unity. The result is that over the chosenperiod, the thermal aging of the
unit is no greater than it would have been had the transformer been operatedat unity rate of aging

o long lime Emergency looding

"Long-time" is used to describean overloadof sufficiently long duration to allow the transformer to
reacha higher steadystatetemperature.
Such a situation might arise following the loss of one or more paralleledtransmission lines requiring
the transformerson the remaininglines to carry an increasedcurrent. If the outagewas causedby

e ru n d o m e n t o- lAs R E V A
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m F I t83
ffi *HAT rssuEsAFFEcT

the failure of some major plant, it might take a considerabletime to remove the original equipment
and to transport, install, and commission its replacementand the ensuing higher rate of aging could
last for a significant time.
During any risk assessmentexercise,the historyand conditionof the actualtransformersshould be
considerede.g. lower limits may be prudent if the transformer is alreadysignificantly service-aged.
Providedadequatesafeguardsare in place,this mode ofoperation should not be injurious to the
transformer but the increasedaging that results must be recognizedin future loading or replacement

o Slrorf Time Emergency looding

Short-time emergencyloading is characterizedby an unusually heavytransient load (less than
30 minutes).As the temperatureof any componentin contactwith cellulosicinsulation is limited
to values of up to 160'C by the loading guides,it is very important to note the increasedrisk of
generatinggas bubblesthat could Ieadto dielectricfailure of the transformer.It is recommendedthat
extremecareis taken if the hot spot temperatureis permittedto exceed140"C.
The loadingguidescan be usedto determinethe permissiblepeakload Krfor a givendurationt and
given initial load K,. They can also be usedfor determiningthe ratedpower of a transformerin the
caseof a normal life duration for a given load profile defined by the ntio Kr/K,.
For medium and largepower transformers,the IEC acceptablelimits for loadingbeyondthe nameplate
rating are indicatedin Toble6.1b.

Normal cyclic Long time Short time

loading emergency loading emergency loading

Load Factor (per unit current)

Large power transformer < 1 . 3p . u < 1 . 3p . u < 1 . 5p . u
Medium power transformer < 1 . 5p . u < 1 . 5p . u < 1 . 8p . u

Winding hot spot temperature I2O"C 140'C 160'C*

Topoiltemperature 105"C 115'C 115"C

: ilft'*t"i*,neppfrt* 6itr,*n gO'Candl6qc. Horyever.they


Ioble6.1b - ltC60076-7@

6.1.5. Gqs TurbineGTApplicotion

Gas turbines have been in use since the nineties, and provide efficient and reliable equipment that
requires much shorter installation time than a steam turbine. The power capability of a gas turbine
is describedin respectof its performanceover a range of ambient temperatures,and the associated
power transformer must have a matching load carrying capability.For performanceguaranteesit is
necessaryto define a rated power for the GeneratorTransformer.The rated power of the transformer
is defined at ayearly averageambient temperature.This could be the weighted averageannual
temperaturethat is applicableat the particularsite, but it is easierto use a standardvalue of 20oC
such as is adoptedby IEC as the weighted annual averagetemperature.The power flow through the
transformer dependsupon the turbine capabilitywhich is a function of the ambient temperature.
The loadltemperature curve for the gas turbine unit is different to that of the transformer and will
only match it at one ambient temperature.It is thereforeconvenientto define the rated power of
the transformer as the turbine rating at 20oC ambient. The turbine curve normally has a lower
capabilitythan the transformer at temperaturesbelow 20oC and a higher capability above20oC.The
transformer, when operating at the rating of the turbine over the whole of the ambient temperature
range,will agemore quicklywhen the ambient is higher and less quicklywhen the ambient is lower.
The transformerwill thus havea mixed load betweenoverloadand under-load.such that the effective
rate of aging could still approximateto unity. Assuming the transformer has a hot spot temperature
of 98"C at rated load and temperature(20"C),the maximum hot spot temperatureat maximum peak
turbine output would generallybe designedto be less than the 120oCtemperaturesuggestedby IEC
for normal cyclicloading.A simple representative diagram(Fig.6.lb)
showsthe loadingcapabilitiesof

1 8 4i PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
both the turbine and the transformer for arange of ambient temperatures.A constant hot spot curve
for both 98oCand 1l-8oCcasesis shown for the transformer.

tt 98"CHorspol
\ \ l18"( Holspol
\ a, Tronsformer
Ipu \
(Tronsformer \
Roting) Turbine
oulpul \

eo[" minimum) 0,.(=20"() 0o[" moximum) 0 ombienl
tig.6.lb- GT

6.1.6. ThreeWinding Looding

Three winding transformers are frequently encountered,e.g. autotransformershaving high-voltage
(HV), intermediate-voltage(MV) and low-voltage (LV)windings.
The well-known, threewinding transformerequivalentcircuit is shown in tig.6.1c.

Fig.6.lc- Resolution

Impedancemeasurementsrelateonly to pairs of windings,for instanc€Zn,and are resolvedinto

the componentsin eacharm of the circuit as representedgraphicallyin Fig.6.lcby the following
z _ -_ Z t z * 2 , - Z * Irqn6"liJ
z t o--Z r r * Z r z - Z t t ftqn61k]

z7 - a_- Z r r * Z r , - Z , firqn6ll]
Z, is the mathematicalvalue associatingan impedanceto winding n
Zn* is the actualimpedancebetweenwindingsn andm.
The use of the equivalentT-circuit impedancespermits the determinationof the load current
distribution betweenthe windings for various load combinations,and from this, the calculationof
the thermal capability for any load combination.

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundornenfals 185

Ignoringthe transformerlosses,the apparentpower at anywinding is the vectorialsum of the apparent

powersof the other windings. It is necessaryto specifywhich combinedloading requirementsare
possiblein order to properlydefinethe thermal capabilityrequiredof the transformer.
In a three-winding transformer, the LV can be used:
+ to supplya secondload,
-t to supplyreactivepower compensatingdevicessuch as shunt reactorsor capacitors,
+ to supply a capacitorbank for harmonic filterrng,
+ as a stabilizing winding where the other two windings are star connected.
The optimum ratings of the primary and secondarywindings dependon the type of tertiary load. The
examplebelow shown as a vectordiagramin fig.6.1d, illustratesthis aspect.
S, primary power to be defined
Sz=4O.54MVA and S, = 1-1.5MVAr (leading)
Ifcos(qr) = 0.8 (lagging)
Sr = 34.87 MVA
and cos(pr)= 0.93 (lagging).





Fig.6.ld- (opocilive

However,if the tertiary Ioad was disconnected,the primary would need to supplyjust the secondary
load, and therefore needs to be rated at40.54 MVA. It is therefore important to review all the
possiblecombinationsof loads for a three-winding transformer,when designingits thermal,/cooling
In a 3-winding transformer having multi-stage cooling, the thermal design of the LV winding must
take accountof its specificload requirements:if it providesa load in proportion to the that on the MV
winding, then the LV may also have different ratings for the mode of cooling in operation but if it is
connectedonly to a shunt reactor or capacitor,its load is voltagedependentand it must be thermally
designedfor its maximum rating irrespectiveof the cooling mode in operation.For example,if the
LV of a three-winding,75/L5OMVA, ONAN/ODAFtransformersuppliesa 30 MVAr reactor,it must
be thermally capableof 30 MVA under both ONAN and ODAF conditions, whereasthe HV and MV
windings will have a different thermal rating for ONAN (75 MVA) and ODAF (150 MVA).
It is shown in Sedion2.5.2that the voltageat the secondaryterminals of a two-winding transformer
changeswith load. In multi-winding transformers the electromagneticcoupling of the leakageflux
betweenwindings causesa more complex voltage regulation effect.The voltagesthat appearon the
terminals of any winding dependnot only on the load on that winding but also on the load on all other
windings. This meansthat evenif a winding is open-circuited,the voltageon its terminals will be
modified by a load on any other winding. It should be also be recognizedthat in windingswith a reactive
load, as describedin the previousparagraph,the changein voltagewill also result in a differentcurrent
and this must be taken into accountin three-winding loadingconsiderations.

186I PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

When the LV winding is used only to stabilize the primary and secondarycircuits (such as for
unbalancedloads), it will often have no designatedthermal rating but must still be capableof
dissipating the /rR and eddy lossesofany current resulting from the unbalancedload. It must also
be designedto take account ofthe effectsthat result from a short-circuit fault to ground on the
terminal(s) of the other windings.

6.1.7. Ejlectof Lossof Cooling

When pumps and/or fans fail to operate,the consequencesdependon many factors including: how
much of the forcedcooling plant is inoperable;the extent of equipment redundanry;the availabilityof
other cooling modes(ONAF,OFAF,etc.);the type of coolersemployed(plate-typeradiatorsor compact
heat exchangers);the ability ofthe operator to shed load and the duration ofthis fault condition.
Thereis a risk that the temperatureincreasethat could result would not only exceedthe recommended
operationallimits, but could also lead to dielectricfailure as a result of gasbubble formation, so some
understanding of the consequencesof loss of cooling is provided in this section. Although we only
consider the transformer, the increasein temperature will also have an impact on the operation of
bushings,cables,and other equipment.

o Coolers employing Plote-type Rodiofors:

o LossofFans
The loss ofall fans significantly reducesthe efficiencyofthe heat exchanger,causing an increasein
mean oil temperature at a rate controlled by the thermal time constant of the transformer. Thus all
other temperature rises will increase,as these are all affectedby the mean oil temperature.
o LossofPumps
The loss of all pumps will result in an ON condition in which the oil flow around the winding and
radiator circuit is controlled by fully thermosyphonic conditions. The top oil and the hot spot rises
will therefore increasefrom the OF values.
The loss of all pumps will have a different effect dependingon the cooling mode (i.e. OF or OD). If the
oil is not directed through the windings then the differencein oil temperaturethrough the windings
and the hot spot gradient in the windings will be similar whether or not the pumps operate(the
windings are, in effect, naturally cooled in both cases).
For OD cooling, the oil flow though the windings is significantly increasedwhen the pumps operate
so loss of forced oil circulation results in an increaseof the oil temperature rise through the winding
and ofthe hot spot gradient in particular.
o Multi-mode Cooling
If a transformer has an ONAN rating, this is availablewhether or not any of the pumps and fans are
availablefor action. If howeverit becomesnecessaryto operatethe transformer with some radiators
out of circuit, then only the transformer manufacturerusually has all the necessaryinformation
necessaryto assessthe consequentialreduction in cooling capability,so should be consulted.
When all pumps are out of service,then any OF or OD cooling mode ratings are lost, but the ONAF
rating remains. Similarly if all fans are out of service,some capability exists in the OFAN mode
although the capability in this instancewould be less than in the ONAF mode.
In OD cooledtransformers, the WTIs apply a different hot spot gradient dependingon the detection
of forced or natural oil flow so these revert to the "ON" gradient on the loss of all pumps.

o Coolers Enploying Singlemode, cornpocf heofexchongers

The main advantageof Air-Blast and Water coolersis the significant reduction in the spacerequired
when compared with radiator-type coolers but as will be seen from the following discussion, it is
important that strategicplanning takes into accountthe needfor redundancyof componentssuch as
pumps and fans, as well as planned maintenanceof equipment and the availabilityof an independent
back-up power supply.
o LossofFans
Compactair-blast heat exchangersalso present a high impedanceto air-flow. The loss of a fan on a
cooler could therefore represent a substantial reduction in its heat dissipation capacity and loss of
all fans on a cooler would reduce its heat dissipation to an insignificant level.

