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Issued by : Switchgear Contracts Division LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED Powai Works, Mumbai 400 072

April - June 1996

Prospect / Retrospect L&T PRODUCTS

L&T's Air Circuit Breakers type


C-Power have been successfully
tested for various requirements of IS
13947 (Part 2)-1993 and IEC 947-
Creating 2(1989) at Central Power Research
Institute (CPRI), Electrical Research
Benchmarks & Development Association (ERDA)
and Association of Short Circuit
Testing Authorities, U.K. (ASTA).

A new product or feature is standards set reference line; they


conceptualised to meet demands form the rules for the game.
which cannot be taken care of by
existing product or feature. When this When technology all around is
new product is manufactured and put progressing, the standards cannot
into operation, it caters of some of remain rigid. They have to reflect
the expectations, but by that time, real life situations. They should also
technological advances change incorporate customer's higher
surrounding parameters. So it expectations. The benchmarks set
becomes necessary to define the once need to be reviewed and
parameters under which the product upgraded whenever essential.
is expected to deliver its desired
performance. And also it is essential A proper co-ordination between
to define what is meant by desired advancement in technology and
performance. realistic stipulated conditions for
performance can result in an efficient
Standards are defined to set and product with optimum cost,
state these parameters. Standards benefiting both the customer and the
paraphrase conditions in which the supplier.
product is expected to perform and
they also define what should be the In the last issue of L&T Current
C-Power ACB
desired performance. In a Trends, we highlighted major
competitive market, standards create revision in LV Switchgear standards L&T switches, type FF and FFO and
benchmarks which all similar laid down in Part I of IS 13947. Fuse combination units, type FN63,
functioning products are expected to This article will be concluded in the FN125 and FN200 comply with IS
meet or surpass. Thus, in a way, next issue. 13947(Part 3)-1993.
FEATURE

Introduction to IS 13947 :
A new Indian Standard on
Switchgear and Controlgear Products-II
- H. T. Mistry, Senior Executive-Design, Switchgear Design and Product Development

In the previous issue, we discussed short circuit condition can be Prescribed test conditions include
revisions in general requirements for assigned utilization category B. verification of capability of the
low voltage switchgear and These breakers will also be assigned breaker to carry its rated current after
controlgear products covered by Part short time withstand rating (Icw). short circuit test implying expectation
1 of IS 13947. In this issue, we shall of continued service (carrying rated
discuss Part 2 and Part 3, product (b) Short circuit ratings : current) till the breaker is replaced.
standards pertaining to low voltage Following two new short circuit
circuit breakers, switches and fuse This rating is similar to rating
ratings have been introduced.
combination units respectively. corresponding to P2 category
specified in the earlier standard.
(i) Rated ultimate short circuit
PART 2 : CIRCUIT BREAKERS : breaking capacity (Icu):
(II) PERFORMANCE
This standard replaces IS 2516 Ultimate short circuit breaking REQUIREMENTS :
(Parts 1&2 / Sec. 1)-- 1985. capacity is assigned by the
The objective of this standard is to manufacturer. (a) Test sequences :
state performance and construction
requirements for circuit breakers and In order to evaluate performance of a
As the term indicates, continued
to lay down verifying tests. There are product comprehensively, relevant
service from the breaker is not
significant revisions in these type tests are grouped into test
expected after the breaker has
requirements. These are explained in sequences. All tests in a given
cleared a short circuit fault of such
following pages. sequence are carried out on the
magnitude. Hence, the prescribed
same unit in prescribed order. Such
test conditions do not include
(I) CHARACTERISTICS : sequential testing represents actual
verification of capability of breaker to
service conditions more closely.
carry its rated current after short
(a) Utilization category : Details of test sequences applicable
circuit test.
to circuit breakers are given in table 1.
So far utilization categories were
This rating is similar to P1 category
defined only for contactors and (b) Operational performance
rating defined in IS 2516.
switches. In the new IS utilization capability :
categories have been specified for (ii) Service short circuit breaking
circuit breakers also. These have capacity (Ics) : This test, a part of test sequence 1, is
been defined with reference to to verify capability of breakers to
selectivity i.e. whether a circuit Service short circuit breaking
perform minimum number of
breaker is intended for selectivity by capacity is also assigned by the
mechanical (without current) and
means of an intentional time delay manufacturer and can be expressed
electrical (with current) operations.
under short circuit conditions. as percentage of ultimate short circuit
Minimum number of operations for
breaking capacity (Icu). The ratio
breakers for ratings up to 100 A and
Circuit breakers not specifically shall be selected from standard ratios
above 1250 A have been revised as
intended for selectivity can be indicated below.
shown in table 2.
assigned utilization category A e.g.
Standard ratios between Ics and Icu
moulded case circuit breakers. These (c) Number of units to be used :
Utilization Utilization
breakers need not have short time Category A Category B
withstand rating (Icw). Ics (as % of Icu) Ics (as % of Icu) Number of units to be tested for each
test sequence is now laid down. This
Circuit breakers specifically meant for 25 50 ensures complete evaluation of the
selectivity are assigned utilization 50 75 product performance.
category B. Air circuit breakers with 75 100
100
intentional time delay for tripping in Number of units to be tested is
arrived at based on whether
TABLE 1 : CIRCUIT BREAKERS -- TEST SEQUENCES
- the product is assigned more
than one operational voltage
TEST APPLICABLE TO TESTS
SEQUENCE
- terminals for line and load
connections are identified
I All circuit breakers 1. Tripping limits and characteristics
General performa 2. Dielectric properties
characteristics 3. Operational performance This is elaborated in table 3.
capability
4. Overload performance (d) Conductors for short
5. Verification of dielectric withstand
6. Verification of temperature rise circuit test :
7. Verification of overload releases
For circuit breakers of ratings up to
II All circuit breakers 1. Rated service s.c. breaking 630 A, conductors to be used for
Rated service s.c. capacity
breaking capacity 2. Verification of dielectric withstand terminal connections in short circuit
(Ics) 3. Verification of temperature rise tests (Ics and Icu) have now been
4. Verification of overload releases specified as given below.
III All circuit breakers 1.Verification of overload releases
Rated ultimate s.c. 2.Rated ultimate s.c. breaking capacity
breaking capacity 3.Verification of dielectric withstand
"A cable of 75 cm in length having a
(Icu) 4.Verification of overload releases cross section corresponding to the
conventional thermal current shall be
IV Circuit breaker of 1.Verification of overload releases included as follows :
Rated short time utilization category B 2.Rated short time withstand current
withstand current 3.Verification of temperature rise
(Icw) 4.S.c. breaking capacity at maximum - 50 cm on supply side
short time withstand current - 25 cm on load side
5.Verification of dielectric withstand
6.Verification of overload releases
This requirement portrays actual
Combined test Circuit breakers of 1.Verification of overload releases application more realistically.
sequence utilization category B 2.Rated short time withstand current
i) when Icw=Ics 3.Rated service s.c. breaking capacity
(Replaces Seq II & IV) 4.Verification of dielectric withstand PART 3 : SWITCHES,
ii) when Icw=Ics=Icu 5.Verification of temperature rise DISCONNECTORS, SWITCH
(Replaces Seq II,III&IV) 6.Verification of overload releases
DISCONNECTORS AND FUSE
COMBINATION UNITS

This part pertains to low voltage


TABLE 2 : CIRCUIT BREAKERS switches, disconnectors, switch
COMPARISION OF MINIMUM OPERATING CYCLES disconnectors and fuse combination
IS 13947-2 IS 2516 units and replaces both parts of IS
RATED CURRENT MINIMUM OP.CYCLES MINIMUM OP.CYCLES 4064 - 1978.
WITHOUT WITH TOTAL WITHOUT WITH TOTAL
CURRENT CURRENT CURRENT CURRENT
8500
Following changes have been
In < = 100 A 1500 10000 4000 4000 8000
incorporated in the new IS.
630 < In < = 1250 2500 500 3000 2500 500 3000
1250 < In < = 250 2500 500 3000 900 100 1000
(I) CHARACTERISTICS :
2500 < = In 1500 500 2000 Subject to agreement
(a) Rated short time withstand
current (Icw) :
TABLE 3 : CIRCUIT BREAKERS - NUMBER OF UNITS FOR TEST SEQUENCES
This characteristics has been revised.
TEST SEQUENCE NO. OF MARKED WHETHER TERMINALS NO. OF SAMPLES
OPERATIONAL VOLTAGE MARKED LINE / LOAD FOR TEST As per IS 4064, minimum short time
1 2 MULTIPLE YES NO withstand current was 20 times the
I X X X X X 1
II (Ics) X X 2 maximum rated operational current
AND X X 3 for a duration of 1 second. This has
COMBINED X X X 3
X X X 4 been changed to 12 times the
III (Icu) X X 2 maximum rated operational current.
X X 3
X X X 3
X X X 4 (b) Utilization category :
IV (Icw) AS PER TEST SEQUENCE III