PowerTronsformer - A R E VA
Fundomentols i 187
6 *HAT rssuEsAFFEcT

r LossofPumps
Unlike flat-plate radiatorswhich by their relativelyshort length and largecross-sectionadd a very low
impedanceto the oil circuit, compactheat exchangers(air blast and water type)havea greatlyreduced
cross-sectionconsistingof many small-boretubes in parallel(and sometimesseriescombination)
and therefore present a significant impedanceto the oil flow.
The pump overcomesthis impedancewhen operatingbut if it stops,then the oil flow through the
cooler effectivelystops too. The result is that no further heat can be dissipatedfrom the cooler (even
if the fans continue to operateor the cooling water to flow).
If the oil is fully directed to the windings, then stopping all pumps effectivelyalso stops the flow of
oil through the windings. It could pessimisticallybe consideredthat an adiabaticcondition exists and
that the rate of temperaturerise of the windings is governedby the thermal capacityof the materials
of the winding block. Unless the cooling can be very quickly returned to operation (typically within
15 to 20 minutes),the transformermust be taken offload.
If the oil to the windings is not fully directedthen a limited form of ONAN cooling will ensuebut
with an increasein top oil rise and winding hot spot gradient. The load will still have to be removed
unless the cooling can be quickly restoredbut a slightly longer time may be possiblein which to take
emergencyaction than in the fully directed case.
It should be noted that in large power transformers,the continuous dissipationof heat from the tank
surfacewithout exceedingthe recommendedtemperaturerisesis likely to be lessthan the no-load
lossesof the transformer and itwill also be necessarytode-energizethe transformer unless the
coolingcan be restored.
o Cooling Plant Redundancy
The foregoingdiscussionconsidersa major loss of forcedcooling capacitysuch as may be experienced
by a failure in the electricalsupply to the cooling plant. Mitigation of this risk usually employsan
independentpower supply with automatic changeover.
Single-modeODAF,OFAI ODWF and OFWF cooledtransformershave multiple heat exchangers
connectedin parallel. A pump may be connectedin serieswith each heat-exchangerbut other
arrangementsusing parallel pumps are frequently used to increaseoperational flexibility.
It is also usuallypossiblebecauseof their relativelysmall size,to accommodatesome redundanry
of plant without adding greatly to the size of the cooler installation. The extent of cooler plant
redundanryis basedon a techno-economicevaluationand also considersthe needto removeany one
item of plant for maintenanceetc. For water coolersit is common to haveeither two heat-exchangers
eachcapableof dissipatingthe full operationallossof the transformer(i.e.2x 100% coolers)or three
heat-exchangersconnectedin such a way that any2 heat exchangersare capableof dissipatingthe full
operationallosses(i.e. 3 x 50% coolers).The capacityof air-blastcoolersoften meansthat a larger
number of smaller capacityheat exchangersis used - the consequences of losing one component
reducesas the total number increasesbut the complexity of the cooler control may increase.
With such systemsin placethe failure of a single component need not reducethe cooling capacityof
the transformer. Some operatorschoseto use "additional" cooling capacityto reducethe operating
temperature of the transformer to improve insulation aging rates, or to "pre-chill" a transformer in
readinessfor an anticipatedshort duration load.
An alternativeapproach,when the consequentialincreasein temperatureor reductionin load capacity
is acceptable,is not to add "redundant" capacitybut to accepteither the increasedtemperatureor
reducedcapacityuntil full cooler operation can be restored.
The specificationfor the transformer must detail any particular loading requirementswhen some
coolingplant is out of operation.With knowledgeof the maximum load lossesand no-load losses,
togetherwith the number of coolersfitted, curvesof the load capabilityversus number of coolers
in operation can be determined for a particular transformer. Fig.6.legives an example basedon
information from the IEEE loading guide.

l BBi PowerTronsformer - A R EVA





0 20 40 60 80 t00 120

roolen (96l
fig.6.1e - Dissipolion wilhlos of(ooling

6.2.1. Generol
For satisfactoryoperation of two or more transformers in parallel, it is necessaryto satisfy the
following conditions:
+ Voltage ratios through the common parts of the tapping rangesshould be approximatelythe
+ The paralleledwindings must have the same phaserelationship.
+ The transformersshould havethe approximatelythe samepercentageimpedanceson their
respectivebaseratings to limit circulating current. The variation of the impedancesacrossthe
respectivetapping rangesshould be similar.
Effect ofdifferent turns ratio:
When the turns ratio of paralleledtransformersis not identical,the differencebetweenthe e.m.f.
induced in each secondarywinding causesa circulating current to flow between the secondary
windings evenwhen there is no systemload.This current is limited by the impedancein the secondary
circuit and can be found from the following formula:


Le is the differencein secondarye.m.f. (asp.u of rated voltage)
Zt, Zz is the per unit short-circuit voltagesof transformers 1 and 2 (on their respectivebases)
S,.,Sz Ratedapparentpowers of transformers l- and 2
11 Circulating current as percentageofrated current oftransformer 1.
Evenwhen the per unit impedanceof the transformers is the same on rated tap, the variation of
impedancewith tap position dependson the construction(winding disposition)and it is therefore
usually not practical to parallel transformers ofwidely different power rating (saymore than 2:1).
It is possibleto operatetwo transformersin parallel at different tap positions if the differenceis small.
However,care should be taken where the step voltagesare large.

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols i t89
ffi *HAT rssuEsAFFE.T

For transformersof different designs,a mismatch of relativeloading of not more than about 10%
betweentwo transformers should be regardedas reasonable.
When information about the other transformer(s)to be operatedin parallel is available,the supplier
of a new transformer can usually achievea close turns-ratio match provided that the step voltageof
the tapped windings is sufficiently high.
An important point of note is that the circulating current does not flow in the line and it may exist
without the knowledgeof the system operator.

6.2.2. lmpedonceRequirement
When transformers are operatedin parallel, the proportion of the total load current that eachcarries
is governedby their respectiveimpedances.If the transformershavethe samepercentageimpedances
on their respectivebases,eachwill carrycurrent in proportion to its MVA, e.g.a total load of 100 MVA
carried by 3 transformers of 30, 30 and 60 MVA respectively,eachhaving 10% impedance,will have
Ioaddivisionof 25,25 and 50 MVA respectively.
When transformerswith unequal short circuit impedancevalues are operatedin parallel,the
transformer with the lowest impedancecarries a higher proportion of the load than its MVA
contributionto the paralleledbank of transformerswould warrant, and the one havingthe highest
impedancewould receivea lower proportion of the total load. The implication of this is that the
maximum total load that can be carried with normal life usageby the combination of transformers
is less than the sum of the MVAs. Furthermore,the transformer with the higher impedancewill age
at a lower rate than its neighbor (all other things being equal).
The unbalancecan be estimated as follows:
If one considerstwo transformers of the same voltage ratio, having rated apparentpower S,t and S.,
and percentageimpedanceZrandZrrespectively, the total load, S, is distributed as follows:

$ t$r]

Occasionallyit may be possibleto compensatefor the effectof unbalancedimpedancesin the parallel

groupby deliberatelyoperatingthe tap-changerson differentpositions.This compensationworks only on
the reactivecomponent of load current and is therefore effectiveonly when the power factor is low.

6.2.3. On-loqd Top<honger

When transformershavethe samerating,voltage,number and sizeof stepswith identicalimpedance,there
is no difficulty in making them operatein parallel.The on-load tap-changersof paralleledtransformersare
usuallyprovidedwith autolmanual controls thatwill facilitate this. The automatic systemensuresthat all
of the transformersare at the sametap position,and all changewithin a short time of one another.
When the regulation steps are small, a tapping position differencebetweentwo transformers is not
necessarilyharmful, but it is important to correct the differenceas soon as possible.The unbalance
may be due to a controls malfunction or incorrect sequencingand it is therefore necessaryto check
that the controls perform the command that is given to them.
Transformers to be paralleled are initially set on the same tapping position manually.
The simplest form of automaticparallelingcontrol maintains conformity of the group withholding the
executionof a new commanduntil all the controls in the group havecompletedthe last. A malfunction
leading to non-completion of a control command will result in a halt to the system and the issue of
a fault signal.
With more sophisticatedtypes of equipment,the automatic control only givesa signal to operateif all
the regulatorsare in the same position. The systemstops if a control panel doesnot restart normally:
a time-delay taking into account the differencein speed-of-operationofdifferent tap-changers.It is
evenpossibleto prevent all switching if all the tap-changersare not in sameposition. Somesystems
provide automatic realignment of the controls if an accidentalout-of-step operation takes place.
An out-of-step condition of two (or more) transformersconnectedin parallel leadsto unbalanced
Ioading ofthe transformers and different current breaking duties on each OLTC.Besidesthe effects
ofthe unequal loading causedby the different impedancevoltages,a circulating current is driven by
the voltage differenceequivalentto the voltage of one tapping step betweenthe transformers. These
circulatingcurrents are superimposedon the transformerload currents and influencethe current
breakingstressesat the OLTC.When evaluatingthe breakingconditions,not only do the absolute

1 9 0I PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
valuesofthe switchingcurrentshaveto be taken into account,but also the phaseshift that occurs
upon openingthe diverterswitch contacts.
When transformers having different numbers of steps and different voltagesper step are required to
operatein parallel,a voltagetransformeris connectedto the common busbar.The output from the
VT energizesa voltagerelay and if the voltageto be controlledis outsidepre-set limits, it initiates
a tap changein the required direction. The magnitude and phaseof the current is measuredfor
eachofthe paralleledtransformersand the voltagecorrectiondeductedfrom this, appliedto each
transformeras function of the differencefrom the balanceddistributionof current.The unbalanced
transformerseachreceivesignalsfrom their regulatorsto reducethis difference.A time delayor a
degreeofinsensitivitymust be introducedto avoid hunting, and a checkon the correctresponseto
thesesignalsis carriedout by measuringthe current circulatingbetweenthe transformers.
Single-phasetransformersdo not pose any specialproblems,since the conditions for satisfactory
paralleloperationare the sameas those of 3-phasetransformers.

In service,transformers can be subjectedto high magnitude, short duration over-currentsas a result
of abnormal systemevents.Unless the transformer is designedto withstand short-circuit faults,
damagecould result from the excessive forcesinducedor by overheatingofthe conductorinsulation
due to the higher current densities.
Transformersmay also experiencehigh current magnitudeswhen they are suddenlyenergizedand
an understandingof the magnetizinginrush current is important for propertransformerprotection

Normally a transformer is energizedby switching directly onto a systemoperatingat full line voltage.
Dependingupon the corestate(the remanentflux density)and the instant on the voltagecyclewhen the
switching-in takesplace,the magnetizingcurrent can be affectedby a pronouncedtransient condition.
This transient phenomenonon the magnetizingcurrent is generallyreferredto as "Inrush Current".
iig {r.:irtshows an example of a switching process.The apparatus is switched in at zero voltage
(increasing)and the remanent flux density in the core is Br. During the first positive half-cycle, the
flux increasesto Bm and the magnetizingcurrent increasesto Im. During the next (negative)half-
cycle,the flux decreasesto a minimum and the magnetizingcurrent reducesto a low value when the
flux falls below the knee point of magnetizing curve.

Fig.&.3n- Voltoge,
FluxDensily (urrenlosFunctions
ondInrush ofTime

r u n d c m e n t o l s- A R
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F 1 ? 1 1

6 wHATrssuEsAFFEcT

After severalrycles, the core is progressivelydemagnetizedand the magnetizingcutrent resumesits

normal condition.
The magnitude and time constant for the decayof the inrush current are influencedby the following
+ The "air-cored" reactanceof the supplied winding, X = 2tcf L
+ where L is the inductanceof the coil in the au;
* The instant of the switching-in;
+ The value and polarity of the remanent flux in the core;
-+ The resistanceof the winding;
+ The type of core(3-limb, S-limb, etc.)and the connectiondiagramof the windings.
The amplitude of the inrush current can be estimated by the following formula:
, J - , r^ lr,z(. "_ 4 - 4 )
- tAl [[qll $ 3nj
Jr'?+R'z B, )
U voltageappliedon the winding tvl
X winding "air cored"reactance tO]
R winding resistance tol
K factorfrom 0.6 to 1-,dependingon the coreconstruction.
Generally,a valuebetween0.9 and 1 is suitable.
4 saturation flux density (approximately2T) fll
B, remanent flux density in the core (approximately0.7 B) tTl
Bn rated flux density in the core tTl
The first peak amplitude of inrush current may reach,in some instances;eight to ten times the value
of the rated current and the time for decayis commonly betweenfive to ten seconds,driven by an
exponential law:
-t 2L
e r Inwnlcn t=- frqn$"ShJ
The inrush current results in hoop tensile stressesdue to radial forcesand compressivestresses due
to axial forces and these are applied to the energizedwinding.
Generally,the inrush current is not a problem from the mechanicalpoint of view, but it can be a
causeof the inopportunetripping of protectiondevices.However,in some applicationswhere the
transformer is energizedseveraltimes a day,especiallyif the energizedwinding is the inner one, the
repetition ofthe mechanicaleffectsdue to the inrush current cannot be ignored.

6.3.2. Short-Circuit
There are severalexternalfault scenariosto be consideredin the designofthe transformer:three-
phase,line-to-line,line-to-line-to-ground(doubleline to earth)and singleline-to-groundFig.6.3b.
In HV networks, the most common type of short-circuit is a single line-to-earth fault, but it can
develop,in some cases,into a double-line-to-earth fault and eventuallyinto a three-phasefault.
Another situationwhich could give rise to high currentsand forcesis the out-of-phasesynchronization
of a transformer with the network. This is not a fault condition routinely considered in the design
of the transformer. If such a condition is likely to arise, it must be identified by the user in the
The most severeshort-circuit condition is often a symmetricalthree-phasefault becausethe currents
are limited only by the positivesequenceimpedancesofthe network and of the transformer.Sincethis
is also the condition for which the calculation of fault currents does not require a knowledgeof the
negative andzero impedances,it is usually the first fault consideredwhen checkingthe short-circuit
withstand strength of a transformer.
A three-phasefault is not always feasible.For instance, a stabilizing winding may have no external
terminals (or only one external connection for protection/earthing reasons).In such cases,external
multi-phase short-circuit faults are not valid. Only the zero sequencecurrents resulting from of a
line-to-ground fault on another circuit can circulate in such a delta-connectedwinding.

192 | PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

It should be noted that in the caseofa three-circuit transformer (e.g.star-star-delta),a line-to-ground
fault on a star winding can lead to higher forcesthan those resulting from a symmetricalthree-phase
It is important therefore that the short-circuit withstand of a transformer with more than two
circuits takes into account all possible fault conditions and not just the symmetrical three-phase
fault condition.

o Shorf-Circ uif Currenl Colculofion

In the simple caseof a two-winding, three-phase transformer connectedto a system of infinite short-
circuit apparentpower, the r.m.s. value ofthe symmetrical short-circuit current 1r. can be calculated
by the following formula:
rr.- tAl [Eqn6.3r]
Z,Eo is the transformer short-circuit impedance expressedas a percentageandd is the rated line
current of the transformer in Amperes.
In reality, the system has a finite capacity and its impedance should also be taken into account as

tAI 6.3d]

Z,i6 is the short-circuit impedanceofthe system erqrressedas a percentagebasedon the rated
power of the transformer.
The short-circuit apparent power of the system at the transformer location should be specified by the
purchaser in his enquiry to allow calculation ofthe appropriate currents for the transformer desrgn
evaluation. If this data is not specified,the value given in the appropriateIEC or IEEE standard may
be used.
Fault currents for single and double-line faults are calculated by the "method of symmetrical
components"swhich allows any unsymmetrical set of three-phasevectorsto be representedas three
sets of symmetrical components.

o Asymmetryond Peok Foctor

Theinitialtransientnatureof a short-circuit usinga simpleR-Lcircuit
bya sinusoidalsourcethrougha switch.

5- C.LEottesane,"MethodofSyntnetricalCoordinatesAppliedtotheSohttionofPofuhaseNelworls",Trans.A.I.E.E.,p.

PowerTrqnsformer I t93

In such a circuit,the shapeof the currentis the sum of a steadystatesinusoidalcomponentand a

unidirectionaldecayingcomponentas shownin r'':il*li: .11,.


- 0,5

/-o = first peakof short-circuitcurrent= Io Ji(I+ r-"*l*) = 2.69IA

/o= steady-state short-circuitcurrent,r.m.s.value
- Asymmelricul
t:ig,$.$e Shoil (urrenf

In the abovediagram:
R is the sum of systemand transformerresistance tol
X the sum of systemand transformerreactance tol
Generally,the asymmetryfactor (l+ t"Rlx) for powertransformeris between1.8 and 2.0.
The product Ji(t* is known as the "peakfactor".
tig.6.3dbelow shows typicalvoltageand current tracesobtainedduring a short circuit test on an actual

o Conseguences of Shorf-Circuif Currenfs

o ThermalConsideration
This is generallynot a critical issue in a power transformer becauseof the short duration of a short-
crrcult event.
As the thermal time constantofwindings is much greaterthan the durationofthe short-circuitevent,we
can neglectthe oil flow and assumethat all heat producedduring the fault is storedin the winding.
Basedon this assumption,and neglectingeffect of eddy currents,IEC 60076-5 identifiesthe
application of the following formula to calculatethe copper conductor temperature:

eL is the temperatureof winding at the end of short-circuit ["c]
eo is the initial winding temperature ['c]
J is the currentdensityduring the short-circuit(r.m.s.value) lA/mm2l
T is the short-circuitduration lsl
IEC 600076-5 givestwo secondsas the maximum duration ofthe short-circuiteventfor calculating
the final temperature of the windings and 250'C as a maximum allowable temperature for oil
o MechanicalConsiderattons
This is the main cause of failure due to short-circuit events.As the electromagneticforces are
proportional to the squareof the current, a short-circuit current of ten times the rated value will
developforces one hundred times higher than those occurring in normal service.

194 i Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA
0.00 (ms)
- | 00.00 375.0
- 200.00

I Primoire
r 250.00
0.00 (ms)
- I 250.00 375.0

I Secondoire
0.00 (ms)
- 5000.00 375.0
- r0000.00
- r5000.00
- 20000.00
tig.6.3d- Records
ondPrimory (unenls
ondSerondory Recoded

It is common and convenientto separatethe electromagneticforcesinto axial and radial components

in order to check the ability of an apparatusto withstand short-circuit events.The two sets of
componentscan be consideredindependentlyas they produce stressesthat are different by
The manual calculationof the maximum radial force in a winding can be easilyperformed,but the
accuratecalculationofaxial forces needsthe use ofcomputer programs such as those basedon
Roth's5Theoremor a finite elementmethod.
The main causesof failure of transformer windings during a short-circuit event are buckling due to
radially inward forces and loss of axial stability due either to compressiveaxial forces which cause
conductorsto tilt or high end forceswhich causecollapseof the winding end support structure.

Sincethe first AC generatorwent on line more than a century ago,power systemshavebeendistorted
by harmonics.In recentyears,the use of harmonic-producingequipmenthas increasedand this has
resultedin significant increasesin the levelsof harmonic distortion in the current and voltagesupply.
Examplesof such equipment includes:variablespeedand D.C. drives,convertersfor electrolysis
controlledby diodesor thyristors,arc furnacesand other non-linearloads.
Significantharmonicsmay causeelectricalequipmentto malfunction unlessconsideredduring its
design.Transformersand other electricalequipmentare rated for current and voltagedeliveredat
fundamental frequency.Application of a non-sinusoidal excitationvoltageto a transformer increases
the lossesin the magneticcoreand a high harmonic contentin the load current may result in increased
eddycurrent lossesin the windings and metallic structures.Hot spot temperaturescan thereforereach
unacceptable valuesifaccount is not taken ofthese effectsin the designofthe transformer.
When loads of existing transformers are changedor electricalsystemsreconfiguredwith installation
ofvariable frequencydrives,industrial converters,addition oflarge motors etc.,the rating ofthese

6- Roth,E."AnalyncalStudyoftheLeakageFieldinTrawformersandoftheMechanicalForcesActingontheWindings".R,G,E.,
Vol23 p.973, SthMay1928,

P o w e r T r o n s f o r m e rF u n d q m e n t o l s- A R E V A i 195
6i wnAr rssuEsAFFEcT

transformers must be reviewed.A procedurefor the calculation of de-rated power is recommended

by CENELECHD 428.4 European Standard.A factor "K" can be calculatedwith the following


Ih is the r.m.s value of the harmonic h. (A harmonic current component that has a frequency
value equal to h times the value ofthe ac line frequencyis numbered h. For example,with a
Iine frequenryvalueof 50 Hz,the 3d harmoniccomponenthas a frequenryvalueof 150 Hz,
the 5thharmonic componenta frequencyvalue of 250 Hz, the 7thharmonic componenta
frequenryvalue of 350 Hz andso on.)
1 is the r.m.s valueof non-sinusoidalcurrent derivedfrom 1 = ,l\.tt
e is the ratio between eddy losses and resistive (12R)losseswith the transformer fed by
q is a constant that dependson the type of winding: q =I.5 for transformers with low voltage
foil windings andq =1.7 for all other cases.
Then the derating factor of power equals (1/K).
This method, however,does not take into accountlocal loss concentrationsand is, therefore,not
sufficient for the evaluation of transformers specificallydesignedfor a particular harmonic regime.
A competent supplier has design tools availableto take into account the effect of harmonics on all
parts ofthe windings, connectionsand structural parts. In order to perform such calculation,however,
the transformer design engineeris obliged to requestthe relevant information on harmonic content
from the customer.
Converselyas equipment with non linear-loads is becoming much more widespread in many
industrial plants, consultants and system engineershave a dutyto perform harmonic analysesand
to communicatetheir results to equipment suppliers.

Transformers may be subject to DC currents from the effectsof the operation of DC conversion
equipment or GeomagneticEffects.
The DC bias current is usually a small percentageof the magnetizingcurrent if the convertersystem
is operating in a normal mode but can rise to severalAmperes under certain conditions.
SignificantDC currents may be experiencedin some transformers due to solar activity.The magnetic
storms that flare up on the surfaceof the sun are known to affect power systems.Sunspotsor solar
storms are basicallymagnetic field lines looping out of and into the sun. The high altitude currents
induce mirror currents in the earth, as well as in the parallel paths provided by man-made systems
such as transmission lines. Vulnerability to solar activity is mainly a function of geographicallatitude
and locality.
The solar activity causesgeomagneticallyinduced currents (GIC)to flow into and out of the power
grid at various ground points and can causedamageto large transformers in those grids. The driving
force is the voltageinduced in the transmission lines both by the ionosphericcurrent and by the
earth current. Although the GIC fluctuates,it can be categorizedas a quasi-directcurrent, since
the variations in flow are at frequencies of a few Hertz. Currents have been measured in a single
transformer neutral to be in excessof 200 A.
The magnitude of the GIC dependsupon ionosphericcurrents, the earth's conductivity and the
proximity of the power system to the polar auroral zone. Key factors include the orientation of the
transmission lines (east-westlines are more prone to problems than north-south); their lengths;the
electricalDC resistancesof both the transmissionline conductorsand transformerwindings; the
transformer type and mode of connection; and the method of station grounding and its resistance.
The severityofa GIC event for a transformer is not only dependentupon the induced current in the
neutral, but also on the constructional details ofthe transformer.

196 | PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

DC currents, such as GIC, have a different effect on three-phasetransformers dependingupon
whether they are of 3-limb or S-limb construction.The DC flux is in the samedirection in all 3 wound
limbs. In a S-limb core, this flux can return through the low reluctancepaths presentedby the outer
legs (this also applies to banks of single phase transformers with return limbs). This results in an
asymmetricalcore saturation drawing high AC magnetizingcurrents that are rich in harmonics from
the system,causinghigh eddy lossesin the metallic componentsand an increasein noise due to
the saturatedcore and the high winding current. The half-rycle (asymmetric)core saturation occurs
when the transformer magnetizing flux is offset by the DC current, forcing the transformer core into
saturation for one halfofevery cycle.The core can only carry so much flux and the excessflux is now
external to the core, flowing through adjacentpaths such as the tank and clamps, causing localized
heating due to eddy current losses.Tank temperaturesas high as l-75oChave been recordedduring
a GIC event.
By contrast, the 3-limb construction has a high reluctanceflux loop meaning that the high AC fluxes
cannot be establishedand the GIC,therefore, has much less effect.
In shell-typetransforrners,the saturation flux causedby GIC is perpendicularto the normal stray flux
and this meansthat the larger dimension ofthe rectangularconductorsis exposedto the "saturation"
flux, giving rise to higher eddy lossesin the windings. However,in core-typetransformers, the
"saturation" flux is parallel with the main stray flux and so it is the lesserdimension of the conductor
that is exposedto the saturation flux and the increasein eddy loss is much less, since the lossesare
proportional to the square ofthe exposeddimensron.
Analysis of the likely effectsof DC currents has been carried out in AREVAwith a circuit model using
a circuit analysis tool linked with a finite element model of a transformer. The coupled circuit and
FEM models are used to study the variation in magnetizingcurrent and the consequenceson the
leakageflux inducing ohmic lossesin the metallic components,particularly the tank walls and steel
core frames. It was calculatedthat the additional loss causedby the presenceof a DC current of up
to 25A flowing in the neutral could be up to 39 times greaterthan those experiencedat rated current
under normal operation. The majority of this loss was in the tank walls.
Repeatedexposure to DC related heating may progressivelydamage the transformer winding
insulation, Ieadingto premature transformer failure, so, whereverpossible, it is preferableto select
transformers that give the greatestlevel of immunity to DC current effects.
Some utilities require no validation that three-phase,three-limb transformerswill withstand the
effectsof high DC currents in the neutral, but require that calculationsare performedto demonstrate
that single-phaseand S-limb transformerswill not suffer permanentdamageor gassingwhen a
certain level of DC current is injected into the neutral of the transformer.

Overvoltagesare generallytransitory phenomena.A rough distinction may be made betweenhighly
dampedovervoltagesof relativelyshort duration and undamped,or onlyweakly damped,overvoltages
of relativelylong duration.

6.6.1. AtmosphericOvervoltoges
These are overvoltagesoriginating from atmosphericdischarges,usually as lightning strikes, which
act directly by striking one or more line conductors, or indirectly by striking a point near to the line
such as a pylon or an earth wire. Theseindirect transients are createdeither by induction, or by
reflections from nodes on the system.
Particularly for systems having rated voltage below 52kV attention must also be paid to induced
lightning strikes, and overvoltagestransmitted through transformers from the high voltage
The standardsdefine the overvoltagewaveform to be used to representlightning overvoltages.This
is designatedby its time characteristicsas aL,2/S}ps wave. The first figure representsa rapid rise
time, the secondfigure the time taken to reduceto half of the peak value.
The flashover ofa spark gap or ofan insulator chain has the effect ofreducing the voltage towards
and beyond the earth potential with extreme rapidity and changesthe "full wave" into a "chopped
wave",with a typical the time-to-chop of between 3 and 5 microseconds.

PowerTronsformer - AR EVA
Fundomenfols | 197


Overvoltage wavesfrom atmosphericdischarges, which appearat a point on the system,areeithera single

impulse (asfor the full wave)or a pair of impulsesof oppositedirection (asfor the choppedwave),and
their transmissionobeysthose laws relatingto high frequencytransmissionlines (travelingwaves).
When an impulse travelsalong a line, it is attenuateddue to lossesin that line. If the impedance
along the line is uniformly distributed, then the impulse wave travelswithout amendmentof its
form. It may also be attenuated(andthe rate of changeof voltagewith time reduced)by additional
protectivedevices,such as surge arrestersat the substationor transformer.Thesedevicesshould
be placedas closeas possibleto the equipmentthey aim to protect,becausethe reductionin rate of
changeof voltagewith time for the choppedwaveis of the order of about 0.2 microsecondsand this
Iimits the permissibletime of propagationbetweenthe deviceand the transformerto a valueof less
than 0.1 microsecond.To accomplishthis, closeproximityof the protectivedeviceto the transformer
terminals is essential.They should be no further awaythan 20-30 meters in the caseof overhead
lines,or 10-15 metersfor undergroundcables.