Example : For sequence II and combined test sequence, if the breaker is a Designation of utilization category
assigned one operational voltage and line/load terminals are not
identified than three breakers need to be tested.
has been changed. In the new IS,
The designation is completed by
suffix A or B according to whether the Table 5 : SWITCHES, DISCONNECTORS, FUSE COMBINATION UNITS
COMPARISION TEST PARAMETERS FOR AC 23A CATEGORY
intended applications require
frequent or infrequent operations.
IS 13947-3 IS 4064
RATING, A
Utilization categories with suffix B are I/ie
MAKE
U/Ue p.f. Ir/Ie
MAKE/BREAK
Ur/Ue p.f. I/Ie
MAKE
U/Ue p.f. I/Ie
BREAK
U/Ue p.f.
- - - - - - 10 1.1 0.65 8 1.1 0.65
appropriate for devices which, due to Ie <= 17 10 1.05 0.45 8 1.05 0.45 10 1.1 0.35 8 1.1 0.35
17 < Ie <= 100*
design or application, are only 100 < Ie
10 1.05 0.35 8 1.05 0.35 8 1.1 0.35 6 1.1 0.35

intended for infrequent operations.


* FOR IS 13947-3, THIS RANGE IS Ie < = 100 A
Typical applications covered by
various utilization categories,
however, have remained
unchanged. applicable to equipment normally (II) PERFORMANCE
used to start, accelerate and / or stop REQUIREMENTS :
Category AC 23A includes individual motors (e.g. AC 2, AC 3/4)
occasional switching of individual are covered in appendix A. These (a) Test sequences :
motors. Utilization categories were hitherto covered by part 2 of
IS 4064. All relevant type tests are grouped
into four test sequences. These are
TABLE 4 : SWITCHES, DISCONNECTORS, FUSE COMBINATION UNITS given in table 4.
TEST SEQUENCES
TEST SEQUENCE TEST (b) Making and breaking capacity :
I (1) Temperature rise
General performance (2) Dielectric properties Test parameters for this test have
characteristics (3) Making and breaking capacities been significantly modified. These
(4) Dielectric verification are summarized below :
(5) Leakage current
(6) Temperature rise verification
(7) Strength of actuator mechanism (i) This test can be carried out in
II (1) Operational performance
two parts viz. test for making
Operational performance (2) Dielectric verification capacity followed by test for
capability (3) Leakage current breaking capacity. However,
(4) Temperature rise verification
unlike IS 4064, make operations
III (1) Short time withstand current are followed by make-break
Short circuit performance (2) Short circuit making capacity
capability (3) Dielectric verification operations instead of only break
(4) Leakage current operations.
(5) Temperature rise verification
IV (1) Fuse protected s.c. withstand (ii) Test voltage is 1.05 times rated
Conditional short circuit current (2) Fuse protected s.c. making operational voltage instead of
(3) Dielectric verification
(4) Leakage current
1.1 times.
(5) Temperature rise verification
(iii) Test currents for AC 23A have
been revised upwards as
TABLE 6 : SWITCHES, DISCONNECTORS, FUSE COMBINATION
indicated in table 5.
UNITS - COMPARISON OF MINIMUM OPERATIONS
However, number of operations for
IS 4064 @ IS 13947-3 ratings higher than 100A has been
RATING,A MINIMUM OP.CYCLES MINIMUM OP.CYCLES reduced from 5 to 3.
$ WITHOUT WITH # WITHOUT WITH
CURRENT CURRENT CURRENT CURRENT (c) Operational performance :
0 < Le < = 63 10000 500 8500 1500
63 < Ie < = 100 3000 150 8500 1500 These tests are a part of test
100 < Ie < = 250 3000 150 7000 1000
250 < Ie < = 315 1000 50 7000 1000
sequence 2 and are intended
315 < Ie < = 630 1000 50 4000 1000 to verify capability of the
630 < Ie < = 800 1000 50 2500 500 equipment to perform specified
800 < Ie < = 2500 300 15 2500 500
2500 < Ie 300 15 1500 500 number of operations, with and
without current flowing in the
# Unless specified, 1/20 th of mechanical (without current) main circuit.
operating cycles specified by the manufacturer.
$ Unless otherwise stated by the manufacturer Minimum number of operations
@ For utilization categories AC2*A. Requirements are lower expected have been revised as
for utilization categories AC2*B.
shown in table 6.

For further information, please contact Switchgear Contracts Division, Larsen & Toubro Limited, Saki-Vihar Road, mumbai 400 072.
Edited, printed and published by Cerena de Souza for Larsen & Toubro Limited. Published from L&T House, Ballard Estate, Mumbai 400 001,
and printed at Uma Offset, A to Z Indl. Estate, G. Kadam Marg, Lower Parel, Mumbai 400 013. Associate Editor: Luis S. R. Vas.