$.6.2. SwitchingOvervoltoges
In addition to the atmosphericphenomena,overvoltagescan be producedby switching operationson
the system, and the actions of switching in and switching out can havevery different effects.

o SwifchingJn
When the supply system has a power rating that is severaltimes the value of the transformer to
be connected,it tends to impose its dominancy,and overvoltagesdue to switching-in are rarely
encountered.However,if the supply systemis of limited power,the switching-in current createsa
disturbanceon the systemand the return to a stableconditiononly occursafter a seriesoftransient
voltageshaveappearedat the transformerterminals.
The maximum overvoltagefactor in this casecan be assumedto be:
1 . 8x 1 . 5, 1 3 = z . z
o Swifching-ouf
Transient overvoltagesare generatedwhen a predominatelyinductive load (such as a transformer or
reactor)is switchedout of circuit, evenif the current that is broken is small, typically lessthan 100 A.
An unloadedtransformeris representedby its magnetizingreactancesuch that:
" 2ttflo

tig.6.60- Switrhing

With referenceto Fig6.6s,at ratedvoltageU and frequencyf, for all practicalpurposes,the no-load
current 1r,is equal to the current through the inductivecomponent1or,sincethe capacitivecomponent
f. is negligible comparedwith 1or.

r98 i Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA
The transformer exhibits a capacitivecharacteristicrepresentedby an equivalentcapacitanceCu,
which resultsfrom the combinationof the seriescapacitance(internalto the windings e.g.between
turns) and the shunt capacitance(betweenwindings and to earth).The connectionbetweenthe circuit
breakerand the winding contributesanothercapacitivecomponent.Thesecapacitivecomponents
only have significant effectsat higher frequencies,
We note alsothat beforethe circuit-breakeris opened,the sourceat voltageU maintainsthe circuit
in a state of forcedoscillation.Betweenthe sourceand the IC componentsthere is an oscillating
exchangeofenergy at a frequenrydoublethat ofthe sourcevoltage.
At the instant the circuit-breakerchopsthe current 1o,the exchangeofenergy is abruptly stopped,and
the residualenergyshowsin the form of an exchangebetweenL and C which risesto an oscillating
voltageUwith a self resonantfrequencyof the circuit off.
The energyexchangesbetweeninductanceand capacitanceare in accordancewith the equation:
2^ 2
from which we can derive:
U: Ie (LIC)
In practice,the energyexchangeis not necessarilyperfectand so a factor K,,,is introduced:this factor
is dependentupon the natureofthe inductance.Thus we have:
U - K*lo (LIC)
whereK- is between0.2 and 0.4 for a transformerand 1.0 for a purereactor.This factoris a functionofthe
hysteresiscurveof the coresteel,andwith the developmentof grain orientedsiliconsteel,the magnitude
of K,, has noticeablyreduced,therebyreducingthe magnitudeof switchingout overvoltages.

o Circuif Breokers for Disconnecfing Reocfors or Trqns{ormers looded by Reocfors

It is not normally necessaryto considerthe choiceof circuit breakerfor disconnectingloaded
transformerssince the magneticcharacteristic,K., of the core alone is sufficient to limit the over
voltage.However,when high voltagereactorshave to be connectedand disconnectedfrequently
from the system,the use of specialcircuit breakerswith an auxiliary contact fitted with a non-linear
resistanceis required,as shown in tiE.6.6h.

Fig.6.6b- 0rcuilBreoker

The switching operation is carried out in two stages;first the principal contact P is opened,followed
by the auxiliary contact A.
Another method of reducing switching overvoltagesis to control the timing of the switching using
synchro relays,that is relayswhich switch each phaseon the ideal portion of the voltagewaveform.
SeeSettion .

o Conyenfio nsl Woveform of Swifching Overvolfoge

Temporaryovervoltagesare in most casestransientsof between200 to 2 000ps duratibn. These
"switching surges"give rise to a voltagedistribution acrossthe winding that is approximatelypro
rata to the turns as in the low-frequenry model but are of significantly greater magnitude than the
peak value ofthe system highest voltage, and the design must take this into account.

e ru n d o m e n t o- lAs R E V A
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m F i 199

In order to check the transformer's capability for these conditions, switching impulse tests are
performedaccordingto Volume ?,Sertion
of this book.

6.6.3. Ferroresononce
Ferroresonanceis a complo<electricalphenomenonthat is oscillatoryby nature. In responseto a particular
voltagetransient, the systemundergoesa suddennonlinear changefrom its normal steadystate condition
to a prolonged state of severeharmonic distortion and high ovewoltage.This can severelydamagepower
systemequipment.Examplesofsuch transientsinclude:phase-to-groundfaults,circuit breakeropening,
equipmentenergizationor de-energization,lightning inducedovervoltages, etc.
o Resononce in o Series lC Circuif
we must first understandthe basicsofresonance.

Fig. - Diogrom
6,6c K (inuil

WhenanACsupplyhavinga frequenryofJ is appliedto a LC circuitasshownin Fiu.

conditionwill occurif:
CIL: [[qn$"t5iu
Towards the resonantfrequency,the impedancebetweenterminals a and b becomesvery small
resulting in a high current i even if the appliedvoltagee is small.
At rated frequenry,this current generatesinstantaneousvoltagesacrossZ and C that are ofequal
magnitudebut in directphaseopposition.

6g=J-=E [tqn6.6b]
E is large comparedwith e, resulting in a severeovervoltagethe magnitude of which is limited only
by the lossesin the circuit.
This phenomenonwill be initiated if the fundamentalfrequencyof the systemor one of the harmonics
of the fundamental frequenry coincideswith the fundamental frequenry of the circuit/.
JC_ $ elrl

o Series Ferroresononce
Although both parallel and seriesferroresonancemodes exist, the former is mainly applicableto
voltagetransformers and is not discussedhere. Seriesferroresonancehowever can be dangerousto
powertransformersand is similar to seriesZC circuit resonancedescribedin Resononre
ino Serias
l{ [ir{uil
(above)but differs in that the inductancevaries as the core goesinto saturation.
In a circuit having capacitanceC and inductanceL, dependenton both voltage and frequenry.

€=Zouxi=( tr-=.) .t {"r- r r iT

ca) I hqtrr].h{$"j
The phenomenon can start at the nominal frequency or at a harmonic or sub harmonic of the
fundamental frequenry, but sometimes it changesfrom one frequenry and fixes on another.

20a I PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

o Condifion s Likely fo Couse Ferroresononce
Ferroresonancemay occur when:
+ The transformer is unloaded. (Evenan active load of L0% of the rated value can prevent this
phenomenonby absorbing the energy).
-+ A large capacitance(line or cable)connectedto at least one transformer terminal, whilst the
others remain at the system potential.
+ An unbalancedsituation is createdby a single-phasetrip, a breakin a conductoror the blowing
of one or two fuses.
Countermeasuresto avoid these include:
+ Reductionof the Iength of line betweenthe transformer terminals and the section circuit
breakeror fuses.
+ Avoidanceof non-simultaneous switching betweenthe poles of the switch.
.+ Earthing of the neutral point directly or through a resistor (limiting the single-phasefault

6.6.4. Limitotionof Overvoltoges

Overvoltages,becauseoftheir high amplitudesand frequencies,can causebreakdowneither between
turns or from coil to earth, resulting in extensivedamageto the transformer. Mitigation principally
relies on the specificationof a demonstrablewithstand level for the transformer and the proper
installation of suitable external devices,fitted close to the terminals. to ensure that these levels are
not exceededin service.
There are two types ofprotection devicein use: surge diverters and spark gaps7.
The surge arrestersnow used incorporateZinc Oxide non-linear resistorsand havethe following
-+ Fastresponsetime.
-' High transient current handling capacity.
-' High resistanceat normal operatingvoltage.
+ Consistentperformance.
+ Limit the follow through current in addition to restriction of the overvoltage.
Spark gaps, typically fitted to bushings, can be used to prevent voltage surges from damaging
equipment and have the following characteristics:
.+ they do not restrict or interrupt the resultant flashovercurrent.
'+ their breakdownresults in a single-line-groundfault (simultaneousbreakdownof several
gaps may result in a phase-to-phase-groundfault) and is only clearedby the operation ofthe
circuit breaker.
'+ inconsistent performance(flashovervoltage is influenced by external conditions).

The flux density in the transformer core is related to the cross-sectionof the core and the number of
turns in the winding by the formula:
1- Jznney [tqn6 /o]
A is the crosssectionalareaof the core Im']
B is the maximum value of flux density trl
f is the frequenry, lHzl
N is the number of turns of the winding
E is the winding e.m.f. tvl
Thus, the magnetic flux is directly proportional to the voltage and inverselyproportionalto
Transformers are often required to operatewith a peak flux density higher than that at rated tapping
voltage and frequenry. For example, a transformer which has tappings on the primary winding may

7 ' ReferalsotoSeclion

- A R E VA
PowerTronsformer | 201

be requiredto feedan increasingload through the secondary.As the load on the secondaryincreases,
the secondaryvoltagechangesdue to the impedancein the systemand particularlyin the transformer.
Statutory limitations generallyrequire that the system voltage is maintained at an acceptablelevel.
This may be achievedby changing the turns ratio between primary and secondaryusing the OLTC.
If the primary systemvoltageis consideredto remain constant whilst the turns are reduced,the
equation [Eqn6.70]demonstratesthat the flux density in the transformer core will exceedits value at
the ratedno-loadconditions.
Standardsdefine the specificconditions under which transformers should be capableofcontinuous
operation. Thesemay include operation at particular throughput MVA and load power factor and/or
at higher than rated voltageor lower than rated frequenry (sometimescombined as "increasedVolts-
per-Hertz"). Further explanationmay be found in Settion The term "over-fluxing" thereforerefers
to a condition under which the flux density is greater than its value at rated voltage and frequency.
IEC requires that the transformer is suitable for continuous servicewithout damagewhere the ratio
ofvoltage over frequencyexceedsthe correspondingratio at rated voltage and rated frequenry by no
more than 5% (L0% under no-loadconditions).
Extremevoltagefluctuation and frequenry variation conditions can produce flux levelsthat saturate
the transformer core.Modern core materialshavea saturationflux density of about 2 Tesla.However,
it is common for transformersto havelower valuesof flux density at rated conditionsthan would
be necessaryto meet the "overfluxing" requirements alone in order to achievelower loss or no-load
lt follows that a transformer can operatewith a degreeof overvoltagewithout exceedingthe normal
flux densityprovidedthat there is a correspondingincreasein frequenry and hencewith minimal
changeto the core temperature rises.
Operating at a higher than rated voltage and lower than rated frequencycould result in an increase
in the temperatureof both the core and adjacentsteelwork(includingthe tank). For this reasona
combination of overvoltageand under frequencymust not be permitted to continue for a prolonged
n""Y,ft;n#;#Hil?:". arise
for thefolowingreasons:
+ Lowsystemfrequenry
+ Generatorexcitation at low speeddue to AVR malfunction

r sii}l.i{fiifu**1^g:*:tx'J,"n
rejectionby the generatorto which it is directly connectedand thus must havean inbuilt short
time over-fluxing capacity.Typically, this might be 25% abovenormaLY/f for a period of up
to 1 minute and 4096abovenormalY /f for a period of 5 seconds.)
Persistent over-fluxing will causethermal damageor degradation as a result of eddy currents that
may be induced in the fabricatedmetallic componentssupporting or adjacentto the magneticcircuit.
Damageto core insulation and local oil degradationand gassingmay also occur.The magnetizing
current, noise and vibration are likely to increasesignificantly.
At a certaincombinationof leadingpowerfactor and load,the regulationof a transformer(seeSeclion 2.5.2)
becomesnegative,such that the voltage at the secondaryterminals is higher than at no-load. If the
secondarywinding is nearerto the corethan the primarywinding, the flux densityin the main corelimb
will be greaterthan at ratedvoltageand frequency.If the primary winding is nearerto the core,then the
flux density in the return yoke can be higher. This is an important and necessaryconsiderationwhen
capacitiveloads are involved,including those resulting from operationof phase-shiftingtransformers
and quadratureboostersin the retard tap position.

6.8.1. CoolerControl
To ensurethat the winding hotspot temperatureis within the permissibletemperaturerangeand that
the loading duration is consistent with an acceptablelevel of aging of the transformer, devicesare
used that control cooling, provide alarm signals demanding operator intervention, and provide trip
signalsgiving automatic fail-safetripping. The temperaturesare monitored locally,remotely or both.
These devicesare used to initiate,/terminate the automatic operation of pumps and fans.

202 I Power
Tronsformer - AR EVA
The highestcooling mode is initiated at 10-15K below the normal operatingtemperaturein order
to allow for a lag in the temperature responseof the cooling equipment. When lower rating, forced-
cooling stagesare available,these may be initiated at 10-15K below the next highest stage.The offset
betweeninitiation and termination of a cooling stageis often 20-25K to prevent lhunting".

6.8.2. TopChongerControl
o On-lood lop-ChongerOperofion
The tap-changer is driven by an electric motor and this can be locally controlled by means of raise
and lower push buttons or switches.A local mechanicalposition indicator is provided to inform the
operatorof the position and direction of movement.Additional facilities are providedto allow the
tap-changerto be controlled and monitored remotely.A selectorswitch is usually provided to ensure
the tap-changercannot be operatedfrom both the remote and local point at the same time.
The mechanism may also be operatedby cranking a handle instead of the motor and electrical
and sometimesmechanicalinterlocks are providedto ensurethe tap-changercannot be operated
electricallyif the handle is inserted.
Automatic VoltageRegulationis the most common method of controlling on-load tap-changers.Left
uncontrolled,the secondaryvoltageof a transformerwill vary in servicedue to fluctuations in primary
voltage and changesin load (magnitude and./orpower factor). The latter results in a voltage drop in
the transformer due to its internal impedance.To control the secondaryvoltage,it is first necessaryto
measureits value. This is done by connectinga voltagetransformer acrossthe secondaryterminals,
which convertsthe high voltage (e.g.33 kV) to a level that can be safelyhandled by instrumentation
(typically 11-0V). This low voltage signal is fed into a deviceknown as a voltage regulating relay. In
its simplest configuration, the measuredvoltage is comparedwith a referencelevel that represents
the desiredoperating point ofthe secondaryvoltage. Ifthe voltage differs from this set point by
more than a certain difference(known as the deadbands)for a predeterminedtime (initial delay),the
relay sends a signal to the tap-changerto adjust the ratio in the appropriatedirection. The relay will
continue to send further signals at usually shorter intervals (intertap delay),until the voltage is once
again inside the deadband.
Most voltageregulating relaysoffer other more sophisticatedcontrol algorithms to allow the control
of multiple parallel transformers. A common extension to the simple scheme describedabove
is the introduction of line drop compensation.This can be used to control the voltage,not at the
transformer terminals, but at the end of a length of transmission line. In addition to the voltage
drop in the transformer there will also be a voltage drop in the transmission line which will again
depend on the magnitude and power factor of the load. The voltage regulating relay has a model of
the transmission line parameters,so that by measuring the current via a current transformer in the
transformer secondary it can calculatethe voltagedrop in the line and subtract this vectorially from
the transformer secondaryvoltage measuredby the VI as above.It is this calculatedvoltage that is
now comparedto the referencelevel and controlled in the same manner outlined previously.In this
way the voltage at the receivingend of the line is kept close to its desired level.

o D e-Energized lop-Chongers
The vast majority of de-energizedtap-changersare manually operatedby meansof a hand wheel, but
motor driven versionsare also in use. In the latter case,it is vitally important that electricalinterlocks
are installed to prevent the operation ofthe switch wheneverthe supply circuit breaker(s)are closed.
In the manual case,it is normal to fit a padlockto preventinadvertentoperationbut electricallydriven
mechanicalinterlocks can also be provided.

Correct maintenanceis necessaryto eliminate un-scheduledequipment downtime and increasethe
reliability of equipment and operation.A comprehensivemaintenanceprogram and maintenance
actions should be createdto detect potential problems in their early stagesand allow any necessary

8 - Notethnttoosmalla deadbandvalueontheVoltage
prematurewearof contacts

PowerTronsformer - A R E VA
Fundsmentols | 203
6 i wHATrssuEsAFFEcT

correctivemeasuresto be taken immediately.The maintenanceprogram and actions should review

the availability of spare parts and equipment, as well as take into accountthe delivery lead-times of
critical componentsthat may not be held as spares.Equipment maintenanceand testing should be
performed only by authorized personnel and be in accordancewith the manufacturer's instructions
and health and safetyregulations.

6.9.1. MointenqnceTypes
tn"S typesof maintenance
'+ Protectiveand corrective
+ Conditionbased.

o Periodic Moinfenonce
Particularmaintenanceoperationsare carriedout at regular intervalsin accordancewith the
manufacturer's instructions for the particular equipment. These intervals may have to be reviewed
in considerationof environmentalconditions,operationalduties, the strategicimportanceof the
equipmentand relatedlocal regulations.

o Profecliye ond Correcfive Moinfenonce

Protectiveand correctivemaintenanceis aimed at preventingthe malfunction of the transformer
components.Restorationof damagedpaintwork, changinggaskets,replacingfaulty componentsand
oil-leakagecorrection are typical protective and correctivemaintenancemeasures.

o Condifion-Bssed Moinfenonce
With the developmentof condition monitors and sensorsand computer-aidedcontrol systems,
condition-basedmaintenancehas become a very important factor in maintaining or extending
transformer life. The monitored performanceparametersprovideuserswith appropriateand accurate
information regardingthe status of the transformer. With this opportunity, they can determine at an
earlierstagethan everbefore,an incipient failure ofthe transformerand considerthe precautions
and correctiveactions necessaryto managethe potential loss of equipment.
The monitoring equipment may provide real time information on transformer oil and winding
temperature,local hot spot temperatures,oil levels,dissolvedgas levels in the oil, tap-changer
parameters,bushingparameters,network information,erc.

6.9.2. TypicolMointenonceOperotions
The type of recommendedroutine maintenanceis generallyprovided in the manufacturer's
instructions. Maintenancerequirementsfor some key componentsare also listed in related
internationalstandards.Maintenanceshould follow a structuredplan that includesmethod statements
and check-liststhat not only verify completion but also capture the maintenancehistory of the
transformer and its components.Typical maintenanceoperationsare listed below.

o Generol Moinfenonce
A systematicinspectionis conductedof the transformer and associatedequipmentand any corrosion,
wear or mechanicaldamageis restoredto an acceptablelevel.
All seismic restraints and holding-down bolts are checkedfor security.
Any oil leaks are identified and repaired;replacinggasketsor O-ring sealsifrequired.

o Exfernol Eleclricol Connecfions ond lerminofions

AII terminations conductors and clamps are checkedto be secureand free from damage (e.g.from
arcing, overheating,etc). The causeof any damagemust be investigatedas it could be indicative of
other potentialproblems.

o Oil Sysfem
The oil levelsofthe main tank, on-load tap-changer,bushingsand cable-boxesare checkedto be
within acceptablelimits (taking account of the oil temperature).

204 | PowerTronsformer - AR EVA

The oil expansion/preservationsystemis checkedfor correctoperationincluding dehydratingdevices
where fitted.

o Indicofors ond Confrol, Alorm ond Proleclion Reloys

The values indicated (e.g. maximum and minimum temperatures)at the time of the inspection are
All gaugesand indicators are confirmed to be clearly legible and operating correctly and all control
and auxiliary switches are in the appropriateservicepositions and operating correctly.

o On-lood TopChongers
To statistically determine the operation frequency and functioning position, the tapping position
number and the operations counter reading should be recorded.
The oil in the tap-changerswitching compartment needsto be monitored on a regular basis, as
recommendedby the tap-changer manufacturer, and checkedprincipally for electrical breakdown
strength.When the strength of the oil has dropped toward the minimum specifiedvalue, the oil
must be replaced.The tap-changermanufacturerwill specifiithe maximum amount ofwear allowed
beforethese haveto be replaced.To ensurethese limits are not exceeded,tap-changershave usually
been inspectedat regular intervals (e.g.a maximum of 3 or 5 years)or following a particular number
of operations (typically 50 000-l-00 000). If the transformer is equippedwith a suitable monitoring
system then the maintenanceintervals can be optimizedfor both the number of operations and the
switched current for each operation.
Where vacuum interrupter switches are fitted, no arcing takes place within the oil filled diverter
compartment and so the oil quality is not affected.The oil should still be monitored for moisture and
breakdownstrength at the same intervals as the main transformer.The vacuum switchesthemselves
havevery long lifetimes and some manufacturersare now offering up to 300 000 operationsbetween
major inspections.

o DeEnergizedlop-Chonger
To prevent possible pyrolitic carbon build up on the contacts,it is recommendedto periodically
operate the switch through its full range of movement. This can be done during any convenient
outage, perhaps every 5 years or so. After operating the switch, it is recommendedto carry out
a full set of ratio and winding resistance measurements to ensure the switch is still functioning
As a cautionarynote, we stressthat the de-energizedtap-changermust, on no account,be operated
until the transformer has been switchedout, and preferablyhavehad its terminals earthed.Only then
must the handle be unlocked.
Once these safety aspectshave been covered,the de-energizedtap-changershould be operated
through the completerange,confirmed to be operatingwithout undue resistanceand then re-locked
in the appropriatetapping position.

o Bushings
Oil levelsof the bushings should be checkedand the bushing topped up if necessary.
All surfacesofthe bushing should be cleaned.
Flangesecuring arrangementsshould be checkedfor tightness.

o Cooling Sysfem
Cooling fans, oil and water pumps must operatewithout excessivenoise or vibration.
Most oil pump bearingsrequire no additional lubrication, and many fan motor bearings are sealed-
for-life. Neverthelessfree operation without restriction should be confirmed.
All componentsmust be checkedfor securefastenings.Fan hubs and bladesshould also be checked
for abnormalities and fan guards cleaned.
The oil and the water input and output temperaturesof a water cooling system should be recorded
and reviewedfor anomalies.Non-load-dependentchangesin the differencebetweeninlet and outlet
water temperaturesat successivemaintenancesmay be indicativeof a blockagein the water line, e.g.
an incorrectly set valve. The water-cooled heat exchangermust be free of obstructions and internal
corrosion with water flowing freely and the pressures confirmed to be within specified limits. The

PowerTrqnsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentqls | 205
6 *HAT rssuEsAFFEcT

oil pressureshould be confirmedas beinghigherthan the water pressure,unlessthe water,/oilheat

exchangeris known to be ofthe doubletube construction.
The valve open/closed positions should be checkedfor conformancewith the operating mode,
especiallyif they have been moved during the maintenanceoperation.

o lnsulofing Oil
Mineral oil is usedin the majority of transformersand similar equipmentas both an insulatingand
a cooling medium. It is thereforevery important that the quality of the oil is regularlymonitored.
Samplesof oil are taken from the transformer and tests made to checkthe important properties
(usually at a convenientlaboratory).The main characteristicsthat are checkedinclude dielectric
strength,water content and dissolvedgas content,the latter being an important diagnostictool to
checkfor internal faults in the transformer.
Acceptablevalues for dielectric strength and water content will be found in the manufacturer's
maintenancemanual,but in the absenceof such data,the IEC 60422 or IEEEC57.1-06documents
can be used for acceptancecriteria. Ifthe oil is found to be unacceptablewith respectto these criteria,
then it should be either processedor replaced.
Samplingcan usuallybe carriedout without an outage.It is usefulto take and test a sampleprior to
any maintenanceoutagesin casethe oil requirestreatmentor replacement.This would allow such
operationsto be scheduledduring the plannedmaintenanceoutage.

6 .I0 . E N DOF tIF E

Overthe years,there has beenmuch debateconcerningthe definition of"End oflife" as appliedto
a transformer. Strictly speaking,it is when the transformer fails and is no longer able to perform its
duty, requiring it to be removedfrom serviceand scrapped.
Failure mechanismsin transformers include excessivemoisture and oxygenin the insulating oil and
paper,material creepage,fatigue, corrosion, erosion, mechanicalwear, and thermal degradationand
dielectricbreakdown.However,the prime causeof absolutefailure and final withdrawal from service
is generallyrecognizedto be initiated by dielectric breakdown.
Removalof a transformer from serviceafter a sudden failure is not only expensive,but causes
widespreaddisruption to both the user and his clients. Prediction of imminent failure may not save
the cost of a new transformer, but will have very substantial benefits in minimizing the disruption
as well as the associatedcosts that go with it. There are a number of methods which will allow the
remaining life oftransformers in serviceto be estimated.With this information, suitable contingency
measuressuch as enhancedmaintenance,reconditioningand life extension,the holding of spares
and replacementcan be planned in a logical and timely manner.

6.lO.l. Endof Insulqtionlife

A transformer relies on its insulation structure to maintain the isolation of one part of a transformer
from another.This insulation has to remain intact for the whole lifetime of the transformer.otherwise
the consequences are internal short-circuitsthat would lead to massiveunsustainableforcesand
subsequentmechanicalcollapse,power arcing and the possibility of a fire.
Insulation aging is coveredin more detail in Volume /.2,but the effect on cellulose is that as it
degrades,it becomesmore and more brittle, eventuallyreachinga stagesuchthat any mechanicalshock
may causeit to be dislodgedfrom the electrodethat it was insulating and thereby allowing electrical
failureto occur.Furthermore,many regionsofsolid insulationareunder mechanicalaswell as dielectric
stress, and therefore any weaknesswould probably result in movement of conductors or electrodes
leadingto either short circuit failure and/or dielectricfailure due to dielectricclearancereduction.
Different sourceshave suggestedinsulation "life-times" ranging betweensevenyears and 40 years,
dependenton many different assumptions,including referencetemperatureand the definition of
"end of insulation life" itself.
It is acceptedthat the degreeof polymerization (DP) gives a reasonableindication of the insulation
condition. However,direct measurementof DP of cellulosic insulation in the location of the winding
hot spot is impracticaland other, less intrusive,methodsof determiningend of life havebeenthe
subject ofmany investigations.Severalalternative diagnostic techniques have been suggested,
including oil sampling for dissolvedgasesand for furanic compounds.

206 I PowerTronsformer - A R EVA

A slightly different approach involves the creation of a formula based on load and temperature to
calculate"loss-of-life" relativeto "normal expectedlife". Aging or deteriorationof insulation is a
time function of temperature, moisture content, and o:rygencontent. With modern oil preservation
systems,the moisture and oxygencontributions to insulation deteriorationcan be minimized, leaving
insulation temperature as the controlling parameter.
From knowledgeof insulation degradationbehavior,the effectof heat on the useful life of a cellulose
insulation material can be estimated on a per unit basis without regard to end-of-life criteria or to
the actual condition of the insulation. Cumulative use-of-life can then be calculatedfor the varying
load conditions actually experiencedby the transformer taking as a basethe life that would have
been expendedin the same period at constant temperature giving unity rate of aging Equations are
availablethat allow an approximateestimate of the loss-of-life relativeto "normal" expectedlife
for known operating conditions to be calculated.This approachand such equations can be found in
the IEC 60076-7 and the IEEEC57.91 LoadingGuides,and mention is also made of this aspectin
Sedion6.1.This methodologycan be used to assesshow much of the transformer's theoretical life has
been used, so that the possibility oflife extension can be considered.

6.10.2. LifeExtension
The transformer owner's need to satisff increaseddemand for electricity often requires greater
utilization ofexisting plant. The need for increasedload and confidencein the availability ofplant
drives the operating and maintenanceprinciples applied to the transformer.
An assessmentneedsto be carried out for all equipment including transformers. Evaluationof large
liquid-filled transformersis not a trivial exercise.There is a needto be ableto assesshow much longer
a transformer can be expectedto operateon the system,as well as what changesto its operation can
be expectedin the future. Once this assessmenthas been carried out, considerationcan be given to
the need for transformer life extension measures.
Transformer owners often employ an asset management strategy.This is a life-cycle management
program that sets loading priorities and providesstrategicdirection for all ofthe transformer assets.
For the owner that has many transformers, it is usually not economically feasible to subject every
aging transformer to a rigorous inspection and extensivetesting. Thus, this approach is typically a
a) priority screeningof the owner's transformer population,
b) diagnostictesting,
c) condition assessmentof individual transformers.
In order to identify and prioritize a long list of aging transformers, a screeningprocessis often
used. The screening could be as simple as ranking the transformers by age. However, a more
comprehensivescreeningcan be accomplishedwith a risk assessmentmethod. There are many
different risk assessmentmethods and strategiesavailableto the owners of a large number of power
transformers.One such method is a simple procedurecalled "fault tree analysis".This can help
identify the transformers that need additional condition assessment,additional testing, and/or
other remedial actions for the purpose ofbringing the entire population up to an acceptablerisk
level.Sucha procedureis describedin the IEEEdocument,CS7.L4O,"Guidefor the Evaluationand
Reconditioningof Liquid Immersed Power Transformers".
Someconsiderationsthat should be addressedinclude:whether the transformerwill meet future
Ioad projections,if there is a needto changethe impedanceto limit the current fault duty or improve
regulation and whether the quality of the transformer's pedigreeimpacts on system reliability?
A risk-basedscreeningprocessusesstatistical methods to identiff and prioritize those transformers
that represent the highest risk for the owner but this does not identify the actual condition or the
vulnerability of any individual transformer. Oncethe screeningprocesshas establisheda priority list,
the next two steps in the process,"diagnostic testing" and "condition assessmentand evaluation",
should be used to help the owner to establisha detailed assetmanagementstrategy.There are many
modern diagnostictests and inspectiontechniquesthat are conductedon electricalequipmentin
the field. Such tests and techniquesinclude dissolvedgas analysis,oil quality assessment,furan
analysis,power factor measurement,frequenryresponseanalysis,partial dischargedetection,infrared
inspection and vibration/noise assessment.

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentols | 207
6i wuATrssuEsAFFEcT

These activitiesmay help identify existingweaknessesor faults and also give some indication of
expectedservicereliability and remaining life. No singleelectricaltest can assurecontinued operation
and the results of severalassessmentsmight haveto be used to diagnosea problem. Only the careful
recordingand plotting of the test results makesit possibleto get the full information out of a test and,
more importantly,to comparethe valueswith those of previouslyconductedtests.The manufacturer's
acceptancecriteria should be consulted, becauseit may take precedenceover standard acceptance
After completion of the risk assessment,the owner may be able to reduce those transformers that
are candidatesfor condition assessmentto a more manageablenumber.
Condition assessmentincludesboth non-intrusive and intrusive evaluations.Obviouslythe intrusive
is the most costly,the most time consumingand involvesthe highest risk procedure.An internal
evaluation may also be rislcy,dependingon the age and condition of a transformer, so the decision
to perform this assessmentmust not be taken too lightly. These inspections require great care and
knowledge of transformer construction. Information concerning such evaluations can be found in
the aforementionedIEEEGuide,C57.140.
In order for a transformer to continue in reliable servicefor an extendedperiod, everyeffort should
be made (economicallyand operationally)either to regain the relevantoriginal performance
characteristics,or to modify the loading, and/or its application duty as appropriate.It is technically
feasible to restore many of the factors (such as oil quality) which directly affect the long term
Although the condition assessmentis consideredto be an inspection,there are some components
that may be consideredfor upgrading or replacementat this time. Refurbishment or replacementof
these components might arguably be consideredas a comprehensivemaintenanceexercise,which
may not contribute directly to the life extension of a transformer, nevertheless,new or refurbished
componentscan increaseversatility and reliability, and should be consideredat this time sincethere
is an opportunity to do so while the transformer is out of service.
It is acknowledgedthat the list of variables and the individual owner's circumstancesthat govern
the technical and financial decision-making are such that it is impossible to establish an industry-
wide set of rules or standards for managing the life rycle of aging transformers. However,with the
knowledgeof the history design and usageof a transformer,it is possibleto estimate a probable
end of useful life and put in place a suitable program of maintenance,life extension, spare capacity
and eventual planned replacementwhich meets the needsof both the transformer owners and
their customers.

6.10.3. Recycling
o Experience
ond leorning
A pilot operation carried out by the ELEN association(ElectricitdEnvironnement),on the
decommissioning,dismantling and scrappingof electricalequipmentinstallationspreviouslysupplied
by HV and MV equipment suppliers, Ied to the following main findings:
The various stagesof elimination of an installation (discontinuation of the industrial process,
demolition of buildings or site preparation for other use, etc.) now too rarely lead to particular
specificationsand budgetsfor this elimination.
It is the discontinuation of an industrial processor building demolition that frequently determines
the end of life of an electricalinstallation and not necessarilvthe lifetime of the ProfessionalElectrical
Electronic Equipment (PEEE)that make it up.
During its long period of operation,the original make-up of an installation is often modified as a result
of ongoing maintenance and has had modules or components changed or added to meet updated
Particularly relevant to transformers becauseof their longevity, is that the original equipment

manufacturer may have ceasedtrading or been absorbedinto larger organizations.

l{ n:TT*''
208 | PowerTronsformer - AR EVA
+ lack oftransformer componentinformation due to archivedisappearanceand original suppliers
going out ofbusiness.

o Dismonfling Sfeps
The main steps of dismantling a transformer at end of life are:
+ Electricaldisconnection,comprising:
- Electricalsafetymeasures;
- Energyand control-command disconnection.
.+ Removal,comprising:
- Physicalde-installation;
- Handling.
+ Lifting, comprising:
- Handling;
- Packaging;
- Transportation.
-' Regrouping,comprising:
- Sorting;
- Transit before breakdown ofPEEE at end oflife to recyclingspecialists.
+ Recycling,comprising:
- Sorting;
- Extraction of any dangeroussubstances;
- Material recycling;
- Rerycling by full or partial reuse;
- Reduction ofnoxiousness or dangeroussubstances.

6.10.4. TrqnsformerComponents
+ Steel- both structural and core
+ Oil
+ Copper
+ Pressboard
't Paper
.+ Wood
.+ Aluminum
+ Porcelain
+ Other metals
+ Stainlesssteel
+ Plastics
+ Paint
Small amounts of other materials can also be found in transformer components:
.+ Rubber
.+ Cork/rubber
+ Silica gel or other desiccant
All these materials appearin variable quantities accordingto the size and type of transformer.
If the transformer is old, it may comprise substancesthat, since manufacture have been prohibited,
such as PCBs.

o DismonflingProcess
When a transformer is dismantled, certain componentsmay be recoveredto be used as spare parts
for other units.
The disassembly of a transformer will, generally, follow the reverse path of its construction and
Drainageof the liquid (mineral oil or other fluid) contained in the transformer and used for cooling
and insulation. PCBsmay be eliminated by combustion in specializedplants. Oils are recycled.

PowerTronsformer | 209
6 i wuATrssuEsAFFEcT

Disassemblyof the various external accessoriesand components as given in the following list:

Current transformer Company nameplate Bushing

Surge arrester Rating plate Radiator
Motor pump Hydraulic diagram plate Air blast cooler
Flange valve Handling plate Water cooler
Butterfly valve Renovation plate (post retrofit) Fan
Conservatorbag Gasket (rubber, nebar) Auxiliary control cabinet
Fasteners(chrome plated steel or
Buchholz relay On load tap-changer
Air dryer Flexible hose De-ener grzedtap-changer
Self-adhesivelabels (for phase, On load tap-changercontrol
Non-return valve
lifting, jacking pad, etc. . .) cabinet
Nitrogen device for
Pressurerelief valve Auxiliary wiring
Magnetic oil level indicator Oil plug Collar for wiring
Prismatic oil level Air plug Cable tray for wiring
Wheel Total draining device Sheathfor wiring
Security equipment for fall
Wheel blocking Impact recorder
Antivibration pad Ladder Impact indicator
Winding temperatureindicator Transducer Turrets
Thermometer Oil sampling device Pipes
Thermostat Oil filter Oil expansiontank
Temperature probe Suddenpressurerelay Gas monitor (Hydran)
Oil flow indicator Protection relay for punctured Terminal box for current
rubber bag transformer

Water flow indicator Fire detector

Toble - listof(omponents
6.10s forDismoniling
Not all possible external accessoriesand componentsare necessarilymounted on the same
transformer unit. For example, it would be unusual - but not unheard of - for a transformer to be
fitted with both radiators and water coolers.
In addition to the common accessories,there may be certainvery specificitems that must be salvaged
for the use of the customer, for example,accessorieswhich are no longer in production and scarce.
Accessoriesmade from steel or including a steel part can be rerycled.
Many accessoriesare attachedby common steel or stainlesssteel fasteners(bolts, screws,nuts, and
washers)and can thus be rerycled.This is valid for all nuts and bolts both outside and inside the unit
(e.g.screwsfor fixing connections).
Bushingsusually comprisea conductivepart (copperor aluminum), insulating parts (porcelain,paper,
resin) and hardware (flanges,expansiontank, fasteners).
Copper and aluminum will be recoveredfor rerycling after the bushings have been dismantled and,
provided its composition is preciselyknown, the porcelain may be crushed and recoveredfor use in
the manufacture of new porcelain.
A number of accessoriesare linked to one or more enclosuresbywiring. This wiring usually comprises
copper cablesprotected by an insulating sheath. New technologiesbeing developedwill enable the
insulating sheath and the copper to be recovered.At the moment, only the copper is recoverable.

2'|0 | PowerTronsformerFundomentols-AREVA
A number of accessories are mountedwith gasketsfor making tight joints (e.g.piping connections).
Thesegasketsare made from rubber or a cork/rubber compound and can be recovered.
Conservatorscan also contain a rubber bag or diaphragm that preventsthe oil from making contact
with the air and protecting the oil from oxidation and moisture. This too is recoverable.
The transformer tank is made from fabrication grade steel, although some parts may be of stainless
steel. This material is readily reryclable.
The inside of a transformer comprises the active part which includes the magnetic circuit, the
supporting framework for the magnetic circuit, the windings, and winding supports together with
connectionsand their supportstructures.The disassemblyofthe activepart proceedsin the reverse
order of assembly,i.e. unblockingfrom the tank.
+ The blocking can be configured in different ways accordingto the type of assembly:
.+ The activepart may sit inside a deeptank with a shallow cover.
+ The activepart may be suspendedfrom a shallow cover and hang inside the deeptank.
+ The activepart may be fixed in a trough baseand a deep cover is placed over it.
Although the construction doesn't significantly impact on the overall quantities of the materials, it
can affect the mass that has to be handled at the different stagesof disassembly.
The componentsof the activepart are:
.+ Steel - core and fabrication steel
'+ Copper
'+ Pressboard
-+ Laminated densifiedwood
+ Steelfasteners.
All steel parts are disassembledor cut up and are readily recoverable.
The magneticcircuit supportingframeworkis mainly comprisedof steeland non-recyclableinsulation.
The magneticcircuit or core itself constitutes the principal mass of the transformer. It comprisesan
assemblyof magneticplates,usuallywith thicknessvaryingfrom 0.23 to 0.35 mm, which are stacked
together.It could be disassembledplate by plate but it is normally hauled in blocks or is cut up in the
course of the dismantling process.The core can be rerycled in virtually its entirety
The copper,after disassemblyof the windings, by unwinding or cutting of the various layersand
dismantling of the major insulation,can be rerycled.The paperor enamelinsulation on the conductors
is burned offin the recoveryprocessofthe copper.
Other copper parts such as busbars and cablesare treated in the same way.
However,the insulation materials are soakedwith the cooling fluid, which is usually mineral oil. The
cost of the energyneededto extract this fluid is much greaterthan the rerycledvalue of the materials
and hencethey are destroyedby incineration. In the eventthat the filling liquid is PCB,the insulation
materials must be incinerated by waste managementspecialists.

o Recyclobilify
It is very difficult to give an accurateassessmentof the percentageof recyclablematerials in a unit
for variousreasons(seeSedion 6.10.3).
The larger the transformer, the larger the proportion of steel and copper.We can make only a general
estimateof about 5O%-7O%recyclabilityfor older transformersor 80% for more modern large units.
These figures, of course are only estimates and can vary widely even for identical transformers, for
exampleone dismantledfor reasonsofobsolescenceand the other scrappedbecauseoffire.

6.10.5. Regulotions
Many standards,international or national, on the subjectof the environmentorwaste disposalappear
everyyear. Some key standardsin these areasare indicated below:

o Infernofionol Regulofions
ISOGUIDE54: Guidefor the Inclusionof EnvironmentalAspectsin ProductStandards.
I S O 1 4 0 0 1 , L 4 0 0 4 , 1 4 0 1 - 5 ,] . 4 0 3 L , 1 . 4 0 3 2 , 1 40 5 0 , L 4 0 6 2 , 1 . 4 0 6 3 , 1 9 0 1 1 : E n v i r o n m e n t a l
Management- Generalities,Guidelines,Evaluation...
ISO 14020, L402L, L4024,1-4025: Environmental Labelsand Declarations.

P o w e r T r o n s f o r m e rF u n d o m e n t o l s- A R E V A | 211

ISO,14040, 1'4044,1.4047,L4048, L4049: EnvironmentalManagement- Life CycleAssessment.

IEC GUIDE 109: EnvironmentalAspects- Inclusionin Electrotechnical
IEC GUIDE113: MaterialsDeclarationsQuestionnaires- BasicGuidelines.
IEC GUIDE 114: EnvironmentallyConsciousDesign- IntegratingEnvironmentalAspectsinto Design
and Developmentof Electrotechnical
o Europeon Regulofions
Europeandirectives2002/96/EC "Waste Electricaland ElectronicEquipment"(WEEE)and2O02/96/
EC "Restrictionof useof certainHazardousSubstances in electricaland electronicequipment"(RoHS)
were adoptedon27 January2003.
While the scopeof WEEE is currently limited to units not exceeding1000 volts in alternatingcurrent
and 1500 volts in directcurrent,after someyearsit is widely predictedthat it will be extendedto all
electricalunits without Iimitation.
Giventhat the lifetime of a transformercan be 30 to 40 yearsand sometimeseven50 yearsor more,
it would seemprudent to plan now for the dismantling of transformers at their end of life, as this will
be the responsibilityof the manufacturerunder the future standardization.
"f,.10.6.Reuseof Oil
As well as solvents,paintingsand acids,industrialoils are includedin the categoryof specialwaste.
After a refining, their rerycling makesit possible,for example,to manufacturemotor oil. The solvents
are regeneratedthanks to chemicalprocessesof distillation, liquid extraction,filtration or absorption.
After draining of liquid (oil or other fluid) contained in the transformer, there are two possible
PCBsare eliminatedby combustionin specialistfactorres.
Mineral oils are rerycled. Used Insulating oils are easilyrerycledand can be reformulatedto produce,
for example,releaseoils for use in concretepre-casting,dismantlingcorrodedcomponents,as well
as in rust protectionin the building constructionindustry.

*"1O.7.Eliminotionof TronsformersContominqtedby PCBs

PCBs(polychlorobiphenyls)are a large family of chemicalsdevelopedin the 1950s and used as
electricalinsulatingfluids in many electricalappliances,and especiallytransformers.It was proven
that PCBshavetoxic effectson human health and also are harmful to the environment. PCBsbelong
to the family of POP(persistentorganicpollutants).
Various means can be used for elimination of PCBs.Thesemeans differ accordingto the country
wherethey are located.The principalmeansusedin the industrializedcountriesis the incineration
at high temperature.




$:ig" - Disposol
$r^t{}u Flow (ontoining
ftort(Tronsformers PcB)

212 P o w e r T r o n s f o r m e rF u n d o m e n t o l s- A R E V A
PowerTronsformer | 213
214 I PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
TronsformerProtectionploys o vitol role in ensuringthqt these
devices remoin qs some of the most relioble ond importont
piecesof equipmenlon the electricitysupplysystem.Protectingthe
tronsformeris fonlomount to protectingthe entire nefwork. This
chopter discussessome of the more importont feoturesof typicol
protectionequipmentond schemes.
Stortingwith the descriptionof externolly qnd internolly derived
thot ore likelylo cousestressto the tronsformer,
the chopterthen focuseson the opproprioteprotectionmethods
ond equipmentsincludingthe lotestprotectionreloy technology.
Finolly,protectionschemeopplicotionsfor eorthingtronsformers
ond outotrqnsformers ore discussed.
This structuredoverview of issuesond solutions will help the
reoder to mqke the correct decisionsqbout how to protect lhe

PowerTronsformer - A R EVA
Fundomentqls | 215
The demand to continuously increasethe security of power systemshas been supportedby advances
in the materials and design of HV equipment and by the dwelopment of modern protection schemes
using the latest technology.
Many different transformer protection schemesexist and these vary widely in both complexity and
cost. The choiceof schememust considerthe role of the transformer and the consequencesof a
fault on the overall system. It is most certainly not acceptablefor the large power transformers that
are used for transmission and generationsystemsto be exposedto prolongedfault conditions, since
power system stability is usually a critical factor, notwithstanding the considerablecost and lengthy
repair time of a large unit.
Risk analysismust considerthe consequences of a possibleoutagefor maintenanceor repair,the
need for redundancy,the availability of a spare unit, and the easewith which the power system can
be reconfigured,etc.
In order to allow only that part of a system which experiencesa fault to be taken off-line (thereby
minimizing the impact of the fault on the remainder of the system),the sensitivity and selectivityof
the protection schemeare critical. It is thereforecommon and also good practicefor eachlargepower
transformer (or reactor)to be protectedindividually by a dedicatedlocal device.
This chapter describes:
+ The different types of fault likely to cause stressesin a transformer, whether they originate
externally or internally.
+ The different types of protection devicesin common usage.
+ Typical applications in schemesfor highly rated power transformers including autotransformers.

The purpose of an efiicient transformer protectiveschemeis to reducethe effectsof electro-dynamic
and thermal stresses,and thereforeto shield, quickly and efficiently,the transformer from the origin
ofthe disturbance.
The various faults that affect a power transformer (or reactor)can havedifferent origins and different
destructive effects if not rapidly and efficiently cleared. It can be relatively difficult to detect and
recognize some faults becausethey can be similar to those of some normal operating conditions.
(e. g. high currents can exist either from a fault or from normal operational practices).It is therefore
not sufficient to consider only the magnitude of the current and this has meant that different
fault detection principles have been developedand combinations applied in order to provide a
comprehensiveprotection scheme.
The purposeof this section is to reviewthe main characteristicsand effectsofthese families of faults,
which can be divided into two groups, dependingon whether they originate externally or internally
to the transformer.

7.1.1. ExternollyApplied Foults

This sub-sectiondwelops a list of the possible disturbancesoriginating outside the transformer.

o Overloods
Overloadsoriginating from the power systemwill causean increasein temperatureofthe transformer
as a consequenceof increasedload losses.As noted elsewherein this book, the thermal time constant
of a naturally cooled transformer is in the range of two to five hours, with a shorter time constant
applylng for forced cooled units.
Overloadscan be permitted for limited periods of time, and further information can be found in the
IEC 60076-7 "Loading Guide for Oil-Immersed Power Transformers".

o Sysfem Overvohoges
The exposure to high system voltages could result in excessiveflux density that may cause core
saturation, an increaseof the no-load losses,a significant increasein the magnetizing current and
an increasein sound level. A side effect is the possible rapid temperature rise of some components
associatedwith the core and the ultimate breakdown of their insulations if the high system voltage
conditions are sustainedfor long enough.
Systemovervoltagesexist in two forms: namely, power frequenry overvoltages,and transient surge

PowerTronsformer | 217
7 i now ro PRorEcrA TRANsFoRMER?

. Power FrequencyOvervoltages
Power frequenry overvoltagescauseboth an increasein the dielectricstressingofthe insulation
(and potentially acceleratedaging of the material) and an increasein flux densitywith the associated
increasein core loss and the possibilityofcore saturation.The consequences can be very seriousif
the overvoltageis sustained.
o Transient SurgeVoltages
Steepfronted impulse overvoltagescan originate from system faults and switching operations,and
when the transformer is connectedto overheadlines, Iightning strikes. The latter tends to have the
greatesteffect on inter-turn insulation in the transformer, especiallythat closestto the terminal on
which the overvoltageimpinges. The high equivalent frequency of the steep-fronted wave and the
very high magnitude of the surge,which could be severaltimes the rated voltage of the transformer,
concentratethe dielectric stresseson the line end turns of the winding. Furthermore, part-winding
resonancemay develop,and generatevoltagesbetweenturns and parts ofthe windings that aregreater
than those for which the transformer was designed,and partial winding flashovermay occur.
Local interturn insulation breakdown can lead to a short-circuit between one or more turns of the
winding, which in compliancewith normal transformer laws will give rise to a very high fault current
in the short-circuitedloop. However,the terminal currentswill remain relativelysmall in comparison
with the localizedfault current as a result of the transformation ratio betweenthe few short-circuited
turns and the whole winding.
The above phenomenon makes this type of external overvoltagedifficult to detect. However, it is
critical as it can causea fatal breakdownofthe insulation at the line end of the winding. Furthermore,
ifnot detectedat an earlier stage,the subsequentprogressionofthe fault may destroy any evidence
ofthe true cause.
Whenever there is a doubt in respectof the types, magnitudes and waveshapesthat might impinge
upon the transformer,considerationshould be given to commissioningtransient systemstudies.
AREVAT&D has a rangeof computerizedtools such as ATP,EMTP1etc. at its disposal.A fast, efficient
and selectiveprotection plan againstthe effectsofexternal transient surge overvoltagesis critical for
power transformers.

c Power Sysfem Foulls

Power system faults commonly result in short-circuits of different kinds (single or multi-phase to
earth, or betweenphases).The fault current magnitudewill dependon, among other factors,the
transformer impedanceand the methods of earthing of the transformer (i.e. whether it is solidly
earthed,connectedto earth through an impedance,or isolated).The highest magnitude of non-
symmetrical fault current (and therefore mechanicalwinding stress)occurs during the first rycle of
the fault so it is practically unaffectedby the time taken to clear the fault. However it is best to clear
the fault as soon as possible in order to minimize the steep thermal gradient that results from the
high current.

o Reduced Sysfem Frequency

Reducedsystem frequenry will affect flux density, in the similar way as overvoltagesdo.
A transformer is capableof operatingwith some degreeof increasedsystem frequencytogether
with a degreeof overvoltage,and the standards identify the minimum requirements pertaining to
the design.However,transformer operationmust not be sustainedwith a high voltageinput at a
Iow frequenry and would typically be disconnectedif the ratio Vlf exceededsome prescribedvalue
(gpically l-.1).

o Geomognefic Disfurbonce
Geomagneticdisturbancesmay result in excessiveflux density without exceedingthe threshold
of the ratio V/J.Itis worth noting that over-fluxing conditions give rise to a Sth harmonic and this
characteristicmay be used for the early detectionofexcessiveflux density conditions in general,and
of the geomagneticdisturbanceoccurrencein particular.

7 - ATP : AutomaticTrarsientProgram/ EMW : Electro-MagneticTransient


218 | PowerTronsformerFundomentols-AREVA
7.1.2. lnternollyDerivedFoults
This sub-sectiondevelopsa list of the faults which can developwithin the transformeritself.

o Winding & Ierminol Foulfs - Phose to Eorth

The magnitudeand swerity of a fault developingin a transformerwinding, or at a transformerterminal,
will dictate the characteristicsofthe protectivedevicesthat must be selectedto detect its occurrence.
We would remind the readerthat the magnitudeof this kind of a fault dependsupon severalfactors:
I) The impedanceof the source;
II) The impedancein the neutralearthing;
III) The impedanceof the transformer;
IV) The phasor diagram and
V) The magnitude of the voltage.
The following distinct casesdeserveparticularconsideration.
o Transformerwith a star-connectedsecondarywinding with its neutral earthedthrough an
We can make the following observations:
+ The winding earth fault current dependsupon the impedancevalue in the earthing connection
and is also proportionalto the distanceofthe fault from the neutral point.
+ For a fault on the secondarywinding of the transformer,the correspondingprimary current will
dependon the transformationratio (primarywinding dividedby the proportion of secondary
turns that is short-circuitedby the fault),and on the position ofthe fault.
* The fault current in the primary winding is approximatelyproportionalto the squareof the
fraction of the winding that is short-circuited.


E O t 70
>< l-

( I ) 5 60
'E -g
pE 50
b € )
b'a 30

0 l0 20 30 40 50 60 t0 80 90 I00

Dlstonce ftom
offoult neulrol
o - Foult
tig.7.1 (unenlVadolions
ondPrimory wilhDislonce
ofFouh (Source:
froml{eulrol ARwAT&Dllelwork

The important conclusion drawn from this is that, when earthed through an impedance,secondary
winding fault detection by primary current measurementis difficult if the fault occurs in the part of
the secondarywinding that is close to the neutral.
r A transformer with a star-connectedsecondarywinding with its neutral solidly earthed
Our observationsin this caseare:
.+ The winding earth fault current dependsmainly on the leakagereactanceof the winding.
.+ The leakagereactancevarieswith the position of the fault.
-> For a fault closeto the neutral end of the winding, the reactanceis very low and this results
in highestfault currents.

r u n d o m e n t o l -s A R E V A
P o w e rT r o n s f o r m e F i 219
7 How ro PRoTEcT

-+ We concludethat with a directly earthedneutral, secondarywinding fault detectioncan be

satisfactorilyperformedby the measurementof the primary current which remainslargefor most
locationsalongthe secondarywinding.


l0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

b - Fouh
tig.7.1 ond-Primory_Cunent
wifi Dislonc
infte Cose
ofo Solidly

o A transformer with a delta connectedsecondarywinding

Here, we note that:

phasevoltage,the earth fault current may be lower than the rated current ifthe systemearthing
impedanceis relatively high.
In this instance,we concludethat the individual phasecurrents may be still be relativelylow, thus
making the detection of a fault difficult.

o Phose-fo-Plrose Fouhs
Experiencetells us that occurrencesof phase-phasefaults within the transformertank are rare.When
they do occur, however,they give rise to substantial fault currents.
We can conclude,thereforethat phase-to-phase fault detectionis easilyachievedowingto the substantial
magnitudeof the fault current, which remains largefor most locationsalong eachrespectivewinding.

o Interturn fouhs
Interturn faults can originatefrom steepfronted incoming surges.The observationsmade for this

"ttjtfi:tH::t-circuit of a few winding turns givesrise to a high fault current in the short-circuited
' The terminal currents, however,may be still relativelylow for
a high transformation ratio
(primary winding divided by short-circuited secondaryturns).
' Secondarywindinginterturn fault detectionby primary
current measurementmay be difficult
if the number of turns short-circuitedis relativelylow (say5 to 10% of the winding turns).

o Tonk ond lronsformer Accessory Foults

Damageto the transformer can result from oil leaks.Loss of oil, if not detected,produceshazardous
conditions both from the reduction in insulation strength and cooling ofcurrent carryingconductors.

220 Power
Tronsformer - A R EVA
o Corefoufis
Many core and frame faults, such as the bridging of core laminations or developmentof a frame-
bonding/isolation fault, result in an extremelylocalizedloss concentration.The high loss density can
result in localizedoverheatingdamageto insulation and causethe evolution of gas but is unlikely to
produce a noticeablechangein the input current. In an oil-immersed transformer, core heating may
damageinsulation and causebreakdown of insulating oil, and a subsequentevolution of gas,which
can be detectedas either free gas (worst scenario)or when dissolvedin the oil.

Early detection may save a fault from developinginto a major failure. Some of the aforementioned
faults, however,may be difficult to detect until they evolveinto a more damagingsituation. The
problems that can be encounteredmay be characterizedby three categories:
.+ Failuresoriginating from weaknessesgiving defectswhich developfurther.
-+ Failures resulting from the aging process.
+ Failurescausedby operatingconditions which are more onerous than those for which the
transformer was designed.
Theseproblems can develop,sometimesunknowingly, over many years before developinginto a
major problem or failure.

Selectinga protection schemefor a power transformer can bejust as much an economic decision as
a technicalone.
Smaller,less strategicallyimportant transformersare often protectedby fuses. In the past, these
transformershave been protectedby remote protection schemeswhich rely on the line-terminal
circuit breakersto protect the transformers, and to provide a back-up protection for the secondary
side of the transformer.
Larger transformers generally serye more critical loads and are usually protected with devices
which make use of relaying schemes,from simple overcurrent relays to advancedcombinations of
differential, overcurrent, integrated and programmable relays using digital technology, capableof
fully coordinating with both upstream and downstream systems.
The following section introduces the main protective arrangementsthat are commonly used.

Excessivesurgesshould be preventedfrom reachingthe transformer, and this considerationapplies
to the bushingsas well as to the windings. Flashoverand insulation breakdownusually result in
serious damage,system disconnectionand often a long-duration outage for repair.
The methods commonly encounteredin protecting transformers against excessiveincoming surges
are as follows:
+ Fuses.
+ Rod-gaps.
-+ Metal-oxide surge arresters.
-+ Controlled switching during transformer energization.
We shall consider each of these in more detail.

o Fuses
Fusesare commonly used to protect distribution transformers typically up to 1MVA, and this is
usually the only availablemeans for automatic isolation as no circuit-breaker is provided.Therefore,
the fuse must have a rating that is sufficiently abovethe maximum load current of the transformer,
so as to withstand short-duration overloadsthat may occur,and also the magnetizinginrush current
when energizingthe equipment.
In meeting these requirements, fuses are then too slow to operate at lower fault currents and their
functional justification is therefore really more to isolate a faulty transformer from the system,than
to protect it against any kind ofoverload.

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Fundomentols | 221
How ro PRorEcT

o Rod-Gops
Rod gapshavebeenfitted on bushingsfor manyyearsto protect the windings of transformersagainst
the effectsofexternal transient overvoltages.However,there are severaldisadvantagesin their use
which limit their application to smaller units.
Among the disadvantages ofrod gapsare:
+ There is a variation in the protectivelevelthresholdas a function of the erosionof the rods,
pollution deposition,and atmosphericconditions.
+ Rod gaps give a difference between the negative and the positive polarity voltage protection
Ievelsfor switching surgeswhich is sometimes excessive.

o Surge Arresfers
Modern metal-oxidesurgearrestershaveprovenfor some decadesthat they offer adequateprotection
for power system equipment. The main advantagesof MOA are as follows:
+ Excellentnon-linearV-A characteristics.
'+ No gaps.
-+ Negligiblein normal operation.
+ Largecapacityfor through current flow.
However,the correctselectionofthe line-to-groundrating ofsurge arrestersis ofthe highest
importance.The selectionof the correct arrestervoltage rating dependsupon the following factors:
+ Systemmaximum phase-to-phase voltage.
+ Systemneutral earthing conditions,
,+ Mode of connection of the arrester(commonly betweenphaseand earth).

o Confrolled Swifching
M o d e r n p o i n t - o n - w a v ec o n t r o l l e r s h a v e
proventheir effectiveness in the controlof the
magnitudeof the switching overvoltagesfor
the switchingof shunt reactors,and for the
energizationof powertransformers.
Advancefeatures,like the estimateof the
remanentflux prior to closing the circuit-
breaker,make this solution both efficientand
financially attractive.

Fig. - Poinf+n-Wove
7.30 [ontroller
RPH3 (Source:

7.3.2. lronsformer Protectionogoinstlnternol Foults

This section discussesthe various methods used to protect the transformer against internal faults.
Most of the devicesmentioned are describedin more detail in Volume2,Seclion2.6.
Someof the oil and gas initiated devicesrely upon a mechanicalactuation and so are relativelyslow
in operation.Although it is possiblethat the transformer may have been irreparablydamaged,these
devicescan limit consequentialdamagefrom tank rupture and fire.
Protectionrelayswith embeddedelectronics,or which use digital technologiesare also discussed.
Theseprovide considerablebenefits in terms of security,system reliability and inter-operability
through the common applicationof the IEC 61850 communicationprotocol.

o Pressure
One or more oil-pressurerelief devicesare mounted on the transformertank, and are intendedto
preventrupture of the tank under the possibleoccurrenceof an excessiveinternal pressure(such
as that which may result from an internal fault) by the fast opening of a valve that forms part of the
device.The valve immediately reclosesonce the pressurehas been normalized.

222 I Power
Tronsformer - AR EVA
o BuchholzReloy
The Buchholz relay is mounted in the pipe betweenthe main transformer tank and conservator.
This relay is provided to detect faults that may developinside the transformer, and operatesin two
+ Evolving internal faults may causethe generation of gases,which progressivelydisplacethe
liquid in the relay and eventuallyactuatea contactwhen a volume of gas is collectedthat
exceedsa pre-set threshold level, causing an alarm to be given to the operator (this can also
act as a very low oil level alarm signal).
-' A major internal fault, will causea sudden pressureincreasein the tank giving an almost
instantaneoussurge ofoil through the pipe betweenthe transformer and its conservator,and
hencethrough the Buchholzrelay, so actuating a contact causingthe circuit breakersto trip.
o RopidPressureRiseReloy
A rapid pressurerise relay is mounted on the side or on the top of the transformer, and can operate
in the gas space,or in the liquid space.This relay is intendedto respondto a very fast increasein
transformer internal pressure as a consequenceof an internal fault. It does not directly relieve the
pressurebut providesa signalthat is normally usedto trip the unit. Thesedevicesare commonly used
on sealedtype transformers, where use of a Buchholz relay is not possible.They are also commonly
used in North America.
o Oif lemperolurelndicotor(OTI)
An OTI providesan indication of the highest oil temperature.It has facilities to record the maximum
tempetature reachedand to initiate alarm and trip signals. It can also be used to switch the cooler
pumps and/or fans on and off.
o Winding lemperofurelndicotor(YlrTl)orThermollmogeDevice
A WTI instrument is similar to an OTI but includes a method of adding the effect of the winding hot spot
temperaturerise to the top oil temperature.This requires a current that is fed from a current transformer
on the winding ofinterest. It also has facilities to recordthe maximum temperaturereachedand to initiate
alarm and trip signals and is also often used to switch the cooler pumps and/or fans on and off.
When WTIs are provided for each of the windings of the transformer, the contact settings for all are
generallyrelated to the maximum allowed hot spot temperature.
o Thermosfol
A thermostat mounted on the transformer can also be used to initiate alarm and trip signals and
switch the cooler pumps and/ot fans on and off
o Overcurrenf Reloy
Overcurrentrelaysare connectedto the current transformerslocatedon the primary side ofthe power
transformer. They provide an improvement over the fuse protection describedin Seclion 7.3.1.
since a
lower fault current can be clearedin a much faster time.
The overcurrent relay time delay characteristicsmust be coordinatedwith the circuit protection of
the secondaryside2.
A high-set instantaneousrelay is often providedand a high-speedclearanceofthe fault at the primary
terminal can be guaranteedprovided that the relay operation is inhibited for secondaryshort-circuit
occurrences.This latter requirementcan be achievedby a proper adjustmentofthe current settings.
A thermal overloadfunction permits limited duration overloadoperation (e.g.a daily peak load) and
is embeddedinto the overcurrent relay function.
o EorthFoufiProfecfion
Earth fault protectionis decisivein detectingthe occurrenceofzero-phasesequencecurrent flowing to
the earth. However,configurationsexistwhere the earth fault protection cannot be properly achieved
by meansofovercurrent protection in all circumstances.This is, for instance,the caseif the secondary
winding is star-connected,with its neutral bonded to earth through an impedance).The degreeof
protection can be significantly improved though, by with the use of a Restricted Earth-Fault (REF)
system as detailed below under Sedion 7.3.2

2 - AREVAT&DNetworkProtection
& Automation

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7 i nowro PRoTEcTATRANsFoRMER?

o Differentiol Reloy
The benefit of the high efficienry of power transformersand of the closeequivalenceof ampere-turns
betweenprimary and secondarywindingsis used to developthe principles of an effectivedifferential
protection scheme,making use of current transformers on primary and secondaryconnections.This
is further illustrated in the typical scheme(tig.7.4b).
However,severalfactorshaveto be consideredto ensurethe correctand safeoperationofa differential
protection scheme.These are briefly reviewedas follows:
I) PhaseCorrection
This is necessaryto copewith the consequences ofa phase-shiftbetweenprimary and secondary
voltages of the transformer. The transformer primary and secondarycurrents as measured by the
relays must be in phase,regardlessof the vector relationship of the transformer. If this is not done,
the through current would be interpreted by the relay as an unbalancedfault current.
This correctionwas formerly performed using external interposing current transformers (ICT),or by
the delta-connectionof the main current transformers.
Modern digital relaysimplement phasecorrection in the relay software,thus enabling application to
most combinations of transformer winding arrangement,and subsequentlysaving the requirement
for ICTswith implications in respectof physical spaceand cost.
II) Ratio Correction
Ratiocouection may be requiredto compensatefor possiblesignalunbalancefrom the curent transformers